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					    The Land Grant College
With Commentary from Kemp P. Battle (President
 of the University of North Carolina, 1876-1891)
and Leonidas L. Polk (President, National Farmers
  Alliance, Populist Party Founder, NC Grange
Leader, Commissioner of Agriculture and Founder
       of the Progressive Farmer Magazine)




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
                                 Colleges - 1860
                                   Less than 3% of the
400                                Colleges had
350
                                   Departments of
300
                                   Science. The emphasis
                                   was on the liberal arts.
250

200
150

100
50

 0
         No Science                     Science

      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Background Information
 1851 - Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois
 proposed a new model for higher education.
 He said there were:
   Two classes of people
    • Well-to-do people
        Universities
    • Industrial Classes
        No university



       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Background Information
 Turner’s Industrial University Plan (1851)
   Experimental Farm
   Lectures would be held during cold weather
   all types of livestock and crops




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Turner’s Plan (1851)
   Dormitories and buildings
   Commencement to be like a fair
   Funding to come from the Central Government
   Designed for the industrial classes




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Turner
 Advocated federal land grants to support
 such universities (1852)
 Convinced Representative Yates of Illinois
 to introduce a Bill into Congress (1854)
 Yates was defeated




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Senator Justin Morrill (Vt.)
 Introduced a resolution to Congress in 1856
 to establish a national agricultural college
 (like the naval academy)
 Resolution failed




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Morrill Bill
 Turner sends all his land grant information
 and ideas to Morrill
 Morrill introduces land grants acts in 1857,
 1858 and 1859
 1859 bill passes both houses but is vetoed.
   Southerners were opposed to the bill because it
   infringed on state rights. President Buchanan
   was concerned that Southerners might secede if
   he signed the bill.

      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Morrill Act
 1862 - Morrill Act finally enacted
 (however, North Carolina had seceded from
 the Union and was not eligible to receive
 the benefits of the act)




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
              The Morrill Act of 1862
Gave federal lands to each state to sell to
support the establishment of a college
States received 30,000 acres per senator and
representative in Congress
If no public lands were left in the state, land
in other states (generally out west) was
given to states to sell in the form of “land
scrip”

      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
             The Morrill Act of 1862
The money generated from the sale of lands
was to be invested and the income
generated was to support the college.
Funds could not be used to build buildings.
It was expected the state would furnish this.




     Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
                       Morrill Act - Purpose
“to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at
  least one college where the leading object shall be,
  without excluding other scientific and classical
  studies and including military tactics, to teach
  such branches of learning as are related to
  agriculture and the mechanic arts...in order to
  promote the liberal and practical education of the
  industrial classes in the several pursuits and
  professions in life.”

         Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
     Morrill Act - Accountability
“An annual report shall be made regarding
the progress of each college, recording any
improvements and experiments made, with
their costs and results, and such other
matters, including State industrial and
economical statistics, as may be supposed
useful; ...one copy to the Secretary of the
Interior”

     Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
In North Carolina
 1866 The state of North Carolina accepts the
 provisions of the Morrill Act
   The land script was sold for 50¢ an acre (generated
   $125,000)
   The money was invested as follows:
    • North Carolina Railroad State bonds
    • New State Bonds
    • Special Tax Bonds
   The investments soon failed. Within 2-3 years the
   bonds were worthless.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
In North Carolina
 1867 UNC was designated as the land-grant
 college
 1887 UNC was stripped of its land grant
 status. The new North Carolina Agricultural
 and Mechanical College in Raleigh was
 designated as the land-grant college



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Role of the University
 of North Carolina as the
   Land-grant College
       As viewed by Kemp P. Battle
       President, University of North
            Carolina, 1875-1891
(Note: this is my interpretation of what I think Battle would say. Most of the following is taken
 verbatim from the History of the University of North Carolina. Volume II: From 1868 to 1912
                                     written by Mr. Battle.)


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Background Information
                          1831-1919
                          Spent most of my life in Chapel Hill
                          and Raleigh
                          Graduate of the University of North
                          Carolina as was my father (1820) and
                          grandfather (1798)
                          Tutor at the institution
                          Lawyer
                          Planter
                          State Treasurer
                          Trustee of the College, on the Executive
                          Committee
                          President, North Carolina Agricultural
                          Society
     Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
       In order to understand the
       role of UNC and the land-
         grant issue, a review of
         past history is needed.




Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1776 - The constitution of North Carolina
 stated “all useful learning shall be
 encouraged in one or more universities”




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1789 - The University of North Carolina
 was chartered.
 1795 - The University opened its doors.
 1795 - A professorship of chemistry and the
 philosophy of medicine, agriculture and the
 mechanical arts is established



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 Only state university to graduate students in the
 18th century (1700s)
 Finest classical education available
 Greek and Latin instruction particularly strong
 Young men from the best families in the South
 attend.
 Produces refined gentleman who are truly
 educated

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 Graduates                          Graduates
   Governors                            Judges
   Cabinet Members                      Legislators
   Clergymen                            President (James Polk
   Diplomats (Many                      – elected from
   foreign ambassadors)                 Tennessee) and Vice
                                        President (William
                                        Rufus King –
                                        Alabama)
                                        of the United States

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1815 - Natural Sciences were added




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1856 - Professor of agricultural chemistry
 was employed (John Kimberly)
 1860 - Only Yale has more students
 1860-1865 - Unlike many southern
 universities, the University did not close
 during the Civil War
 1866 – Kimberly leaves to farm in
 Buncombe County

      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1867 – Designated as the Land-grant
 college, but received no money because of
 bad investments on the part of the state
 government
 1870-1875 – Because of dire financial
 problems and political issues, the University
 is closed


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1875 – The state legislature agrees to provide the
 interest on the land-grant funds to support the
 reopening of the university ($7,500). This is the
 only state funding we receive.
 1876 – I am selected president and undertake to
 reestablish and reorganize the university
   A College of Agriculture is established
   Kimberly rejoins the university as the Chair of
   Agriculture

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1875-76 Kimberly has three recitations a
 week on physical geography with more
 classes to be added when agricultural
 students come.
 At first there was only one Agricultural
 student, but after awhile four others joined
 him. There was a general impression that
 the department was and would be a failure
      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1876-77 - Professor Kimberly was voted $200 for
 his department. Mr. Kimberly was nearly as lavish
 in his requests as Professor Redd. He had been
 teaching in the basement of Smith Hall, the old
 laboratory. He asked for $1,500 to remove to the
 New East Building and $1,300 for the purchase of
 various utensils. As he resigned his professorship
 no action was taken, though $200 was voted to his
 department.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1876 - As it was absolutely essential to deal fairly
 with the Land Grant appropriation I arranged to
 visit the following universities:
     • Tuft's College at Boston
     • The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
     • The Sheffield Scientific School under control of Yale
       University
     • The Wesleyan University
     • Williams College
     • The New Jersey Agricultural and Mechanical College under
       the charge of Rutgers College,
     • The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Virginia at
       Blacksburg (this visit was later)
        Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1876 - To strengthen the teaching in the branches relating to
 Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts William H. Smith of
 Michigan, a Doctor of Philosophy, was employed as Professor
 of Natural History.
 He proved to be a teacher of decided merit, quite an
 accomplished expert in his department.
 A pamphlet was prepared by him for general distribution
 instructing in the art of taxidermy. It contained minute
 directions, such as had never been given before in this State, for
 skinning and preserving the skins, feathers and eggs of birds and
 mammals,
 For personal reasons Professor Smith resigned in the spring of
 1877.

         Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 In the fall of 1876 the executive committee of the
 State Grange made inquiries of me as to the work of
 the Agricultural Department.
 My response quieted criticism for nearly ten years. It
 follows on the next slide.




        Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
My response
 After reciting the Act of Congress I called attention to the catalogue
 which showed that the "branches relating to Agriculture and the
 Mechanic Arts" had especial attention. "For example, Chemistry,
 including the composition and analysis of soils, manure, etc.; Botany,
 Zoölogy, including domestic animals and their foes; Geology,
 including character of soils; Mineralogy, especially the minerals of our
 State; Mechanics, including agricultural implements; Physics, light and
 heat as influencing plant life; also Meteorology; Engineering,
 including road making, land surveying, etc.; Mathematics necessary
 for Mechanics, Engineering, etc. All this is in addition to the English
 Language and Literature, Political Economy, Constitutional and
 International Law, and the Greek and Latin and the German and
 French languages needed to make our students intelligent citizens."


          Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
A New Need
 I became impressed with the evidence that our
 farmers suffer immense losses in the use of
 fertilizers: first, in buying the kind of fertilizers
 that the crops do not need; and second, in being
 defrauded by the manufacturer or the middleman,
 or both.
 I made speeches at fairs and at many other
 appropriate places about this problem.
 I, along with a committee of four others,
 approached the state legislature about the problem.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Agricultural Experiment
Station
 In 1877 the state legislature responded by
 establishing an Agricultural Experiment Station at
 the University.
 Albert R. Ledoux, of New York City, a Doctor of
 Philosophy (Ph.D.) of Columbia University and of
 Goettingen, a most capable chemist and judicious
 man of business, was elected to head up the
 Experiment Station.
 All fertilizers sold in the state were tested.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Agricultural Experiment
Station
 Bulletins were prepared and sent to farmers
 Insects were identified
 Dr. Ledoux left in 1880 and was replaced by
 Charles W. Dabney, Jr., a Doctor of Philosophy of
 Goettingen
 In 1881 an Agriculture Building to house the state
 Board of Agriculture was erected in Raleigh and
 the Experiment Station was moved to that new
 location.


       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1881 – We were assailed for not having stables
 and barns and blooded cattle, for not having
 workshops and costly machinery, and the like
 plants necessary to the efficiency of a complete
 institute of technology. The answer is plain. In the
 first place, how is it possible to provide these
 expenditures, running into many thousands of
 dollars, out of $7,500 a year? Could the ablest
 financier provide for the demands on his budget to
 this extent out of an empty treasury--in truth out of
 a deficient treasury?
       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1881 – The Act of Congress does not allow
 buildings to be put up out of the fund, or cattle or
 machinery bought. It requires the teaching of Latin
 and Greek and also the "branches of learning
 relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts,"
 not "Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts." The
 farmer's son should have a general training, so that
 he can hold his own in all circles. It is the intent of
 the Act to elevate the business of the farmers and
 mechanics to take rank with the professional men
 of law, medicine, theology and the like.
        Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The University
 1881 - It is possible that if the Trustees had cut off
 from its past and turned the University into an
 Agricultural and Mechanical College, the General
 Assembly would have shown greater liberality.
 But they wisely determined to develop it along the
 ancient lines, embracing, however, a much greater
 scope of scientific teaching. Surely it was right to
 have our institution of the type of Harvard, Yale,
 Princeton, Columbia, University of Virginia, a
 character that this University has always had, with
 a reputation wide and enduring.
        Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
President’s Report to
the Trustees - 1887
 The interest under these laws [Morrill Act] is to be used
 not for farm experiments nor building barns and silos, not
 for erecting workshops or purchase of stock and
 machinery, but for teaching (1) the classics, (2) scientific
 studies generally, (3) military tactics, (4) branches relating
 to Agriculture, (5) branches relating to the Mechanic Arts:
 that is, not ploughing and hoeing, nor planing and sawing,
 but the scientific principles leading to the trades, not the
 trades themselves. After the student has mastered the
 branches of learning leading to all the pursuits of life then
 let him on farm or in workshop, as in a great polytechnic
 school, learn the skill of hand and practical details of his
 chosen business.
         Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Winds of Change
 1887 - A formidable crusade was made, mainly by
 the eloquence of Colonel Leonidas L. Polk, former
 Commissioner of Agriculture, to take from the
 University the $7,500 Land Grant and give it to a
 new institution organized for the more practical
 education of the sons of farmers and mechanics
 than could be given at the University. Colonel
 Polk was possessed of a style of speaking very
 acceptable to his hearers and he had plausible
 ground for a new move.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Winds of Change
 It was generally known that many States had
 concluded that cattle breeding, garden and orchard
 culture and the like could not well be gained in
 institutions like Harvard, Princeton, the
 Universities of North Carolina and Virginia, and
 had established separate colleges. Of course in his
 speeches he minimized unjustly the laboratory
 work of the University, but there was enough truth
 in his position to make the movement irresistible.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Winds of Change
 In order to bring pressure on the Legislature a
 public meeting of farmers was called, composed
 of all whose chief income was from the soil, the
 call being issued by the Board of Agriculture. The
 Board requested Governor Scales and me to
 explain to the Convention its policy, its work in
 the past and intentions in the future. We did so,
 and were accorded a respectful hearing, with one
 ill-mannered interruption by a delegate, although
 it was evident that the friends of Colonel Polk
 were present by concert, and were in the majority.
       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Winds of Change
 Later in the meeting I was allowed to
 answer some strictures on the scientific
 teaching at the University. It was evident,
 however, that the members had come
 together with a prejudgment in favor of a
 separate institution, and that at Raleigh.



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Winds of Change
 An adjourned meeting was held in the City
 Hall. I was fully persuaded that the
 movement would be successful and that
 ultimately it would be best for the
 University to surrender the fund rather than
 have an endless wrangle on the subject.
 We gave up the fund and a new land-grant
 college was established.
      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Effect
 What was the effect of the legislation in regard to
 the University? The loss of $7,500 a year was a
 serious matter but it had its compensations. (a) It
 relieved us of the charge that we were defrauding
 the farmers and mechanics, thereby creating much
 odium against us. (b) It enabled us to avoid the
 scandal of having a low standard of admission,
 which was necessary for those intending to pursue
 the "branches of learning relating to agriculture and
 mechanic arts." Our critics used this to support the
 charge that we did not have a true University.

       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Effect
 (c) It enabled us to develop the institution along
 the lines of the most approved universities--
 Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, without
 being embarrassed by the constant demand to
 build stables and work shops, buy prize cattle and
 modern machinery. (d) It relieved us of the almost
 impossible task of governing in harmony bodies of
 students of diverse training, modes of work, aims
 in life.
 Note: Virtually all the prose regarding Battle was taken verbatim from the History of the University of North
 Carolina. Volume II: From 1868 to 1912, by Kemp Battle.




                Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
    The Failure of the
   University of North
Carolina as the Land-grant
         College
   As viewed by Leonidas Polk




  Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Background Information
                              Born in Anson County, 1837 (died
                              1892)
                              Attended Davidson and studied
                              agriculture
                              Plantation Manager
                              Confederate Colonel
                              State Grange Leader
                              Influential in creating the Board of
                              Agriculture
                              President, National Farmers
                              Alliance
                              Founder, Progressive Farmer
                              U.S. Presidential Candidate,
                              Populist Party
     Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Truth
 The University of North Carolina was never
 serious about teaching agriculture
 President Battle was primarily concerned
 with using the land-grant funds to support
 the general work of the university
 He interpreted the Morrill Act to his own
 way of thinking

      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Education
 1823 - Governor Gabriel Holmes
 recommended the purchase of a farm near
 the University of North Carolina. The farm
 was “to be put under the care of a scientific
 and practical farmer” on which experiments
 could be conducted. It didn’t happen.



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Education
 1844 - Governor Morehead made a
 recommendation similar to that of Holmes.
 He also advocated the establishment of an
 agricultural professorship at UNC or the
 creation of a school where agriculture might
 be taught.



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Education
 In 1872 I called for "an agricultural college
 somewhere in North Carolina…” At this
 time the University of North Carolina was
 closed




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Agricultural Education
 1886 – this editoral appeared in the August
 25 issue of Progressive Farmer:

 "After a period of eleven years of laborious
 effort, and with an expenditure of $82,500
 of money given our people by the
 government, …


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Editorial...
 ... we have at last succeeded in getting a
 College of Agriculture and Mechanical
 Arts. It is a model of architectural beauty
 and admirably equipped in all its
 departments. It is located on the forty-
 eighth page of the catalog of the
 University...


       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Editorial...
 ...The catalog says that 'two courses are
 offered' in this elegant paper college.
 'Offered' is a good word! These 'courses'
 we presume, have been 'offered' to our
 farmer boys for these eleven years, but we
 search the catalog in vain to find one who
 has availed himself of the offer."


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Final Word
 The people and the legislature spoke loudly
 and clearly when North Carolina
 Agricultural and Mechanical College was
 created in 1887.
 We finally had
 a real Agricultural
 College.


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Early Days of NCSU




    Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
The Second Morrill Act
 It was evident early on that the original
 Morrill Act did not provide enough funds to
 adequately establish the new colleges
   land sold for less than expected
   money couldn’t be used to erect buildings
   original money was to serve as an endowment




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
 Morrill introduced legislation providing
 more money to support land-grant colleges
 in:
   1872
   1873
   and in six other years prior to 1890
 The legislation failed each time


      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
 Why did the legislation fail?
   Public’s perceptions of land-grant colleges was
   less than favorable
   Northerners didn’t want southern states to
   benefit from the legislation because of
   segregation




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
 2nd Morrill Act finally passed in 1890
   Three major components to the bill
    • 1. Provided more funding for land grant colleges
        Each state would have direct, annual appropriations
        Sum would eventually reach $25,000 per year




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
   Three major components to the bill
    • 2. Greater accountability
        subjects to be taught were specified:
            “ instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the
             English language and the various branches of
             mathematical, physical, natural, and economic
             science, with special reference to their applications in
             the industries of life, and to facilities for such
             instruction’




       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
   Three major components to the bill
    • 2. Greater accountability
        More detailed annual reports required
           “An annual report by the president of each of said
            colleges shall be made to the Secretary of Agriculture,
            as well as to the Secretary of the Interior, regarding
            the condition and progress of each college, including
            statistical information in relation to its receipts and
            expenditures, its library, the number of its students
            and professors, and also as to any improvements and
            experiments made under the direction of any
            experiment stations attached to said colleges”



       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
   Three major components to the bill
    • 3. Black land grant colleges established
        “no money shall be paid out under this act to any State or
         Territory for the support and maintenance of a college
         where a distinction of race or color is made in the
         admission of students, but the establishment and
         maintenance of such colleges separately for white and
         colored students shall be held to be a compliance with the
         provisions of this act if the funds received in such State or
         Territory be equitably divided as hereinafter set forth”




       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
   Legislation said money should be divided
   equitably
    • There is a big difference between equal and
      equitable
    • State legislature was to determine what equitable
      meant
    • In the South, the word equitable meant the new land
      grant colleges didn’t get much



      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
 After the passage of the 2nd Morrill Act,
 NC State officials approached Shaw
 University to see if they would teach a few
 agriculture classes for black students. The
 intent was to make Shaw the 1890
 institution but give it a very limited role and
 funding.


       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
2nd Morrill Act
 North Carolina A&T State University was
 established in 1891 as the second land grant
 institution in North Carolina.




      Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
1994 Land Grant Schools
 The federal congress passed legislation in 1994
 according land grant status to 29 tribally
 controlled (Native American) colleges.
   This was primarily so that could tap into funds for
   extension purposes
 There are none in North Carolina
 Most of the colleges are in Montana, the Dakotas,
 Minnesota, Wisconsin and New Mexico.


       Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education
Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education

				
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