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					                                  Jay Court

                  John Rutledge
                   Washington

William Cushing                               James Iredell
  Washington                                   Washington




James Wilson
                                               John Blair
 Washington
                                              Washington
                           Jay Court




                             1793
The Jay Court ruled that a citizen of another state could sue a
              state in the U. S. Supreme Court.
    Caused congress to pass the 11th Amendment to the
                         Constitution
    1790        THE
               COURT
                       1790
                 ON
Independence    THE
     Hall       MOVE   City
                       Hall


 1935             1800
                           Ellsworth Court

                 William Paterson
                   Washington

   William Cushing                           James Iredell
     Washington                               Washington




Bushrod Washington
                                             Samuel Chase
      Adams
                                              Washington
                     Ellsworth Court




                            1798
Calder v. Bull ex post facto laws relate to criminal law not
               probate or civil law in general
                        Marshall Court

Brockholst Livingston                    Thomas Todd
     Jefferson                             Jefferson




      Joseph Story                       William Johnson
        Madison                             Jefferson




Bushrod Washington                       Gabriel Duvall
     J. Adams                              Madison
              Marshall Court


                             1803
Marbury v. Madison established the Court‟s right to overturn
                      acts of Congress
                             1819
McCulloch v. Maryland upheld the right of Congress to create
 a Bank of the United States, and it advanced the doctrine of
                       implied powers
                             1824
    Gibbons v. Ogden defined broadly Congress's right to
                regulate interstate commerce.
                  Taney Court
                   John McKinley
                     Van Buren

  Samuel Nelson                       John Catron
     Tyler                             Van Buren




 Joseph Story                         John McLean
   Madison                              Jackson




Robert C. Grier                      James M. Wayne
    Polk                                Jackson




                   Peter V. Daniel
                     Van Buren
                Taney Court




                           1857

Dred Scott v. Sanford The case involved Dred Scott, a slave,
 who was taken from a slave state to a free territory. Chief
   Justice Taney ruled that blacks were not citizens and
         therefore could not sue in federal court.
                   Chase Court
                      David Davis
                        Lincoln

  Samuel Nelson                        Stephen J. Field
     Tyler                                 Lincoln




Clifford, Nathan                       Noah H. Swayne
   Buchanan                               Lincoln




Robert C. Grier                        James M. Wayne
    Polk                                  Jackson




                    Samuel F. Miller
                       Lincoln
                  Chase Court



                              1866
 Ex parte Milligan The Court decided that military rule could
not supersede the civil courts in areas where the civil courts
and government remained open and operational. “… it is the
birthright of every American citizen when charged with crime,
          to be tried and punished according to law.”
                              1868
   Texas v. White The court ruled that no state of the union
               actually succeeded from the union
                    Waite Court
                    John M. Harlan I
                        Hayes

      Ward Hunt                        Stephen J. Field
        Grant                              Lincoln




 Clifford, Nathan                      Noah H. Swayne
    Buchanan                              Lincoln




William B. Woods                       Joseph P. Bradley
      Hayes                                 Grant




                    Samuel F. Miller
                       Lincoln
                      Waite Court




                            1876
    Munn v. Illinois The Supreme Court established as
constitutional, the principle of public regulation of private
businesses if it was involved in serving the public interest.
                  Fuller Court
                   John M. Harlan I
                       Hayes

Edward D. White                        Joseph McKenna
   Cleveland                              McKinley




 Horace Gray                             David J.Brewer
   Arthur                                  Harrison




                                      George Shiras Jr
Lucius Q. Lamar
                                         Harrison
   Cleveland




                   Henry B. Brown
                     Harrison
                Fuller Court




                            1896
 Plessy v. Ferguson defended the constitutionality of racial
segregation in face of the “equal protection under the laws”
 clause of the 14th Amendment. The lone dissenter on the
 Court, Justice John Marshall Harlan, protested, “The thin
  disguise of „equal‟ accommodations . . .will not mislead
                          anyone.”
                      White Court
                        Mahlon Pitney
                            Taft

Willis Van Devanter                      Joseph McKenna
        Taft                                McKinley




Oliver W. Holmes                         Charles E. Hughes
  T. Roosevelt                                  Taft




Horace H. Lurton                         William R. Day
      Taft                               T. Roosevelt




                       Joseph R. Lamar
                            Taft
                   White Court




                          1911
Standard Oil Co. Of New Jersey Et Al. v. U.S. The Court
dissolved the Standard Oil Trust upholding prohibitition
against all unreasonable or undue restraints of trade in
                 interstate commerce.
                       Taft Court
                       Edward T. Sanford
                           Harding

 Willis Van Devanter                         Harlan F. Stone
         Taft                                   Coolidge




  Oliver W. Holmes                          George Sutherland
    T. Roosevelt                                Harding




James C. McReynolds                         Pierce Butler
      Wilson                                  Harding




                        Louis D. Brandeis
                             Wilson
                  Taft Court




                           1928
  Olmstead v. United States The Court ruled 5-4 that wire-
tapping was not an unreasonable search and seizure within
         the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.
                       Hughes Court
                         Owen J. Roberts
                            Hoover
 Willis Van Devanter                          Harlan F. Stone
         Taft                                    Coolidge




Benjamin N. Cardozo                          George Sutherland
      Hoover                                     Harding




James C. McReynolds                          Pierce Butler
      Wilson                                   Harding




                         Louis D. Brandeis
                              Wilson
                Hughes Court




                         1935
 A. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States The
  Supreme Court struck down President Franklin D.
Roosevelt's National Industrial Recovery Act, which had
     coordinated industrywide output and pricing.
                    Stone Court
                     Owen J. Roberts
                        Hoover
   Hugo L. Black                          Robert H. Jackson
   F. Roosevelt                             F. Roosevelt




Felix Frankfurter                          Stanley F. Reed
  F. Roosevelt                              F. Roosevelt




Wiley B. Rutledge                         Frank Murphy
   F. Roosevelt                           F. Roosevelt




                     William O. Douglas
                        F. Roosevelt
                Stone Court




                            1941
United States v. Darby The power of congress over interstate
  commerce extends to those intrastate activities which so
 affect interstate commerce or the exercise of the power of
 congress over it as to make their regulation an appropriate
means to the attainment of a legitimate end, - the exercise of
    the granted power of congress to regulate interstate
                         commerce.
                     Vinson Court
                      Harold H. Burton
                          Truman
    Hugo L. Black                           Robert H. Jackson
    F. Roosevelt                              F. Roosevelt




 Felix Frankfurter                           Stanley F. Reed
   F. Roosevelt                               F. Roosevelt




Sherman B. Minton                              Tom C. Clark
     Truman                                     Truman




                       William O. Douglas
                          F. Roosevelt
                  Vinson Court




                             1952
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, U.S. The President's
  power, if any, to issue the order (directing the Secretary of
  Commerce to take possession of and operate most of the
     Nation's steel mills) must stem either from an act of
 Congress or from the Constitution itself. There is no statute
that expressly authorizes the President to take possession of
                       property as he did…
                         Warren Court
                          Harold H. Burton
                              Truman
     Hugo L. Black                                John M. Harlan
     F. Roosevelt                                  Eisenhower




    Abe Fortas                                  Charles E. Whittaker
     Johnson                                       Eisenhower




William J. Brennan, Jr                             Tom C. Clark
   Eisenhower                                        Truman




                           William O. Douglas
                              F. Roosevelt
                    Warren Court

                                         1954
 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka In the unanimous decision lead by Chief
Justice Earl Warren, the Court invalidated the Plessy ruling, declaring “in the field
   of public education, the doctrine of „separate but equal‟ has no place” Future
 Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was one of the NAACP lawyers who
                            successfully argued the case.
                                         1963
Gideon v. Wainwright guaranteed right to legal counsel in felony cases under the
  6th and 14th Amendments. The Court under Chief Justice Warren continued to
                          protect the rights of the accused.
                                         1964
 New York Times v. Sullivan Upheld 1st Amendment limited libel charges against
 the press by public officals where malice and reckless disregard for truth could
                                    not be proven.
                                         1966
 Miranda v. Arizona The police must also warn suspects that any statements they
                     make can be used against them in court.
                         Burger Court
                           Potter Stewart
                            Eisenhower
  Lewis F. Powell, Jr.                                William H. Rehnquist
        Nixon                                                Nixon




 Harry A. Blackmun                                      Byron White
       Nixon                                             Kennedy




William J. Brennan, Jr
   Eisenhower                                 1st
                                             Black
                                            justice Thurgood Marshall
                                                         Johnson
                           John Paul Stevens
                                 Ford
                Burger Court



                           1973
Roe v. Wade A woman has the right to an abortion in
the first trimester of pregnancy, contending that it is
              part of her “right to privacy.”
                           1978
  Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
   ruling affirmative action was unfair if it lead to
                reverse discrimination.
                         Rehnquist Court
                                 Stephen Breyer
                                      Clinton
  John Paul Stevens                                Ruth Bader Ginsburg
        Ford                                             Clinton




Sandra Day O'Connor     1st                        Clarence Thomas
                                 Appointed by
      Reagan                                           Bush Sr.
                       Woman
                                 Reagan
                       Justice

      Antonin Scalia                               David Hackett Souter
             Reagan                                Bush Sr.



                              Anthony M. Kennedy
                                   Reagan
               Rehnquist Court




                             1996
    United States v. Virginia et al. The Court holds first that
 Virginia violates the Equal Protection Clause by maintaining
  the Virginia Military Institute's (VMI's) all male admissions
  policy, and second that establishing the Virginia Women's
Institute for Leadership (VWIL) program does not remedy that
                             violation.

				
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