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In his Posterior Analytics and Metaphysics, Aristotle wrote, "All causes are beginnings...", "... we have scientific knowledge when we know the cause...", and "... to know a thing’s nature is to know the reason why it is..." This formulation set the guidelines for subsequent causal theories by specifying the number, nature, principles, elements, varieties, order of causes as well as the modes of causation. Aristotle’s account of the causes of things is a comprehensive model. Aristotle’s theory enumerates the possible causes which fall into several wide groups, amounting to the ways the question "why" may be answered; namely, by reference to the material worked upon (as by an artisan) or what might be called the substratum; to the essence, i.e., the pattern, the form, or the structure by reference to which the "matter" or "substratum" is to be worked; to the primary moving agent of change or the agent and its action; and to the goal, the plan, the end, or the good that the figurative artisan intended to obtain. As a result, the major kinds of causes come under the following divisions: • The material cause is that "raw material" from which a thing is produced as from its parts, constituents, substratum, or materials. This rubric limits the explanation of cause to the parts (the factors, elements, constituents, ingredients) forming the whole (the system, structure, compound, complex, composite, or combination) (the part-whole causation). • The formal cause tells us what, by analogy to the plans of an artisan, a thing is intended and planned to be. Any thing is thought to be determined by its definition, form (mold), pattern, essence, whole, synthesis, or archetype. This analysis embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the intended whole (macrostructure) is the cause that explains the production of its parts (the whole-part causation). • The efficient cause is not the external entity from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies ’what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed’ and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest.
The Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect. 8th century, Japan Causality denotes a necessary relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the direct consequence of the first. While this informal understanding suffices in everyday use, the philosophical analysis of how best to characterize causality extends over millennia. In the Western philosophical tradition, discussion stretches back at least as far as Aristotle, and the topic remains a staple in contemporary philosophy journals. Though cause and effect are typically related to events, candidates include objects, processes, properties, variables, facts, and states of affairs; which of these make up the causal relata, and how best to characterize the relationship between them, remains under discussion. According to Sowa (2000), up until the twentieth century, three assumptions described by Max Born in 1949 were dominant in the definition of causality: 1. "Causality postulates that there are laws by which the occurrence of an entity B of a certain class depends on the occurrence of an entity A of another class, where the word entity means any physical object, phenomenon, situation, or event. A is called the cause, B the effect. 2. "Antecedence postulates that the cause must be prior to, or at least simultaneous with, the effect. 3. "Contiguity postulates that cause and effect must be in spatial contact or connected by a chain of intermediate things in contact." (Born, 1949, as cited in Sowa, 2000) However, according to Sowa (2000), "relativity and quantum mechanics have forced physicists to abandon these assumptions as exact statements of what happens at the most fundamental levels, but they remain valid at the level of human experience."
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Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this analysis covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent, agency, particular causal events, or the relevant causal states of affairs. • The final cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists, or is done - including both purposeful and instrumental actions. The final cause, or telos, is the purpose, or end, that something is supposed to serve; or it is that from which, and that to which, the change is. This analysis also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation, or motives; rational, irrational, ethical - all that gives purpose to behavior. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, reciprocally causing each other, as hard work causes fitness, and vice versa - although not in the same way or by means of the same function: the one is as the beginning of change, the other is as its goal. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality - as a relation of mutual dependence, action, or influence of cause and effect.) Also; Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects - as its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. In speaking thus he formulated what currently is ordinarily termed a "causal factor," e.g., atmospheric pressure as it affects chemical or physical reactions. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. The same language refers to the effects of causes; so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, and operating causes to actual effects. It is also essential that ontological causality does not suggest the temporal relation of before and after - between the cause and the effect; that spontaneity (in nature) and chance (in the sphere of moral actions) are among the causes of effects belonging to the efficient causation, and that no incidental, spontaneous, or chance cause can be prior to a proper, real, or underlying cause per se. All investigations of causality coming later in history will consist in imposing a favorite hierarchy on the order (priority) of causes; such as "final > efficient > material > formal" (Aquinas), or in restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or, to the efficient causality (deterministic or chance), or just to regular sequences and correlations of natural phenomena (the natural sciences describing how things happen rather than asking why they happen)..
existentialism are but a few of the manifestations of this journey. The deterministic world-view is one in which the universe is no more than a chain of events following one after another according to the law of cause and effect. To hold this worldview, as an incompatibilist, there is no such thing as "free will". However, compatibilists argue that determinism is compatible with, or even necessary for, free will. Existentialists have suggested that people have the courage to accept that while no meaning has been designed in the universe, we each can provide a meaning for ourselves. Though philosophers have pointed out the difficulties in establishing theories of the validity of causal relations, there is yet the plausible example of causation afforded daily which is our own ability to be the cause of events. This concept of causation does not prevent seeing ourselves as moral agents.
See also: Karma Theories of causality in Indian philosophy focus mainly on the relationship between cause and effect. The various philosophical schools (darsanas) provide different theories. The doctrine of satkaryavada affirms that the effect inheres in the cause in some way. The effect is thus either a real or apparent modification of the cause. The doctrine of asatkaryavada affirms that the effect does not inhere in the cause, but is a new arising. The Buddha, and subsequent Buddhist thinkers such as Nagarjuna, rejected both, instead proposing a middle way. See Nyaya for some details of the theory of causation in the Nyaya school.
Hermeneutics of causality in Indian Philosophy: 1. Introduction
Generally speaking, causality can be viewed as the relation between cause and effect, or the act of bringing about an effect, which may be an event, a state, or an object (eg., a statue). The concept of causation has been recognized as one of the fundamental philosophical aspect. In the Indian tradition, the Upanisads and some other texts (namely Brahma Sūtras, Yoga Vaśista etc.) mention causality. However, the notion of causality is limited to explanations of the creation of the universe in these texts. The exclusive study of the idea of causality is not the subject matter in these scriptures. The
Causality, determinism, and existentialism
Causality has taken many journeys in the minds of human beings for over 3000 years. Determinism and
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commentaries on these texts have the following common themes regarding causation: “Cause is the effect concealed, effect is the cause revealed” which is also expressed as “Cause is the effect unmanifested, effect is the cause manifested.” Since Indian Philosophy has many schools within its system, there are equally varied theories regarding causation. However, we would limit ourselves to a brief study of some of the schools and look at the hermeneutical significance which they offer us.
220.127.116.11. Brahma parināmavāda
This theory proposes that Brahma is the cause of the universe. In other words, the world is real and is an evolute of Brahman. This view is held by Rāmānuja’s Viśistādvaita Vedānta school.
According to the vivartavādins, “when a cause produces an effect, it undergoes no real changes either in its substance or in its form. The changes of form that we observe are only apparent changes.” This doctrine is put forward by the Kevala-Advaita Vedānta school of Śa?kara. Though vivartavāda is a type of satkāryavāda, it differs from parināmavāda which is another type of satkāryavāda.
2. Various doctrines on causation
As already mentioned above, there are many schools in the Indian philosophical tradition, and hence there are many theories put forward by each school based on their philosophical presuppositions with regard to the theory of causation. Some of the prominent theories are as follows: Satkāryavāda, Asatkāryavāda, Pratītya-samutpāda etc.
Literally, pratītya-samutpāda implies, ‘because of that occurring, this occurs’. According to this view, reality is an endless series of ‘causing-effecting’. However, this theory rejects any first cause. This view is held by the Buddhists.
2.1. Ārambhavāda or Asatkāryavāda
According to this theory, “effect does not pre-exist in the cause but comes into existence as a consequence of the causal process.” This position is held by the NyāyaVaiśesika school. This theory is also know as ārambhavāda since the effect that results is a new creation.
“Satkāryavāda is the doctrine that the effect is identical with or pre-exists in the material cause.” Many schools of Indian Philosophy uphold this view. There are two different versions of satkāryavāda. They are: parināmavāda and vivartavāda.
3. Hermeneutical significance of causal relationship in different schools of Indian philosophy
3.1. Causation in Sā?khya school The theory of causation associated with the Sā?khya school is known as satkāryavāda or parināmavāda. Sā?khya school advocates that all manifestations take place from prakrti. Accordingly, in causation, we move from the simpler wholes to the complex wholes. They maintain that “the substance at the background remains unchanged; all modifications are only in the form. Prakrti is the material cause and motion is inherent in it. For example, a cloth is not different from its threads or a pot is not different from the clay it is made of.” Hence, the Sā?khya school emphasizes that the cause and effect are identical. Now let us look at some of the arguments that the Sāmkhya school gives to prove the pre-existence of the effect in the cause: 1) If the effect is non-existent in the cause before its production, none can bring it into existence out of the cause (asadakaranāt); blue cannot be turned into yellow even by a thousand artists… 2) A particular effect can be produced out of a particular material cause (upādānagrahanāt). There is an invariable relation between a material cause and its effect. E.g., a jar can be produced out of clay only, i.e., particular effects can be produced from particular causes only… 3) If an
According to parināmavāda, “although the effect pre-exists in the cause, the cause undergoes a real transformation in bringing about the effect.” This theory is further divided into two: Prakrti parināmavāda and Brahma parināmavāda, depending on what is the ultimate cause of the objects in the Universe.
18.104.22.168. Prakrti parināmavāda
This theory says that prakrti is the ultimate cause out of which the world of objects evolves. This view is held by the Sā?khya school of Indian philosophy. We will discuss it elaborately in the section on hermeneutical significance of each school.
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effect which is unrelated to a cause can be produced from that cause, it would mean that every effect would arise from every cause (sarvasambhavābhāvāt)… 4) Only an efficient effect can produce that for which it is potent. Production is only an actualization of the potential (śaktāsya śakyakaranāt)… 5) The effect pre-exists in the cause, since it is identical in nature with its cause (kāranabhavāt). The effect is the essence of its material cause and as such identical with it… 3.2. Causation in Nyāya-Vaiśesika school The non-pre-existent-effect theory (asatkāryavāda) held by the Nyāya-Vaiśesika schools asserts that the effect does not exist in the material cause. Cause and effect are non-identical. They are two different substances. When the cause ceases to be what it is, then only the effect arises. An effect is the “counter-entity of its own prior non-existence (prāgabhāvapratiyogi). It is the negation of its own prior negation. It comes into being and destroys its prior non-existence.” Dr. J. Thachil quotes Gangeśa’s Tattvacintāmani to define a cause as “an unconditional or necessary, invariable antecedent of an effect.” He further quotes Gangeśa regarding the features of cause as follows: “The first essential feature of a cause is its antecedence – the fact that it should precede the effect. The second is its invariability – it must invariably precede the effect. The third is its unconditionality or necessity – it must unconditionally precede the effect.” Nyāya points out five kinds of accidental antecedents which are not real causes. 1) The qualities of a cause are mere accidental antecedents. E.g., the potter’s staff is an unconditional antecedent, but the colour of the staff is only an accidental antecedent and hence cannot be regarded as a cause… 2) The cause of a cause or a remote cause is not unconditional. The father of the potter, has nothing to do with the production of the pot… 3) The co-effects of a cause are themselves not causally related. The sound produced by the potter’s staff is not the cause of the pot, though it may invariably precede the pot… 4) Eternal substances like space, ether are not unconditional antecedents… 5) Unnecessary things like the potter’s ass may be invariably present when the potter is making the pot, yet it cannot be regarded as the cause of the pot… The Nyāya-Vaiśesika philosophers held that the cause is essential to produce the effect, though there is no transfer of anything in the process. For example, the atoms of clay, stick, wheel and water are such that when combined in certain relationships a pot is produced. A new being (ārambha) is produced with the destruction of the cause. Therefore, their theory is also called as ārambhavāda, i.e., “the coming into being of that which did not exist before, the creation of a novelty.” 3.3. Causation in Vedānta schools In the following section, an attempt is made to see the perspectives of some of the schools of Vedānta on causation. These schools are the Kevala-Advaita of Śa?kara, Viśistādvaita Vedānta of
Rāmānuja, Dvaitavāda of Madhva and Śuddhādvaita of Vallabha. Let us see briefly what theories they propose, how they vary from each other, what are their presuppositions and what are the hermeneutical significances they derive from their theories. 3.3.1. Causation in Kevala-Advaita Vedānta of Śa?kara The theory of causation is known as vivartavāda in the Advaitic philosophy. When understood properly, this theory is “at once an acceptance and a rejection of causation. This doctrine is a logical consequence of Advaitic doctrine of the two standpoints of reality viz., pāramārthika and vyāvahārika.” Thus, the hermeneutical significance of their theory would be that when the world viewed from the vyāvahārika standpoint, it is nothing but the manifestation of the Absolute, i.e., Brahman. But when the same reality viewed from the pāramārthika standpoint, it is not identical with Brahman nor is it his manifestation. Let us elaborate the same concept a little further: From the pāramārthika standpoint, the reality being non-dual and immutable, the question of causation does not come up. But from the vyāvahārika standpoint one can legitimately talk of the causal relation operating in this world. The doctrine of vivarta, therefore, implies that there appears to be a causal relation whereas in fact there is no duality between cause and effect. The only reality, according to Advaita Vedānta is Brahman, which is a pure consciousness. This Brahman is the ultimate cause of the whole universe which is an effect. 3.3.2. Causation in Viśistādvaita Vedānta of Rāmānuja The notion of inseparability (aprthak-siddhi) is very central in the Viśistādvaita philosophy. According to it, Brahman (God), soul (cit) and matter (acit) are inseparable from each other. Thus the hermeneutical significance that we can derive from their theory is that the world around us is caused by the transformation of Brahman. In other words, “Viśistādvaita accepts the notion of causation as transformation or change (parināma). Nothing comes out of nothing. In the cause the effect is latent (satkārya). Causation consists in making patent what is latent.” The Viśistādvaita philosophy is similar to the parināmavāda or satkāryavāda of the Sā?khya school. Rāmānuja considers the reality of both cause and effect not only empirically but also ontologically. He vehemently criticizes Śa?kara’s vivartavāda and upholds parināmavāda. That is to say, “if we accept the identity or non-difference of cause and effect on the basis of the theory of effect’s unreality, we are not able to prove what we wish to prove; for the true and the false cannot possibly one. If these two were one, it would follow that either Brahman is false or that the world is real.” The response by the kevala-advaita schools to this allegation is not within the scope of this paper. It suffices to say that the Viśistādvaita school maintains the identity as well as the reality of cause and effect. However, though the Sā?khya and the Viśistādvaita schools consider the
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satkārya theory of causation, there is a slight difference in their approach. We may say that “the Sā?khya school is never prepared to accept that there is anything in the effect which is not existent potentially already. But Viśistādvaita admits that though as substance, the effect already exists in its cause, as form, it does not.” 3.3.3. Causation in Dvaitavāda of Madhva The concept of difference (bheda) is foundational to Madhva’s Vedānta. Therefore, it is known as Dvaita (dualism). According to Dvaitavāda, “The effect produced is regarded as neither existent only, nor non-existent only, before its production (and presumably after its destruction) but both existent and non-existent (sat-asat-kāryavāda) in the cause.” Thus, the Dvaitic view of causation is a mixture of the Advaita, Nyāya-Vaiśesika and the Sā?khya-Yoga view. In this way, they try to bring out the hermeneutical significance for the theory of causation based on their fundamental presupposition of dualism or difference. Let us now illustrate their view. For them, “The relation between the effect and the material cause may be explained on the basis of the conception of bhedābheda according to which a jar is both different and identical with the clay. In its aspect as a jar it is a purely novel creation and is different from its cause, the clay, but in its aspect as a form of clay it is identical with the cause.” There is a basic difference between the Advaita Vedānta and the Dvaita Vedānta with regard to Brahman as the cause of the universe. For the Advaita Vedāntins, Brahman is both the material cause (upādāna-kārana) and the instrumental cause (apādāna-kārana), whereas, for the Dvaita Vedāntins, Brahman is the instrumental cause and prakrti is the material cause. 3.3.4. Causation in Śuddhādvaita of Vallabha Vallabha’s theory of causation is known as avikrtaparināmavāda. It means, immutable transformation. It is a form of satkāryavāda. In this theory, “the cause remains intact and unchanged (avikrta), though it is modified into the effect (parināma).” The identity of the cause and effect, and the unchangability of Brahman is further evident when the proponents of Śuddhādvaita maintain that “the effect is real and non-different from its cause. Brahman is the inherent as well as the efficient cause of the world, but he does not undergo any change. God is one, He wills, to become many to sport with them. God willingly becomes the world without undergoing any modification, just as the gold is modified into various ornaments without changing its nature.” All causal relations are spiritual for them. Hence there is no physical causation. What looks as physical causation is nothing but direct divine causation. God possesses infinite super powers in him. He makes the inherent causal potencies (śakti) in the causes to express themselves in their effects. In other words, “the effect is a particular manifestation of the same ‘One’ (Brahma).” According to this school, “Production is manifestation or evolution (avirbhāva) of the
causal powers. God causes the causal potencies in the effects to conceal themselves in their causes. Destruction is concealment or involution (tirobhāva) of the causal potencies. In involution the effect exists in the cause in a causal state. In evolution the effect exists in itself in an effected state.” They give the example of a jar which is produced out of clay. Here, clay exists in the form of a jar. When it is destroyed into particles of earth, it exists in earth in a causal state. This whole process can be summed up as follows: “In production a cause is manifested as an effect. In destruction an effect is absorbed in its cause.” Thus, there is no transformation in the causal process when the cause gets modified into its effects. Similarly, when Brahman causes the universe to come into its existence, he undergoes no change, though the universe is his own modification. 3.4. Causation in Buddhism According to Buddhism, the world is completely causal. Everything depends upon causes. There is no stoppage in the effecting of karma. But each cause is dependent upon other causes. “There is no sui generis cause, no permanent cause, no first cause. ‘To exist’ in Buddhism means to exercise the capacity to be ‘effect’ and to be ‘cause’. To be real is to participate in the chain of causing-effecting. Existence is change itself.” “Reality as the total process might be identified as coming-intobeing-and-passing-into-non-being, except that no thing comes into being and no thing passes into non-being... To account for the [effect’s] coming-into-being, the Buddhists offered the theory of dependent origination (pratītya-samutpāda), which means literally ‘because of that occurring, this occurs.’” 3.4.1. Early Buddhism In the writings of early Buddhism, causation is viewed as objective and not subjective. Causation is necessary and invariable. When certain objective conditions are met, then certain specific objective events are brought about. Their causal formula is that ‘there is a set of conditions for every set of effects.’ This shows that there is no eternal unchanging substance as the underlying unity. They hold that the cause disappears as soon as the effect comes into being and, therefore, there can be no underlying unity running through the process. Everything in this world is momentary. The above doctrine of causation is implied by the doctrine of momentariness which upholds that change is the only reality in this world. 3.4.2. Later Buddhism Now let us look into the views on causality of the two schools of later Buddhism, viz., Mādhyamika school and Yogācāra school. The theory of causation plays a key role in these schools. The main proponents are Nāgārjuna, Chandrakīrti, Dignāga and Dharmakīrti. 22.214.171.124. Mādhyamika school For the Mādhyamika school, developed by Nāgārjuna, [T]here is not a single thing in the world which is unconditionally, absolutely real. Everything is related to, contingent upon, conditioned by something else. The discussion of causality or pratītya-samutpāda in Mādhyamika Śastra is only meant to show that not a single thing in the world exists
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in its own right, nothing has an independent reality of its own. Everything is conditioned by something (pratītya-samutpanna)… The world is not a conglomeration of things. It is simply a process, and things are simply events. A thing, by itself is ‘nothing’ at all. This is what is meant by the Śūnyatā or emptiness. Nāgārjuna, echoing the Buddha of the early texts, rejects four types of causal theories. The causal theories which he rejects are as follows: (i) self-causation, (ii) external causation, (iii) both ‘self and external causation, and (iv) non-causation. First, ‘self-causation’ includes the Sā?khya identity theory which Nāgārjuna refutes as absurd since it supposes the production of what already exists. Second, ‘external causation’ includes the Nyāya non-identity theory which he opposes because the cause cannot be totally extraneous to its effect, or anything might cause anything. The third is the Jaina theory which he criticizes as untenable, since it just combines the first two options. The fourth is the Cārvāka theory which Nāgārjuna rejects since it implies randomness and the inefficacy of action. Thus, by rejecting these prominent theories of causation of the above-mentioned schools, Nāgārjuna tries to establish causality from the perspective of Śūnyatā or emptiness, that is, a thing in itself is nothing at all; nothing has an independent reality of its own. 126.96.36.199. Yogācāra school As we have seen above, the Mādhyamika school considered all experience as relative. The later school of Yogācāra changes the interpretation of the relation of cause and effect. “It denies the external reality of objects and takes them to be the modification of consciousness. It ascribes ultimate reality to only one entity viz, consciousness. External objects, as entities are false appearances.” 3.5. Causation in Jainism The Jainas consider that everything is interdependent. However, they insist that it is still possible to distinguish the more real from the less real. Jaina non-absolutism (anekāntavadā) is the theory that everything in the world has various aspects which permit everything to be seen from various viewpoints. Applying this principle to causation, it means that cause and effect are partly identical and partly non-identical. This can be explained further as follows: A cause has a power (śakti) to produce an effect and from this viewpoint the effect is pre-existent in the cause. But the effect is a new substance with regard to its form and from this viewpoint the effect is not preexistent in its cause. This explains both why a particular effect can only be produced from a particular cause and why an extra effort is necessary to bring about that effect. Thus a pot is pre-existent in the clay in so far as its matter is concerned, but not in so far as its shape is concerned. The potter’s effort is required to shape the clay into a pot. 4. Conclusion As we have discussed above, causality, causation or cause and effect relationship is an important concept in Indian Philosophy. It plays a vital role in the metaphysics of the different schools of Indian Philosophy. It is even interlinked with other branches
such as epistemology, ethics etc of a system. In our study, we have tried to bring in the hermeneutical significance of the concept of causality in some of the schools of Indian Philosophy, viz., Sā?khya, Nyāya-Vaiśesika, some of the Vedānta, Buddhism and Jainism schools. Through our study, what we have come to realize is that each of these schools has its own presuppositions to support its theory of causation. And rightly so, since they cannot presuppose one concept and argue from a different perspective altogether. In this way, their theories are compatible with their thought-pattern. However, when their opponents bring out the defects or discrepancies in their theories, they try to refute their opponents. Thus, they vindicate or justify their position. Whether this justification is satisfactory to the opponents is a different issue. Having said that, we would like to conclude that this way of ‘dialectic hermeneutizing,’ that is, argumentation and counter-argumentation in a hermeneutical manner, would eventually help Indian Philosophy from stagnation. We need to discover newer nuances in Indian Philosophy for its growth. In this regard, hermeneutics will go a long way as a useful tool.
Necessary and sufficient causes
Causes are often distinguished into two types: Necessary and sufficient.  Necessary causes: If x is a necessary cause of y, then the presence of y necessarily implies the presence of x. The presence of x, however, does not imply that y will occur. Sufficient causes: If x is a sufficient cause of y, then the presence of x necessarily implies the presence of y. However, another cause z may alternatively cause y. Thus the presence of y does not imply the presence of x. J. L. Mackie argues that usual talk of "cause," in fact refers to INUS conditions (insufficient and non-redundant parts of unnecessary but sufficient causes). For example, a short circuit as a cause for a house burning down. Consider the collection of events: the short circuit, the proximity of flammable material, and the absence of firefighters. Together these are unnecessary but sufficient to the house’s destruction (since many other collections of events certainly could have destroyed the house). Within this collection, the short circuit is an insufficient but non-redundant part (since the short circuit by itself would not have caused the fire, but the fire would not have happened without it, everything else being equal). So, the short circuit is an INUS cause of the house burning down.
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A full grasp of the concept of conditionals is important to understanding the literature on causality. A crucial stumbling block is that conditionals in everyday English are usually loosely used to describe a general situation. For example, "If I drop my coffee, then my shoe gets wet" relates an infinite number of possible events. It is shorthand for "For any fact that would count as ’dropping my coffee’, some fact that counts as ’my shoe gets wet’ will be true". This general statement will be strictly false if there is any circumstance where I drop my coffee and my shoe doesn’t get wet. However, an "If..., then..." statement in logic typically relates two specific events or facts -- a specific coffee-dropping did or did not occur, and a specific shoe-wetting did or did not follow. Thus, with explicit events in mind, if I drop my coffee and wet my shoe, then it is true that "If I dropped my coffee, then I wet my shoe", regardless of the fact that yesterday I dropped a coffee in the trash for the opposite effect --the conditional relates to specific facts. More counterintuitively, if I didn’t drop my coffee at all, then it is also true that "If I drop my coffee then I wet my shoe", or "Dropping my coffee implies I wet my shoe", regardless of whether I wet my shoe or not by any means. This usage would not be counterintuitive if it were not for the everyday usage. Briefly, "If X then Y" is equivalent to the first-order logic statement "A implies B" or "not A-and-not-B", where A and B are predicates, but the more familiar usage of an "if A then B" statement would need to be written symbolically using a higher order logic using quantifiers ("for all" and "there exists").
Causality contrasted with conditionals
Conditional statements are not statements of causality. An important distinction is that statements of causality require the antecedent to precede the consequent in time, whereas conditional statements do not require this temporal order. Confusion commonly arises since many different statements in English may be presented using "If ..., then ..." form (and, arguably, because this form is far more commonly used to make a statement of causality). The two types of statements are distinct, however. For example, all of the following statements are true when interpreting "If ..., then ..." as the material conditional: 1. If George Bush is president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is in Europe. 2. If George Washington is president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is in Europe. 3. If George Washington is president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is not in Europe. The first is true since both the antecedent and the consequent are true. The second is true because the antecedent is false and the consequent is true. The third is true because both the antecedent and the consequent are false. These statements are trivial examples. Of course, although none of these statements expresses a causal connection between the antecedent and consequent, they are nonetheless all true because no statement has the combination of a true antecedent and false consequent. Logic requires only that truth not be deceptive. The ordinary indicative conditional has somewhat more structure than the material conditional. For instance, although the first is the closest, none of the preceding three statements seems true as an ordinary indicative reading. But the sentence • If Shakespeare of Stratford-on-Avon did not write Macbeth, then someone else did. intuitively seems to be true, even though there is no straightforward causal relation in this hypothetical situation between Shakespeare’s not writing Macbeth and someone else’s actually writing it. Another sort of conditional, the counterfactual conditional, has a stronger connection with causality, yet even counterfactual statements are not all examples of causality. Consider the following two statements: 1. If A were a triangle, then A would have three sides. 2. If switch S were thrown, then bulb B would light. In the first case, it would not be correct to say that A’s being a triangle caused it to have three sides, since the relationship between triangularity and three-sidedness is that of definition. The property of having three sides actually determines A’s state as a triangle. Nonetheless, even when interpreted counterfactually, the first statement is true.
The philosopher David Lewis notably suggested that all statements about causality can be understood as counterfactual statements. So, for instance, the statement that John’s smoking caused his premature death is equivalent to saying that had John not smoked he would not have prematurely died. (In addition, it need also be true that John did smoke and did prematurely die, although this requirement is not unique to Lewis’ theory.) Translating causal into counterfactual statements would only be beneficial if the latter were less problematic than the former. This is indeed the case, as is demonstrated by the structural account of counterfactual conditionals devised by the computer scientist Judea Pearl (2000). This account provides clear semantics and effective algorithms for computing counterfactuals which, in contrast to Lewis’ closest world semantics does not rely on the ambiguous notion of similarity among worlds. For instance, one can compute unambiguously the probability that John would be alive had he not smoked given that, in reality, John did smoke and did
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die. The quest for a counterfactual interpretation of causal statements is therefore justified. One problem Lewis’ theory confronts is causal preemption. Suppose that John did smoke and did in fact die as a result of that smoking. However, there was a murderer who was bent on killing John, and would have killed him a second later had he not first died from smoking. Here we still want to say that smoking caused John’s death. This presents a problem for Lewis’ theory since, had John not smoked, he still would have died prematurely. Lewis himself discusses this example, and it has received substantial discussion (cf.). A structural solution to this problem has been given in [Halpern and Pearl, 2005].
arrows emanating from X. This criterion, called "backdoor", provides a mathematical definition of "confounding" and helps researchers identify accessible sets of variables worthy of measurement.
While derivations in Causal Calculus rely on the structure of the causal graph, parts of the causal structure can, under certain assumptions, be learned from statistical data. The basic idea goes back to a recovery algorithm developed by Rebane and Pearl (1987) and rests on the distinction between the three possible types of causal substructures allowed in a directed acyclic graph (DAG): 1. 2. 3. Type 1 and type 2 represent the same statistical dependencies (i.e., X and Z are independent given Y) and are, therefore, indistinguishable. Type 3, however, can be uniquely identified, since X and Z are marginally independent and all other pairs are dependent. Thus, while the skeletons (the graphs stripped of arrows) of these three triplets are identical, the directionality of the arrows is partially identifiable. The same distinction applies when X and Z have common ancestors, except that one must first condition on those ancestors. Algorithms have been developed to systematically determine the skeleton of the underlying graph and, then, orient all arrows whose directionality is dictated by the conditional independencies observed   . Alternative methods of structure learning search through the many possible causal structures among the variables, and remove ones which are strongly incompatible with the observed correlations. In general this leaves a set of possible causal relations, which should then be tested by designing appropriate experiments. If experimental data is already available, the algorithms can take advantage of that as well. In contrast with Bayesian Networks, path analysis and its generalization, structural equation modeling, serve better to estimate a known causal effect or test a causal model than to generate causal hypotheses. For nonexperimental data, causal direction can be hinted if information about time is available. This is because (according to many, though not all, theories) causes must precede their effects temporally. This can be set up by simple linear regression models, for instance, with an analysis of covariance in which baseline and follow up values are known for a theorized cause and effect. The addition of time as a variable, though not proving causality, is a big help in supporting a pre-existing theory of causal direction. For instance, our degree of confidence in the direction and nature of causality is much greater when supported by data from a
Interpreting causation as a deterministic relation means that if A causes B, then A must always be followed by B. In this sense, war does not cause deaths, nor does smoking cause cancer. As a result, many turn to a notion of probabilistic causation. Informally, A probabilistically causes B if A’s occurrence increases the probability of B. This is sometimes interpreted to reflect imperfect knowledge of a deterministic system but other times interpreted to mean that the causal system under study has an inherently chancy nature.
When experiments are infeasible or illegal, the derivation of cause effect relationship from observational studies must rest on some qualitative theoretical assumptions, for example, that symptoms do not cause diseases, usually expressed in the form of missing arrows in causal graphs such as Bayesian Networks or path diagrams. The mathematical theory underlying these derivations relies on the distinction between conditional probabilities, as in P(cancer | smoking), and interventional probabilities, as in P(cancer | do(smoking)). The former reads: "the probability of finding cancer in a person known to smoke" while the latter reads: "the probability of finding cancer in a person forced to smoke". The former is a statistical notion that can be estimated directly in observational studies, while the latter is a causal notion (also called "causal effect") which is what we estimate in a controlled randomized experiment. The theory of "causal calculus" permits one to infer interventional probabilities from conditional probabilities in causal Bayesian Networks with unmeasured variables. One very practical result of this theory is the characterization of confounding variables, namely, a sufficient set of variables that, if adjusted for, would yield the correct causal effect between variables of interest. It can be shown that a sufficient set for estimating the causal effect of X on Y is any set of non-descendants of X that d-separate X from Y after removing all
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longitudinal study than by data from a cross-sectional study.
distinguish between a process and a pseudo-process. As an example, a ball moving through the air (a process) is contrasted with the motion of a shadow (a pseudo-process). The former is causal in nature while the latter is not. Salmon (1984) claims that causal processes can be identified by their ability to transmit an alteration over space and time. An alteration of the ball (a mark by a pen, perhaps) is carried with it as the ball goes through the air. On the other hand an alteration of the shadow (insofar as it is possible) will not be transmitted by the shadow as it moves along. These theorists claim that the important concept for understanding causality is not causal relationships or causal interactions, but rather identifying causal processes. The former notions can then be defined in terms of causal processes.
The Nobel Prize holder Herbert Simon and Philosopher Nicholas Rescher claim that the asymmetry of the causal relation is unrelated to the asymmetry of any mode of implication that contraposes. Rather, a causal relation is not a relation between values of variables, but a function of one variable (the cause) on to another (the effect). So, given a system of equations, and a set of variables appearing in these equations, we can introduce an asymmetric relation among individual equations and variables that corresponds perfectly to our commonsense notion of a causal ordering. The system of equations must have certain properties, most importantly, if some values are chosen arbitrarily, the remaining values will be determined uniquely through a path of serial discovery that is perfectly causal. They postulate the inherent serialization of such a system of equations may correctly capture causation in all empirical fields, including physics and economics.
Using the scientific method, scientists set up experiments to determine causality in the physical world. In addition, many scientists in a variety of fields disagree that experiments are necessary to determine causality. For example, the link between smoking and lung cancer is considered proven by health agencies of the United States government, but experimental methods (for example, randomized controlled trials) were not used to establish that link. This view has been controversial. In addition, many philosophers are beginning to turn to more relativized notions of causality. Rather than providing a theory of causality in toto, they opt to provide a theory of causality in biology or causality in physics.
Some theorists have equated causality with manipulability. Under these theories, x causes y just in case one can change x in order to change y. This coincides with commonsense notions of causations, since often we ask causal questions in order to change some feature of the world. For instance, we are interested in knowing the causes of crime so that we might find ways of reducing it. These theories have been criticized on two primary grounds. First, theorists complain that these accounts are circular. Attempting to reduce causal claims to manipulation requires that manipulation is more basic than causal interaction. But describing manipulations in noncausal terms has provided a substantial difficulty. The second criticism centers around concerns of anthropocentrism. It seems to many people that causality is some existing relationship in the world that we can harness for our desires. If causality is identified with our manipulation, then this intuition is lost. In this sense, it makes humans overly central to interactions in the world. Some attempts to save manipulability theories are recent accounts that don’t claim to reduce causality to manipulation. These accounts use manipulation as a sign or feature in causation without claiming that manipulation is more fundamental than causation.
Physicists conclude that certain elemental forces: gravity, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism are said to be the four fundamental forces which are the causes of all other events in the universe. The notion of causality that appears in many different physical theories is hard to interpret in ordinary language. One problem is typified by the moon’s gravity. It isn’t accurate to say, "the moon exerts a gravitic pull and then the tides rise." In Newtonian mechanics gravity, rather, is a law expressing a constant observable relationship among masses, and the movement of the tides is an example of that relationship. There are no discrete events or "pulls" that can be said to precede the rising of tides. Interpreting gravity causally is even more complicated in general relativity. Another important implication of Causality in physics is its intimate connection to the Second Law of Thermodynamics (see the fluctuation theorem). Quantum mechanics is yet another branch of
Some theorists are interested in distinguishing between causal processes and non-causal processes (Russell 1948; Salmon 1984). These theorists often want to
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physics in which the nature of causality is somewhat unclear. The treatment of the concept of causality within the Second Law of Thermodynamics yields a loss in the translation. The statistical basis of the maintenance of the exchange of entropy confines the subject to an extent such that the observer loses perspective. The 2nd Law states that "in an isolated system, entropy cannot decrease". This is a corollary of the concept that an effect cannot be greater than the cause.
Plausibility refers to the scientific credibility of the relationship. In the case of smoking, cigarette smoke is known to contain many established toxins, which makes it a plausible cause of cancer. Coherence is the idea that the possibility of the causal relationship should not conflict with what is known about the natural history and biology of the disease. Experimental evidence may be relevant. For example, if it is suspected that dust is causing the disease then an experiment in which dust filters are fitted would be appropriate and, if successful, would bolster the theory that dust was a causal factor in the incidence of the disease. Analogy is where we reason from similar phenomena, causes and diseases to the disease at hand.
A causal system is a system with output and internal states that depends only on the current and previous input values. A system that has some dependence on input values from the future (in addition to possible past or current input values) is termed an acausal system, and a system that depends solely on future input values is an anticausal system. Acausal filters, for example, can only exist as digital filters, because these filters can extract future values from a memory buffer or a file.
The above theories are attempts to define a reflectively stable notion of causality. This process uses our standard causal intuitions to develop a theory that we would find satisfactory in identifying causes. Another avenue of research is to empirically investigate how people (and non-human animals) learn and reason about causal relations in the world. This approach is taken by work in psychology. It also is possible to tackle causalities in surveys with a technique of elaboration. Given a relationship between two variables, what can be learned by introducing a third variable into the analysis (Rosenberg, 1968, xiii)? So elaboration is a device of the analysis that results in different kinds of relationships between variables e.g. suppression, extraneous, and distorter relations. Attribution Attribution theory is the theory concerning how people explain individual occurrences of causation. Attribution can be external (assigning causality to an outside agent or force - claiming that some outside thing motivated the event) or internal (assigning causality to factors within the person taking personal responsibility or accountability for one’s actions and claiming that the person was directly responsible for the event). Taking causation one step further, the type of attribution a person provides influences their future behavior. The intention behind the cause or the effect can be covered by the subject of action (philosophy). See also accident; blame; intent; and responsibility. Causal powers Whereas David Hume argued that causes are inferred from non-causal observations, Immanuel Kant claimed that people have innate assumptions about causes. Within psychology, Patricia Cheng (1997) attempted to reconcile the Humean and Kantian views. According to her power PC theory, people filter observations of events through a basic
Biology and medicine
Austin Bradford Hill built upon the work of Hume and Popper and suggested in his paper "The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" that the following aspects of an association be considered in attempting to distinguish causal from noncausal associations in the epidemiological situation: 1) strength, 2) consistency, 3) specificity, 4) temporality, 5) biological gradient, 6) plausibility, 7) coherence, 8) experimental evidence, and 9) analogy.
Strength refers to the numerical strength of the correlation, expressed as relative risk or odds ratios. Strong correlation is much more convincing that a causal effect is at work. Consistency refers to phenomena that have been observed in many places at many times by many different observers in different circumstances. Specificity is where the effect is limited to certain workers in certain specific situations and where there is no other association between the work and other modes of dying. Temporality is to do with the direction of causality. Which is the cart and which is the horse? This is particularly relevant where slowly progressing disease is concerned. Does the patient’s diet cause the disease or does the disease alter the patient’s diet? Biological gradient, otherwise known as a dose-response relationship, when more of the alleged cause is associated with more of the response (or disease). For example, not only do smokers have a higher prevalence of lung cancer than non-smokers, but also heavy smokers have a higher prevalence than light smokers.
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belief that causes have the power to generate (or prevent) their effects, thereby inferring specific cause-effect relations. The theory assumes probabilistic causation. Pearl (2000) has shown that Cheng’s causal power can be given a counterfactual interpretation, (i.e., the probability that, absent x and y, y would be true if x were true) and is computable therefore using structural models. Within a Bayesian framework, the power PC theory can be interpreted as a noisy-OR function used to compute likelihoods (Griffiths & Tenenbaum, 2005) Causation and salience Our view of causation depends on what we consider to be the relevant events. Another way to view the statement, "Lightning causes thunder" is to see both lightning and thunder as two perceptions of the same event, viz., an electric discharge that we perceive first visually and then aurally. Naming and causality While the names we give objects often refer to their appearance, they can also refer to an object’s causal powers - what that object can do, the effects it has on other objects or people. David Sobel and Alison Gopnik from the Psychology Department of UC Berkeley designed a device known as the blicket detector which suggests that "when causal property and perceptual features are equally evident, children are equally as likely to use causal powers as they are to use perceptual properties when naming objects". According to Jacques Lacan (seminar X, "L’Angoisse", 1962-63, ch. XVI), the cause is the shadow of the blind spot in our knowledge. Its secret must be searched in anxiety (angoisse), and in the function of the object. Every time we consider something that is brought into the field of knowledge, desire is present, and the function of the cause makes its appearance. Desire is always to desire the body, the body of the other. The cause is related to the body. Lacan stresses the importance of the Bible, the Jewish Bible, because it is there very clearly, we pay the debt with our body, with parts of the body. Lacan says ti semitic feelings may be based in the fact that Jewish tradition forces us to see the importance of the debt and its relation with the body.Shylock is the presence of this structure: to pay with our flesh. And the function of the cause is in direct relationship with it.
other historical events. Thus, the combination of poor harvests, the hardships of the peasants, high taxes, lack of representation of the people, and kingly ineptitude are among the causes of the French Revolution. This is a somewhat Platonic and Hegelian view that reifies causes as ontological entities. In Aristotelian terminology, this use approximates to the case of the efficient cause.
Main article: causation (law) According to law and jurisprudence, legal cause must be demonstrated in order to hold a defendant liable for a crime or a tort (ie. a civil wrong such as negligence or trespass). It must be proven that causality, or a ’sufficient causal link’ relates the defendant’s actions to the criminal event or damage in question.
Religion and theology
Cosmological argument One of the classic arguments for the existence of God is known as the "Cosmological argument" or "First cause" argument. It works from the premise that every natural event is the effect of a cause. If this is so, then the events that caused today’s events must have had causes themselves, which must have had causes, and so forth. If the chain never ends, then one must uphold the hypothesis of an "actual infinite", which is often regarded as problematic, see Hilbert’s paradox of the Grand Hotel. If the chain does end, it must end with a non-natural or supernatural cause at the start of the natural world -- e.g. a creation by God. As F.R. John Laux, M.A. puts it, "In our experience every event (effect) is determined by a cause. That cause is in its turn determined by another cause. But we cannot assume an infinite series of causes, because an infinite series with no beginning involves a contradiction. And even if we did suppose the possibility of an infinite series, that would not explain how causation began. Hence there must be an uncaused Cause, the ultimate Cause of all the events which proceed from it. This ultimate and supreme Cause we call God." Sometimes the argument is made in non-temporal terms. The chain doesn’t go back in time, it goes downward into the ever-more enduring facts, and thus toward the timeless. Two questions that can help to focus the argument are: 1. What is an event without cause? 2. How does an event without a cause occur?
In the discussion of history, events are often considered as if in some way being agents that can then bring about
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Critics of this argument point out problems with it. The Big Bang theory states that it is the point in which all dimensions came into existence, the start of both space and time. Then, the question "What was there before the Universe?" makes no sense; the concept of "before" becomes meaningless when considering a situation without time, and thus the concepts of cause and effect so necessary to the cosmological argument no longer apply. This has been put forward by Stephen Hawking, who said that asking what occurred before the Big Bang is like asking what is north of the North Pole. However, some cosmologists and physicists do attempt to investigate what could have occurred before the Big Bang, using such scenarios as the collision of branes to give a cause for the Big Bang. A question related to this argument is which came first, the chicken or the egg? Karma Karma is the belief held by some major religions that a person’s actions cause certain effects in the current life and/or in future life, positively or negatively. For example, if a person always does good deeds then it is believed that he or she will be "rewarded" for his or her behavior with fortunate events such as avoiding fatal accident or winning the lottery. If he or she always commits antagonistic behaviors, then it is believed that he will be punished with unfortunate events. According to Buddhism, inequality amongst living beings is due not only to heredity, environment, "nature and nurture", but also to Karma. In other words, it is the result of our own past actions and our own present doings. We ourselves are responsible for our own happiness and misery. We create our own Heaven. We create our own Hell. We are the architects of our own fate. Perplexed by the seemingly inexplicable, apparent disparity that existed among humanity, a young truthseeker approached the Buddha and questioned him regarding this intricate problem of inequality: "What is the cause, what is the reason, O Lord," questioned he, "that we find amongst mankind the shortlived and long-lived, the healthy and the diseased, the ugly and beautiful, those lacking influence and the powerful, the poor and the rich, the low-born and the high-born, and the ignorant and the wise?" The Buddha’s reply was: "All living beings have actions (Karma) as their own, their inheritance, their congenital cause, their kinsman, their refuge. It is Karma that differentiates beings into low and high states." He then explained the cause of such differences in accordance with the law of cause and effect. Reverse causality Destiny might be considered reverse causality in that a cause is predated by an effect; e.g., "I found a
twenty dollar bill on the ground because later I would need it." Some modern religious movements have postulated along the lines of philosophical idealism that causality is actually reversed from the direction normally presumed, and that causality does not proceed inward, from external random causes toward effects on a perceiving individual, but rather outward, from a perceiving individual’s causative mental requests toward responsive external physical effects that only seem to be independent causes. Such thought gives rise to new causality principles such as the doctrine of responsibility assumption.
Statistics: Philosophy: • Condition of • Aetiology possibility • Chicken or the • Correlation egg does not • Determinism imply • Efficient cause causation • Final cause • Causal loop (teleology) diagram • Free will • Causal • Material cause Markov • Mill’s Methods condition • Newcomb’s • Experimental paradox design • Ontological • Randomness paradox • Rubin Causal • Post hoc ergo Model propter hoc Physics: • Predestination • Anthropic paradox principle • Proximate and • Butterfly ultimate effect causation • Causal filter General • Causal • Domino effect system • Causality conditions • Chain reaction • Grandfather paradox • Root cause analysis • Schrödinger’s cat Psychology & Medicine: • Adverse effect • Clinical trial • Force Dynamics • Iatrogenesis • Nocebo • Placebo (Sugar pill) • Scientific control • Suggestibility • Suggestion Sociology & Economics: • Granger causality • Linear regression • Self-fulfilling prophecy • Unintended consequence
 Random House Unabridged Dictionary
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      ^ Processes and Causality by John F. Sowa, retrieved Dec. 5, 2006. Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book V, Part 1. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, Book 2, Part 11. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, Book 2, Part 2. Gano, Dean L., History of Causal Thinking Epp, Susanna S.: "Discrete Mathematics with Applications, Third Edition", pp 25-26. Brooks/ Cole—Thomson Learning, 2004. ISBN 0-534-35945-0 Lewis, David. (1973) "Causality." The Journal of Philosophy 70:556-567. Lewis, David. (1979) "Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow" Noûs 13: 445-476. Lewis, David. (2000) "Causation as Influence" The Journal of Philosophy 97: 182-197. ^ Pearl, Judea (2000). Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, Cambridge University Press. Bunzl, Martin. (1980) "Causal Preemption and Counterfactuals." Philosophical Studies 37: 115-124 Ganeri, Jonardon, Paul Noordhof, and Murali Ramachandran. (1996) "Counterfactuals and Preemptive Causation" Analysis 56(4): 219-225. Paul, L.A. (1998) "Problems with Late Preemption" Analysis 58(1): 48-53. Halpern and Pearl (2005), "Actual Causality," Part I, British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 56:843-887. Rebane, G. and Pearl, J., "The Recovery of Causal Poly-trees from Statistical Data," Proceedings, 3rd Workshop on Uncertainty in AI, (Seattle, WA) pp. 222-228,1987 Spirtes, P. and Glymour, C., "An algorithm for fast recovery of sparse causal graphs", Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 9, pp. 62-72, 1991. Spirtes, P. and Glymour, C. and Scheines, R., Causation, Prediction, and Search, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993 Verma, T. and Pearl, J., "Equivalence and Synthesis of Causal Models," Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, (July, Cambridge, MA), pp. 220-227, 1990. Reprinted in P. Bonissone, M. Henrion, L.N. Kanal and J.F.\ Lemmer (Eds.), Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence 6, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V., pp. 225-268, 1991 Simon, Herbert, and Rescher, Nicholas (1966) "Cause and Counterfactual." Philosophy of Science 33: 323–40. Collingwood, R.(1940) An Essay on Metaphysics. Clarendon Press. Gasking, D. (1955) "Causation and Recipes" Mind (64): 479-487. Menzies, P. and H. Price (1993) "Causation as a Secondary Quality" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (44): 187-203. von Wright, G.(1971) Explanation and Understanding. Cornell University Press.
 Woodward, James (2003) Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515527-0  ^ Salmon, W. (1984) Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton University Press.  Russell, B. (1948) Human Knowledge. Simon and Schuster.  Hill, A. B. (1965). "The environment and disease: association or causation?". Proc R Soc Med 58: 295–300. http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/bwho/v83n10/ v83n10a18.pdf.  Cheng, P.W. (1997). "From Covariation to Causation: A Causal Power Theory." Psychological Review 104: 367-405.  Griffiths, T.L., & Tenenbaum, J.B. (2005). "Strength and Structure in Causal Induction." Cognitive Psychology 51: 334-384.  "Fr John Laux, M.A. "Catholic Apologetics. A Course in Religion" Tan Books and Publishers, INC. Rockford, Illinois 61105  Britt, Robert R. "’Brane-Storm’ Challenges Part of Big Bang Theory." Space.com. 18 Apr. 2001. 21 Jun. 2008 <http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/ astronomy/bigbang_alternative_010413-3.html>.
     
  
• Abdoullaev, A. (2000)The Ultimate of Reality: Reversible Causality, in Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Boston: Philosophy Documentation Centre, internet site, Paideia Project On-Line: http://www.bu.edu/wcp/MainMeta.htm • Green, Celia (2003). The Lost Cause: Causation and the Mind-Body Problem. Oxford: Oxford Forum. ISBN 0-9536772-1-4 Includes three chapters on causality at the microlevel in physics. • Judea Pearl (2000) Causality: Models of Reasoning and Inference  Cambridge University Press ISBN-13: 978-0521773621 • Rosenberg, M. (1968). The Logic of Survey Analysis. New York: Basic Books, Inc. • Spirtes, Peter, Clark Glymour and Richard Scheines Causation, Prediction, and Search, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-19440-6 • University of California journal articles, including Judea Pearl’s articles between 1984-1998 .
  
• "The Art and Science of Cause and Effect": a slide show and tutorial lecture by Judea Pearl • "The Buddhist Dharma of Cause and Effect as seen in the Lotus Sutra": a Buddhist school based on this law of life as seen in the Lotus Sutra. Website in Italian and English.
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• Probabilistic Causation • The Metaphysics of Causation
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
• • • • • • Backwards Causation Causal Processes Causation and Manipulability Causation in the Law Counterfactual Theories of Causation Medieval Theories of Causation
• Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Causation • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Causation in History • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Causation in Law