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in Asian cuisines, especially South Asian cuisine. Curry is a generic term, and although there is no one specific attribute that marks a dish as "curry", some distinctive spices used in many, though certainly not all, curry dishes include turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, and red pepper. The word curry is generally believed to be an anglicized version of the Tamil word kari. It is usually understood to mean "gravy" or "sauce", rather than "spices".  It should be kept in mind that the curry served at Indian restaurants in Western countries is not the same as the staple diet for an average Indian family. While retaining similar ingredients used in these restaurants, curries prepared in South Asian homes are considered leaner and healthier by people from these parts. Also, it’s incorrect to assume that curry is the most important constituent of a South Asian meal. Indian cuisine, in fact, is one of the most diverse cuisines in the world, and curry is just a part of it. That being said, curry’s popularity in recent decades has spread outward from the Indian subcontinent to figure prominently in international cuisine. Consequently, each culture has adopted spices in their indigenous cooking, to suit their own unique tastes and cultural sensibilities. Curry can therefore, be called a pan-Asian or global phenomenon, with immense popularity in Thai, British and Japanese cuisines.
A variety of Indian vegetable curries
Butter Chicken (cool and creamy) served in an Indian restaurant.
In India the word "curry" is heavily used in the southern part of India in languages such as Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam. It is derived from the word, "kari", which has its origins in Classical Tamil, and means "vegetable in sauce" or "sauce". In Kannada ’Kari’ means to fry or the fried dish. In North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the word Kadhi is used to describe a curry made with buttermilk and chickpea flour.
Red roast duck curry (hot and spicy) from Thailand. Curry is the English description of any of a general variety of spiced dishes, best known
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The term curry is used broadly, in English, to refer to almost any spiced, sauce-based dishes cooked in various southern and southeastern Asian styles. Though each curry has a specific name, generically any wet side dish made out of vegetables and/or meat is historically referred to as a "curry" - especially the yellow, Indian-inspired powders and sauces with high proportions of turmeric. A similar name giving behaviour can be observed at the South Indian Malayali people. For instance fish curry is known as ’meen-kari’ and mango curry is known as ’manga-kari’.
Matar Paneer with roti from India. seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes, as are poppy seeds, and these are flavours highly specific to the Bengali curries. The Oriya people also have similar eating habits and are considered masters in preparing these types of curries.This is proved by the no Oriyas deployed in West Bengal as master chefs. Bangladeshi cuisine has considerable regional variations. These include lots of Bengali cuisines but are known more for their original spiciness compared to Indian Bengali cuisine. The heavy use of coconut milk is refined to the Khulna Division and Comilla District. A staple across the country is rice and fish. As a large percentage of the land in Bangladesh (over 80% on some occasions) can be under water, fish is the major source of protein in the Bangladeshi diet.
The spice mixes are known as "masala". In South India spice mixes vary from family to family. Usually recipes are passed down from parents to children through many generations. Curry powder and Garam masala are industrialized masala products.
North Indian cuisine Northeast Indian and Nepalese cuisines
Rice and Chicken curry, also known as Chicken Chili, from Delhi, India. The currys of North-East India are very different from other parts of India. This area’s cuisine has been influenced by its neighbours, namely Burma and Tibet. Its use of well known Indian spices is less. Yak is a popular meat in this region of India. Dahl baht, rice and lentil soup, is a staple dish of Nepal.
Bengali, Oriya and Bangladeshi cuisines
Bengali cuisine includes a plethora of curries that are commonly unknown to the outside world. Authentic Bengali recipes are difficult to find outside Bengali kitchens, although certain dishes are popular, for example, the jhalfrezis and the prawn malai curry. Seafood and fresh fish are a great favourite with Bengalis, and a large number of curries have been devised to accompany them. Mustard
South Indian and Sri Lankan cuisines
Andhra or Telugu cuisine
Andhra vor to though Andhra cuisine is spicy and has a unique flaitself. Similar to the Tamil cuisine there are regional variations in Pradesh cuisine. Telangana, which is
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in the west of Andhra Pradesh, has dishes like Ambali, jonna rotte (Jowar bread), Sajja Rotte (bread from sajja grains), and Hyderabadi biryani (which is mainly influenced by Islamic culture and a favorite across the nation). Typical Andhra cuisine dishes include kodi kura (chicken curry), ulavachaaru (soup from horse gram), chapala pulusu (fish curry), yatamamsam (goat mutton), avakaaya pickle (mango), red chilli pickle, pesarattu etc..
Traditionally, vegetarian foods dominate the menu with a range of non-vegetarian dishes, including freshwater fish and seafood, cooked with traditional Tamil spices and seasoning. This holds good for all the four South Indian states. In Sri Lankan cuisine, rice, which is usually consumed daily, can be found at any special occasion, while spicy curries are favorite dishes for dinner and lunch. Rice and curry refers to a range of Sri Lankan dishes.
The curries of Karnataka typically have a lot more dal compared to curries of other parts of India. Some typical soup dishes include Saaru, Gojju, Thovve, Huli, Majjige Huli; which is similar to the "kadi" made in the north, Sagu or Kootu, which is eaten mixed with hot rice. Karnataka Curry (either in the form of Sambar or Saru/rasam) is must in lunch/dinner or breakfast (especially with Idli and Wada). Idli, Sambar and Chatni along with crispy wada are good combination and light weight breakfast.
Other Indian cuisines
In other varieties of Indian cuisine, kadhi is a gravy - made by stirring yoghurt into a roux of ghee and besan. The spices added vary, but usually include turmeric and black mustard seed. It is often eaten with rice.
The typical Gujarati cuisine is called Thali which consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour), daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir fried, spicy or sweet). Cuisine varies in taste and heat, depending on a given family’s tastes. An Ashwingad Yiar is also popular in Southern India.
Malayali curries of Kerala typically contain shredded coconut paste or coconut milk, curry leaves, and various spices. Mustard seeds are used in almost every dish, along with onions, curry leaves, sliced red chilies fried in hot oil. Most of the non-vegetarian dishes are heavily spiced. Kerala is known for its traditional Sadya, a vegetarian meal served with boiled rice and a host of sidedishes, such as Parippu (Green gram), Papadum, some ghee, Sambar, Rasam, Aviyal, Kaalan, Kichadi, pachadi, Injipuli, Koottukari, pickles (mango, lime), Thoran, one to four types of Payasam, Boli, Olan, Pulissery, moru (buttermilk), Upperi, Banana chips, etc. The sadya is customarily served on a banana leaf.
A favourite Pakistani curry is Karahi, which is either mutton or chicken cooked in a dry sauce. Lahori Karahi incorporates garlic, spices and vinegar. Peshawari karahi is a simple dish made with just meat, salt, tomatoes and corriander.
Punjabi curries are mainly based upon masalas (spice blends), pure desi ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream. There are certain dishes that are exclusive to Punjab, such as Maha Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag).
Tamil and Sri Lankan cuisines
Tamil cuisine’s distinctive flavor and aroma is achieved by a blend and combination of spices, including curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, poppy seeds, mustard seeds, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, fennel or anise seeds, fenugreek seeds, nutmeg, coconut, turmeric root or powder, and rosewater. Lentils, vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments, and are often served with rice.
Sindhi cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Sindhi people. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flatbread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry.
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(prawn, crab, mussel, clam, squid etc), fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal, Indonesian bay leaves or salam leaves, candlenuts, turmeric, shrimp paste (terasi), cumin, coriander seed and coconut milk. One popular curry is rendang from West Sumatran cuisine. Authentic rendang uses water buffalo slow-cooked in thick coconut milk over a number of hours to tenderise and flavour the meat. In Aceh, curries use daun salam koja or daun kari (translated as "curry leaves"). Opor Ayam is another kind of curry.
The cuisine of the Pashtun people in northwestern Pakistan is mostly identical to the cuisine of neighbouring Afghanistan, which is largely based upon cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yoghurt, whey), various nuts, native vegetables, and fresh and dried fruits.
Other Asian cuisines
Chinese curries (??, gā lǐ) typically consist of green peppers, chicken, beef, fish, lamb, or other meats, onions, large chunks of potatoes, and a variety of other ingredients and spices in a mildly spicy yellow curry sauce, and topped over steamed rice. White pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce, and/or hot chili oil may be applied to the sauce to enhance the flavour of the curry. The most common Chinese variety of curry sauce is usually sold in powder form. It seems to have descended from a Singaporean and Malaysian variety, countries which also introduced the Satay sauce to the Chinese. The ethnic Cantonese being most dominant in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, this yellow, Chinese-Malaysian variety was naturally introduced to China by the Cantonese, and features typically in the Hong Kong cuisine. (Interestingly, the Malay Satay seems to have been introduced to China with wider success by the ethnic Teochew, which are not dominant in the Nusantara, but in Thailand.) Unlike in the United Kingdom, Chinese curry is generally more popular than Indian curry in North America and Ireland. There are many different varieties of Chinese curry, depending on each restaurant. Unlike other Asian curries, which usually have a thicker consistency, Chinese curry is often watery in nature. "Galimian," (from Malaysian "curry mee" or "curry noodles,") is also a popular Chinese curry dish.
Japanese curry (??? ,karē) is one of the most popular dishes in Japan, where people eat it 62 times a year according to a survey. It is usually eaten as karē raisu — curry, rice and often pickled vegetables, served on the same plate and eaten with a spoon, a common lunchtime canteen dish. Curry was introduced to Japan by the British in the Meiji era (1869–1913) after Japan ended its policy of national self-isolation (Sakoku), and curry in Japan is categorized as a Western dish. Its spread across the country is commonly attributed to its use in the Japanese Army and Navy which adopted it extensively as convenient field and naval canteen cooking, allowing even conscripts from the remotest countryside to experience the dish. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force still traditionally have curry every Friday for lunch and many ships have their own unique recipes. The standard Japanese curry contains onions, carrots, potatoes, and sometimes celery, and a meat that is cooked in a large pot. Sometimes grated apples or honey are added for additional sweetness and other vegetables are sometimes used instead. For the meat, pork, beef and chicken are the most popular, in order of decreasing popularity. In northern and eastern Japan including Tokyo, pork is the most popular meat for curry. Beef is more common in western Japan, including Osaka, and in Okinawa chicken is favored. To make this dish, you start by cooking the meat first in a large pot, and then adding the vegetables. Then, depending on how large of a meal you are cooking, water is added followed by the curry seasoning. This seasoning is commonly in the form of a
In Indonesian, gulai and kari or kare is based on curry. They are often highly localised and reflect the meat and vegetables available. They can therefore employ a variety of meats (chicken, beef, water buffalo and goat as in the flavoursome "gulai kambing"), seafood
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condensed ’brick’ which dissolves in the hot water and vegetables and thickens. Let this simmer for about 20 minutes before serving. Sometimes the curry-rice is topped with breaded pork cutlet (tonkatsu); this is called Katsu-karē ("cutlet curry"). Korokke (potato croquettes) are also a common topping. Apart from with rice, karē udon (thick noodles in curry flavoured soup) and karēpan ("curry bread" — deep fried battered bread with curry in the middle) are also popular.
chilis while green curries use green chilis. Yellow curries are more similar to Indian curries, with their use of turmeric and cumin. Yellow curries in Thailand usually don’t contain potatoes except in southern style cooking, however, Thai restaurants abroad usually have them. Yellow curry is also called gaeng curry (by various spellings), of which a word-for-word translation would be "soup curry" or "curry curry". • Thai curries: • Yellow curry • Massaman curry • Green curry • Red curry • Panang curry • Khao soi • There are also other dishes with curry powder added.
Being at the crossroads of ancient trade routes has left a unique mark on the Malaysian cuisine. Practically everything in Asia can be found here, and the local fare is also a reflection of its multi-cultural, multi-ethnic heritage. While the curry may have initially found its way to Malaysian shores via the Indian population, it has since become a staple among the Malays and Chinese too. Malaysian curries differ from state to state, even within similar ethnic groupings as they are influenced by the many factors, be it cultural, religious, agricultural or economical. Malaysian curries typically use curry powders rich in turmeric, coconut milk, shallots, ginger, belacan (shrimp paste), chilis, and garlic. Tamarind is also often used. Rendang is another form of curry consumed in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia; although it is drier and contains mostly meat and more coconut milk than a conventional Malaysian curry. Rendang originates from Indonesia but has became very popular among Malaysians and Singaporeans. All sorts of things are curried in Malaysia, including mutton, chicken, shrimp, cuttlefish, fish, aubergines, eggs, and vegetables. So rich and different are the flavours of Malaysian cuisine Malaysian-themed restaurants are mushrooming globally from Canada to Australia, and Malaysian curry powders too are now much sought-after internationally.
Other Southeast Asian cuisines
Cambodia, Vietnam i.e South East Asia also have their own versions of curry. Note that both Cambodia and Vietnam have had many influences from Indian cuisine/culture due to South Asian travellers centuries before, as well as the Champa Kingdom found in central Vietnam.
Other countries have their own varieties of curry, well known examples include: • South Africa: Cape Malay curries • Caribbean: Curry Goat • Jamaica: Especially curry chicken, curry goat, curry fish, curry shrimp • Trinidad and Tobago: Most notably curry chicken, curry goat, curry shrimp, curry aloo • Philippines: Kare-kare made with a peanutty sauce • Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga: Known generally as "kare" or "kale," the spice is a popular ingredient in curried lamb, mutton, and chicken stew. Often accompanied by coconut milk. • Ethiopia: Wat, a thick, heavily spiced stew • Central Africa: Groundnut Stew, though not technically a curry, is a similar style • Germany: Currywurst Curry powder is used as an incidental ingredient in other cuisines, including for example a "curry sauce" (sauce au curry,
In Thai cuisine, curries are meat, fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal and coconut milk, and tend to be more aromatic than Indian curries as a result. Curries are often described by colour; red curries use red
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sometimes even au cari) variation of the classic French béchamel. In Iranian cuisine, a ground spice mixture called advieh is used in many stews and rice dishes. It is similar to some curries. Ingredients in the mix vary, but may include cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cloves, allspice, dried rose petals, and ground ginger. It is usually mellow and mild, not spicy hot. In the West Indies, curry is a very popular dish. The indentured servants that were brought over from India by different European powers, brought this dish, as well as their culture, to the West Indies. In Jamaica and Trinidad, curry goat is prominently featured. The sauces for other curries are usually thinner than a true Indian curry, but some exceptions can be made. Curry can be found at both non-expensive and upscale Caribbean restaurants, and ingredients can range from chicken or vegetables to shellfish such as shrimp and scallops.
cinnamon, cayenne, mustard, ginger, allspice and fenugreek; although she notes that it is more economical to purchase the powder at "any respectable shop". In 1810, the British Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed opened the first Indian curry house in England: the Hindoostanee Coffee House in London. According to legend, one 19th century attempt at curry resulted in the invention of Worcestershire sauce. The popularity of curry among the general public was enhanced by the invention of "Coronation chicken" to commemorate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Curry sauce (or curry gravy) is a British use of curry as a condiment, usually served warm with traditional British fast food dishes such as chips. Curry sauce occasionally would include sultanas. The popularity of curry in the UK encouraged the growth of Indian restaurants. Until the early 1970s more than three quarters of Indian restaurants in Britain were identified as being owned and run by people of Bengali origin. Most were run by migrants from East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971. Bangladeshi restaurateurs overwhelmingly come from the northeastern division of Sylhet. Until 1998, as many as 85% of curry restaurants in the UK were British Bangladeshi restaurants but in 2003 this figure declined to just over 65%. Currently the dominance of Bangladeshi restaurants is generally declining in some parts of London and the further north one travels. In Glasgow there are more restaurants of Punjabi origin than any other. Regardless of the ethnic origin of a restaurant’s ownership, the menu will often be influenced by the wider Indian subcontinent (sometimes including Nepalese dishes), and sometimes cuisines from further afield (such as Persian dishes). Some British variations on Indian food are now being exported from the UK to India. British-style curry restaurants are also popular in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In a relatively short space of time curry has become an integral part of British cuisine, so much so that, since the late 1990s, Chicken Tikka Masala has been commonly referred to as the "British national dish". It is now available (albeit in frozen, microwavable form) on Intercity rail trains, as a flavour for crisps, and even as a pizza topping.
See also: Anglo-Indian cuisine In British cuisine, the word "curry" was primarily used to denote a sauce-based dish flavoured with curry powder or a paste made from the powder and oils. However, the resurgence of interest in food preparation in the UK in recent years has led to much more use of fresh spices such as ginger and garlic, and preparation of an initial masala from freshly ground dried spices, though pastes and powders are still frequently used for convenience. The first curry recipe in Britain appeared in The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse in 1747. The first edition of her book used only pepper and coriander seeds for seasoning of "currey". By the fourth edition of the book other relatively common ingredients of turmeric and ginger were used. The use of hot spices was not mentioned, which reflected the limited use of chili in India — chili plants had only been introduced into India around the late 15th century and at that time were only popular in southern India. Many curry recipes are contained in 19th century cookbooks such as those of Charles Elme Francatelli and Mrs Beeton. In Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management, a recipe for curry powder is given that contains coriander, turmeric,
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• Roghan Josh (from "Roghan" (fat) and "Josh" (energy/heat - which as in English may refer to either "spiciness" or temperature)) - medium, with tomatoes and paprika • Bhuna - medium, thick sauce, some vegetables • Dhansak - medium/hot, sweet and sour sauce with lentils (originally a Parsi dish). This dish often also contains pineapple. • Madras - fairly hot curry, red in colour and with heavy use of chili powder • Pathia - hot, generally similar to a Madras with lemon juice and tomato purée • Jalfrezi - onion, green chili and a thick sauce • Sambar - medium heat, sour curry made with lentils and lemons • Vindaloo - this is generally regarded as the classic "hot" restaurant curry, although a true Vindaloo does not specify any particular level of spiciness. The name has European origins, derived from the Portuguese term "vinha d’alhos", a marinade containing wine ("vinho"), or sometimes vinegar, and garlic ("alho"), used to prevent the pork from going off in the heat. Some recipes include potato, misinterpreting the word "Vindaloo" due to its similarity to the Hindi word aloo (potato). • Phaal - extremely hot dish using ground chilies, ginger and fennel. The tandoor was introduced into Britain in the 1960s and tandoori and tikka chicken became popular dishes; Chicken Tikka Masala was said to have been invented in Glasgow by a Bengali chef, when a customer demanded a sauce with a "too dry" tikka (legend has it that the cook then heated up a tin of Campbell’s condensed tomato soup and added some spices) Other dishes may be featured with varying strengths, with those of north Indian origin, such as Butter Chicken, tending to be mild, and recipes from the south of India tending to be hotter.
The British curry house
Curry is eaten in almost all parts of the Indian subcontinent and outside, namely India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, it has its varying degrees of style, taste and aroma, depending on local ingredients used. Bengalis of Sylheti origin makeup only 10% of all South Asians in Britain however around 75% of all Indian restaurants in the UK are Sylheti/Bengali owned. Bengalis in the UK settled in big cities with industrial employment. In London Bengalis settled in the East End. For centuries the East End has been the first port of call for many immigrants working in the docks and shipping from east Bengal. Their regular stopover paved the way for food/curry outlets to be opened up catering for an all male workforce as family migration and settlement took place some decades later. This cuisine is characterized by the use of a common base for all the sauces to which spices are added when individual dishes are prepared. The standard "feedstock" is usually a sautéed mixture of onion, garlic and fresh ginger, to which various spices are added, depending on the recipe, but which may include: cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, chilies, peppercorns, cumin and mustard seeds. Ground coriander seed is widely used as a thickening agent, and turmeric is added for colour and its digestive qualities. Fresh or canned tomatoes and Bell Peppers are a common addition. Better-quality restaurants will normally make up new sauces on a daily basis, using fresh ingredients wherever possible and grinding their own spices. More modest establishments are more likely to resort to frozen or dried ingredients and pre-packaged spice mixtures. Although the names may be similar to traditional dishes, the recipes generally are not. • Korma/Kurma - mild, yellow in colour, with almond and coconut powder • Curry - medium, brown, gravy-like sauce • Biryani - Spiced rice and meat cooked together and usually served with vegetable curry sauce. • Dupiaza/Dopiaza - medium curry the word means "double onion" referring to the boiled and fried onions used as its primary ingredient. • Pasanda - a mild curry sauce made with cream, coconut milk, and almonds.
A style of curry thought to have been developed in Birmingham, England which has spread to other western countries is traditionally cooked and served in the same, typically cast iron pot.
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A number of studies have claimed that the reaction of pain receptors to the hotter ingredients in curries, even Korma, leads to the body’s release of endorphins and combined with the complex sensory reaction to the variety of spices and flavours, a natural high is achieved that causes subsequent cravings, often followed by a desire to move on to hotter curries. Some refer to this as addiction, but other researchers contest the use of the word "addiction" in this instance. Additionally, curry addiction is an example of a colloquial use of the word "addiction" as the medical definition of the word requires continued use despite harmful effects. Since medicine has not shown harmful effects of curry consumption, the use of the word "addiction" is debatable.
Lassi is a yogurt based drink that is consumed with curry. The cool taste of the yogurt-sugar or yogurt-salt combination calms the spicy tones of the curry; however, Lassi is primarily consumed without any curry accompaniments. Tea is often consumed with curry. However, some consider the combination of the two to be too adventurous or unappealing.
• Lager is a popular accompaniment to curry, particularly in the United Kingdom, with popular brands being Kingfisher, Cobra and Bangla. • Wine is increasingly popular with curry, especially amongst those who seek something refreshing and alcoholic without the added gas of a lager. The Charmat method naturally secondfermented semi-sparkling wine is recommended lager-cold but, unlike a lager, the gas is natural. Mass-produced lager has carbon dioxide injected into it, which produces larger bubbles than a second fermentation.
Curry powder, also known as masala powder, is a spice mixture of widely varying composition developed by the British during the days of the Raj as a means of approximating the taste of Indian cuisine at home. Masala refers to spices, and this is the name given to the thick and pasty sauce based on a combination of spices with ghee (clarified butter), butter, palm oil or coconut milk. Most commercial curry powders available in Britain, the U.S. and Canada, rely heavily on ground turmeric, in turn producing a very yellow sauce. Lesser ingredients in these Western yellow curry powders are often coriander, cumin, fenugreek, mustard, chili, black pepper and salt. It should be reiterated that curry powders and pastes produced and consumed in India are extremely diverse; some red, some yellow, some brown; some with five spices and some with as many as 20 or more. Besides the previously mentioned spices, other commonly found spices in different curry powders in India are allspice, white pepper, ground mustard, ground ginger, cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg, mace, green cardamom seeds or black cardamom pods, bay leaves and coriander seeds.
Some studies have shown that ingredients in curry may help to prevent certain diseases, including colon cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
• Rice and curry • Cuisine of Trinidad and Tobago • Curry chicken
 http://www.cookeryonline.com/India/ INDIA4.html#K  http://www.meatlessmonday.com/site/ PageServer?pagename=dyk_curry  University of Chicago    S&B Foods Inc. "Curry Q&A" (in Japanese). http://www.sbcurry.com/qa/ number_1.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-11.  The Curry Rice Research (in Japanese)
Drinks accompanying curry
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 Hannah Glasse (1747). The art of cookery, made plain and easy. OCLC 4942063.  Isabella Mary Beeton (1861). Mrs. Beeton’s book of household management. pp. p.215. ISBN 0-304-35726-X.  "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC News. 29 September 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/ london/4290124.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-09.  Lizzie Collingham (2006). "Curry Powder". Curry: A tale of cooks and conquerors. Vintage. pp. 149-150. ISBN 0 09 943786 4.  "UK Curry Scene". http://www.curryhouse.co.uk/scene/ ethnshow.htm. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  "Indian Curry in London". http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/ specials/177_food/page5.shtml. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  "The history of the "ethnic" restaurant in Britain". http://www.menumagazine.co.uk/book/ restauranthistory.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  "Robin Cook’s chicken tikka masala speech". http://www.guardian.co.uk/race/ story/0,,657407,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  Wordhunt appeal list - Balderdash Wordhunt - Oxford English Dictionary
 BBC News. British "addicted to curry"  BBC News | HEALTH | "Curry is cancer fighter"  BBC News | HEALTH | Curry "may slow Alzheimer’s"
• Curry Club Indian Restaurant Cookbook, Piatkus, London — ISBN 0861883780 & ISBN 0861884884 (1984 to 2009) • K.T. Achaya. A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1998 • Pat Chapman India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — ISBN 978-1845376192 (2007) • Indian Food: A Historical Companion]. (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1994 • New Curry Bible, republished by John Blake Publishers ISBN 9781843581598 (2005) • David Burton. The Raj at Table (London: Faber & Faber) 1993 • Pat Chapman’s Curry Bible, Hodder & St — ISBN 0340680377 & ISBN 0340680377 & ISBN 0340 68562 X & ISBN 034068562X (1997) • E.M. Collingham. Curry: A biography (London: Chatto & Windus) 2005 • Madhur Jaffrey. An Invitation to Indian Cooking (London: Penguin) 1975 • Petit Plats Curry, Hachette Marabout, Paris — ISBN 2501033086 (2000)