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State of Colorado U.S. Senators U.S. House delegation Time zone Abbreviations Flag of Colorado Seal Nickname(s): The Centennial State Motto(s): Nil sine numine (Nothing without providence) Website 2 - Mark Udall (D) 3 - Michael Bennet (D) 5 Democrats, 2 Republicans (list) MST=UTC-07, MDT=UTC-06 CO Colo. US-CO

Official language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total - Width - Length - % water - Latitude - Longitude Population - Total - Density - Median income Elevation - Highest point - Mean - Lowest point Admission to Union Governor Lieutenant Governor

English Coloradan[1][2] Denver Denver Denver-Aurora Metro Area Ranked 8th in the US 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²) 280 miles (451 km) 380 miles (612 km) 0.36% 37°N to 41°N 102°03’W to 109°03’W Ranked 22nd in the US 4,939,456 (2008 est.)[3] 4,301,261 (2000) 41.5/sq mi (16.01/km²) Ranked 37th in the US $51,022 (10th) Mount Elbert[4][5] 14,440 ft (4401 m) 6,800 ft (2073 m) Arikaree River[4] 3,315 ft (1010 m) August 1, 1876 (38th) Bill Ritter (D) Barbara O’Brien (D)

The State of Colorado ( /kɒləˈrædoʊ/ or /kɒləˈrɑːdoʊ/ )[6] is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. It may also be considered to be part of the Western and Southwestern regions of the United States. Colorado entered statehood in 1876 and was nicknamed the “Centennial State”. It is bordered to the north by Wyoming, to the south by New Mexico, at the southwest corner by Arizona, to the east by Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma, and to the west by Utah. The state is well known for its magnificent scenery of mountains, rivers and plains. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 4,939,456 in 2008, a 14% increase since the U.S. Census 2000.[7] Denver is the capital of Colorado and the state’s most populous city. Residents of Colorado are properly known as "Coloradans", although the archaic term "Coloradoan" is still used.[1][2]


An enlargeable map of the State of Colorado The State of Colorado is defined as the geoellipsoidal rectangle that stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03’W to 109°03’W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian).[8] Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah are the only three U.S. states that have only


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lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries and that have no natural borders. When government surveyors established the border markers for the Territory of Colorado, minor surveying errors created several small kinks along the borders, most notably along the border with the Territory of Utah. The surveyors’ benchmarks, once agreed upon by the interested parties, became the legal boundaries for the Colorado Territory.[9] The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) elevation in Lake County is the state’s highest point and the highest point in the entire Rocky Mountains.[4][5] Colorado has more than 100 mountain peaks that exceed 4,000 meters (13,123 ft) elevation. Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in the State of Colorado at 3,315 feet (1,010 m) elevation. This crossing point holds the distinction of being the highest low point of any U.S. state.[4][10] Nearly half of the state is flat in stark contrast to Colorado’s rugged Rocky Mountains. East of the Southern Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Colorado at elevations ranging from roughly 3350 to 6500 feet (1010 to 2000 m).[11] The states of Kansas and Nebraska border Colorado to the east. The plains are sparsely settled with most population along the South Platte and the Arkansas rivers. Precipitation is meager, averaging from 12 to 18 inches (300 to 450 mm) annually.[11] There is some irrigated farming, but much of the land is used for dryland farming or ranching. Winter wheat is a typical crop and most small towns in the region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. The bulk of Colorado’s population lives along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms by the high mountains to the west. To the west lies the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with notable peaks such as Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg in the south. This area drains to the east, is forested, and partially urbanized. During the drought of 2002 devastating forest fires swept this area. Hinsdale County, with Lake City (population appx. 300) as it’s seat, has been judged the most remote county in the 48 contiguous states. It has only one incorporated town (Lake City). It is one of the only places within the continental United States that one can venture more than 10 miles (16 km) from any road. The Continental Divide stretches across the crest of the Rocky Mountains. To the west of the Continental Divide is the Western Slope. Water west of the Continental Divide drains west into the Sea of Cortez via the Colorado River.


The Continental Divide dips down to 11,990 feet (3,655 m) at Loveland Pass. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks or high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is North Park. North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming. Just south but on the west side of the Continental Divide is Middle Park, drained by the Colorado River. South Park is the headwaters of the South Platte River. To the south lies the San Luis Valley, the headwaters of the Rio Grande, which drains into New Mexico. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation, and its branches. The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 53 peaks that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher elevation, known as fourteeners. The mountains are timbered with conifers and aspens to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,140 feet (3,700 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado; above this only alpine vegetation grows. The Colorado Rockies are snow-covered only in the winter; most snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few small glaciers. The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado. The Western Slope is generally drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries. Notable to the south are the San Juan Mountains, an extremely rugged mountain


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range, and to the west of the San Juans, the Colorado Plateau, a high desert bordering Southern Utah. Grand Junction is the largest city on the Western Slope. Grand Junction is served by Interstate Highway I-70. To the southeast of Grand Junction is Grand Mesa, the world’s largest flat-topped mountain. Further east are the ski resorts of Aspen, Vail, Crested Butte, and Steamboat Springs. The northwestern corner of Colorado bordering Northern Utah and Western Wyoming is mostly sparsely populated rangeland. From west to east, the state consists of desert-like basins, turning into plateaus, then alpine mountains, and then the grasslands of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak is just west of Colorado Springs. Its lone peak is visible from near the Kansas border on clear days. Colorado is also one of only four states in the United States to share a common border (Four Corners), along with Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once. See also: Colorado cities and towns, Colorado counties, Colorado municipalities, Colorado rivers, and Four Corners Monument


Center pivot irrigation of wheat growing in Yuma County. nights, which give this area the highest average diurnal temperature range in the United States. In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and sometimes 100 °F (38 °C), although 105 °F (41 °C) is the maximum in the front range cities above 5000 ft (1500 m). In those areas, −25 °F (−31.7 °C) is the all-time record low. About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes in the form of thunderstorms, which are often severe, and the form of major snowstorms that happen most often in the early spring and in late autumn, and sometimes winter, from low pressures that bring the right conditions. Otherwise, winters tend to be drier and cold, even though it’s known for having a number of mild days in many winters. In much of this region, March and April are the snowiest months. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month that has the most combination of rain and snow. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures up to 60 °F (16 °C) or higher in the winter.[12] The average July temperature is 57 degrees in the morning and 87 degrees in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 15 degrees in the morning and 43 degrees in the afternoon, although the daily high may be 60 one day and 0 the next.


Spring melt at Bear Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park. The climate of Colorado is quite complex compared to most of the United States. The typical south-north/ cooler-warmer variation in other states is not generally applicable in Colorado. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. As a general rule, with an increase in elevation come a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. A main climatic division in Colorado occurs between the Rocky Mountains on the west and the plains on the east; the foothills form a transitional zone between the two.

West of the plains and foothills
West of the plains and foothills, the weather of Colorado is much less uniform. Even places a few miles (kilometers) apart can experience entirely different weather, depending on the topography of the area. Most valleys also have a semi-arid climate, which becomes an alpine climate at higher elevations. Humid microclimates also exist in some areas as well. Generally, the wettest season is in the winter in Western Colorado while June is the driest month, which is the opposite of precipitation patterns in the east. The mountains have

Eastern Plains
The climate of the Eastern Plains is a semi-arid continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk) of low humidity and moderately low precipitation, usually from 10 to 15 inches (250 to 380 mm) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool clear


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Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Colorado Cities City Alamosa Colorado Springs Denver Grand Junction Pueblo


Jan 33/-4

Feb 40/5











50/16 59/23 68/32 78/40 82/46 79/45 72/36 62/24 46/11 35/-1

42/13 45/18 52/24 59/31 68/41 79/50 86/55 82/54 74/45 63/34 50/23 42/16 43/15 47/19 54/25 61/34 70/44 82/53 88/59 86/57 77/47 66/36 52/24 44/16 37/16 45/23 56/31 64/38 74/46 87/55 96/61 92/60 83/50 67/39 50/26 39/18 45/14 50/19 57/26 65/34 75/45 86/54 91/59 89/58 81/49 69/35 54/22 45/15

town.[13] Floods are also a factor in the plains, not just from the thunderstorms, but also due to heavy snow in the mountains followed by a warm, dry period which swells rivers with melted snow. In 2008, from July through August, a new record was set that was previously held in 1901 of twenty-three straight days of 90 degree heat, surpassing the previous record by almost a week. Colorado is also known for its droughts that occur every few years, causing major wildfires such as the Hayman Fire, one of the largest wildfires in US history. View of the Western Slope from Grand Junction. cool summers with many days of high temperatures around 60 °F (16 °C) and 70 °F (21 °C), although frequent thunderstorms can cause a sudden drop in temperatures. Summer nights are cool, and cold at the highest altitudes which can sometimes bring snow even in the middle of the summer. The winters bring abundant, powdery snowfall to the mountains which the skiers love, although even in the winter, there can be many days with abundant sunshine in between major storms. The Western Slope has high summer temperatures similar to those found on the plains while the winters tend to be slightly cooler due to the lack of any warming winds which are common in the plains and Front Range. Other areas in the west have their own unique climate. The San Luis Valley is generally dry with little rain or snow, although the snow that falls tends to stay on the ground all winter.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 11, 1888, at Bennett, while the lowest was -61 °F (-52 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.[14][15]


Extreme weather
Extreme weather is a common occurrence in Colorado. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental divide in the spring and summer, and Colorado is one of the leading states in deaths due to lightning. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains have some of the biggest hail storms in North America.[11] While not as common as some of the states to the east, much of the Eastern Plains are also prone to tornadoes, and there have been some damaging tornadoes there. Examples include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado which devastated the The ruins of the Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde as photographed by Gustaf Nordenskiöld in 1891. The region that is today the State of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13 millennia. The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BCE to 3000 BCE. The Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau. The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains. The Arapaho Nation


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and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains. The United States acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. The U.S. claim conflicted with Spain’s claim that a huge region surrounding its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico was its sovereign trading zone. Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806. Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from México the following July.

precipitating the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush.[17] The placer gold deposits along the rivers and streams of the region rapidly played out, but miners soon discovered far more valuable seams of hard rock gold, silver, and other minerals in the nearby mountains.

A lithograph of the Denver City mining camp in 1859. The Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson was organized on August 24, 1859, but the new territory failed to secure federal sanction. The election of Abraham Lincoln for U.S. President on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of six slave states and the threat of civil war. Seeking to augment the political power of the free states, the Republican led U.S. Congress hurriedly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas to the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the territory, and its gold fields, unorganized.

Bent’s Old Fort along the Arkansas River operated from 1833 to 1849. The United States relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River as part of the U.S. purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. México finally won its independence from Spain in 1821, but it surrendered its northern territories to the United States after the Mexican-American War with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. In 1849, the Mormons of Deseret (now Utah) organized the extralegal Provisional State of Deseret which claimed all land drained by the Green River and the Colorado River. The federal government refused to recognize the new government, and the Mormons declined to settle east of the Green River for more than 20 years. The United States divided the area of the future Colorado among the Territory of New Mexico and the Territory of Utah organized in 1850, and the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska organized in 1854. Most American settlers traveling west to Oregon, Deseret, or California avoided the rugged Rocky Mountains and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River through what is now Wyoming. On April 9, 1851, Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico, settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, but now Colorado’s first permanent European settlement. Gold was discovered along the South Platte River in western Kansas Territory in July 1858,

The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William H. Jackson in 1899. Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado.[18] The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged today. The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the


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territory.[19] Early Spanish explorers named the river the Rio Colorado for the reddish-brown silt the river carried from the mountains.[20] In fact, the Colorado River did not flow through the State of Colorado until House Joint Resolution 460 of the 66th United States Congress changed the name of the Grand River to the Colorado River on July 25, 1921.[21]

Colorado women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the first U.S. state to grant universal suffrage by popular vote. By the 1930 U.S. Census, the population of Colorado exceeded one million residents. The state suffered through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado’s fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. Colorado’s population exceeded 4.3 million at U.S. Census 2000. Three warships of the United States Navy have been named USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River. The later two ships were named in honor of the landlocked state.

Historical populations Census Pop. 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Est. 2008[3] 34,277 39,864 194,327 413,249 539,700 799,024 939,629 1,035,791 1,123,296 1,325,089 1,753,947 2,207,259 2,889,964 3,294,394 4,301,261 4,939,456 %± — 16.3% 387.5% 112.7% 30.6% 48.0% 17.6% 10.2% 8.4% 18.0% 32.4% 25.8% 30.9% 14.0% 30.6% 14.8%

Colorado state history plaque The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state.[8] On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting the State of Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".[22] The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878, triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 envigorated silver mining, but the repeal of the act in 1893 led to a major collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of the state.

Colorado Population Density Map The state’s most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area, home to 2,927,911 people, contains more than twothirds of the state’s population. Residents of Colorado


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Demographics of Colorado (csv) By race 2000 (total population) 2000 (Hispanic only) 2005 (total population) 2005 (Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (total population) Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) White 92.23% 16.20% 91.91% 18.46% 8.09% 4.78% 23.60% Black 4.55% 0.37% 4.74% 0.48% 13.03% 10.67% 39.64% AIAN* 1.91% 0.64% 1.83% 0.61% 3.85% 3.75% 4.05% Asian 2.84% 0.14% 3.19% 0.18% 22.08% 21.14% 40.04%


NHPI* 0.25% 0.05% 0.26% 0.06% 15.47% 11.70% 29.23%

* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander are properly referred to as Coloradans, although the term Coloradoans is still used.[2][23] As of 2005, Colorado has an estimated population of 4,665,177, which is an increase of 63,356, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 363,162, or 8.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 205,321 people (that is 353,091 births minus 147,770 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 159,957 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 112,217 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 47,740 people. The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. The state’s fastest growing counties are Douglas and Weld. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California, which led some locals to feel that their state was "Californicated" in the 1990s (esp. Denver resembled more of Los Angeles) when real estate home prices, lower cost of living and a healthier economy in growth rates drew in over 100,000 Californians at the time, and there are others who moved in from East Coast states. The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the town of Critchell in Jefferson County.[24] Colorado has one of the highest proportions of Hispanic citizens of any U.S. state; only five states have a higher percentage. Denver and some other areas have significant Mexican populations, while southern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of early New Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. The 2000 U.S. Census reports that 10.52% of people aged 5 and over in Colorado speak Spanish at home.[25] Colorado, like New Mexico, is very rich in archaic Spanish idioms.[26] Colorado has a history of African-Americans communities which are located in northeast Denver in the Montbello, Green Valley Ranch, Park Hill and Colfax Park areas. The state has sizable numbers of AsianAmericans of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian and Japanese descent. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns. According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Irish (12.2%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are the largest group in the state and are especially strong in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains.[27] Denver and nearby areas on the Front Range has sizable Scandinavian, Italian, Slavic and Jewish American communities, partly a legacy of gold rushes in the late 19th century (1861-1889). There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth Rate of 14.6). Although Non-Hispanic Whites constituted 73.5% of the population they accounted for only 48.90% of all the births. The first time in state history with the statistic of non-Hispanic whites have fewer babies. But 14.06% of the births happened to parents of different races (About two-thirds to White-Latino parents).[28] Westernmost counties where the majority of residents are adherents of Mormonism there’s a slightly higher percentage of families with children and those of under age 18.

The Chapel on the Rock at Camp Saint Malo near Allenspark.


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• Other Protestant – 2% • Roman Catholic – 19% • Latter Day Saint/ Mormon – 2% • Jewish – 2% • Muslim – 1% • Other Religions – 1% • Unaffiliated – 31% The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 752,505; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 92,326; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 85,083. [30]

The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya near Red Feather Lakes.

Colorado also has a reputation for being a state of very active and athletic people. According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US.[31] As of 2007 the 17.6% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 16.9% from 2004. Colorado Governor Bill Ritter spoke that “As an avid fisherman and bike rider, I know first-hand that Colorado provides a great environment for active, healthy lifestyles,” although he did highlight the need for continued education and support to slow the growth of obesity in the state.[32]

The Cadet Chapel at the United States Air Force Academy near Colorado Springs. Colorado has a higher number of younger persons in median age: 33, according to the 2000 Census report. Large numbers of married couples in professional careers with young children move to the state in a belief it’s a better place to raise a family. Colorado is also a major retirement destination by senior citizens in search of a warmer climate, recreation activities and the higher altitude in most of Colorado is said to provide health benefits for those with respiratory diseases.


Colorado’s population is predominately Christian, although, like most other Western states, it has a high percentage of religiously unaffiliated residents. Colorado, and specifically the city of Colorado Springs, serves as the headquarters of numerous Christian groups, many of them Evangelical. Focus on the Family is a major conservative Christian organization headquartered in Colorado Springs. Catholicism is popular in Colorado, and is becoming more so with the influx of Latino immigrants. Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado are:[29] • Christian – 65% • Protestant – 44% • Evangelical – 23% • Mainline – 19%

The United States quarter dollar coin released 2006-06-14, in honor of the State of Colorado. The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total state product in 2007 was $236 billion. Per capita personal income in 2007 was $40,963, ranking Colorado tenth in the nation.[33] The state’s economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century,


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An oil well in western Colorado raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay. The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD, United States Air Force Academy and Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs; NOAA and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, and 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state.[34] In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state’s economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and hightechnology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, minerals such as gold and molybdenum, and tourism. Colorado also produces the largest amount of beer of any state.[35] Denver is an important financial center. A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in

Denver World Trade Center. The Denver financial district along 17th Street is known as the Wall Street of the West.

Maize growing in Larimer County

Cattle ranching in Jackson County


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Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company’s motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981. Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income - income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions.[36][37] Colorado’s state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply. Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state’s senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.


Special tax districts
Some of the special tax districts are: • The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties • The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties • It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10). • According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history. • As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage. • Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%. • Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%. • Tier III has over 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%. • An eleven-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado. • The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos’ stadium INVESCO Field at Mile High • Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder counties

Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado, including the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation, grant approximately $400 million[38] each year from approximately $7 billion[39] of assets.

Colorado has significant energy resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation’s 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically accounts for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are also found in the State. Colorado’s high Rocky Mountain ridges offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the State offers potential resources for ethanol production. Notably, Colorado’s oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3) of oil – nearly as much oil as the entire world’s proven oil reserves. Oil production from those deposits, however, remains speculative.[40]


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• Regional Transportation Districts (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County • Occupational Privilege Taxes (OPT or Head Tax) Denver and Aurora both levy an OPT on Employers and Employees • If any employee performs work in the city limits and is paid over US$500.00 for that work in a single month, the Employee and Employer are both liable for the OPT regardless of where the main business office is located or headquartered. • In Denver, the Employer is liable for US$4.00 per employee per month and the Employee is liable for US$5.75 per month. • In Aurora, both Employer and Employees are liable for US$2.00 per month. • It is the Employer’s responsibility to with hold, remit, and file the OPT returns. If an Employer does not comply, they can be held liable for both portions of the OPT as well as penalties and interest.


Union Station in Denver. Interstate and Federal Highway Routes in the State of Colorado • Interstate 25 • Interstate 70 • Interstate 76 • Interstate 225 • Interstate 270 • U.S. Route 36 • U.S. Route 40 • U.S. Route 50 Commercial Airports in the State of Colorado • ALS - San Luis Valley Regional Airport • ASE - Aspen-Pitkin County Airport • CEZ - Cortez Municipal Airport • COS - City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport • FNL - Fort CollinsLoveland Municipal Airport • GJT - Grand Junction Regional Airport • GUC - GunnisonCrested Butte Regional Airport • U.S. Route 285 • U.S. Route 160 • U.S. Route 34 • U.S. Route 138 • U.S. Route 24 • • U.S. Route 6 • U.S. Route 84 U.S. Route 85 U.S. Route 87 • U.S. Route 287 • U.S. Route 350 • U.S. Route 400 • U.S. Route 491 • U.S. Route 550



Colorado state welcome sign

Denver International Airport


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• [41] • DRO - Durango-La Plata County Airport • EGE - Eagle County Regional Airport • HDN - Yampa Valley Airport • MTJ - Montrose Regional Airport • PUB - Pueblo Memorial Airport • TEX - Telluride Regional Airport

1998 49.06% 648,202 48.43% 639,905 1994 38.70% 432,042 55.47% 619,205 1990 35.43% 358,403 61.89% 626,032 Like all U.S. states, Colorado’s constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The governor heads the state’s executive branch. The Colorado Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the state. The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. Currently, Democrats control both chambers of the General Assembly. The 2005 Colorado General Assembly was the first to be controlled by the Democrats in forty years. The incumbent governor is Democrat August William "Bill" Ritter, Jr.. Many Coloradans are originally native to other states (over half of them were Californians in the 1990s), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon’s administration in 1973).

Amtrak Passenger Railroad Routes through the State of Colorado • California Zephyr: Chicago, Galesburg, Omaha, Fort Morgan, Denver, Winter Park, Granby, Glenwood Springs, Grand Junction, Salt Lake City, Reno, Sacramento, and Emeryville • Southwest Chief: Chicago, Galesburg, Kansas City, Topeka, Lamar, La Junta, Trinidad, Albuquerque, Gallup, Flagstaff, Needles, San Bernardino, and Los Angeles Communities in the State of Colorado with Regional Bus Service Alamosa, Aurora, Boulder, Brush, Colorado Springs, Delta, Denver, Durango, Englewood, Frisco, Fort Collins, Fort Morgan, Glenwood Springs, Grand Junction, Greeley, Lamar, Limon, Longmont, Montrose, Pueblo, Rocky Ford, Springfield, Sterling, Trinidad, Vail, and Walsenburg See also: Colorado Department of Transportation, List of Colorado state highways, List of airports in Colorado, and Amtrak

Federal politics
Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic 2008 44.71% 1,073,584 53.66% 1,288,568 2004 51.69% 1,101,255 47.02% 1,001,732 2000 50.75% 883,745 1996 45.80% 691,848 1992 35.87% 562,850 1988 53.06% 728,177 42.39% 738,227 44.43% 671,152 40.13% 629,681 45.28% 621,453

Government and politics
State government

The Colorado State Capitol in Denver Gubernatorial election results Year Republican Democratic 2006 40.16% 625,886 56.98% 888,096 2002 62.62% 884,584 33.65% 475,373

Colorado is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado supported Democrats Bill Clinton in 1992 and Barack Obama in 2008, and supported Republicans Robert J. Dole in 1996 and George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. It was the second most accurate indicator of the national vote in 2008, after Virginia. Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and liberal cities such as Boulder. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, some Denver suburbs, and the western half of the state (including Grand Junction). The fastest growing parts of the state particularly Douglas, Elbert, and Weld Counties, in the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area, are somewhat Republican-leaning. Colorado is represented by two United States Senators: • United States Senate Class 2 - Mark Emery Udall (Democratic) 2009• United States Senate Class 3 - Michael Farrand Bennet (Democratic) 2009-[42] The State of Colorado is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives: • Colorado’s 1st congressional district - Diana Louise DeGette (Democratic) 1997• Colorado’s 2nd congressional district - Jared Schutz Polis (Democratic) 2009• Colorado’s 3rd congressional district - John Tony Salazar (Democratic) 2005• Colorado’s 4th congressional district - Elizabeth Helen “Betsy” Markey (Democratic) 2009• Colorado’s 5th congressional district - Douglas L. "Doug" Lamborn (Republican) 2007• Colorado’s 6th congressional district - Michael "Mike" Coffman (Republican) 2009• Colorado’s 7th congressional district - Edwin George "Ed" Perlmutter (Democratic) 2007See also: United States presidential election, 2004, in Colorado, Colorado’s congressional elections, 2006, Colorado gubernatorial election, 2006, and Political party strength in Colorado


Map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. El Paso County Arapahoe County Jefferson County Adams County Boulder County Larimer County Douglas County Weld County Pueblo County Mesa County Fremont County City and County of Broomfield Garfield County Eagle County


Cities and Towns
See also: List of cities and towns in Colorado and Table of Colorado municipalities by county Colorado has 271 incorporated municipalities and 83 active United States Census Designated Places.[43][44]

The skyline of downtown Denver with Speer Boulevard in the foreground

The University of Colorado at Boulder. Colleges and universities in Colorado: • Adams State • Mesa State College College • Metropolitan State • Aims Community College of Denver College • Morgan Community College • Naropa University

Colorado is divided into 64 counties, including two counties with consolidated city and county governments.[45] The fifteen most populous Colorado counties as of 2007-07-01, were:[46] 1. City and County of Denver


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

• Colorado State • University of UniversityColorado at Boulder Pueblo • University of • Colorado Colorado at Colorado Technical Springs University • University of • Community Colorado Denver College of Aurora • University of Denver • Community • University of Northern College of Denver Colorado • Denver Seminary • Western State College • DeVry University • Fort Lewis College • Front Range Community College • Heritage College & Heritage Institute • Iliff School of Theology • Johnson & Wales University • Jones International University • Lamar Community College See also: List of colleges and universities in Colorado and List of school districts in Colorado

The University of Denver.

The United States Air Force Academy. • Arapahoe Community College • Art Institute of Colorado • Colorado Christian University • Colorado College • Colorado Community College Online • Colorado Mountain College • Colorado Northwestern Community College • Colorado School of Mines • Colorado State University System • Colorado State University • National Technological University • Nazarene Bible College • Northeastern Junior College • Otero Junior College • Pikes Peak Community College • Pueblo Community College • Red Rocks Community College • Redstone College • Regis University • Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design • Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine • Trinidad State Junior College • United States Air Force Academy • University of Colorado System

Metropolitan Areas

Map of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in the State of Colorado. See also: Colorado census statistical areas The United States Census Bureau has defined seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs), and one Combined Statistical Area (CSA) in the State of Colorado.[47][48]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

• Pony Express National Historic Trail • Rocky Mountain National Park • Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site • Santa Fe National Historic Trail • Yucca House National Monument See also: Colorado national parks, Colorado State Parks, Colorado trails, and Colorado scenic and historic byways

Military Installations
• Buckley Air Force Base • Fort Carson • Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site • Peterson Air Force Base • Cheyenne Mountain Directorate • Pueblo Chemical Depot • Schriever Air Force Base • United States Air Force Academy


Protected areas

Colorado National Monument

The Colorado Rockies National League baseball club at Coors Field in Denver.

Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park Nationally Protected Areas in Colorado: • Arapaho National Recreation Area[49] • Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site • Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park • Canyons of the Ancients National Monument[50] • Colorado National Monument • Continental Divide National Scenic Trail[51] • Curecanti National Recreation Area • Dinosaur National Monument • Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument • Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve • Hovenweep National Monument • Mesa Verde National Park and UNESCO World Heritage Site • Old Spanish National Historic Trail INVESCO Field at Mile High, home of the Denver Broncos National Football League club and the Denver Outlaws Major League Lacrosse club.

Professional sports teams
Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues. The state is able to support the teams because it contains a large metropolitan area with a higher population than any other city within 550 miles (885 km). Therefore, many of the residents in the surrounding states support the teams in Denver, as shown by the reach of the Broncos’ radio network.[52]

Former professional sports teams

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Club Colorado Rockies Denver Broncos Colorado Avalanche Denver Nuggets Colorado Rapids Colorado Mammoth Denver Outlaws Colorado Chill Colorado Crush Aurora Cavalry Colorado 14ers Colorado Crossover Colorado Springs Sky Sox Colorado Eagles Rocky Mountain Rage Colorado Rapids U23’s Colorado Springs Blizzard Colorado Springs Sabers Denver Diamonds Club Sport Baseball Football Ice hockey Basketball Soccer Lacrosse Lacrosse Basketball Arena football Basketball Basketball Basketball Baseball Ice hockey Ice hockey Soccer Soccer Soccer Soccer League Major League Baseball National Football League National Hockey League National Basketball Association Major League Soccer National Lacrosse League Major League Lacrosse National Women’s Basketball League Arena Football League International Basketball League NBA D-League International Basketball League Minor League Baseball (AAA) Central Hockey League Central Hockey League USL Premier Development League USL Premier Development League Women’s Premier Soccer League Women’s Premier Soccer League Sport League National Hockey League


Colorado Rockies (NHL) (moved to Newark, New Jersey and are Ice now the New Jersey Devils) Hockey Colorado Xplosion (won the Western Conference Championship in inaugural season)

Women’s American Basketball League (1996-1998) Basketball International Hockey League (1945-2001) World Hockey Association/Central Hockey League/Western Hockey League Arena Football League United States Football League American Association/Pacific Coast League • National forests of Colorado • National historic landmarks of Colorado • National parks and • Ski resorts of Colorado • State Capitol of Colorado • State forest of Colorado • State parks of Colorado

Denver Grizzlies (moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, later moved to Ice Cleveland, Ohio and became the Lake Erie Monsters) Hockey Denver Spurs (moved to Ottawa, Ontario and became the Ottawa Civics for the rest of the team’s existence) Denver Dynamite (Inaugural member of the Arena Football League, folded after four seasons) Denver Gold (United States Football League member, 1983-1985) Ice Hockey Arena Football Football

Denver Bears/Denver Zephyrs (moved to New Orleans, Louisi- Baseball ana and became the New Orleans Zephyrs)

State symbols Prominent Coloradans See also

• Colleges and universities in Colorado • Companies of Colorado • Constitution of the State of Colorado


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Hospitals in Colorado • Municipalities of Colorado • Museums in Colorado • Music of Colorado • Railroads in Colorado • Registered historic places of Colorado • Religion in Colorado • Rocky Mountains • Silver mining in Colorado

from Colorado • Uranium mining in Colorado

Pepsi Center in Denver, home of the Denver Nuggets National Basketball Association club, the Colorado Avalanche National Hockey League club, the Colorado Mammoth National Lacrosse League club, and the Colorado Crush Arena Football League club.


Dick’s Sporting Goods Park in Commerce City, home of the Colorado Rapids Major League Soccer football club. • Front Range Urban Corridor • General Assembly of Colorado • Geology of the Rocky Mountains • Ghost towns of Colorado • Gold mining in Colorado • Governor of the State of Colorado • High schools of Colorado monuments of Colorado National wilderness areas of Colorado National wildlife refuges of Colorado Newspapers of Colorado Pike’s Peak Gold Rush Places in Colorado Radio stations in Colorado • State Patrol of Colorado • State prisons of Colorado • Supreme Court of Colorado • Television stations in Colorado • Territory of Colorado • Territory of Jefferson • Trails of Colorado • U.S. congressional delegations



• • • •

^ Writers Style Guide, Colorado State University, accessed January 19, 2009 [2] ^ ci_5447358 Coloradoan or Coloradan [3] ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2009-02-05. [4] ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S. Geological Survey. 2005-04-29. pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. [5] ^ "National Geodetic Survey data sheet KL0637 for Mount Elbert". National Geodetic Survey. ds_mark.prl?PidBox=KL0637. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. [6] Colorado - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [7] "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-12-27. SAFFPopulation?_event=Search&_name=&_state=04000US08&_county=& Retrieved on 2007-12-27. [8] ^ Forty-third United States Congress (1875-03-03). "An Act to Enable the People of Colorado to Form a Constitution and State Government, and for the Admission of the Said State into the Union on an Equal Footing with the Original States" (PDF). cnenable.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. [9] Rectangular States and Kinky Borders [10] U.S. Geological Survey. "Elevations and Distances". elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on 2006-09-08. [11] ^ Doesken, Nolan J.; Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Odilia A.P. Bliss (January 2003). "Climate of Colorado". Colorado Climate


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Center - Department of Atmospheric Science - Colorado State University. climateofcolorado.php. Retrieved on 2009-01-25. [1] Western Regional Climate Center. Last accessed 2006-10-24. Slater, Jane (2008-05-28). "Thursday’s Tornado State’s 4th Costliest Disaster". KMGH. detail.html. "Record Highest Temperatures by State" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. 2004-01-01. maxtemps.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-11. "Record Lowest Temperatures by State" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. 2004-01-01. mintemps.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-11. Gehling, Richard (2006). "The Pike’s Peak Gold Rush" (HTML). Richard Gehling. Heartland/Falls/2000/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. "An Act to provide a temporary Government for the Territory of Colorado" (PDF). Thirty-sixth United States Congress. 1861-02-28. doit/archives/territory.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. Early explorers identified the Gunnison River in Colorado as the headwaters of the Colorado River. The Grand River in Colorado was later identified as the headwaters of the river. Finally in 1916, E.C. LaRue, Chief Hydrologist of the United States Geological Survey, identified the Green River in Wyoming as the proper headwaters of the Colorado River. State of Colorado - Division of Information Technologies. "State Names and Nicknames". symbemb.htm#Name. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. Colorado River Water Conservation District (2003). "Many years ago, the Colorado River was just Grand" (HTML). Summit Daily News. OPINION/312230302. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. President of the United States of America (1876-08-01). "Proclamation of the Admission of Colorado to the Union" (php). The American Presidency Project. index.php?pid=70540. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. Merriam Webster. "Definition of Colorado". Retrieved on 2006-09-26. "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved on 2008-12-04. Language Map Data Center

[26] talking about Colorado in "nada" [27] Map of Latitude: 39.500656 Longitude: -105.203628, by MapQuest [28] CDPHE: COHID Birth Data Request [29] U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations - U.S. Religious Landscape Study - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life [30] state/08_2000.asp [31] [32] [33] gdp_state/gsp_newsrelease.htm [34] Tony Frank (January 1997). "Colorado Land Ownership by County (acres)" (Excel). Colorado Department of Agriculture. documents/TotalCOLandOwnership.xls. Retrieved on 2007-07-15. Colorado Department of Agriculture: Land Ownership [35] Colorado rides on Fat Tire to beer heights. Rocky Mountain News 11/24/2007 Accessed November 29, 2007 [36] Colorado individual income tax return (2005), retrieved September 26, 2006 [37] U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (2005) online copy, retrieved 2006-09-26 [38] 2007%20Giving%20Study%20PublishedFinal_1.pdf [39] Government/StateGiving/CO.pdf [40] "EIA State Energy Profiles: Colorado". 2008-06-12. state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=CO. Retrieved on 2008-06-24. [41] Denver International Airport was the ninth busiest airport on Earth in 2006. [42] Colorado Governor Bill Ritter appointed Michael Bennet to serve the remaining two years of United States Senator Ken Salazar term of office which was left vacant on 2009-01-20, when new United States President Barack Obama appointed the Colorado Senator to serve as his Secretary of the Interior. [43] "Active Colorado Municipalities as of September 18, 2006" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. 2006-09-18. localgovtinfo/municipalities.htm. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. [44] "Census 2000 Places" (text file). Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2000. places2k.txt. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.

[12] [13]



[16] [17]






[23] [24]



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Preceded by Nebraska List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on August 1, 1876 (38th) Succeeded by North Dakota


[45] "Colorado Counties" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. 2007-01-08. counties.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-30. [46] "Annual County Population Estimates and Estimated Components of Change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-20. Retrieved on 2008-09-25. [47] "CBSA-EST2005-alldata: Population Estimates and Estimated Components of Change for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Their Geographic Components: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-08-18. population/www/estimates/metropop/2005/ cbsa-01-fmt.csv. Retrieved on 2007-03-14. [48] "CSA-EST2005-alldata: Population Estimates and Estimated Components of Change for Combined Statistical Areas and Their Geographic Components: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-08-18. www/estimates/metropop/2005/csa_all_2005.csv. Retrieved on 2007-03-14. [49] Managed by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service. [50] Managed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [51] Jointly managed by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service, and the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management. [52] – Official Website Of The Denver Broncos

• The Tie That Binds, Kent Haruf, 1984, hardcover, ISBN 0-03-071979-8, a fictional account of farming in Colorado. • Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado’s Historic Trains and Railway Sites, Claude Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN 0-89658-591-3

External links
State government • State of Colorado government website • Colorado Department of Education • Colorado state symbols and emblems • Colorado official state vacation guide • Energy Profile for Colorado • Colorado Chambers of Commerce • Colorado state government departments and agencies • Colorado Department of Transportation • Colorado highway maps • Colorado Travel Map • List of searchable databases produced by Colorado state agencies hosted by the American Library Association Government Documents Roundtable. Federal government • Energy & Environmental Data for Colorado • USGS Colorado state facts, real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Colorado • United States Census Bureau • Colorado QuickFacts • Colorado - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990 • Colorado economic data • Colorado housing data • Colorado social data • USDA ERS Colorado state facts Other • Colorado travel guide from Wikitravel • Colorado County Evolution • Ask Colorado • Colorado at the Open Directory Project Coordinates: 39°00′N 105°30′W / 39°N 105.5°W / 39; -105.5

Further reading
• Explore Colorado, A Naturalist’s Handbook, The Denver Museum of Natural History and Westcliff Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-56579-124-X for an excellent guide to the ecological regions of Colorado. • The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition, E. Steve Cassells, Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-193-9. • Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7. Retrieved from ""

Categories: Colorado, States of the United States, States and territories established in 1876


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