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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Profession Religion Signature Lawyer Roman Catholicism

President of Argentina Incumbent Assumed office December 10, 2007 Vice President Preceded by Julio Cobos Néstor Kirchner


The Casa Rosada

First Lady of Argentina In office May 25, 2003 – December 10, 2007 Preceded by Succeeded by Hilda Duhalde Néstor Kirchner (First Spouse of Argentina)

Senator of Argentina
For Buenos Aires Province

President of Argentina, Cristina Kirchner, with her husband Néstor, the ex-president of Argentina 2007-10-28. Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born February 19, 1953), commonly known as Cristina Kirchner, is an Argentine lawyer and politician from the Justicialist Party, and the current President of Argentina. She is the wife of former President of Argentina Néstor Kirchner. Before assuming the presidency she was a Senator for Buenos Aires Province and acted as First Lady during her husband’s term. In the October 2007 general election, Mrs. Kirchner ran for the presidency of Argentina, representing the ruling Front for Victory party. She won with 45.29% of the vote, a 22% lead over her nearest rival. This was one of the widest margins obtained by a candidate since democracy returned in 1983, and it avoided the need for a runoff election.[2] She is Argentina’s first elected female President and the second female President (after Isabel Martinez de Perón, 1974-1976). In 2008, she was ranked by the magazine Forbes as thirteenth in the list of the 100 most powerful women in the world. [3]

In office December 10, 2005 – November 28, 2007 Senator of Argentina
For Santa Cruz

In office December 10, 2001 – December 9, 2005 December 10, 1995 – December 3, 1997 Deputy
For Santa Cruz

In office December 10, 1997 – December 9, 2001 Born 19 February 1953 (1953-02-19) La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina[1] Front for Victory (FPV) Justicialist Party (PJ) Néstor Kirchner Máximo Kirchner Florencia Kirchner National University of La Plata

Political party Spouse Children Alma mater


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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
in a bun and the clenched fist before a microphone" (the typical image of Eva Perón during public speeches) more than with the "miraculous Eva" of her mother’s time, who had come "to bring work and the right to vote for women".[9][10][11] She was the main candidate for Senator of the Front for Victory faction of her party in the province of Buenos Aires, for the October 2005 elections, in a heated campaign directed mainly against Hilda González de Duhalde, the wife of former president Eduardo Duhalde. Kirchner won the elections by a 25% margin over González de Duhalde.

Personal life
Cristina Elizabeth Fernández was born in Tolosa, La Plata, province of Buenos Aires, daughter of Eduardo Fernández (of Spanish heritage) and Ofelia Esther Wilhelm (of German heritage). She studied law at the National University of La Plata during the 1970s. During her studies there, she met her future spouse, Néstor. They married on March 9, 1975 and had two children: Máximo and Florencia.[4] Florencia received international media attention during early 2008 when she started keeping a Fotolog.[5][6][7]

Political career
Kirchner started her political career in the Peronist Youth movement of the Justicialist Party in the 1970s. During the period of authoritarian rule in the country, she and Néstor dropped out of politics and practiced law in Río Gallegos. She picked up politics again in the late 1980s, and was elected to the Santa Cruz provincial legislature in 1989, a position to which she was re-elected in 1993. In 1995 she was elected to represent Santa Cruz in the Senate, and in 1997 in the Chamber of Deputies. In 2001 she won again a seat in the Senate. Kirchner provided the main backbone to her husband’s successful campaign for the presidency in 2003, against two other Justicialist candidates and several other competitors. In the April 27, 2003 presidential election first round, former president Carlos Saúl Menem won the greatest number of votes (25%), but failed to get the votes necessary to win an overall majority. A second-round run-off vote between Menem and secondplace finisher Néstor Kirchner was scheduled for May 18. Feeling certain that he was about to face a resounding electoral defeat, Menem decided to withdraw his candidacy, thus automatically making Kirchner the new president, with 21.97% of the votes (the lowest number in the history of the country).[8] During her husband’s term, Cristina Kirchner became an itinerant ambassador for his government. Her highly combative speech style polarized Argentine politics, recalling the style of Eva Perón. Although she repeatedly rejected the comparison later, Cristina once said in an interview that she identified herself "with the Evita of the hair

Election to Presidency of Argentina
With Kirchner leading all the pre-election polls by a wide margin, her challengers were trying to force her into a run-off. She needed either more than 45% of the vote, or 40% of the vote and a lead of more than 10% over her nearest rival, to win outright. The legality of her presidential bid funding was later disputed when U.S federal prosecutors alleged that the government of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez secretly tried to funnel nearly $1 million in cash to her campaign,[12] while these allegations were vehemently denied by both the Argentinian and Venezuelan governments, it was a fact proven in U.S. courts that Mr. Guido Antonini Wilson entered Argentina with unexplained cash that he claimed was for Ms. Kirchner’s political campaign.[13] Cristina Kirchner finally won the election in the first round with 45.3% of the vote, followed by 22% for Elisa Carrió (candidate for the Civic Coalition) and 16% for former Economy Minister Roberto Lavagna. Eleven others split the remaining 15%.[14] Mrs. Kirchner was popular among the suburban working class and the rural poor, while Ms. Carrió received more support from the urban middle class, as did Mr. Lavagna.[15] Of note, Kirchner lost the election in the three largest cities (Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario), although she won in most other places elsewhere, including the large provincial capitals such as Mendoza and Tucumán.[16] The president elect began a four-year term on December 10, 2007, facing challenges including inflation, union demands for higher salaries, private investment in key


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areas, lack of institutional credibility (exemplified by the controversy surrounding the national statistics bureau, INDEC), utility companies demanding authorization to raise their fees, low availability of cheap credit to the private sector, and the upcoming negotiation of the defaulted foreign debt with the Paris Club.[17][18][19]

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Ministry of Defense Ministry of Economy Nilda Garré Martín Lousteau Carlos Fernández Julio de Vido December 10, 2007 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – April 24, 2008 [21] April 25, 2008 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent


Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services

Ministry of December 10, Aníbal Justice, Fernández 2007 – Security and incumbent Human Rights The President in a meeting with her Ministers. On November 14, Cristina Kirchner announced the names of her new cabinet, which started working with her on December 10. Of the 12 ministers appointed, seven were already ministers in Néstor Kirchner’s government whilst the other five took office for the first time.[20] Ministry of Work, Labour and Social Security Ministry of Health and Environment Ministry of Social Development Ministry of Education Carlos Tomada December 10, 2007 – incumbent

Graciela Ocaña Alicia Kirchner de Mercado Juan Carlos Tedesco

December 10, 2007 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent

Chiefdom of Cabinet and Ministries of Cristina Kirchner’s Government Office Chief of Ministers’ Cabinet Name Alberto Fernández Sergio Massa Florencio Randazzo Jorge Taiana Term December 10, 2007 – July 23, 2008 July 24, 2008 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent December 10, 2007 – incumbent

Ministry of Lino Science, Barañao Technology and Productive Innovation Ministry of Production Débora Giorgi

Ministry of Interior Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship

November 26, 2008 [22] – incumbent

During the first days of her presidency, Argentina’s relations with the United States deteriorated as a result of allegations made by a United States assistant attorney of illegal campaign contributions, case known as the maletinazo (suitcase scandal). According to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spoken style

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Presidente de la Nación "President of the Nation." Señora Presidente "Madam President."

Alternative style

The President in a meeting with the nation’s governors. these allegations, Venezuelan agents tried to pressure a Venezuelan-American citizen (Guido Alejandro Antonini Wilson) to lie about the origin of $790,550 in cash found in his suitcase on August 4, 2007 at a Buenos Aires airport. U.S. prosecutors allege the money was sent to help Mrs. Kirchner’s presidential campaign. Some of the allegations were proven and several individuals received a prison sentence after a widely reported trial. Kirchner and Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez called the allegations "a trashing operation" and part of a conspiracy orchestrated by the U.S. to divide Latin American nations. On December 19, 2007, she restricted the U.S. ambassador’s activities and limited his meetings to Foreign Ministry officials; a treatment reserved for hostile countries, in the opinion of a former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State.[23][24][25] However, on January 31, in a special meeting with Kirchner, the U.S. ambassador in Argentina, Earl Anthony Wayne, clarified that the allegations "were never made by the United States government", and the dispute cooled down. Having said that the prosecutors making the charges are part of the judicial system of the U.S. government[26]
Presidental styles of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Reference style

Honorable Presidente de la Republica Argentina "The Honorable President of the Argentine Republic."

Elisa Carrió and María Estenssoro, both high ranking members of the main opposition parties, have claimed that the Argentine government’s response to the allegations and its criticism of the U.S. are a "smokescreen", that the U.S. involvement in the affair was merely symptomatic, and the root cause of the scandal is corruption in the Argentine and Venezuelan governments.[27] In March 2008, Kirchner’s government introduced a new sliding-scale taxation system for agricultural exports, effectively raising levies on soybean exports to 44% from 35% at the time of the announcement.[28] This led to a nationwide lockout by farming associations, starting on March 12, with the aim to force the government to back down on the new taxation scheme. As a result, on March 25, thousands of demonstrators banging pots massed around the obelisk in the capital and in front of the presidential palace. Protests extended across the country. In Buenos Aires, hours after Kirchner attacked farmers for their two-week strike and "abundant" profits, there were violent incidents between government supporters and protesters, and the police was accused of wilfully turning a blind eye.[29] The media was harshly critical of Luis D’Elía, a former government official who took part in the incidents, with some media sources and members of the opposition (notably Elisa Carrió), claiming that he and his followers had disrupted the protest pursuant to the government’s orders.[30][31][32] On April 1, the government organised a rally during which thousands of pro-government protesters marched through downtown Buenos Aires in support of the Argentine leadership. Kirchner recently called on farmers to act "as part of a country, not as owners of a country".[33] A poll result published in El País, Spain’s most widely-circulated daily newspaper, revealed that following the protests, Kirchner’s approval rating had "plummeted" from 57.8% at the start of her administration[34] to an unprecedented 23%.[35] A recent poll of Management & Fit, confirms the growing unpopularity of the new Kirchner administration. The poll, taken between April 27 and April


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Kirchner’s public approval improved; her job approval ratings rose by 30% (Poliarquía, 08/ 22/08), though as of February 2009, her job approval rating was 28%. [37]</ref> On October 20, 2008, Kirchner proposed the transfer of nearly $30 billion in private pension holdings to the social security system,[38] a law that was passed by Congress in late November.[39]

Argentine President Cristina Kirchner with Venezuela’s President Hugo Chávez (May 2008). 30, showed an approval rating of 23.6%, with a disapproval rating of 61.8%. Kirchner’s inflexible handling of the protests and reluctance to review the policies that sparked the protest have led some people to claim that it is her husband, predecessor in office and current leader of the Justicialist Party, Néstor Kirchner, who controls her administration. The British weekly newspaper The Economist has described this situation as Mrs. Kirchner "paying the price for her husbands pig headedness".[36] Mrs. Kirchner sent the project of sliding-scale taxation system for agricultural exports to the National Congress to be convalidated as a national law, in an attempt to solve the problem according to the rules of the Argentine Constitution. After being modified with some advantageous changes for small farmers, the project was approved by the Lower Chamber, and sent to the Senate for final approval; however, after a 36-36 tie, Vice President Julio Cobos, who must act as President of the Senate and decide in case of a tie, voted against the project. This put an end to the conflict, though some sectors of the media described Cobos as "a traitor" to the president’s project. Cobos denied that he would resign, although the relationship between the President and the Vice President has an uncertain future. Once recovered from the conflict with agrarian interests, Cristina

The President hosts two other influential women, Colombian activist Íngrid Betancourt and U.S. entertainer Madonna, in Buenos Aires. President Cristina Kirchner is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development. Mrs. Kirchner was invited to the prestigious Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington, D.C., on November 15, 2008 by President George W. Bush. During her stay in Washington, she held meetings with Brazilian leader Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (at the Four Seasons Hotel in Georgetown), Madeleine Albright (representing U.S. President-elect Barack Obama), Senator Christopher Dodd and Australia’s Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd at the Park Hyatt Hotel. Cristina Kirchner has embarked extensively on state visits, throughout her presidency. She has traveled to countries such as Algeria, Brazil, Cuba, Egypt, France, Libya, Mexico, Qatar, Russia, Spain, the UK, the U.S. and Venezuela.


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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner


de los votos y una maleta de US$ 800.000". La Tercera. In May 2009, it was publisized that the Ar gentinian Intelligence Services (SIDE) were 0,0,3255_5702_311373480,00.html. obeying Kirchner’s orders and spied and harRetrieved on 2007-11-18. rased her opponents and at times even her [3] "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #13 own political partners from the Partido JustiCristina Fernandez". Forbes. August 27, cialista to aid her in winning the legislative 2008. elections. The current president of SIDE, 11/biz_powerwomen08_CristinaHéctor Icazuriaga, attends official acts with Fernandez_MFXX.html. Retrieved on Kichner and "offers political assistance" to 2009-03-17. her in the weekends at the official residence [4] (Spanish) "Senadora Nacional Cristina E. of the ex-President. This is not a new affair: Fernández De Kirchner". República in March 2007, it was confirmed that the Argentina. SIDE had intervened and disrupted calls from 20071228053233rn_1/ poco antes de que Cristina sucediera a Néstor en la Casa Rosada, la Policía Federal biografia.php?id_sena=212&iOrden=0&iSen=ASC. intervino una centralita clandestina de la Retrieved on 2008-09-08. SIDE 15.000 to 20.000 telephone numbers. [5] "There’s Something About the Harrasment to the Governor of Mar del Plata, President’s Daughter". Time. largest tourist destination of Buenos Aires, Gustavo Pulti, was also a source of contro0,8599,1700434,00.html. Retrieved on versy and an example of this behaviour. [40] 2008-11-04. [6] "Wild child’s exposure on web upsets presidential parents". The Guardian. dec/30/argentina.socialnetworking. Retrieved on 2008-11-04. In April 2008, Kirchner received a stern pub[7] (Italian) "La vita in Rete della 17enne lic rebuke from the Argentine Journalists Asfiglia del Presidente". Excite. sociation (ADEPA) for having publicly ac the popular cartoonist Hermenegildo in-Rete-della-17enne-figlia-delSábat of behaving like a "quasi mafioso".[41] Presidente. Retrieved on 2008-11-04. In addition, a government proposal to create [8] (Spanish) "Menem y Kirchner disputarán a watchdog to monitor racism and discriminla segunda vuelta el 18 de mayo". La ation was received with suspicion by ADEPA, Nación. April 28, 2003. who called it a "covert attempt to control the media". [42] In 2006, Nestor Kirchner, Nota.asp?nota_id=492225. Cristina’s husband and predecessor in office, [9] (Spanish) "’Me identifico con la Eva del received a similar rebuke for publicly and puño crispado’". Clarín. 27 July 2007. falsely denouncing Joaquín Morales Solá, a journalist critical of the government, for havelpais/p-00803.htm. ing produced an inflammatory text published [10] Rory Carroll and Oliver Balch (26 in 1978. [43] October 2007). "President in waiting evokes echo of Evita". Guardian Unlimited. argentina/story/0,,2199434,00.html. [11] James Sturcke (29 October 2007). "The art of the possible". Guardian Unlimited. [1] Presidency of the Argentine Nation. "The President Biography" (in Spanish). story/0,,2201278,00.html. [12] "4 in Miami held in Argentine campaign index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1450&Itemid=117. scandal". Miami Herald. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [2] (Spanish) "Cristina Fernández ganó breaking_news/story/342256.html. elecciones presidenciales con el 45,29% Retrieved on 2007-12-12.

Relationship with the media



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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

[13] "Venezuela, Argentina Accuse US of Smear Campaign". Venezuelanalysis. displaystory.cfm?story_id=10438525. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 3001. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. [26] "Declaración del Eembajador de EE.UU., [14] (Spanish) "Cristina se aleja por más de Earl Anthony Wayne, luego de reunirse 20 puntos sobre el final del escrutinio". con la Presidenta Cristina Fernández de Clarín. 29 October 2007. Kirchner" (in Spanish). U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. um/m-01529064.htm. [15] "A Mixed Message in Argentina’s Vote". rel244.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. Time. 29 October 2007. [27] "Troubles for Argentina’s New Evita". TIME. 20 December 2007. 0,8599,1677374,00.html. [16] (Spanish) "Alpargatas sí, centros urbanos 0,8599,1697490,00.html. no". Página/12. 1 November 2007. [28] "Argentine Soybean Output May Slip; Protests May Pause". Bloomberg. 9 elpais/1-93883-2007-11-01.html. March 2008. [17] (Spanish) "Los desafíos en el área apps/ económica que esperan al próximo news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aXApGun1Lmpw. gobierno". Página/12. 29 October 2007. [29] "La policía observó, pero no intervino". La Nacion. 27 March 2008. economia/2-93706-2007-10-29.html. [18] (Spanish) "Empresarios contentos por la nota.asp?nota_id=999067&origen=relacionadas. continuidad del modelo K". Clarín. 28 [30] "Cacería para ganar la Plaza. Fueron October 2007. golpeados manifestantes que apoyaban el reclamo del campo". La Nacion. 26 10/28/01528927.html. March 2008. [19] (Spanish) "Prevén que el desempleo se ubicará en el 8% a fin de año". La nota.asp?nota_id=998778&origen=relacionadas. Nación. 24 May 2007. [31] "El verdadero mensaje de las cacerolas". La Nacion. 27 March 2008. Nota.asp?nota_id=911256. [20] El nuevo Gabinete: Lousteau va a EdicionImpresa/politica/ Economía y De Vido sigue en nota.asp?nota_id=999018&pid=4186310&toi=5825. Planificación Federal (Spanish) [32] "Argentina’s Fernández Plays With Fire". [21] "Argentine economy minister resigns". The Guardian. 01 April 2008. Reuters. worldNews/idUSN2447606620080425. feedarticle?id=7425706. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. [33] "In Argentina, thousands rally in support [22] "Giorgi sworn in as new production of president". Los Angeles Times. 2 April minister". Buenos Aires Herald. 2008. nationworld/world/la-fgargentina/note.jsp?idContent=551790. farmers2apr02,1,5792792.story. Retrieved on 2008-11-27. [34] "Positive Rating for Argentina’s Cristina [23] (Spanish) "Cristina y Chávez, juntos Kirchner". Angus Reid. 31 December contra EE.UU". La Nacion. 2007. view/ nota.asp?nota_id=972344. Retrieved on positive_rating_for_argentinas_cristina_kirchner/. 2007-12-19. [35] "La popularidad de la presidenta [24] "Argentina Protests Charges, Restricts argentina se hunde en tres meses". EL U.S. Ambassador". Bloomberg. PAIS. 9 April 2008. news?pid=newsarchive&sid=anPqjcENNtWo. internacional/popularidad/presidenta/ Retrieved on 2007-12-20. argentina/hunde/meses/elpepiint/ [25] "Argentina, Venezuela and America. 20080409elpepiint_7/Tes. Slush and garbage". The Economist.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Honorary titles Preceded by Hilda de Duhalde Political offices Preceded by Néstor Kirchner President of Argentina 2007 – present First Spouse of Argentina 2003 – 2007

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Succeeded by Néstor Kirchner Succeeded by Incumbent

[36] "Cristina in the land of make believe". The Economist. 1 May, 2008. • (Spanish) Office of the President • (Spanish) Official site of Cristina displaystory.cfm?story_id=11293743. Fernández de Kirchner [37] Colombia Reports • (Spanish) Senate of the Argentine [38] Argentina seeks to nationalize private Republic website pensions • (Spanish) Extensive biography by CIDOB [39] "Argentina Senate passes pension Foundation nationalisation law". The Peninsula. • President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner November 22, 2008. with Council of Women World Leaders Display_news.asp?section=World_News&subsection=Americas&month=November2008&file=World_ Retrieved on November 29, 2008. Persondata [40] NAME Kirchner, Cristina Elisabet 05/17/internacional/1242577339.html Fernández de [41] "Libertad de prensa y democracia". ALTERNATIVE Clarin. 4 April 2006. NAMES SHORT President-elect of opinion/o-01643113.htm. DESCRIPTION Argentina [42] "Cuestionamiento de las entidades periodísticas". La Nacion. 8 April 2008. DATE OF 1953-02-19 BIRTH nota.asp?nota_id=1002431. PLACE OF La Plata, Buenos Aires [43] "ADEPA pide prudencia al presidente de BIRTH Province la Nación". ADEPA. 2 October 2006. DATE OF DEATH libertaddeprensa/dcl-02-10-06.asp. PLACE OF DEATH

External links

Retrieved from "" Categories: 1953 births, Living people, Spouses of the Presidents of Argentina, Argentine senators, Members of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, Argentine Justicialist Party politicians, Argentine lawyers, Argentine Roman Catholics, Argentines of German descent, Argentines of Spanish descent, Female heads of government, Female heads of state, Current national leaders, People from La Plata, Presidents of Argentina This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 16:21 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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