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Colorado Springs, Colorado

Colorado Springs, Colorado
City of Colorado Springs - Density - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP codes[3] 1,942.9/sq mi (767.25/km2) 609,096 MST (UTC-7) MDT (UTC-6) 80901-80951, 80960, 80962, 80970, 80977, 80995, 80997, 80919, 80907 719 08-16000 0204797 I-25, US 24, US 85, SH 29, SH 83, SH 94, SH 115

Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Highways

Second most populous Colorado city
image seal = Colorado Springs with Front Range in background


City of Colorado Springs

Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado, United States. With an estimated population of Flag 376,427 in 2007, it is the second most popuNickname(s): The Springs lous city in the state of Colorado and the 47th most populous city in the United States.[4] This count differs significantly from the Colorado Department of Local Affairs’ 2007 estimate of 402,417.[5] In 2007 the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 609,096.[6] Colorado Springs is located just east of the geographic center of the state and 61 miles (98 km) south of the Colorado State Location in El Paso County and the State of Colorado Coordinates: 38°51′48″N 104°47′31″W / 38.86333°N Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet (1839 meters) Colorado Springs sits over one mile 104.79194°W / 38.86333; -104.79194 above sea level, though some areas of the Country United States city are significantly higher. The city is situState State of Colorado ated near the base of one of the most famous El Paso County seat County[1] American mountains, Pikes Peak, at the eastJune 19, 1886[2] Incorporated ern edge of the southern Rocky Mountains. Colorado Springs was selected as the No. 1 Government Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Home Rule Municipality[1] - Type Money magazine in 2006.[7] Lionel Rivera (R) - Mayor
Area - City - Land - Water Elevation 186.1 sq mi (482.1 km2) 185.7 sq mi (481.1 km2) 0.4 sq mi (1.0 km2) 6,035-7,200 ft (1,832 m)

The United States Census Bureau estimates that in 2007 the population of the City of Colorado Springs was 376,427 (47th most populous U.S. city),[4] the population of the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area

Population (2007) 402,417 - City


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was 609,096 (84th most populous MSA),[8] and the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor was 4,166,855.[8]

Colorado Springs, Colorado
created by falling sales taxes and rising expenses. [11] A large number of religious organizations such as Focus on the Family and churches make their headquarters here, particularly Evangelical Christians. For decades, several high-tech businesses have or once resided in the city, including a number of computer chip manufacturers from Intel, to the chip foundry INMOS in the 1980s, to Hewlett-Packard since the 1960s. The Mountain West Conference has its administrative headquarters in Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs is also home to a large number of military installations (see below) and important national defense agencies. It is also home to the United States Air Force Academy.

Pikes Peak towers over the city. Today, Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces, business and commerce, theatres and other entertainment. It was first established as a posh resort community, though the older mining supply center of Colorado City (now Old Colorado City) was merged later, and the tourist industry has remained strong and offers many activities and attractions. In July 2006, Money magazine ranked Colorado Springs the best place to live in the big city category, which includes cities with 300,000 or more people.[9] Colorado Springs is not exempt from the problems that typically plague cities that experience tremendous growth: overcrowded roads and highways, crime, sprawl, and government budget issues. Many of the problems are indirectly or directly caused by the city’s difficulty in coping with the large population growth experienced in the last 20 years and the annexing of the Banning Lewis Ranch area for 175,000 future residents. In 2004, the voters of Colorado Springs and El Paso County established the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority[10] and adopted a 1% sales tax dedicated to improving the region’s transportation infrastructure. Together with state funding for the Colorado Springs Metro Interstate Expansion (COSMIX)(2007 completion) and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16 (2008 completion), significant progress has been made since 2003 in addressing the transportation needs of the area. Currently the City is trying to overcome a $23.3 million budget gap

General Palmer, City Founder

Statue of General William Palmer in front of Palmer High School. Colorado Springs was founded in August 1871 by General William Palmer, with the intention of creating a high quality resort community, and was soon nicknamed "Little London" because of the many English tourists who came. Nearby Pikes Peak and the Garden of the Gods made the city’s location a natural choice. Within two years his flagship resort the Antlers Hotel opened, welcoming U.S. and international travelers as well as health-savvy individuals seeking the high altitude and dry climate, and Palmer’s visions of a thriving, quality resort town were coming true. Soon after, he founded the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, a critical regional railroad. He


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maintained his presence in the city’s early days by making many grants or sales of land to civic institutions. Palmer and his wife saw Colorado Springs develop into one of the most popular travel destinations in the late 1800s United States. The town of Palmer Lake and a geographic feature called the Palmer Divide (and other more minor features) are named after him, and a bronze sculpture of Palmer on a horse without its front legs raised (denoting a natural death and not one caused during battle or afterwards from being fatally wounded in battle), is prominently displayed downtown in front of Palmer High School, the center of a busy intersection.

Colorado Springs, Colorado
the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush was found. After the Cripple Creek gold discovery in 1891, ore mills in Colorado City processed much of the gold ore at the Golden Cycle Mill using Palmer’s railroads. The affluent, who made money from the gold rush and industry, did not stay in Colorado City but built their large houses in the undeveloped downtown area of Colorado Springs (i.e Wood Ave.). Early pictures show several large stone buildings like Colorado College, St. Mary’s, the library, and the county courthouse sitting in large empty plains. This is unique during this period, to pre-build a city’s civic infrastructure in stone with wide streets laid out before there was a population to justify the expense. Colorado City remained the county seat of El Paso County until 1873, when the courthouse moved to Colorado Springs. Colorado City was the location of a 1903 labor strike that spread to Cripple Creek and eventually led to the Colorado Labor Wars.[12]

Old Colorado City and the Pikes Peak Gold Rush

W. S. Stratton, early benefactor
In 1891, Winfield Scott Stratton discovered and developed one of the richest gold mines on earth in the nearby Cripple Creek and Victor area, and was perhaps the most generous early contributor to those communities and to Colorado Springs. After he made his fortune he declined to build a mansion as the other gold rush millionaires were doing; instead, in later years, he lived in a house in Colorado Springs he had built when he was a carpenter in pregold days. In Colorado Springs, he funded the Myron Stratton Home for housing itinerant children and the elderly, donated land for City Hall, the Post Office, the Courthouse (which now houses the Pioneer Museum), and a park; he also greatly expanded the city’s trolley car system and built the Mining Exchange building, and gave to all three communities in many other ways, great and small. As Stratton’s generosity became known, he was also approached by many people looking for money, and he became reclusive and eccentric in his later years.

The Pioneers Museum (old court house) contains displays of the city’s founding and history. Colorado Springs’ present downtown location, where General Palmer first founded the city, was partly due to Palmer’s dislike of nearby rough-and-ready Colorado City (now called Old Colorado City, and not to be confused with present-day Colorado City) and its many saloons. Palmer ensured his new planned city stayed alcohol free by buying a huge tract of land to the east of Colorado City. Legally, Colorado Springs stayed dry until the end of Prohibition in 1933, but practically, alcohol was readily available. Conveniently located druggists advertised whiskey, ale, stout and beer for "medicinal purposes." In its earliest days of 1859–1860, Colorado City was a major hub for sending mining supplies to South Park, where a major strike in

Spencer Penrose, early benefactor
Spencer Penrose also made his mark on Colorado Springs in its early years—though not until two decades after its founding. Penrose


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started as a ladies-man and an adventurer. After making a fortune in the gold fields of nearby Cripple Creek in the 1890s, he married Julie Villiers Lewis McMillan, and settled down. Penrose used his wealth to invest in other national mineral concerns and financed construction of the Broadmoor Hotel, the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, the Will Rogers Shrine of the Sun, the Pikes Peak Highway, what is now known as Penrose-St Francis Health Services, and established the El Pomar Foundation, which still oversees many of his contributions in Colorado Springs today.

Colorado Springs, Colorado

Latter 20th Century military boom
Colorado Springs saw its first military base in 1942 shortly after Pearl Harbor was attacked. During this time the U.S. Army established Camp Carson near the southern borders of the city in order to train and house troops in preparation for World War II. It was also during this time that the Army began using Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. It was renamed Peterson Field and used as a training base for heavy bombers (the airport and base still share parts of the flightline).

End of the Colorado Gold Rush and the start of health tourism
The flow of gold and silver ebbed as the decades passed, and Colorado City’s economic fortunes faded with it; the miners and those who processed the ore left or retired. Because of the healthy natural scenic beauty, mineral waters, and extremely dry climate, Colorado Springs became a tourist attraction and popular recuperation destination for tuberculosis patients. The healthy waters in Colorado Springs contained so much natural fluoride that some peoples’ teeth developed Colorado Stain. In 1909, Dr. Frederick McKay of Colorado Springs discovered the Colorado Stain connection and that a little fluoride added to water would prevent cavities, according to the permanent health exhibit at the Pioneers Museum. In June, 14th, 1950 Colorado Springs annexed Roswell which was founded in 1888 by coal miners and became a neighborhood. Other locations such as Austin Bluffs, Broadmoor, Woodman Valley, Pikeview, Papeton, Knob Hill, Ivywild, Stratton Meadows, Stratmoor, Elsmare, Cimarron Hills, Kelker, Stratmoor Hills, La Foret, Gleneagle, Skinners, and Colorado City (now called Old Colorado City) became the part of Colorado Springs. Old Colorado City however is located on the west side of Colorado Springs is a historic district and on the National Register of Historic Places. Its old Victorian brick buildings and main street currently offers several tourist, boutique, and antique shops.

Hi-res Kodachrome of downtown Colorado Springs, 1951. The Army expanded Camp Carson, a venture that increased growth in Colorado Springs and provided a significant area of industry for the city. Camp Carson was named for the Army scout General Christopher "Kit" Carson, who explored the vast western frontier during the 1800s. [13]After World War II the military stepped away from the Springs, Camp Carson was declining and the military was activating and deactivating Peterson Field irregularly. That all changed when the Korean War erupted. Camp Carson, which had declined to only 600 soldiers, was revitalized along with many other parts of the Springs. In 1951, the United States Air Defense Command moved to Colorado Springs and opened Ent Air Force Base (named for Major General Uzal Girard Ent, commander of the Ninth Air Force during World War II). After the Korean War, Peterson Field was renamed Peterson Air Force Base and was permanently activated. In 1954 Camp Carson became Fort Carson, Colorado Springs’ first Army post. Later that same year, President Dwight D. Eisenhower selected Colorado Springs, out of 300 other sites around the nation, to be the site of the Air Force’s military academy. A new and growing Army post, an Air Force Base, and the Air Force’s military


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academy together jump-started Colorado Springs’ growth. The military boom continued and in 1963, NORAD’s main facility was built in Cheyenne Mountain. This placed NORAD directly next to Colorado Springs and permanently secured the city’s military presence. During the Cold War the city greatly expanded due to increased revenue from various industries and the prevailing military presence in the city. In the mid 1970s, Ent Air Force Base was shut down and later converted into the United States Olympic Training Center. Military presence was further increased in 1983 with the founding of Falcon Air Force Base (later changed to Schriever Air Force Base), a base primarily tasked with missile defense and satellite control. Fort Carson and Peterson are still growing and continue to contribute to the city’s growth. Air Force Space Command is located on Peterson AFB.

Colorado Springs, Colorado

Colorado Springs receives 17.4 inches of annual precipitation. Average snowfall for the area (included in the previous annual precipitation calculation) is 44.6" total: 3.7" in October, 6.2" in November, 6.7" in December, 5.4" in January, 5.1" in February, 9.4" in March, 6.3" in April, and 1.3" in May. Due to unusually low precipitation for the past few years before 2006, Colorado Springs has had to enact lawn water restrictions. Average January low and high temperatures are 14°F/ 42°F (-10°C/ 5.5°C) and average July low and high temperatures are 55°F/ 85°F (12.7°C/ 29.4°C). Colorado Springs has relatively mild winters, with large snow accumulations in the downtown area relatively rare, a strong warming sun due to the altitude, and only occasional episodic periods of sub-zero cold snaps and blizzards from October 31 to March/April. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Colorado Springs was 101°F (38.3°C) on June 7, 1874 and the coldest temperature ever recorded was -32°F (-35.5°C) on January 20, 1883. Colorado Springs is also one of the most active lightning strike areas in the United States. This natural phenomenon led Nikola Tesla to select Colorado Springs as the preferred location to build his lab and study electricity.

Geography and climate

Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1,480 — 1870 4,226 185.5% 1880 1890 The sign greeting travelers into Colorado Springs on Interstate 25 southbound from Denver. Colorado Springs is located at 38°51′48″N 104°47′31″W / 38.86333°N 104.79194°W / 38.86333; -104.79194 (38.863443, -104.791914).[14] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 186.1 square miles (482.1 km²), of which, 185.7 square miles (481.1 km²) of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km²) of it (0.21%) is water. 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 11,140 21,085 29,078 30,105 33,237 36,789 45,472 70,194 135,060 214,914 281,140 360,890 163.6% 89.3% 37.9% 3.5% 10.4% 10.7% 23.6% 54.4% 92.4% 59.1% 30.8% 28.4% 4.3%

Est. 2007 376,427 source:[16][17]


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Military impact on diversity: The diversity of the military populations has had a lasting impact on the rich ethnic and racial makeup of the Colorado Springs area: Military retirees and former military dependents who have settled in the area, an extremely diverse population with wide-ranging international experience and connections, have made the city one of the most culturally and racially diverse parts of Colorado and the Mountain West. Impact of Non-military Hispanic and European Immigration: Earlier influxes of European and European-American settlers of largely German, Irish and Italian heritage as well as an ongoing influx of Hispanic immigrants primarily of Mexican and Central American heritage have also helped to fill out the diversity of the region. Native American population: Although comprising less than 1% of the current population, the local Native American population has links to the area going back thousands of years. Originally one of the homes of the Ute Indian Nation, descendants of Ute heritage continue to reside in greater Colorado Springs. As of the census[18] of 2000 (limited only to the city limits and not including the very diverse Fort Carson area which many view as being a part of the Colorado Springs metropolitan area), there were 360,890 people, 141,516 households, and 93,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,942.9 people per square mile (750.2/ km²). There were 148,690 housing units at an average density of 800.5/sq mi (309.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.66% White, 6.56% African American, 0.88% Native American, 2.82% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 5.01% from other races, and 3.85% from two or more races. 12.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 141,516 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45

Colorado Springs, Colorado
to 64, and 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.(Note: City statistics do not include the demographic influence of five local military bases). The median income for a household in the city was $45,081, and the median income for a family was $53,478. Males had a median income of $36,786 versus $26,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,496. About 6.1% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.


Colorado Springs Skyline, August 2007. Much of the tourism in the Springs is attracted to the surrounding natural features such as Pikes Peak. The city has numerous trails and parks due to its location next to the Rocky Mountains, making the city a popular destination for its scenery. With the mountains nearby, the Springs has also gained fame for its rock formations and other geological features. Other attractions include Garden Of The Gods park, Seven Falls, Cave Of The Winds, Pikes Peak and the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo.

Colorado Springs is served by a bus system called Metro (short for Mountain Metropolitan Transit). Metro also operates the Front Range Express (FREX) service, which connects Colorado Springs to Denver and several other metropolitan areas only during


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weekdays. Although the Metro system serves much of the city and its nearest suburbs, it lacks service to many important areas and has only limited hours of operation. Taxicabs are available by phone or can usually be chartered at the airport or downtown. In order to combat congestion the Colorado Department of Transportation is in the process of widening the Interstate 25 corridor throughout the city from four lanes (two in each direction) to six lanes. This project has officially been named COSMIX (Colorado Springs Metro Interstate Expansion) Ultimately, the plan is to make the interstate eight lanes through the city when funding becomes available.[19] This plan is similar in nature to Denver’s T-Rex expansion plan.

Colorado Springs, Colorado
separated interchanges. The former is a partial cloverleaf, which was finished mid 2008, and the latter is an urban diamond, finished September 2008. A third interchange is being considered at the intersection of Woodmen Road and Academy Boulevard (Colorado Route 83).

Major Highways
Colorado Springs is primarily served by the interstate highways I-25 and U.S. Route 24. • Interstate 25 runs north-south from New Mexico through Colorado Springs to Denver on its way northward towards Wyoming US 24 traverses through eastern Colorado from Limon through several towns such as Matheson, Simla, Ramah, Calhan, Peyton and Falcon until it reaches the city and leaves the city through the mountains on its way to Minturn, CO. SH 83 runs north-south from Denver to Colorado Springs. SH 115 begins from the US 50 interchange in Cañon City to US 85 (Nevada Avenue) in the city. US 85 US 85 enters the city at Fountain and is signed as Nevada Avenue until it leaves the city at exit 148.


• •

• A Metro bus navigates past a parking garage in downtown. Several suggestions have been made to create a loop around the city though none have been implemented. The original plan to convert Powers Boulevard, a major eastside expressway, into a bypass for I-25 was abandoned, but is now being reconsidered by the city council amidst stringent opposition from a large developer responsible for the construction of a large commercial complex along the road.[20] Easier access to the airport has also been suggested. Overall the new thoroughfares would include one (or two) loop freeways, a spur into the city connecting the main freeway and the loop, eastwest expressway upgrades, and easier access to the Colorado Springs Airport. Two additional grade separated interchanges were built in order to alleviate congestion at some of the city’s worst intersections. Both the intersection at Powers and Woodmen and the intersection at Austin Bluffs and Union were converted into grade •

US 87 US 87 remains concurrent with 1-25 throughout Colorado. In addition, there are plans to develop a "Front Range Toll Road", a privately-owned turnpike, which would begin south of Pueblo and end around Fort Collins. This toll road would allow rail and truck traffic to avoid the more highly traveled parts of I-25 along the Front Range. Initially, the project had support but has since been highly contested because of the need to condemn the land of many private citizens, through the use of eminent domain, to make room for the corridor[21]. Colorado Springs is served by the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. In the state of Colorado, only Denver International has more passenger traffic. The airport has experienced a higher recovery rate in the post-9/11 era than the rest of the country[22] and is in the process of expanding its maintenance facilities, taxiways, and runways to


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accommodate future growth. In 2005 it served approximately two million passengers.[22]

Colorado Springs, Colorado
as Skate America and the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships.

Olympic Sports

Local Teams
Name Sport Founded League Minor league; Pacific Coast League Venue Colorado Baseball 1988 Springs Sky Sox Colorado Soccer Springs Blizzard

Securit Service Field

2004-Folded United SocSecurit in 2006 cer Leagues; Service USL Premier Field Development League 2007

Colorado Soccer Rush Men’s Premier

The United States Olympic Committee headquarters and training facility. Colorado Springs is home to the United States Olympic Training Center and the headquarters of the United States Olympic Committee. In addition, a number of United States national federations for individual Olympic sports have their headquarters in Colorado Springs, including: • United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation • United States Fencing Association • United States Figure Skating Association • USA Basketball • USA Boxing • USA Cycling • USA Judo • USA Hockey • USA Swimming • USA Shooting • USA Triathlon • USA Volleyball • USA Wrestling The city has a particularly long association with the sport of figure skating, having hosted the U.S. Figure Skating Championships 6 times and the World Figure Skating Championships 5 times. It is home to the World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame and the Broadmoor Skating Club, a notable training center for the sport. In recent years, the World Arena has hosted skating events such Colorado Rugby Springs Rugby Football Club 1969

Premier Securit Arena SocService cer League; Field National Premier Soccer League (National Division III) Eastern Bear Rockies Creek Rugby Foot- Park ball Union; USA Rugby; (National Division II) Colorado Cricket League

Colorado Cricket Springs Cricket Club


Rose Bowl, Memor Park

• The local colleges feature many sports teams. Notable among them are the following nationally-competitive NCAA Division I teams: United States Air Force Academy (Fighting Falcons) Football, Basketball and Hockey, Colorado College (Tigers) Hockey, and Women’s Soccer. • Colorado Springs hosted the 1962 International Ice Hockey Federation World Championships (together with Denver). • This nullifies a popular Canadian claim that the 2008 IIHF World Championships in Quebec City and Halifax marked the first time this event was organized on the American continent. However, the 2008 event was the first World Championship on the American continent in which NHL players were eligible to compete.


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Colorado Springs, Colorado
of various projects of the missile defense agency. The aerospace industry also has had an influence on the Colorado Springs economy. The defense sector has planned several changes, moving in and out personnel, building and shutting down, over the next few years. Still, they are among the largest employers in the city and the overall trend is some growth. Significant defense corporations in the city include: • Northrop Grumman • Lockheed Martin • ITT • L-3 Communications • Harris Corporation • Boeing • General Dynamics


Municipal Court. Colorado Springs’ economy is driven primarily by the military, the high-tech industry, and tourism, in that order. While the main force behind the city’s economy is the military, the city is not completely dependent on it. The city is currently experiencing some growth mainly in the service sectors and has been identified as one of the nation’s top ten fastest growing economies.[23] Colorado Springs is also one of the nation’s leaders in lender available housing, nearing its top record set in the late 1980s.[24] On January 17, 2007, Steve Fehl, an Analyst at the Pikes Peak Workforce Center[25] announced that many of the better jobs being created in Colorado Springs are for service positions in upscale call centers for the insurance, support, and financial industries. These large businesses find the quality and quantity of available college educated workers an incentive to locate to the city. Mr. Fehl also believes Colorado Springs still remains a difficult market for job seekers outside the defense sector. With future growth in the defense sector expected when the approved funding is released to defense contractors, creating employment for those with active security clearances. This growth should offset some of the recent softening in information technology and complex electronic equipment manufacturing sectors.

High-tech industry
A large percentage of Colorado Springs’ economy is still based on high tech and manufacturing complex electronic equipment. The high tech sector of Colorado Springs area has decreased its overall presence in the Springs’ economy over the past six years (from around 21,000 down to around 8,000), notably in information technology and complex electronic equipment.[27] Due to the slowdown in tourism, the high tech sector still remains second to the military in terms of total revenue generated and employment.[28] It is projected by this trend that the high tech employment ratio will continue to decrease in the near future.[28][29][30][31] Because of Colorado Springs’ central U.S. location, available reserve of highly educated workers, and business friendly climate; several companies have plans to either expand their current operations in Colorado Springs or have considered Colorado Springs as a competitive area for relocating or opening a business. High tech corporations with connections to the city include: • Verizon Business – Software development - Formerly WorldCom and MCI, has a fairly large engineering presence. At its peak during the mid to late 1990s, with over 5,000 employees and currently has nearly 1300 employees in 2008.[32] • Hewlett-Packard – Computing – large sales, support, and SAN storage engineering center. The location was built by Digital Equipment Corporation,

Defense industry
The defense industry is a significant portion of Colorado Springs’ economy with several of the largest employers coming from this sector.[26] A large segment of this industry is dedicated to the development and operation


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renamed Compaq in the 1998 acquisition of Digital, and finally renamed HewlettPackard after the 2002 merger. Nearly 1000 positions will be transferred out of the Springs[33][34][35] SNIA – Computing - home of the SNIA Technology Center Agilent – Test and Measurement Manufacturing - In 1999, Agilent was spun off from HP as an independent, publiclytraded company. Intel– Currently idled with 250 employees, down from 1000 employees in 2007[36] Atmel – Chip fabrication. Formerly Honeywell. Recently laid off 245 workers and will shut down in 2009. [37] Cypress Semiconductor Colorado Design Center – Chip fabrication R&D site Sanmina-SCI Closing facility around December 2007 to January 2008 (800 jobs).[38]

Colorado Springs, Colorado
units (specifically the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior). Fort Carson is also the headquarters of the second and third battalions of the 10th Special Forces Group.

• •

Peterson Air Force Base
The Air Force has critical aspects of their service based at Colorado Springs which carry on missile defense operations and development. The Air Force bases a large section of the national missile defense operations here, with Peterson Air Force Base set to operate large sections of the program. Peterson AFB is currently the headquarters of the majority of Air Force Space Command and the operations half of Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Strategic Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT). Peterson is also headquarters for the United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), one of the Unified Combatant Commands. USNORTHCOM directs all branches of the U.S. military operations in their area of responsibility which includes the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, and Mexico. In the event of national emergencies the President or Secretary of Defense can call upon USNORTHCOM for any required military assistance. Service members from every branch of US Military are stationed at the command.

• •

• •


Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB)
Schriever AFB is home to the 50th Space Wing that controls warning, navigational, communications and spy satellites. It is also the home of the Space Warfare Center and the home for the 576th Flight Test Squadron [39]. It is the location of the global positioning system (GPS) master control station and GPS Operations Center and the US Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock used to synchronize GPS satellite time. Schriever is also developing parts of national missile defense and runs parts of the annual wargames used by the nations military.

AFSPC Headquarters, Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs. The United States Military plays a very important role in the city. Colorado Springs is home to both Army and Air Force bases and their numerous support bases around the county. Excluding Schriever Air Force Base, all these military installations are on the border of the city, to the north, south and east.

Fort Carson
Fort Carson is the city’s largest military base, and until mid-2006 was home to the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment, which relocated to Fort Hood, Texas. By 2009, Fort Carson will be the home station of the 4th Infantry Division, which will nearly double the base’s population. Fort Carson is host to various training grounds for infantry, armor, and aviation

NORAD and Cheyenne Mountain Air Station
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a component of America’s missile defense system, is located in Cheyenne Mountain Air Station. When it was built at the height of the Cold War it caused much anxiety for the residents of Colorado Springs.


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Although NORAD still operates, today it is primarily tasked with the tracking of ICBMs, but the military has recently decided to place Cheyenne Mountain’s NORAD/NORTHCOM operations on standby and move operations to nearby Peterson Air Force Base.[40]

Colorado Springs, Colorado
• Association of Christian Schools International • The Navigators • Young Life • Christian and Missionary Alliance • WAY-FM Network • HCJB

United States Air Force Academy
The north end of the city is home to the vast United States Air Force Academy grounds, where cadets train to become officers in the Air Force. The campus is famous for its unique chapel and draws visitors year round. The Air Force sports programs belong to the Mountain West Conference.


Religious institutions

Doolittle Hall on the campus of the United States Air Force Academy. Universities, colleges and special schools include: • Colorado College, founded in 1874 • The Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind, also founded in 1874 • The United States Air Force Academy, established on its present site in 1958 • The University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (UCCS), established on its present Cragmor grounds in 1965 • Pikes Peak Community College • Nazarene Bible College • Remington College, vocational training. • Colorado Technical University, established in 1965 • Colorado State University - Pueblo, Citadel Campus • DeVry University • Regis University, Jesuit University • Troy University The city’s public schools are divided into several districts: • Widefield School District 3 On the south end • Academy School District 20 On the north end • Colorado Springs School District 11 In the center of the city • Falcon School District 49 On the east side

Focus on the Family is one of many major religious organizations based in Colorado Springs. In recent years, Colorado Springs has attracted a large influx of Evangelical Christians and Christian Organizations. At one time Colorado Springs was counted to be the national headquarters for 81 different religious organizations, earning the city the tongue-in-cheek nickname "the Evangelical Vatican". According to the 2006 DEX phone book, there are 84 separate categories under "churches" with hundreds of individual churches listed. The city and surrounding areas also host hundreds of churches and synagogues of many faiths and denominations, including a mosque. Religious groups with headquarters at Colorado Springs include: • Roman Catholic Diocese of Colorado Springs • Compassion International • Focus on the Family • International Bible Society


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• Fountain-Fort Carson School District 8 On the far south end • Harrison School District 2 In the south central area • James Irwin Charter Schools In the east central area • Cheyenne Mountain School District 12 In the southwest corner • Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind Private schools: • Colorado Springs Christian Schools • Evangelical Christian Academy • Fountain Valley School of Colorado • Hilltop Baptist School • Saint Mary’s High School • Colorado Springs School • Divine Redeemer Catholic School • Pikes Peak Christian School

Colorado Springs, Colorado
locations: Memorial Hospital Central which is located downtown and Memorial Hospital North which is located off Briargate Parkway. Penrose-St. Francis Health Services has two Main Hospitals, Penrose Hospital off I-25, and St. Francis Medical Center on Powers and Woodmen Road on the city’s northeast side. This facility opened in August 2008 and is the only full-service acute care facility in the northern part of the city.

Notable residents
• Basketball player Lynn Barry • Actor Michael Boatman • Artist Charles Ragland Bunnell (1897-1968) • Silent film star Lon Chaney was born in Colorado Springs on April 1, 1883. The Lon Chaney Theatre is named for him. • Football star Earl "Dutch" Clark graduated from Colorado College • Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Goose Gossage was born in Colorado Springs on July 5, 1951, and graduated from Wasson High School. Retired from baseball, he currently lives in Colorado Springs. • Baseball pitcher Dave Dravecky • Aerosmith bassist Tom Hamilton was born in Colorado Springs. • Focus on the Family founder James Dobson • New Life Church founder Ted Haggard[41] • Chris Elrod, Christian comedian and writer lived in Colorado Springs during his high school years.[42] • TNA wrestler Bobby Lashley is billed from Colorado Springs. • Keith Lockhart, former conductor of the Pikes Peak Symphony, current conductor of the Boston Pops • Actress Chase Masterson • Leonard Peikoff, heir to the Ayn Rand estate and philosopher. • Cassandra Peterson (also known as Elvira, Mistress of the Night) graduated in 1969 from General William J. Palmer High School in Colorado Springs • Professional kickboxer, wrestler and actor Bob "The Beast" Sapp was born in Colorado Springs and attended Mitchell High School. • Serbian-born American physicist Nikola Tesla built a laboratory in Colorado Springs in 1899 for his experiments in the wireless transmission of electrical power.

Colorado Springs city government

City Hall. The city is a Council-Manager government, with a City Council and Mayor that meet regularly to approve budgets and projects, while the city manager deals with the day-to-day aspects of running the city. The mayor and vice mayor are elected at large. The city council consists of seven members four of whom are elected from districts while the other three are elected at large.

Area Medical Facilities
There are two main hospital systems in the City of Colorado Springs. They are Memorial Health System and Penrose-St. Francis Health Services. Memorial is owned by the City of Colorado Springs and has two


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The site of the lab, the present intersection of Foote and Kiowa streets, is now a residential area. Model Leeann Tweeden worked briefly as a waitress at a local Hooters in the 1991-1992 timeframe. Automobile racer Bobby Unser was born in Colorado Springs on February 20, 1934. Former British ice dancer Christopher Dean Former American figure skater Jill Trenary, who is married to Dean. NFL wide receiver Vincent Jackson of the San Diego Chargers and graduated from Widefield High School NFL defensive end Aaron Smith (American football) of the Pittsburgh Steelers NFL cornerback Roc Alexander NFL punter Barry Helton of the San Francisco 49ers Miss Colorado 2002, Miss Colorado Teen USA 1999, and former Denver Broncos cheerleader, Morgan O’Murray NBA Hall of Famer Rick Barry ESPN College GameDay (football) host Chris Fowler Pioneering nerdcore artist and former computer hacker YTCracker MLB starting pitcher Brandon McCarthy of the Texas Rangers (baseball) Duane Chapman from Dog the Bounty Hunter Former BBC’s "Tomorrow’s World" presenter, currently resides in Colorado Springs. Howard Stableford Comedian Lewis Black lived briefly in Colorado Springs with college friends as part-owner of a small theater there. Popcorn Magnate Orville Redenbacher Colorado College Class of 1919 Thomas Eugene Foulks lived in Colorado Springs from the early 1960s through 2003. He was local news anchor and politician. Actress Juli Ashton OneRepublic lead singer Ryan Tedder, who also co-wrote Bleeding Love for Leona Lewis, which hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2008. OneRepublic lead guitarist Zach Filkins Academy Award winning director Sydney Pollack worked downtown during a stint at Fort Carson Notable jazz guitarist Johnny Smith Professional Hockey Player David Hale

Colorado Springs, Colorado
• Conservative author, commentator and blogger Michelle Malkin moved to Colorado Springs in 2008.


Sister cities
Sister cities of Colorado Springs include: • Fujiyoshida, Japan (1962) • Kaohsiung, Taiwan (1983) • Smolensk, Russia (1993) • Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (1994) • Nuevo Casas Grandes, Mexico (1996) • Bankstown, Australia (1999) Colorado Springs’ sister city organization began when Colorado Springs became partners with Fujiyoshida. The torii gate erected to commemorate the relationship stands at the corner of Bijou Street and Nevada Avenue, and is one of the city’s most recognizable landmarks. The torii gate, crisscrossed bridge and shrine, located in the median between Platte and Bijou Streets in downtown Colorado Springs, were a gift to Colorado Springs, erected in 1966 by the Rotary Club of Colorado Springs to celebrate the friendship between the two communities. A plaque near the torii gate states that "the purpose of the sister city relationship is to promote understanding between the people of our two countries and cities". The Fujiyoshida Student exchange program has become an annual event. To strengthen relations between the two cities, the Colorado Springs Youth Symphony regularly invites the Taiko drummers from the city to participate in a joint concert in the Pikes Peak Center. The orchestra played in Bankstown, Australia, in 2002 and again in June 2006 as part of their tours to Australia and New Zealand. Also, in 2006, the Bankstown TAP (Talent Advancement Program), performed with the Youth Symphony, and the Colorado Springs Children’s Chorale, as a part of the annual In Harmony program. A notable similarity between Colorado Springs and its sister cities are their geographic positions, three of the six cities being located near the base of a major mountain or range.[43]

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In popular culture
• In the 1983 suspense film WarGames, was set partly in a fictional creation of NORAD facility at Cheyenne Mountain.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Clive Cussler sets a chapter of his thriller "Cyclops" in Colorado Springs, featuring an action scene between the President’s personal investigator and a man supposedly involved in a top secret colony on the moon. • Robert A. Heinlein, noted sci-fi writer during the genre’s Golden Age, lived in Colorado Springs during part of his career. His novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress featured at one point the rebel moon government raining rock-filled grain canisters down on NORAD’s headquarters inside Cheyenne Mountain, incidentally destroying Colorado Springs because of the great amount of kinetic energy released on impact. • Peanuts creator Charles M. Schulz lived briefly in Colorado Springs in 1951, on North Franklin Street. Linus and Lucy Van Pelt were neighbors of his, for whom he named characters. He painted a wall of his home with some Peanuts characters. The wall was removed from the home in 2001 and donated to the Charles M. Schulz Museum in Santa Rosa, California. • Several scenes of Perry Mason: The Case of the Sinister Spirit (1987) were filmed at the Broadmoor Hotel. Several courtroom scenes in the Perry Mason movie series were filmed in the courtroom exhibit at the Pioneer’s Museum (formerly the El Paso County Courthouse). • The Incident (1990) was filmed in the courtroom exhibit at the Pioneer’s Museum (formerly the El Paso County Courthouse).[44] • Strangeland (1998) was filmed in Colorado Springs.[45] • Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, an Emmy Award-winning dramatic television series starring Jane Seymour, was set in this town. Though there was some historical accuracy, the character was based on a woman from nearby Cripple Creek and the majority of the events and settings were fictional, and actual filming was done at the Paramount Ranch near Agoura Hills, California. • • The TV series Stargate SG-1 has several episodes which at least partially take place in Colorado Springs; additionally SGC is based out of nearby Cheyenne Mountain, and most of the team members are shown to reside in Colorado Springs.

Colorado Springs, Colorado

"Stargate" Fountain Close up

"Stargate" Fountain The new Julie Penrose Fountain and two Egyptian style obelisks (in background) located in the America the Beautiful park in Colorado Springs bears a remarkable resemblance to a Stargate. • The movie Miracle shows Herb Brooks interviewing for the head coaching job for USA Hockey in Colorado Springs. • In the movie The Sum Of All Fears the Russian president asks a military adviser how many people live in Colorado Springs, as he weighs the ramifications of the use of nuclear weapons against the city. This highlights the strategic importance of the military-centered city. • By including Colorado Springs as the home of inventor Nikola Tesla, played by David Bowie, the film The Prestige dates itself to the years 1899 or 1900, when Tesla used the city for a series of electricity experiments. The Cliff House at Pikes Peak in nearby Manitou Springs is the basis for the hotel used in the film.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Under the fictional name of Cody, Colorado, the 2006 movie "Fast Food Nation" features a fictional meat packing plant set to a number of panoramic shots of Colorado Springs, including Pikes Peak, Cheyenne Mountain, the Front Range, as well as the McDonald’s located on Academy Boulevard and San Miguel Street. • In the second Allied mission of Command and Conquer: Red Alert 2, the player is required to recapture the United States Air Force Academy from Soviet forces. It is within Colorado Springs’ range. • The titular characters’ home in the Adult Swim cartoon The Venture Bros. is located in Colorado Springs. • The former restaurant chain Mr. Steak was started here. • In a recent Verizon Wireless commercial, a couple walks into a car rental shop in which they are informed that their 3G internet will not work. The map behind the characters that comes into focus is that of Colorado with Colorado Springs at its focal point. Most of the towns are renamed, including US Army Fort Carson. • In the 1997 Film, Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (Starring Mike Meyers), NORAD was mentioned and reproduced on set to look like the entrance to the "Cheyenne Mountain Complex". It featured a scene where they used sonar imagery in the location of a flying "Big Boy" which Dr. Evil used to cryogenically freeze himself and his cat "Mr. Bigglesworth".

Colorado Springs, Colorado archives/muninc.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-02. [3] "ZIP Code Lookup" (JavaScript/HTML). United States Postal Service. Retrieved on September 7 2007. [4] ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. November 18, 2008. cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved on November 18 2008. [5] planning/COMPPLANREVIEW/ Annual_Report2007/ PopulationEmployment.pdf [6] Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2007 to July 1, 2007 [7] moneymag/bplive/2006/top100/ bigcities.html [8] ^ "Rankings for Metropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. June 21, 2006. population/www/estimates/metropop/ 2005/cbsa-04-fmt.csv. Retrieved on December 13 2006. [9] MONEY Magazine: Best places to live 2006: 10 Best Big Cities [10] PPRTA Homepage [11] Cut, don’t raise taxes or fees August 25, 2008 [12] Colorado’s War on Militant Unionism, James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners, George G. Suggs, Jr., 1972, page 47. [13] ftcarson.htm [14] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [15] "Monthly Averages for Colorado Springs, CO". The Weather Channel. 2008. wxclimatology/monthly/graph/ USCO0078?from=month_bottomnav_undeclared. Retrieved on 2008-09-19.

See also
• Colorado municipalities • Pikes Peak Library District • South Central Colorado Urban Area

[1] ^ "Active Colorado Municipalities" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. local_governments/municipalities.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. [2] "Colorado Municipal Incorporations" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2004-12-01.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[16] Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850-1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 68. [17] "Subcounty population estimates: Colorado 2000-2007" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009-03-18. SUB-EST2007-8.csv. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [18] "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [19] COSMIX Project Home Page [20] Powers freeway debate restarts | Gazette, The (Colorado Springs) | Find Articles at [21] how_to.html [22] ^ Colorado Springs Airport - News Releases [23] Magazine calls Sacramento a fast city Sacramento Business Journal: [24] Foreclosures on the rise in El Paso County, 2002-2006 : [25] Pikes Peak Workforce Center [26] Colorado Springs Gazette [27] [1](2006-2007 Southern Colorado Economic Forum Publication pg 18) [28] ^ SCEF - Southern Colorado Economic Forum [29] - A barren Garden of the Gods [30] percent_38360___article.html/ rate_colorado.html [31] manufacturing_40004___article.html/ springs_technology.html [32] Wayne Heilman 09/19/08 email

Colorado Springs, Colorado
[33] springs_37486___article.html/ colorado_new.html [34] center_37622___article.html/ springs_employees.html [35] move_37716___article.html/ workers_employees.html [36] intel_38707___article.html/ help_workers.html [37] atmel_44889___article.html/ employees_company.html [38] Sept 2007, Tammy Fields, Colorado Springs Economic Development Corporation [39] science/air_space/1282451.html?page=3 [40] Military to put Cheyenne Mountain on standby - The Denver Post [41] Preacher-turned-pariah tells of his two years in the wilderness [42] Chriselrod.Com [43] City of Colorado Springs - Topic Pages [44] locations [45]

External links
• City of Colorado Springs website • Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center • Official Site of the Colorado Springs Convention & Visitors Bureau • Early Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations • Colorado City Historical Society Coordinates: 38°51′48″N 104°47′31″W / 38.863443°N 104.791914°W / 38.863443; -104.791914

Retrieved from ",_Colorado" Categories: Settlements established in 1871, Cities in Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado, El Paso County, Colorado, United States colonial and territorial capitals, County seats in Colorado, Pikes Peak This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 05:58 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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