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									Multiple Nested Triglossia


           BY

   Muhammad Umer Azim




    The Sociolinguist
     Multiple Nested Triglossia

Road Map:
Introduction                 Muhammad Umer Azim
Diglossia Defined
Pakistan And Diglossia
Polyglossia
Multiple Nested Triglossia   Muhammad Umer Azim
                       Diglossia Defined
Definition
The widespread existence within a society of sharply
divergent formal and informal varieties of a language
each used in different social contexts or for
performing different functions, as the existence of
Katharevusa and Demotic in modern Greece.
(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/diglossia)


 History of Diglossia
 Psichari (1928)                          Greek
 Marcaise (1930)                          Arabic
              Diglossia Defined
Ferguson (1959)
“one particular kind of standardization where
two varieties of a language exist side by side
throughout the community, with each having a
definite role to play”
Joan Rubin (1960) Paraguay
Fishman (1967)
Two Genetically different languages
                Diglossia Defined

Trudgill (1974)             Political point of view

Kinds of Diglossia
•Classical and Extended Diglossia
(Ferguson & Fishman)
•Narrow and Broad Diglossia ( Scotton: 1986)
•Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Diglossia
(Sehiffman:1991)
         Defining Factors of Diglossia
Function
Prestige
Acquisition
Standardization
Stability
Grammar
Lexicon
Phonology
Difference between Diglossia and Standard-with-dialects
Distribution of Diglossia in Language-Families,Space and
Time
            Pakistan And Diglossia
                  English Vs. Urdu
Function
Prestige
Acquisition
Standardization
Stability
Grammar
Lexicon
Phonology
            Pakistan And Diglossia
    Persionized Urdu Vs. Layman’s Urdu
Function
Prestige
Acquisition
Standardization
Stability
Grammar
Lexicon
Phonology
            Pakistan And Diglossia
                  Urdu Vs.Punjabi
Function
Prestige
Acquisition
Standardization
Stability
Grammar
Lexicon
Phonology
                 Polyglossia

Double Overlapping Diglossia    (Triglossia)
Abdul Aziz Mkilifi (1978)      Tanzania
Vernacular        (L)
Swahili           (H &L)
English           (H)
                   Polyglossia
Double Nested Diglossia
Gumperz    (1964)            Khalapur (India)
Language   Status     Name              Function
Hindi      H (H)      Oratorical        Formal
Hindi      H (L)      Conversational    Formally Informal
Khalapur   L (H)      Saf Boli          Informally Formal
Khalapur   L (L)      Moti Boli         Informal
                                        (servants)
       Polyglossia and Pakistan
Double Overlapping Diglossia    (Triglossia)
MSUM             (2007)        Pakistan
Vernacular       (L)
Urdu             (H &L)
English          (H)
Oversimplification
Double Nested Diglossia
     Polyglossia and Pakistan

Multiple Nested Triglossia
Questions Please!


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