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					NZAID   Nga Hoe Tuputupu-mai-tawhiti             Issn 1177-6315




Currents                               Issue Three Autumn 2007




  In thIs Issue...
  On the ground
  with nZAID after
  the Solomon Islands
  earthquake and
  tsunami
COntEntS



            2 HIGH ALERt                                           28 nZAID PROGRAmmE
                     nZAID’s Guy Redding, Rebecca Spratt and
                     michael Hartfield talk about what happened
                                                                      PROFILE: nIuE
                     in the first few days following the Solomon      AnD tOKELAu
                     Islands earthquake and tsunami.
                                                                            A look at the issues facing the microstates
                                                                            niue and tokelau and what nZAID is doing

  Page 2
            9 BuDGEt BOOSt                                                  to assist.

                     Catrina mcDiarmid looks at what the
                     budget increase will mean for nZAID.          34 nZAID’S PEOPLE
                                                                            Penny Hawkins talks about the importance

            13 CLEAn WAtER                                                  of evaluation to nZAID’s work.


               FOR ALL
                     nicole Were visits three villages in tonga
                                                                   36 tHE un SYStEm:
                     and discovers community water projects           tRIALS AnD
                     that have improved lives.
                                                                      tRIBuLAtIOnS
                                                                            Senior fellow at the new Zealand Centre
  Page 16   16 KIWIS mAKInG                                                 for Strategic Studies, terence O’Brien takes

               A DIFFEREnCE                                                 an in-depth look at how the united nations
                                                                            system is working.
                     Jonathan Schwass talks to four
                     new Zealanders who have made their
                     careers in four very different multilateral   41 nEWS AnD EVEntS
                     organisations.
                                                                            Other nZAID news and events.


            24 GEttInG A
               FAIR DEAL
                     maria trogolo talks about the growth
                     of fair trade in new Zealand.
  Page 36
                                                                   Dollar figures in this publication are NZD unless otherwise stated.
                                                                   The views expressed within the magazine are those of the authors and do
                                                                   not necessarily reflect those of NZAID, or the New Zealand Government.
                                                                   Editor: Nicole Were, NZAID Communications, nicole.were@nzaid.govt.nz
                                                                   Distribution: Currents is available through NZAID.
                                                                   Please email communications@nzaid.govt.nz or
            Cover image: Red Cross volunteers help out after       call +64 4 439 8181 to be added to the mailing list.
            the Solomon Islands tsunami – Susie Chippendale, ARC   www.nzaid.govt.nz
“nZAID is well placed to effectively and efficiently manage
 the new funding. Its streamlined operations ensure that
 bureaucracy does not eat into resources. this is important,
 as we want to ensure new Zealand gets the best value
 for its aid dollar.”
                                                                                                                               Rt Hon Winston Peters




FROm tHE MInIster
thIs year’s Budget contains the biggest-ever increase in dollar                            Pacific-wide programmes targeting education, health, livelihoods,
terms to new Zealand’s aid spending – a clear signal of the                                good governance and economic growth will all grow substantially,
government’s commitment to helping the world’s poorest and                                 as well our bilateral programmes targeting poverty reduction in
most vulnerable people.                                                                    Indonesia and Viet nam.

As a result of Budget 2007, new Zealand’s aid and development                              new Zealand’s capacity to respond to humanitarian crises will
programmes will increase by 21 per cent, or $70 million, in the next                       also be bolstered significantly. In a region as vulnerable to natural
financial year, and by a total of 69 per cent over the next four years.                    disasters as the Pacific, this is an obvious priority.

the increase will take our Official Development Assistance to                              nZAID is well placed to effectively and efficiently manage the new
$429 million in 2007/08, representing 0.30 per cent of GnI.                                funding. Its streamlined operations ensure that bureaucracy does
Further funding increases over the following three years commit                            not eat into resources. this is important, as we want to ensure
us to reaching 0.35 per cent of GnI by 2010/11. On current figures,                        new Zealand gets the best value for its aid dollar.
that will see our aid budget reach $601 million.
                                                                                           We might not be able to solve all the world’s problems, but
the increased funding will go where it is most urgently needed:                            through a well-funded, effectively managed and targeted aid
in the Pacific and in Asia. Over half of the new money will be                             programme, we can make a difference.
spent in the Pacific, particularly in the melanesian countries of
                                                                                           the Budget announcement will ensure that new Zealand is
Papua new Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, where the
                                                                                           better placed than it has ever been to do just that.
need is greatest.




                                                                                           Rt Hon Winston Peters
                                                                                           Minister of Foreign affairs



about Currents
Currents is the magazine of New Zealand’s international aid and development agency, NZAID. Published four times a year,
it considers development issues and profiles New Zealand’s international aid programme. Further information about NZAID can
be found on our website www.nzaid.govt.nz

                                                                                                                                                                   1
    SOLOmOn ISLAnDS tsunaMI


    HIGH aLert
    On 2 April 2007 an earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale hit Solomon
    Islands, triggering a tsunami and causing widespread devastation to the remote
    Western Province. new Zealand was one of the first countries to provide assistance.
    nZAID’s guy redding, rebecca spratt and Mike hartfield all played a role in the
    response and talked to Currents about the first few days following the disaster.

      In tHE FIELD:
      GuY REDDInG
    07:40 MOnday 2 aPrIL 2007: I’m rushing
    around the house trying to get my son, Lucas,
    ready for school. Stepping outside, I speak to
    some Solomon Islands friends, who ask me
    whether I felt the earthquake that just hit.
    they say it was big and went on for a minute
    or more. twenty minutes later and I’m in the
    office. Soon after, I receive a call from mike
    Hartfield, nZAID’s emergency management
    and humanitarian relief programme manager in
    Wellington. He tells me that a large earthquake
    between 7.8 and 8.1 on the Richter scale hit
    Solomon Islands at 07:40 and that the Pacific
    tsunami Early Warning Centre in Hawaii has
    issued a potential tsunami alert. the epicentre
    of the earthquake was 8.6 degrees south and
    157 degrees east, placing it 30 to 40 kilometres
    south-south-east of Ghizo Island in the Western
    Province of Solomon Islands. I immediately
    contact the Solomon Islands government,
    AusAID, the Australian government’s overseas
    aid programme, and other emergency colleagues
    to pass on this information. A little while later, a
    colleague from the united nations Development
    Programme (unDP) arrives in the office and
    informs me that the government is convening a
                                                           Top: Coastal shot of the tsunami damage around Gizo – Roger Wheatley, AusAID
    meeting with donors at 11:00 at the national
                                                           Above: Map of the affected area
    Disaster management Office (nDmO).

2
At the nDmO, it turns out that it is the
government’s national Disaster Council
(nDC) which is meeting. the nDC is the body
responsible for coordinating the Solomon Islands
government’s response to disasters and makes
the call on whether or not an event is classified
a disaster. As donors are not invited to the nDC
meeting, we wait outside to get a briefing from
nDmO. While we wait, we hear short wave
radio transmissions coming in from affected areas,
reporting damage and casualties. We discover
that a twin Otter plane is being chartered by
the government, and will depart from Honiara’s
Henderson Airport for munda in the Western
Province at 2pm. I successfully negotiate a place
on the plane. I then frantically pack a bag, thinking
I’ll be gone a day or so.

At the airport, I am joined by officials from the
Prime minister’s Office and the ministries of
Health, Finance and Infrastructure. there are also
representatives from the Red Cross and Oxfam,
the latter acting on behalf of nDmO as team
leader for the disaster assessment team. the plan
is to fly to munda, refuel and then undertake an
aerial reconnaissance of the area likely to have
been affected by the earthquake and subsequent
tsunami. As we fly to munda, we all look out over
the pristine marovo Lagoon and the island of new
                                                        collapsed buildings. moving over the south coast
Georgia. there are no obvious signs of damage
                                                        of Ghizo Island, we see a scene of devastation.
here. A quick refuelling stop in munda and we are
                                                        three settlements close to the town have been
back in the air. We begin to see some evidence of
                                                        completely levelled. Further around the coast,
damage but it is only as we approach the island of
                                                        whole villages have literally been washed out to
Ghizo that the scene changes dramatically. Suddenly
                                                        sea – we can see the remains of leaf huts floating
it seems that the whole ocean has turned from
                                                        in the water. I am told these are the villages of
its usual aquamarine to brown. We see palm trees
                                                        numanda, titiana and Paelongi – villages that I      Top: Emergency supplies are
and other debris in the water. We fly low over the                                                           unloaded by defence personnel
                                                        had driven through in February. We then head for
airport at nusa tupe to survey the damage – debris                                                           – Roger Wheatley, AusAID
                                                        the island of Ranongga – someone tries to morse      Middle: Emergency supplies are
will need to be removed and a proper assessment                                                              loaded onto a RNZAF C-130 Hercules
                                                        code a message to us using a mirror. the island
undertaken before it can be re-opened.                                                                       at Whenuapai Air Force Base – NZDF
                                                        is quite mountainous and has suffered numerous       Above: Rising waters near Gizo
Circling over the town of Gizo, the capital of          landslides. We subsequently learn that parts of
the Western Province, we see major damage.              the surrounding coastline have been raised two
the malaitan fishing village close to the main          to three metres by the earthquake. A circuit of
town has been badly hit and there are numerous          the neighbouring island of Simbo (and its sulphur

                                                                                                                                                  3
                                            lake) reveals at least one village has been washed     a helicopter bound for Gizo that is operated
                                            away. On the Shortland Islands, damage is not so       by the Regional Assistance mission to Solomon
                                            obvious, though from 150 metres up, we cannot          Islands [RAmSI is a security partnership between
                                            be too sure. Heading on to taro on the western         Solomon Islands and 15 Pacific nations that
                                            tip of Choiseul province, we fly down the island’s     includes new Zealand troops and police]. After
                                            south coast. For the first 80 kilometres, there are    20 minutes or so, we touch down. Almost
                                            no obvious signs of damage, but approaching the        immediately, people start running from the shore.
                                            town of Sasamunga, it is clear that this portion of    We are told to run as well and assuming that
                                            the coastline has been badly affected. numerous        people have seen another wave we head for a
                                            buildings have collapsed or are close to collapse.     vehicle to take us up the hill. this is symptomatic
                                            We learn later that the hospital has been              of the fear and panic everyone appears to
                                            destroyed. Running low on fuel and daylight, we        be feeling following Solomon Islands’ biggest
                                            head back to munda, travelling along the coast of      earthquake in living memory. the following day, a
                                            the volcanic island of Kolombangarra, which seems      rumour of another tsunami heading from Choiseul
                                            to have faired better. the initial aerial assessment   circulates, again prompting people to move up the
                                            then is that the islands of Ghizo, Simbo and the       hill above Gizo town. However, this time a quick
                                            southern coast of Choiseul around Sasamunga            phone call to the new Zealand and Australian
    Top: NZAID’s Guy Redding surveys
    the damage – Susie Chippendale, ARC     appear to have been the worst affected.                High Commissions reveals a false alarm.
    Top Right: Volunteers from the
    village help carry rice – Rosemarie     that night, we sleep at a hotel in munda.              up the hill, a meeting of the disaster assessment
    North, IFRC
                                            numerous after-shocks and jolts make for an            team is held with the Provincial Premier. We
    Middle: Heavy rain increases the
    risk of another devastating landslide   uncomfortable night’s sleep. this is to continue       learn that the hospital has been badly damaged,
    at Mondo village on Ranongga
    – Rosemarie North, IFRC
                                            throughout the week, making everyone fearful of        and a makeshift hospital has been established
    Above: Destruction near Gizo –          another big earthquake. the following morning,         on top of the hill. Villagers from the destroyed
    Susie Chippendale, ARC
                                            an AusAID colleague and I manage to jump on            villages along Ghizo’s southern coast have all

4
walked up the hill and are living in a series of            Early priorities are to undertake assessment
camps along the inland road. We visit two of the            of displaced populations, casualties and missing
camps the following day. these are where the                people. the Red Cross dispatches assessment
Gilbertese villages of numanda and titiana have             teams to some of these islands, but the teams
relocated. they are sitting under blue tarpaulins           have no means of communicating their findings
in the stifling heat. Some people are cooking rice.         back (e.g. radio, satellite phone). many of the
the village head provides us with the numbers of            staff are volunteers and so are not trained in the
people missing. We then hear crying and wailing             management of disaster relief. We need to find a
coming from the camp. two small lifeless bodies –           secure place to warehouse the relief supplies and
two little girls – lie underneath blankets. A third –       trucks are required to move supplies between
an adult – is surrounded by a separate group. We            Gizo wharf and the warehouse, to distribute
leave the people to their grieving. It is clear that        supplies to the camps and to load boats bound
a major focus of the initial relief effort will need        for other islands. Having made initial supplies of
to be on these camps, improving access to clean             shelter and food on monday and tuesday, large-
water and digging pit latrines for better sanitation.       scale relief supplies begin arriving on Wednesday
As malaria is a huge problem in Solomon Islands,            for distribution by the Red Cross. A priority for
mosquito nets will also be required.                        me is to ensure that we have access to the RAmSI
                                                            and SIPF assets, namely helicopters, barges and
A system of regular disaster assessment team
                                                            patrol boats. these can be used to transport relief
meetings is established – one early in the morning
                                                            supplies to various islands and can also provide
to plan for the day and one early evening to
                                                            useful reporting on damage. An arrangement is
provide an update on progress. Officially, I have
                                                            made with RAmSI/SIPF for using these assets
no status in the assessment team, but as the
                                                            and the SIPF forward command post is relocated
week draws on, my AusAID colleague and I get
                                                            from munda to Gizo.
more and more involved in the planning and
coordination of the initial relief efforts. An early task   the flow of information from the disaster
is the coordination of the relief being supplied by         assessment team back to the nDmO, nDC and
nZAID, which is being delivered by a new Zealand            donors is very important. my AusAID colleague
Defence Force Hercules to munda. the plane is               and I end up closely involved in the drafting of
the first of a number to arrive in the affected area,       daily situation reports, keeping us up until the
bringing tarpaulins, water containers, kitchen kits,        early hours each night.
storm lamps and water purifiers. the plane is also
                                                            the response of individuals in Gizo is admirable.
bringing medical supplies from the ministry of
                                                            they volunteer their time, trucks and sometimes
Health and rice from the nDmO. I need to arrange
                                                            money to distribute relief (such as rice, tuna,
the logistics of unloading at munda and then barging
                                                            chickens, water containers and tarpaulins) to the
the supplies from munda to Gizo. to do this, I
                                                            camps around the island. I take advantage of this
need to liaise with the Solomon Islands Red Cross,                                                                Top: Collapsed houses in Gizo –
                                                            generosity whenever I can to get relief supplies      Roger Wheatley, AusAID
Solomon Islands Police Force (SIPF) and RAmSI.
                                                            out to those who need it. As the week draws           Middle: People volunteer their time
Similar arrangements have to be made for further                                                                  to distribute relief supplies – IFRC
                                                            on, early problems begin to be ironed out. the
flights from new Zealand, Australia and France. the                                                               Above: Emergency supplies including
                                                            arrival of an international Red Cross team helps      rice are unloaded – Roger Wheatley,
affected area is extremely large, covering munda,                                                                 AusAID
                                                            improve reporting and management of relief
noro, Rendova, Ranonnga, Ghizo, Simbo, Vella la
                                                            supplies and records. We also hear that a united
Vella, Shortlands, Kolombangarra and Choiseul. this
                                                            nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination
makes transport and logistics for reconnaissance
                                                            team will be arriving towards the end of the week.
and relief supplies extremely challenging.
                                                                                                                                                         5
                                               this is welcome news as it means I can hand over           get information about the situation, the need for
                                               to them and step back from the relief operation.           supplies and emergency assistance and getting aid
                                               Eventually they arrive on Saturday and I head back         in. Getting accurate, comprehensive information
                                               to Honiara to my family.                                   has probably been the hardest thing – both for us
                                                                                                          and for nDmO. there are lots of reasons for this
                                               Looking forward, nZAID will provide on-going
                                                                                                          – limited telecommunications being one of them.
                                               support for the relief and reconstruction effort.
                                               As the lead donor in the education sector, our             One thing that has become really obvious to me
                                               main priority will be rebuilding and re-kitting            is the importance of good communication; keeping
                                               schools. We will also work with selected non-              people informed, being clear and accurate in
                                               governmental organisations (nGOs) to address               your communication, responding quickly but not
                                               water and sanitation needs. Assistance in other            without checking facts and considering all issues
                                               areas such as transport infrastructure, housing and        first. the other thing that has been incredibly
                                               livelihoods will depend on the efforts of other            valuable has been the patience, goodwill and
                                               donors and nGOs, as well as available funding.             good humour of all those involved.
                                               What is clear is that it will take months, if not years,
                                                                                                          the key staff at nDmO and the staff of
                                               for Solomon Islands to recover from this disaster.
                                                                                                          international agencies, donors and nGOs that
                                                                                                          I’ve had the opportunity to work with so far have
                                                 In HOnIARA:                                              all been fantastic despite most of us having had
                                                 REBECCA SPRAtt                                           very little sleep and being under a lot of pressure.
                                                                                                          I have huge respect for a number of people I’ve
                                               I was In My OFFIce when the earthquake hit –               worked with over the last few weeks – their
                                               it was the longest earthquake I’d ever experienced.        integrity, patience and good humour.
                                               Being on the third floor of a somewhat dubiously
                                                                                                          the remoteness of the affected areas and the
                                               built building, we experienced about a minute
                                                                                                          limited transport infrastructure in those areas has
                                               and a half of the building rocking – it was just like
                                                                                                          had a huge impact on the relief efforts – making
                                               being on a boat in a big swell. So I knew it must
                                                                                                          it difficult to get good information on the extent
                                               have been a pretty big quake but really had no
                                                                                                          of the damage, and on getting supplies out. For
                                               idea it would have such a big impact. When Guy
                                                                                                          us, it has meant a lot more planning was required
                                               got the first phone call from Wellington, I didn’t
                                                                                                          to ensure the emergency supplies we brought in
                                               really think that much about it – we quite regularly
                                                                                                          from new Zealand could actually get taken out
                                               get warnings that never seem to amount to much
                                                                                                          to the areas where it was needed.
                                               and I didn’t really think that this would be much
    Top: Mary Soni sleeps on these             different. So it wasn’t until Guy came rushing back        the other major challenge of this situation
    planks under a tarpaulin with her sons
                                               from his first meeting at nDmO to jump on the              though is that we are dealing with communities
    aged one month, seven years and ten
    years, her two sisters and her parents     plane with the initial damage assessment team that         who normally have very little, if any, contact with
    – Rosemarie North, IFRC
                                               I really realised the impact. my immediate reaction        the government. And similarly, a government
    Above: Red Cross staff and volunteers
    assess the village and distribute relief   was to think of our staff who have family in the           which even under normal circumstances has
    goods – Susie Chippendale, ARC
                                               Western Province and to send an email home to              limited capacity to deliver services or respond to
                                               let them know I was OK.                                    community needs – let alone be able to support
                                                                                                          communities in a situation of emergency.
                                               From lunch time on it was all go – and it’s really
                                               only now that things are starting to ease off. the last    I see this as a real opportunity for so many
                                               two weeks have been a blur of constant meetings,           positive things – an opportunity to build
                                               briefings and phone calls – all focused on trying to       capacity of the Solomon Islands government

6
and partners to respond in emergencies, an            non government partners to identify priorities and
opportunity to “build back better” some of            work out how and where nZAID can best assist.
the facilities in the affected communities and        meanwhile, we will continue working with nGOs
an opportunity to strengthen the relationships        who are the main deliverers of short term relief
between communities and the Solomon Islands           support and supplies and who are working with
government through the relief and recovery            communities to empower them to take control
efforts. Already I’ve seen some really positive       of and begin action on their own recovery.
outcomes for the ministry of Education in
their understanding of education in emergency           COORDInAtIOn
situations and the need to address child
                                                        In WELLInGtOn:
protection and welfare issues. I’ve seen new
collaborative relationships form between                mIKE HARtFIELD
government agencies, among nGOs, and
between the government and nGOs. And I’ve             at arOund 08:50 on 2 April, nZAID received            Top: A giant tree lies uprooted on the
seen lots of individuals learning a great deal        phoned, faxed and emailed notification of the         shore of Leona village on Vella Lavella
                                                                                                            Island – Rosemarie North, IFRC
through this experience.                              earthquake and subsequent tsunami from several        Middle: Epakera Newbery,
                                                      sources, including the Pacific tsunami Warning        12 and his grandmother –
Looking ahead, I feel positive about what can                                                               Rosemarie North, IFRC
                                                      Centre, which issued the first of many bulletins
come out of this disaster. We’re just now at                                                                Above: A Solomon Islands Red Cross
                                                      advising that a tsunami warning was in effect         volunteer – Rosemarie North, IFRC
the early stages of working with the Solomon
                                                      – initially just for Solomon Islands and Papua new
Islands government on a recovery plan. Once
                                                      Guinea but during the rest of the morning this
sufficient information is gathered on the extent
                                                      warning extended to other Pacific countries.
and nature of damages, the government will
be putting together sectoral plans that will be        We spoke with Guy Redding, nZAID’s manager
consolidated into an overall recovery plan. We will   in Honiara, immediately and, along with the early
be working closely with our key government and        assessments that began to filter in, began to build

                                                                                                                                                      7
    Above: Unloading emergency                a picture of the extent of the devastation. While      while the balance will assist with new Zealand’s
    supplies – Roger Wheatley, AusAID
    Above right: Solomon Islands Red
                                              detailed assessments were still several days away,     longer-term recovery programme.
    Cross staff and volunteers assess         this was clearly a significant emergency, warranting
    the village and distribute relief goods                                                          In Wellington we relied heavily on advice and
    including rice, water containers and      a swift and appropriate response. A decision was
    canned food – NZ Red Cross
                                                                                                     guidance from Honiara and on members of the
                                              made in the afternoon to convene a meeting
                                                                                                     EtF which included the ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                              the following morning of the Emergency task
                                                                                                     and trade (mFAt), nZDF, France and Australia,
                                              Force (EtF) – the first-call response group that
                                                                                                     the ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency
                                              coordinates a government-wide response.
                                                                                                     management, the new Zealand Red Cross
                                              Overnight, we became aware that a scheduled            and nGOs. Working together enabled us to
                                              new Zealand Defence Force (nZDF) C130 was              coordinate a response that delivered what was
                                              leaving Auckland the following morning and that        needed in a timely manner.
                                              it would be travelling to Honiara empty. needs
                                                                                                     A number of staff in Wellington who had attended
                                              assessments that were already available indicated
                                                                                                     our annual Emergency management and Disaster
                                              that shelter materials and water containers
                                                                                                     Relief training and were rostered on for duty over
                                              were required so a decision was made to move
                                                                                                     the cyclone season assisted in managing nZAID’s
                                              tarpaulins and water containers held by nZAID,
                                                                                                     response. this included working over the Easter
                                              along with a number of supplies provided by
                                                                                                     holiday period. Specific tasks included managing
                                              the new Zealand Red Cross, from Auckland
                                                                                                     public offers of help, which were numerous,
                                              to Whenuapai airbase in the early morning.
                                                                                                     preparing media talking points and daily situation
                                              these were taken to Honiara and then on to
                                                                                                     reports, and keeping the ‘paper war’ under control.
                                              munda, delivering some of the first relief supplies
                                              to the worst affected area of the country.             An effective response would not have been
                                              two subsequent C130 flights over the next ten          possible without all these people. Good
                                              days took a team of nZDF freight loaders, a            communication, the sharing of ideas and resources,
                                              generator and tents supplied by nZAID, as well         the availability of reliable information and working
                                              as tarpaulins and emergency kits provided by           collectively as a team were essential not only
                                              World Vision and Rotary new Zealand.                   in the initial response but also in preparing
                                                                                                     the longer-term recovery and reconstruction.
                                              On tuesday, the minister of Foreign Affairs,
                                                                                                     A lessons-learned exercise will take place in early
                                              Rt. Hon Winston Peters, announced a $500,000
                                                                                                     June to help identify any gaps and ensure that
                                              emergency response package. Part of this has
                                                                                                     any future response is the best possible.
                                              been spent on replacing immediate relief supplies,
8
nZAID


Budget BOOSt
the new Zealand government has just announced a significant increase
in funding for the government’s aid and international development agency.
catrina Mcdiarmid looks at what the budget increase will mean for nZAID.
narrOwIng the gaP between rich and
poor is at the top of today’s international agenda.
the incidence of poverty is unacceptable and
presents both a moral challenge as well as a risk
to international peace and stability. It cannot be
addressed in isolation. As former united nations
(un) Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in his
2006 report “In Larger Freedom”, “We will not
enjoy development without security, we will not
enjoy security without development, and we will
not enjoy either without respect for human rights.”

the large increase in new Zealand’s Overseas
Development Assistance (ODA) spending
announced in the recent government budget
reflects new Zealand’s recognition that we
cannot turn our backs on the world’s problems
and that we need to make our contribution             Focus AreAs
to resolving them.                                    to ensure that new Zealand’s ODA has the
                                                      greatest impact, country programme strategies
Following steady increases over recent years, the
                                                      will be focussed across four broad areas:
aid budget will increase by $70 million in the
2007/2008 financial year to $429 million – taking       strengthening governance – through supporting
new Zealand to an expected ODA to Gross                 good leadership at all levels, especially in the
national Income (GnI) ratio of 0.3%, with a             Pacific region; promoting respect for human
commitment to move this to 0.35% by 2010/2011.          rights and fostering the development of societies
                                                        where communities and individuals have a voice
nZAID is well placed to manage this increase.
                                                        in decision making; supporting the development
Programme strategies and activities are highly
                                                        of strong and vibrant civil societies; and
scaleable and there are significant previously
                                                        encouraging stable, responsible, accountable and
unmet needs that can now be addressed across
                                                        effective government, including strengthening the
priority regions and sectors.
                                                        institutions of central and local government.
                                                                                                            Top: Rt. Hon Winston Peters
“We will not enjoy development without security, we will                                                    announces the budget increase
                                                                                                            Above: The Tokelau referendum
not enjoy security without development, and we will not                                                     was an opportunity for individuals
                                                                                                            to have a voice in decision making

enjoy either without respect for human rights.”
Secretary-General Kofi Annan                                                                                                                     9
                                              achieving economic growth and improved              THe PAcIFIc
                                              livelihoods – through fostering the creation of     Poverty is a global problem, but its effects can be
                                              policy environments that support economic           seen close to home. Statistics from our neighbours
                                              growth; making markets work for the poor; and       in the Pacific paint a challenging picture: for
                                              supporting rural livelihoods and food security.     example in Vanuatu more than 66% of adults are
                                              this includes the provision of infrastructure to    illiterate; over 16% of people in Kiribati are not
                                              support growth and a focus on growth and            expected to survive to the age of 40.
     Top: The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
     caused wide spread devastation           employment generating sectors such as fisheries,
     throughout Asia – NZRC
     Top right: Improving maternal
                                              agriculture and tourism.                            Poverty is a global problem,
     and child health are important
     across all regions
                                              Improving education and health – through            but its effects can be seen
                                              improved access to, and completion of, a good
     Above: Papua New Guinea has the
     lowest living standards of any country   quality basic education as well as increased
                                                                                                  close to home.
     in the Pacific. NZAID is committed to
     improving health and education           opportunities and choices through skills            Papua new Guinea has the lowest living standards
                                              development and training; strengthening access      of any country in the Pacific – the lowest average
                                              to primary health care and improved health          life expectancy and the highest maternal and infant
                                              delivery systems.                                   mortality rates. For example, the 2004 Human
                                              reducing vulnerability – through achieving safer,   Development Report has found that a mother is
                                              more resilient communities to manage conflict       over forty times more likely to die in childbirth in
                                              and respect human rights; increasing capacity to    Papua new Guinea than here in new Zealand.
                                              sustainably manage natural resources, and better    new Zealand knows the Pacific reasonably well
                                              disaster management and preparation.                and it is a region where we can play a significant
                                                                                                  role in future development. At least 50% of
                                                                                                  new Zealand’s ODA now and in the future will
                                                                                                  be directed to the Pacific.
10
nZAID will place priority on three country            GlobAl                                               Below, clockwise
                                                                                                           1 & 2: NZAID delivers supplies to
engagements for longer-term high-level                nZAID’s work in Asia and further afield reflects     build schools in the Solomon Islands
and intensive engagement and attention –              the reality of poverty on a global scale, where      3: NZAID worked with NGOs on
                                                                                                           the ground to assist after the 2004
Papua new Guinea, Solomon Islands and                 low incomes and an ongoing struggle to equitably     Indian Ocean tsunami – NZ Red Cross
Vanuatu. We will have significant engagements in      share development gains are an everyday reality.     4: The community is involved in the
                                                                                                           Bega Island, Eco tourism project, in Fiji
Samoa, tonga and Cook Islands. the programme          new Zealand’s programmes in Asia are highly          5: Ta May, harvesting medicinal
with Fiji will be directed away from government       focussed, aiming to capitalise on niche areas        plants in Vietnam as part of a NZAID
                                                                                                           funded project
level engagement.                                     where new Zealand, as a small player, can deliver
nZAID will continue support to niue and               assistance and support that will make the greatest
tokelau, consistent with our constitutional           difference.
relationships.                                          Indonesia will be a focus for longer term high
nZAID will continue to be the largest individual        level and intensive engagement and attention,
supporter of regional organisations in the              while new Zealand will continue to support
Pacific – such as the Secretariat of the South          Viet nam and timor Leste.
Pacific (which delivers technical programmes in         nZAID will maintain engagements with
the region, especially in land, marine and social       the Philippines, Cambodia and Lao PDR,
resources), the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat       periodically reviewing the depth and scope
(which provides policy advice and promotes              of these engagements.
regional cooperation, especially in trade and
                                                        targeted regional engagements in Africa
economic matters), the Forum Fisheries Agency
                                                        and Latin America, as well as Afghanistan,
(which provides assistance to member countries
                                                        will continue, mainly working through
on the economic and sustainable management
                                                        regional mechanisms, un agencies and non-
of their fisheries) and the university of the South
                                                        governmental organisations.
Pacific (which provides higher education and
vocational training for Pacific Island countries).




                                                                                                                                                       11
                                                            MulTIlATerAl eNGAGeMeNT
                                                              nZAID will contribute to the core funding,
                                                              governance, policy settings and evaluation
                                                              processes of un and Commonwealth
                                                              development and humanitarian agencies,
                                                              as well as the World Bank and Asian
                                                              Development Bank. Our support will continue
                                                              to be prioritised to the ten multilateral
                                                              agencies identified in nZAID’s multilateral
                                                              Engagements Strategy.

                                                            HuMANITArIAN AssIsTANce
                                                              nZAID will continue to provide humanitarian
                                                              support (including rehabilitation and
                                                              reconstruction) following natural disasters and
                                                              conflict worldwide. In parallel, we will raise
                                                              our contributions to and engagement with key
                                                              international humanitarian aid agencies.

                                                            New ZeAlAND NoN-GoverNMeNT
                                                            orGANIsATIoNs
                                                              Support for the work of new Zealand nGOs
                                                              through their international networks and
                                                              partners on the ground, with a strong overall
                                                              focus in Africa and Asia, will complement
                                                              nZAID’s engagement with governments and
                                                              intergovernmental agencies.

                                                            taken together, and alongside other efforts, such
                                                            as those to promote an open, rules-based and
                                                            non-discriminatory trading and financial system,
                                                            new Zealanders can expect these budget
                                                            increases to have a significant impact on our
                                                            contribution to the fight against global poverty.

                                                            We are making a difference.




     Top: Children at primary school in Tonga
     Above: Welcome celebrations at Lae, Papua New Guinea




12
tOnGA


cLean water
FOR ALL
Water is a basic necessity. Currents editor nicole were visits
villages in tonga and discovers community water projects that
have given people a new lease on life.
sIva LeLea weLcOMes Me to her small                      clean water, improvements to health, education
garden with immense pride. Overflowing with              and livelihoods are almost impossible.
hibiscus, the beautiful lush garden surrounds her
                                                         It strikes me as ironic that before my visit here
home; a basic house constructed of tarpaulins
                                                         to tonga I had been chatting with friends about
and an assortment of wood. I’m visiting the village
                                                         how wonderful it is to have a dishwasher. In the
of makapaeo, 30 minutes out of the tongan
                                                         comfort of my home in Wellington it is easy to
capital, nuku’alofa to see the outcome of two
                                                         be concerned with such luxuries while there are
simultaneous projects funded by nZAID and
                                                         more than one billon people worldwide who live
AusAID (Australia’s overseas aid programme)
                                                         in areas where clean water is in short supply.
– roading and clean water respectively.
                                                         more than one-third of the world’s population
there are 13 homes in the village and 57                 have no access to sanitation facilities because of
residents. most people here have limited education       this, and it’s predicted to get worse.
and are unemployed. they live off the land.
                                                         Countries in the Pacific region may be surrounded
People here used to cart water from the tank
                                                         by the ocean, but access to clean water and
to their homes in buckets – everyday. And when
                                                         sanitation remain a real issue.
it rained the tracks to their homes would be
overflowing with mud. On a sunny day like this it’s      It’s hard to imagine not having clean water in your
hard to comprehend this sort of reality, especially      home. It’s even harder to imagine trudging through
as each house now has running water and a road           mud with buckets of water during the rainy season
directly to their door. there’s even a tap on an         to cook, clean and live. For many villages in tonga
empty section waiting for a new home to be built.        this is a reality. And it’s not just about convenience.
                                                         the lack of clean running water increases the             Top: The Makapaeo community
“I have a healthier life now. I am happy to have a
                                                         risk of water-borne diseases like typhoid fever,          celebrate clean running water
small piece of land with running water and easy                                                                    Above: The community has played
                                                         hepatitis and diarrhoea – putting the health of           a key role in each water project
access,” Siva enthusiastically explains. “Your country
                                                         entire communities in jeopardy while creating an
has helped us and we thank you. It’s a real asset
                                                         additional issue of social stigma.
for our village.”
                                                         Village water supply projects form part of
Siva’s bright, colourful garden masks a more
                                                         nZAID’s tonga Community Development
important issue – access to clean water. Water
                                                         Programme. this work has seen the removal
is a life force. We use it to grow food, clean our
                                                         of rusty, leaking pipes and the renewal of pipe
children and nourish our bodies. Without fresh,
                                                         networks, pumping systems and reservoirs.

                                                                                                                                                      13
     Above, clockwise:                    But delivering the physical component is not           tatakamotonga is one village that received
     1: Melenga Kanonogata’a,
        the town officer tells me about
                                          the end of the story. Building capacity to ensure      new Zealand government support for a water
        the gift from the New Zealand     continuity of supply is equally important. this        reticulation project. Standing proudly in front
        government
     2: The community has played a
                                          means up-skilling and training rural water             of the project sign, melenga Kanonogata’a, the
        key role in each water project    inspection staff in the ministry of Health and         town officer tells me about the gift from the
     3: Siva Lelea standing in front of
        her home and beautiful garden
                                          members of village water committees, as well as        new Zealand government. He’s so happy with the
     4: The Lapaha water committee        providing training materials and guidelines – all of   project that the village would like to name a road
        standing beside the wooden
                                          which contribute to the improved health and well-      after Winston Peters – Winston Peters Avenue.
        water tank funded by NZAID
                                          being of the community. the added bonus is that
                                                                                                 “We used to have more times without water than
                                          many skills like budgeting and management can be
                                                                                                 with water,” melenga tells me. And that’s no surprise
                                          applied to much more than water.
                                                                                                 when a survey by the tonga Water Board reported
                                                                                                 that there was 52 to 58 percent leakage from the
                                                                                                 70-year-old pipes. to top it off, dirt and filth seeped
                                                                                                 into the pipes and caused serious health problems.
14
“I have a healthier life now. I am happy to                                                            specially designed to be more suitable to
                                                                                                       the volcanic conditions of the island. the
have a small piece of land with running water                                                          water is metered and used by households,
and easy access. Your country has helped us                                                            gardeners, farmers and schools who now
                                                                                                       have running water 24 hours a day.
and we thank you.”
                                                                                                       A water committee has been established
Siva Lelea                                                                                             so management of the village supply
Providing a new tank and replacing                ten new homes a year in tatakamotonga                is in the hands of the community, with
the leaking pipes means that every                and the village water committee has 200              officers in the ministry of Health regularly
household in the village now has clean            metres of spare pipe – enough to cater               testing the water to make sure it retains
water coming directly to their homes.             for new installations for the next 20 years.         its quality. the committee is responsible
“the people here now have constant                                                                     for reading the metres once a month and
                                                  the community played a key role in the
clean water, free from diseases’,”                                                                     collecting the monthly bills. the money
                                                  water project – taking ownership and
he explains. “It’s a measurement of                                                                    collected pays for fuel for the pumps,
                                                  control of the facilities with enthusiasm
development to graduate from a tin                                                                     ongoing maintenance and a small income
                                                  and fervour, secure in the knowledge
can to a bucket and now a shower.”                                                                     for the members of the water committee.
                                                  that they were participating in a system
Before the project was completed,                 that would last beyond their own                     the next stage of the project is to install
people would have to carry water to               lifetimes. It’s all about sustainability             household rainwater tanks to supplement
wash. now they can turn on a tap at               and shared resources.                                the main tank. the water committee has
any hour of the day and have running                                                                   collected $300 tongan Pa’anga ($200)
                                                  In the biggest village in the east of the
water. they can install showers and flush                                                              from each household to contribute
                                                  main island, Lapaha, nZAID has funded
toilets and, most importantly, the water is                                                            towards the costs, a large sum of money
                                                  the installation of a 200,000 litre wooden
clean – reducing risk of typhoid fever and                                                             when you consider that the average
                                                  tank, replacing a 40-year-old rusty system.
other diseases.                                                                                        annual income is only $4000 ($2700).
                                                  the first of its kind in tonga, the wooden
                                                                                                       Construction will soon get under way –
the new pipes have only been installed            tank is more than a novelty. It is a
                                                                                                       giving every household in Lapaha access
to occupied houses but the village has            sustainable option. Storing water pumped
                                                                                                       to their very own water supply.
plans for the future. there’s an average of       from ground water wells, this tank is



new Zealand support to tonga

 Allocation 2006/07: $10,190,000
                                                                                    expenditure by Year

                                                                                    $10 million
                                              multisector 2%
                                                                                     $8 million
    Sustainable Livelihoods 6%                                 Education 43%

            Economic                                                                 $6 million
     Development 10%

                                                                                     $4 million
  Community Safety 6%
                                                                                     $2 million
           Governance and
           Leadership 10%                                                                    0
                                                                                                    2

                                                                                                             3

                                                                                                                      4

                                                                                                                               5

                                                                                                                                        6
                                                                                                  2001/0

                                                                                                           2002/0

                                                                                                                    2003/0

                                                                                                                             2004/0

                                                                                                                                      2005/0




                                                           Health 23%

                                                                                                                                                      15
     PROFILE

      there may only be four million new Zealanders, but look at the
      staff lists of the world’s biggest development agencies and chances
      are you will find a Kiwi or two. Jonathan schwass talked to four
      new Zealanders who have made their careers in four very
      different multilateral organisations.

     KIWIS MaKIng a dIFFerence
        AmAnDA ELLIS: WORLD BAnK
      Head of Gender Entrepreneurship, Markets International Finance
      Corporation, World Bank Group, Washington DC, United States

      When Amanda Ellis joined the World Bank Group back in
      2003, the gender dimensions of private sector development
      had been little thought about, let alone incorporated into
      bank policy, she says.

      Less than four years later, Gender Entrepreneurship markets
      is a full global programme within the International Finance
      Corporation (IFC), the bank’s private sector arm. Its mandate
      is to ensure gender is fully taken into account in all the IFC’s
      operations.

      there have been signs of rapid progress. At the end of
      December 2004, only two percent of IFC projects had a
      gender dimension, but by the end of last year that figure had
      grown to 23 percent. While there is still a long way to go, this
      movement has been encouraging, Amanda says.

      “naturally the path has not been entirely smooth, but there
      is much greater recognition now of what gender means
      for shared growth as well as poverty reduction,” she says.
      “the question likely to be asked now is, ‘How do I integrate
      gender?’, rather than, ‘Why should I?’”

      Amanda says the gender entrepreneurship concept, of
      which she is a passionate advocate, is based on research that
      shows there is a clear link between a country’s economic
      performance and gender equality.

                                                                         Young woman in Bangladesh – IFC




16
World Bank studies suggest increasing the income         microfinance programmes for women are now                  Above left: World Bank studies suggest
                                                                                                                    increasing income of poor woman is more
of poor women is more likely to have a positive          running in nigeria, tanzania and uganda, with              likely to have a positive development effect
development effect, through increased spending on        others in the pipeline in other African countries,         Top Right: Stakeholder workshop at Sadiola
                                                                                                                    Gold Mine, Mali
family welfare, nutrition and girls’ education, than a   the middle East and South Asia.                            Above: Woman carrying pots at the
similar increase in income to men.                                                                                  pottery village Ngathayauk Village, Mandalay
                                                         Amanda developed her interest in, and knowledge
Other studies show that women are extremely              of, gender entrepreneurship at Westpac Banking
                                                                                                                       nZAID support to
good investment risks. they have a good record of        Corporation in Australia, which she joined after
                                                                                                                       World Bank 2006/2007:
repaying microfinance and their performance with         ten years as a new Zealand diplomat (including
                                                                                                                       $10.2 million
small or medium business loans is also promising,        two years at nZAID). At Westpac, she became
Amanda says. One African bank has revealed               head of women’s markets and national manager
that the default rate on its portfolio of women          for women in business.                                        Gender refers to the social
entrepreneurs is just 0.15 percent, compared with                                                                      attributes, opportunities and
                                                         “my practical experience at Westpac, where we                 roles associated with being
four percent for its portfolio as a whole.
                                                         had gone from a standing start in 1999 to over half           female and male , as opposed
IFC has embraced this research and developed             a billion dollars in business directly attributable to        to one’s ‘sex’ which is biological.
a mainstream programme that works with banks             the women’s markets initiative by 2002, gave me               Gender determines what is
                                                                                                                       expected, allowed and valued
and other agencies in developing countries to            experience in navigating a large financial institution,”
                                                                                                                       in a woman, man, boy or girl in
increase women’s access to finance, remove               she says. “It also gave me some runs on the board
                                                                                                                       a given context.
gender barriers in business and generally                in showing that reaching out to women could be
strengthen the role that women can play as               profitable as well as developmental.”
entrepreneurs, Amanda says.


                                                                                                                                                                   17
                                                KEItH LEOnARD: ADB
                                              Director, Operations Evaluation Division,            Keith moved into the Asian Development Bank
                                              Asian Development Bank                               (ADB) in 2000 and carried out evaluation work
                                              Manila, Philippines                                  in countries ranging from Papua new Guinea to
                                                                                                   the Kyrgyz Republic. Only a few years later he was
                                              Once a new Zealand farm advisory officer with
                                                                                                   made a director of one of two divisions in the
                                              an interest in international development, Keith
                                                                                                   bank’s Operations Evaluation Department.
                                              Leonard is now a senior manager for one of the
                                              world’s major development banks.                     He says his current position is quite independent of
                                                                                                   the management of the bank and his reports are
                                              A volunteer spell in Panama in the late 1970s –
                                                                                                   sent directly to its board of directors. management
     Top: Female students in Afganistan       a time of great upheaval in Latin America – was a
     return to school – Gerard Carreon, ADB                                                        has an opportunity to respond to the findings of his
     Above: Keith Leonard says that
                                              “powerful learning experience” that led him, back
                                                                                                   division, but not to approve or reject them.
     the ADB’s evaluation processes are       in new Zealand, to membership of nGO CORSO
     focussed on improving performance
                                              and the Latin America Solidarity Committee.          the ADB’s evaluation processes are focused
                                                                                                   on improving performance rather than on just
                                              Eventually his work with the ministry of
                                                                                                   making people accountable for results, he says.
                                              Agriculture led to aid work in tonga for the
                                                                                                   “they involve identifying what has worked in
                                              new Zealand government, private consultancy
                                                                                                   achieving development results and what hasn’t,
                                              in the Pacific and post-graduate qualifications in
                                                                                                   and why. A learning organisation should learn
                                              subjects including development studies.
                                                                                                   lessons from experience.”

18
Keith manages 11 evaluation specialists charged         “the ADB is also a rules-based bureaucracy
                                                                                                                  nZAID support to
with assessing individual projects and, increasingly,   – however I believe there is more flexibility to
                                                                                                                  ADB 2006/2007:
country and sector-based work, as well as the           innovate and try new things than some staff give
                                                                                                                  $12.4 million
ADB’s own policies and processes.                       the organisation credit for.”

It’s a sizeable task in an agency that has some         But he says the very size of the ADB also makes
2,500 staff and approves between uS $6 billion          it a rewarding development agency to work for.
and $7 billion (between $8.1 billion and $9.5
                                                        “While in no way wanting to downplay the added
billion) in new public sector loans each year. this
                                                        value of new Zealand’s aid programme, many
scale makes the ADB capable of taking on the
                                                        of ADB’s individual projects are larger than the
very largest projects – and also presents some
                                                        total value of new Zealand’s official development
interesting challenges.
                                                        assistance,” Keith says. “Working with this scale of
                                                                                                               Below left: Roadside fruit and
“It’s a political body owned by 67 governments,”        assistance is a real challenge.”                       vegable markets in Sri Lanka have
                                                                                                               fresher and more varied produce as
Keith says. “this often results in multiple and
                                                        With scale comes diversity and Keith says he finds     a result of the ADB-supported Kirindi
sometimes conflicting objectives, and unfunded or                                                              Oya Irrigation & Settlement Project
                                                        real stimulation in working with colleagues from 53    – Rollie del Rosario, ADB
under-funded mandates. It’s often left to staff to
                                                        nationalities – “although there are some real issues   Below right: Men harvesting oysters
try and resolve these contradictions and to work                                                               under an ADB-supported Pearl
                                                        surrounding communication and different values”.       Industry Development Project in the
within severe resource constraints.                                                                            Cook Islands – Rollie del Rosario, ADB




                                                                                                                                                        19
     Above: Children in Midwestern
     Jumlu district, one of the most food
     insecure areas in Nepal today                GILLIAn mELLSOP: unICEF
     – David Swanson, IRIN
     Above right: Women wait in the rain
     with their children to receive vitamin A   UNICEF representative. Kathmandu, Nepal               the job involves not only oversight of
     supplements in Kathmandu – Tomas                                                                 programmes covering areas such as child
     Van Houtryve, UNICEF/HQ06-0195             Gillian mellsop’s fascination with other places and
                                                                                                      protection and access to education, but also
                                                cultures started when she was a child growing up
                                                                                                      advocacy to the government and civil society on
                                                in Auckland in the same house as boarders from
                                                                                                      children’s and women’s rights issues. Key advocacy
                                                thailand, Singapore, malaysia and nepal on the
                                                                                                      concerns are compulsory primary education,
                                                Colombo Plan education programme.
                                                                                                      adoption, maternal and neo-natal health, and
                                                new Zealand was a fairly mono-cultural place          children affected by conflict.
                                                in those days, and Gillian’s early encounters with
                                                                                                      unICEF’s work in nepal goes on against a
                                                people from very different backgrounds to her
                                                                                                      background of 10 years of conflict between the
                                                own were to leave a lasting impact.
                                                                                                      government and marxist guerrillas that was –
                                                International development has been at the centre      Gillian hopes – set to rest by the Comprehensive
                                                of a career that has seen her progress from the       Peace Accord of november 2006.
                                                external aid division of the ministry of Foreign
                                                                                                      the united nations mission in nepal, which
                                                Affairs and trade, to the Australian Agency for
                                                                                                      has been set up subsequently, has a particular
                                                International Development – for which she
                                                                                                      responsibility for meeting the needs of women,
                                                worked in Bangladesh, Lao PDR, India, nepal and
                                                                                                      children and other marginalised groups, Gillian
                                                Bhutan – and eventually to the united nations
                                                                                                      says. unICEF is supporting this by leading a
                                                Children’s Fund, unICEF, as representative in Fiji
                                                                                                      coalition of child protection agencies to support
                                                and now nepal.
                                                                                                      the reintegration into society of children who
                                                Gillian’s present position gives her responsibility   have been associated with armed groups.
                                                for some 125 nepali and international staff based
                                                                                                      Gillian describes her work – which takes her
                                                in Kathmandu and throughout the country, and a
                                                                                                      out to the field at least once a month – as “busy
                                                budget of some uS $20 million ($27 million).
                                                                                                      and fascinating”. While there are constraints and
20
demands brought about by the agency’s complex
administrative systems, as well as fundraising
imperatives, there are substantial rewards.

She says she values the fact that unICEF’s mission
– the survival, protection and development of
children – is a “universal imperative”. And she points
out that, as the world’s leading child development
agency, unICEF has both the weight and the
accepted neutrality to successfully raise sensitive
issues such as the sexual exploitation of children.

the organisation also has a long and impressive
record in emergency leadership – it was born out
of the destruction of the Second World War– and
has a large number of field offices that allow it to
reach out effectively to local communities. unICEF
and the wider united nations (un) are also very
much multicultural organisations, a feature that
allows “one’s own assumptions to be enriched
and challenged”, Gillian says.

Being a part of unICEF also brings access to a
                                                                             Top left: Nepalese women and children in the village of
strong culture of partnership with countries, civil                          Panchkal, in the district of Kavre – Alexia Lewnes,
                                                         nZAID support to
society and development agencies – including                                 UNICEF/HQ00-0108
                                                         unICEF 2006/2007:   Top: Gillian Mellsop describes her work as busy and fascinating
nZAID. “nZAID developed one of its first un
                                                         $4.6 million        Above: Children scavenge through garbage in Kathmandu
strategic partnerships in the Pacific, with unICEF                           – Shehzad Noorani, UNICEF/94-1393
Pacific, to work together on the Pacific Stars
Lifeskills Programme, prevention of mother-to-
child transmission of HIV/AIDS, and children’s
immunisation,” she says.                                                                                                                       21
                                                     DAVID SHEARER: OCHA
                                                   Head of the United Nations Office for the                 stay in the position reflects his fascination with the
                                                   Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the               unique challenges presented by daily immersion
                                                   Palestinian Occupied Territories                          in the world’s most volatile, intractable and far-
                                                   Jerusalem, Israel                                         reaching dispute, he says.

                                                   Former new Zealand minister of Foreign Affairs            When David came into his current job, the
                                                   – now Commonwealth Secretary-General – Don                united nations Office for the Coordination
                                                   mcKinnon once said that David Shearer was an aid          of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) had only a
                                                   worker with the classic Kiwi “number eight fencing        tiny office in Jerusalem and its presence in the
                                                   wire” ability to get into a difficult situation and get   Palestinian-Israeli dispute was minimal. Four
                                                   things done.                                              years later, following a lot of hard work by David
                                                                                                             and his staff, the organisation’s profile has risen
     Top: The barrier around Ramallah              It’s an attribute that has taken David into a large
     – Briony Balsom, IRIN                                                                                   enormously. the OCHA office now employs 40
                                                   number of crisis management roles, from Somalia
     Above: A boy stands by while                                                                            people – mainly Palestinian, but also some Israeli
     Palestinian fire fighters extinguish a fire   in the 1980s, at the height of the civil war (he
     in Rafah, southern Gaza Strip – Apollo                                                                  Jews – and is very much on the front line of
     Images, IRIN                                  worked for Save the Children Fund united
                                                                                                             Palestinian-Israeli relations.
                                                   Kingdom there), to running the united nation’s
                                                   relief operation during the Israeli incursion into        OCHA’s main responsibility in the region involves
                                                   Lebanon last year. He is one of the “mr Fix-its”          coordinating aid – last year around uS $300
                                                   of the international aid community.                       million ($408 million) – to the West Bank and
                                                                                                             Gaza. the office also has an increasingly visible role
                                                   For the past four years, however, (the Lebanon
                                                                                                             in providing information and advocacy about and
                                                   operation was a temporary arrangement) he has
                                                                                                             on behalf of the Palestinians to the un, VIP visitors
                                                   been focusing on the emergency response in the
                                                                                                             and the world community.
                                                   Occupied Palestinian territory. His relatively long


22
OCHA reports carry detailed information that is
almost impossible to get by other means: how many
houses have been demolished by the Israeli military,
what roadblocks have been set up, the status of the
wall that is being built by the Israelis around the
West Bank – in general, assessments of the quality
of life of Palestinians in the Occupied territories.

It’s a job that can make for awkward dealings with
the Israeli Government. “Our relationships with
the Israelis are tough but productive,” David says.
“We engage quite a lot with the Israeli military
on the ground and at a higher level through the
ministry of Defence and the united States.”

David says having a role that focuses solely on the
situation of Palestinians is sometimes perceived
both in Israel and further afield as one-sided. But
he points out that the humanitarian need – and
therefore the focus of OCHA – is among the
Palestinian population, not the Israelis.

“People get mixed up about the un,” he says.
“At one level it is a meeting place of states
and at another it’s a group of implementing               Top left: A Palestinian girl gets help from her relatives   Above: Palestinain rescue men search for survivors in a
agencies. there have been many Security Council           to get across the wall of the Rafah border crossing with    three-storey building that was destroyed by an Israeli air
                                                          Egypt, Gaza – Asmaa Waguih, IRIN                            strike in Gaza – Omar Naaman, Apollo Images, IRIN
resolutions against Israel, and people simply get         Top: Palestinians crossing between Gaza strip and
confused about what we are here to do,” he says.          Egypt after the re opening of Rafah Border – Mohamed
                                                          Hamouda, Apollo Images, IRIN

David says his job involves “a bit of everything,”
including policy development, advocacy, drafting
and analysing reports and managing staff. “It’s what
I love, a huge mix,” he says.

“It’s the longest job I’ve ever had in my life. there’s
                                                             nZAID support to
a real intensity about this place. It’s like dropping
                                                             OCHA 2006/2007:
pebbles into a pool – when something happens it
                                                             $2 million
ripples right out to Iraq or wherever.”

                                                                                                                                                                                   23
     FaIr tRADE

     By being selective about the coffee you drink can make a big difference to
     farmers in the developing world, nicole were discovered when she talked
     to maria trogolo about fair trade in new Zealand.


     GEttInG A FaIr deaL




24
thIs tIMe Last year maria trogolo was
working with impoverished children in La Paz,
Bolivia, as an officer with the united nations
Office on Drugs and Crime. In her spare time,
she volunteered at an orphanage. today this
passionate Argentine lawyer is set to make waves
in fair trade as the newly appointed Projects
Officer at the Fair trade Association of Australia
and new Zealand (FtAAnZ).

Established in 2003, FtAAnZ is committed
to improving the livelihoods and well-being of
disadvantaged producers by promoting greater fair
trade awareness within Australia and new Zealand.
maria shares the idea of achieving justice in world
trade by linking and promoting fair trade worldwide.

“there is enormous potential for fair trade and
its ideals to make an impact on social injustice
and world poverty where international aid has
failed. I am inspired by the challenge of realizing
that potential.”

And the organisation is clearly making a
difference. Retail sales of fair trade products within
                                                         this is one of the key reasons that maria is
new Zealand have grown from $200,000 in 2004
                                                         working closely with farmers and producers
to over $4.5 million in 2006. It’s still a fledgling
                                                         in the Asia-Pacific region to help them gain
industry within new Zealand but if international
                                                         the knowledge and skills they need to operate
trends are anything to go by, there is plenty more
                                                         successfully in Australia and new Zealand. “my
growth to come. In the united Kingdom, fair trade
                                                         role is to help marginalized farmers secure long-
programmes are well-established, with sales rising
                                                         term contracts with fair and stable prices for their
by 40 percent each year.
                                                         produce, and finally assist them to re-invest their
FtAAnZ is looking closely at what it can do in           income in local community development. through
within the Pacific region by building connections        the implementation of this project, we believe
within our neighbours. Far removed from rest             we can contribute to poverty eradication and
of the world, Pacific producers are out on a             sustainable development in the region.”
                                                                                                                Opposite page: Fair trade picker.
limb in global terms. Logistics, lack of transport                                                              Coffee bean making process
                                                         One of highlights in her short time with FtAAnZ        – Trade Aid
infrastructure and high transport costs make
                                                         has been organising a workshop for Asia-Pacific        Top: Maria shopping from the
trading difficult, especially for farmers who live in                                                           car in Kabul, due to gender
                                                         producers to facilitate links between producers and    discrimination
remote areas. Combine this with a lack of access
                                                         new Zealand and Australian traders. the first of its   Middle: Rice farmer in Ubud Bali
to market information, little training, variable                                                                – Fair Trade Association
                                                         kind in the region, the workshop brought together
quality of production and no organisational                                                                     Above: Maria in Kabul
                                                         more than 90 people from over ten countries
structures to bolster business activities, and a
                                                         including Papua new Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, Cambodia,
grim picture starts to emerge.
                                                         timor Leste, Sri Lanka, thailand and Indonesia.


                                                                                                                                                    25
                                                                                                   topics covered at the workshop included producer
                                                                                                   and fair trade certification, access to finance, selling
                                                                                                   and marketing fair trade products. “We discussed all
                                                                                                   elements of fair trade production and consumption
                                                                                                   so we could understand the needs for existing and
                                                                                                   potential fair trade producers.”

                                                                                                   “It’s just the beginning. Everyone is at the workshop
                                                                                                   unanimously agreed that the next step should be
                                                                                                   to design a training workshop to help producers to
                                                                                                   create and bolster fair trading capacities – so that’s
                                                                                                   what I’m focused on right now. By building up the
                                                                                                   capacity of producers we can bring them hope and
                                                                                                   fuel the increasing distribution and sales of fair trade
                                                                                                   goods here in new Zealand.”

                                                                                                   Drawing on her previous experience, maria is no
                                                                                                   stranger to the issues facing developing countries or
                                                                                                   the disparity between rich and poor. She talks about
                                                                                                   flying through Buenos Aires or Dubai en route to
                                                                                                   duty stations in Bolivia and Afghanistan and being
                                                                                                   shocked by the ignorance people have regarding the
                                                                                                   poverty of their neighbours just an hour’s flight away.

                                                                                                   “Having come face to face with deprivation and
                                                                                                   despair, experiencing such extremes would leave
                                                                                                   me grappling with questions about injustice,
                                                                                                   poverty, exploitation, privilege and the value
                                                                                                   of life. this is why I consider the fair trade
                                                                                                   movement so important, as it gives all of us the
                                                                                                   possibility to make a difference.”
     Top: Fair trade producers offering
     handicrafts to traders at the Bali
     workshop                                “there is enormous potential for fair trade and its ideals
     Above: Maria at her office in Bolivia
     Opposite page: Fair Trade coffee
                                             to make an impact on social injustice and world poverty
     producers sorting beans –Trade Aid
                                             where international aid has failed. I am inspired by the
                                             challenge of realizing that potential.”
                                             Maria Trogolo
                                             “It was awesome to see such a wide range              “By choosing fair trade products, people in
                                             of commodities and handicrafts, and it really         developed countries are triggering all sorts of
                                             highlighted the scope and potential for Pacific       benefits for the communities in the developing
                                             involvement in fair trade. Workshop participants      world. Because of these daily choices, marginalized
                                             represented the producers of handicrafts and          farmers in turn have the possibility to make the
                                             artisan goods as well as commodities such as fresh    necessary choices to improve the quality of their
                                             fruit, coconut oil, coffee, sugar, timber products,   own lives and environments.”
                                             vanilla and other spices,” says maria.
26
WAYS tO




                                                                                                                                  ways to bring fair trade into your life
BrIng FaIr
trade IntO
yOur LIFe
FaIr trade aIMs tO share the benefits of trade                   Convert your workplace to a
more equitably between consumers, producers and the              fair trade workplace.
environment. to put it in its simplest terms, you get to buy     this can be as simple as putting up a poster on your notice
yummy chocolate (and other products) and the cocoa bean          board or in the staff room publicising that you are using fair
growers get paid a living wage.                                  trade certified tea and coffee.
So how can you participate in fair trade?                        Send your message to shops and companies.
Here are some things to consider incorporating                   Ask your local stores to stock fair trade products. Write to
into your daily life:                                            manufacturers to show you care about their workers. Only
Learn to spot a fair trade label.                                two percent of the coffee in new Zealand supermarkets is
this is a seal of approval that appears on products that         fair trade, while in the uK consumer pressure has got that
meet internationally agreed fair trade standards and             number up to 30 to 35 percent.
which guarantees to consumers that their purchases will          Do your gift and home ware shopping
benefit the producers, their families and the surrounding        at a trade Aid store.
communities from the developing countries that they              trade Aid stores stock a large range of all kinds of appealing
originate from.                                                  things, and when you buy products you can be assured that
think about your morning coffee.                                 the craftspeople were paid a decent wage for their work.
What kind of beans is it made from? A lot of coffee              When you’re buying other people
growers around the world are forced by international             presents, stop and think.
consortiums to sell their crops at almost less than what         Does your friend really need more products for their
it costs to grow it. this means they spend their lives in        birthday? Or would they perhaps be happy to know
poverty. many coffee roasters in new Zealand now offer           you’d made a donation in their name to an organisation
a fair trade blend that is guaranteed to have earned its         that they support?
growers a fair price. try a flat white from a café that will
make your coffee with fair trade beans.




   Bake ethical cookies!
   Cream one cup of butter with light gold fair trade sugar and
   one cup of fair trade brown sugar.
   Add one teaspoon of vanilla essence and two free-range eggs. Beat well.
   Add two and a half cups of flour, one teaspoon of baking powder,
   one teaspoon of baking soda, two cups of oatmeal, a pinch of fair trade
   cinnamon, some chopped nuts (optional) and a chopped-up large bar of
   dark fair trade chocolate. mix lightly.
   Roll into balls, place on trays lined with waxed paper and squash with a fork.
   Bake at 180 degrees for around ten minutes.
   When you share your delicious cookies, serve them with fair trade cocoa, tea
   and coffee, and be sure to tell the people who are eating them that you used
   fair trade products to make them so tasty.
     PROGRAmmE PROFILE


                                            niue and tokelau
     two tiny microstates states with populations                               overview
                                                                                made up of three atolls – small islands enclosing
     smaller than a large new Zealand high                                      a lagoon – just 12 square kilometres in size,
     school, niue and tokelau – have a special                                  tokelau is a mere speck in the vast Pacific Ocean.
                                                                                the only way to get there is by a 20-hour boat
     place in new Zealand’s international                                       ride from Apia, Samoa (and that’s allowing for
     relations. While their population size of                                  good weather!). many tokelauans have made
                                                                                new Zealand their home and around 8000
     around 1,500 citizens may be similar, these                                people in new Zealand identify themselves as
     countries could not be more different.                                     having tokelauan ethnicity.

     Currents takes a closer look how nZAID                                     niue is a large, single, raised coral island of 260

     is working with these countries.                                           square kilometres. Known as the rock, the island
                                                                                is completely flat and has spectacular cliffs that
                                                                                fall 50 metres vertically to the Pacific Ocean. It
                                                                                has few beaches, but sea-eroded coral chasms
                                                                                and a lush rainforest create a unique and
                                                                                beautiful environment. Devastated in 2004 by
                                                                                Cyclone Heta, much of the island’s habitat is still
                                                                                recovering. Like tokelau, many niueans have made
                                                                                new Zealand their home and around 20,000
                                                                                people in new Zealand identify themselves as
                                                                                having niuean ethnicity.

                                                                                Why are these places so special to new Zealand?
                                                                                People from niue and tokelau are new Zealand
                                                                                citizens. niue became self-governing in free
                                                                                association with new Zealand in 1974 under the
                                                                                niue Constitution Act, which outlined the nature
                                                                                of this relationship, including the responsibility of
                                                                                new Zealand to provide “necessary economic
                                                                                and administrative assistance to niue”. tokelau is
                                                                                a territory of new Zealand – making it one of
                                                                                15 non-self-governing territories left in the world.
     Just 12 kilometres in size, Tokelau is a speck in the vast Pacific Ocean   In February 2006 tokelau conducted a referendum
                                                                                which provided the opportunity for the people
                                                                                of tokelau to decide whether it was time to
                                                                                change their status to become a self-governing
                                                                                state in free association with new Zealand.
28
Sixty percent of tokelauans voted in favour of
becoming self-governing, but this was still short
of the two-thirds majority needed to make the
change. A further referendum is scheduled to take
place in november 2007.

the people-to-people links define the relationship
between new Zealand and tokelau and niue. And
it is these same links that pose the key challenge to
both countries, namely population decline. Drawn
by education and economic opportunities, not to
mention family ties and social pressures, tokelauans
and niueans have left their home countries in
pursuit of opportunities in new Zealand and, by
doing so, placed further pressure on already fragile
communities and economies.

supporting Niue and Tokelau to
remain vibrant communities
Given the uniqueness of the relationship, nZAID’s
support to niue and tokelau is different from
other development partnerships. unlike in other         After cyclone Heta in 2004, niue faced a
countries, new Zealand provides the majority of         challenging future. Infrastructure was devastated
the governments’ budgets. nZAID’s development           and prospects were poor. niue and new Zealand
assistance package provides up to 80% of tokelau’s      agreed to fight this poor outlook and committed
budget and over half of niue’s total budget.            to a five-year agreement to bring niue back onto
                                                        a positive path. the Halavaka ke he Monuina
nZAID’s work is committed to supporting niue            Arrangement identified economic development,
and tokelau develop a more resilient economic,          language and culture retention and population
social and cultural future despite their fragility      growth as the three main priorities. Also contained
and vulnerability. there are many reasons that a        within this $20 million arrangement is the need to
country can be fragile: remoteness and isolation,       re-build niue’s physical infrastructure.
a lack of natural resources, a shortage of skilled
professionals and a lack of opportunities.              Whilst new Zealand’s primary support to niue is
unfortunately this also sums up many of the             in the form of budget support, paid to the niue
                                                                                                              Top and above: 30th anniversary
issues facing tokelau and niue today.                   government upon an agreed recurrent budget,           celebrations of Niuean self-government
                                                        new Zealand also supports specific programmes
                                                        targeted to back up the primary objectives of niue.


                                                                                                                                                       29
  new Zealand support to niue                                                                    new Zealand support to tokelau
     Allocation 2006/07: $13,716,000                                                               Allocation 2006/07: $11,230,000

                  Health 2%                                                                           Governance and
                                                             Governance and Leadership 8%             Leadership 1%                                    Economic Development 5%
      Education 4%
                                                                           Community Safety 2%        Education 2%

                                                                                 Economic
                                                                                 Development
                                                                                 19%


                                                                                  Sustainable          multisector 92%
                                                                                  Livelihoods
                                                                                  3%
multisector 61%




  expenditure by Year                                                                            expenditure by Year
                   $25 million                                                                                       $25 million

                   $20 million                                                                                       $20 million

                   $15 million                                                                                       $15 million

                   $10 million                                                                                       $10 million

                    $5 million                                                                                        $5 million

                              0                                                                                               0
                                    2

                                             3

                                                      4

                                                               5

                                                                        6




                                                                                                                                     2

                                                                                                                                              3

                                                                                                                                                       4

                                                                                                                                                                5

                                                                                                                                                                         6
                                  2001/0

                                           2002/0

                                                    2003/0

                                                             2004/0

                                                                      2005/0




                                                                                                                                   2001/0

                                                                                                                                            2002/0

                                                                                                                                                     2003/0

                                                                                                                                                              2004/0

                                                                                                                                                                       2005/0




      Top left: Atafu warrior during                these include building niue’s income-generating          Furthermore, new Zealand is supporting niue
      the 2006 Tokelau referendum
      Top middle: New Zealand Prime
                                                    capacity through supporting key growth sectors           to develop additional capacity, both short and
      Minister Helen Clarke and Premier             such as tourism and agriculture, providing support       long-term, in the sectors of finance, health,
      Young Vivien sign the Halavaka
      Arrangement                                   for building key infrastructure assets such as a new     education, tax and customs, police, immigration
      Top right: Local woman in Niue                government administration building and cultural          and archives. “niue has made some significant
      stands outside a destroyed hotel
      after cyclone Heta                            centre (taoga niue) and re-building the energy           progress since the devastation of Cyclone Heta
                                                    infrastructure, which includes investigating energy      and the subsequent signing of the Halavaka
                                                    efficiency and renewable energy options.                 Arrangement. At the same time, we have some
30
distance to go in realising the full potential of the
many opportunities that lie within this unique,
island nation. In the face of a declining population,
this is a challenging task,” says nZAID programme
manager Davene Vroon.

tokelau, having recently finalised its three-year
strategic plan, has identified six priority sectors:
village development, health, education, transport,
communications and information technology and
economic development. this plan will form the
basis of the next three–year Economic Support
Arrangement with tokelau, starting in June 2007.
As with niue, new Zealand’s primary aid to
tokelau is in budget support for agreed activities
within the government’s annual budget. Over the
next three years, new Zealand will also place a
greater focus on re-building or upgrading tokelau’s
key infrastructure, including schools, hospitals and
wharf infrastructure on each of the three atolls.

One of the key challenges for tokelau is isolation.
tokelau is one of the most remote environments
in the world, and can only be reached by a boat
from Apia, Samoa. the first, southernmost atoll is
Fakaofo and from there, it’s a five-hour sea journey
to the middle atoll, nukunonu, and another seven-
hour overnight journey to the northernmost              sun, wind and rough seas. One of nZAID’s              Above: Isolation is one of
                                                                                                              the key challenges for Tokelau
atoll, Atafu. Often the seas can be very rough          priorities for the coming two years is to work
throughout this journey – making for a hair-raising     toward providing an improved shipping service
experience. Currently, the tokelauan people             to tokelau through the construction of a new,
brave these distances on open seas in a small, old      purpose-built ship, the conversion of an existing
catamaran, which has been converted to a mono-          ship or improved charter services.
hull. this ship can fit a maximum of 60 people on       nZAID is also focused on building capacity in
board, but with no cabins or adequate shelter,          key areas of finance, health, education and the
passengers sleep on an open deck exposed to all         energy sector. Over the next three years, this will
the elements, including waves coming overboard,         be extended to include strengthening tokelau’s
                                                        income generating potential through economic
One of the key challenges                               opportunities such as fisheries and looking at
for tokelau is isolation.                               issues impacting on tokelau’s unique environment,
                                                        including waste management and sources of
tokelau is one of the most                              renewable energy.
remote environments in
the world…
                                                                                                                                               31
     PROGRAmmE case studIes


                                         tourism in niue
                                                                                                provides the tourism industry in niue with the level
                                                                                                of security and consistency crucial for the private
                                                                                                sector to continue investing in this growing industry.

                                                                                                In the Halavaka Arrangement, $2 million have
                                                                                                been earmarked for tourism development, in
                                                                                                particular for increasing the accommodation
                                                                                                capacity of the sector. nZAID is working closely
                                                                                                with the government of niue to develop viable
                                                                                                opportunities for building more accommodation
                                                                                                facilities and, in particular, to support the emerging
                                                                                                private sector to step up their investment.

                                                                                                niue has a strong reliance on the public
                                                                                                sector – the government provides 60 to 70
                                                                                                percent of the employment opportunities on
                                                                                                the island. “the private sector holds some
                                                                                                promise for increased economic growth while
                                                                                                generating alternative, meaningful employment
                                                                                                opportunities and prospects for a more
                                                                                                sustainable future,” says Davene.
     Above: Niue’s raw beauty            wIth rugged unsPOILt beauty, lush virgin
     is drawing visitors to an
     emerging tourism industry           rainforest and spectacular underwater cathedrals,      “Whilst increased investment in tourism could
     Inset: Cyclone Heta in 2004         niue is clearly an island paradise. And it’s this      open the door to new income opportunities
     caused significant damage to Niue
                                         untouched, raw beauty that is drawing the visitors     in niue, it will be important to ensure this
                                         to an emerging tourism industry.                       investment is managed carefully and wisely. niue
                                                                                                remains a fragile environment, with a unique eco-
                                         Still in its early stages, tourism in niue offers
                                                                                                system that will need to be protected through
                                         visitors a chance to escape the crowds and enjoy
                                                                                                good guardianship to ensure it retains this value
                                         real peace and quiet. For those looking for a little
                                                                                                for future generations”.
                                         more excitement, there are endless opportunities
                                         to explore the rugged and magical coastline, enjoy
                                         spectacular snorkelling and diving spots, go fishing
                                         during the day or uga (mud crab) hunting at night.

                                         nZAID underwrites a weekly air service to niue
                                         provided by Air new Zealand, but the growing
                                         popularity of this destination has meant that there
                                         has so far been no need for Air new Zealand to
                                         draw on the underwrite. However, this agreement

32
energy innovation in tokelau
It might be a speck in the giant Pacific Ocean but
tokelau is aiming big, with a long term goal to
become completely energy self-sufficient.

nZAID has supported a $1.5 million energy
programme on tokelau, which is currently out
of necessity fuelled primarily by diesel. However,
a small solar energy pilot programme has been
jointly funded by a number of donors on the atoll,
Fakaofo. this central reticulation system feeds into
the main grid and has the capacity to power about
20 out of the approximately 100 households
on the atoll. the success of this pilot means that
tokelau is now in the process of completing a
study on the viability of solar-powered facilities on
the other two atolls. Along with other innovative
ideas such as coconut-oil power-generation,
tokelau is progressing toward achieving its goal
of a clean, renewable energy future.

tokelau has also been proactive in encouraging
                                                        Above: The solar energy programme
the use of alternative sources of energy in the         has the capacity to power 20 out
household, including introducing a policy of            of the approximately 100 households
                                                        on Fakaofo
replacing all electric stoves with stoves powered       Far left: The ballot box travels
by alternatives such as gas or wood. these              to each atoll during the 2006
                                                        Tokelau referendum
initiatives could lead to great gains for tokelau,      Left: Supplies are brought
if they can eliminate the need to bring expensive,      on shore at Nukunonu

fossil fuels such as diesel on the long boat
journey from Apia.




                                                                                              33
          nZAID’S PEOPLE

          PrOFILe: PEnnY HAWKInS
          Penny hawkins, evaluation team leader, at nZAID, talks to
          Currents about the importance of evaluation.
                                            How did you get into development work?                 evaluations and a lack of integration and use
                                                                                                   of evaluation for programme management.
                                            I had been working full time as an evaluation
                                                                                                   So when nZAID was set up, a dedicated
                                            practitioner and manager for about 15 years before
                                                                                                   evaluation advisory function was established.
                                            moving into the area of international development.
                                            As an evaluation specialist I had been involved        When I took up the role, my first priority was to
                                            for two or three years in delivering evaluation        design and lead a programme of work to improve
                                            training in developing countries and I had also been   the capability of the organisation to commission
                                            closely involved in supporting the creation and        and undertake better quality evaluations, to
                                            development of national, regional and international    promote the use of evaluation in programme
                                            networks and professional evaluation associations.     management and to enhance its contribution to
                                            most of the newly emerging communities of              organisational learning. For the past three years I
                                            practice are in developing countries so this had       have been working with a cross-agency team to
                                            brought me into close contact with the realities       develop an evaluation policy statement, a set of
                                            and challenges of undertaking evaluations in these     practice guidelines and provide evaluation training
                                            settings. In 2003 I was invited to join the faculty    for nZAID staff, as well as providing day-to-
                                            of the International Programme for Development         day advisory support to programme managers
                                            Evaluation training [in Ottawa, Canada].During that    who are undertaking reviews and evaluations of
     Top: Penny (left) participates in an   time my involvement in development evaluation          nZAID-funded activities. my work also includes
     evaluation of an education programme   work was in addition to my primary employment          liaison with evaluation units in our counterpart
     supported by NZAID in Indonesia
     Above: Trek guides take place in       as an evaluation manager in domestic social            organisations and facilitating new Zealand’s
     an evaluation of the Gunung Rinjani    development. this exposure gave me a real insight      contribution to international joint evaluations such
     Ecotourism Programme
                                            into some of the issues facing people in developing    as the evaluation of the international response
                                            countries. Before long I found myself becoming         to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. We are
                                            more and more interested in international              committed to making sure that we are achieving
                                            development evaluation and so when an evaluation       the best possible results from our aid – and this
                                            team leader position was advertised at the newly       evaluation process is an essential tool.
                                            established nZAID, I applied for it, and then moved
                                                                                                   Why do you think evaluation is important?
                                            into development work on a full time basis.
                                                                                                   In a general sense I think it’s important to make
                                            What do you do at NZAID?
                                                                                                   the best effort we can to ensure that what we’re
                                            Since joining nZAID as the team leader of              doing is actually assisting people and that we’re
                                            evaluation, I have been leading a programme            using approaches that are appropriate to the
                                            of work aimed at improving the quality and             particular contexts in which we work. Evaluation
                                            quantity of reviews and evaluations commissioned       can provide a mechanism through which the views
                                            and undertaken by the agency. the ministerial          of intended beneficiaries can be expressed which
                                            review that led to nZAID being established had         would otherwise be overlooked. I like to think that
                                            cited inconsistency in the quality of reviews and      evaluation contributes to learning over time and

34
that it helps us and those we work with to gain
wisdom from our experiences and improve what
we do to achieve better results.

What are the international trends?

there is a move towards more international joint
evaluations undertaken by coalitions of interested
parties – that is, countries working together to
complete and undertake evaluation. this means that
instead of having a number of countries individually
completing evaluations, we are starting to see more
coordinated efforts. I see this as a positive step
and one that can be of benefit to smaller agencies
like nZAID because it allows us to be involved in
larger, more comprehensive evaluations that we
would be unable to attempt on our own. It has
become more common for people to work closely            are some rapid changes taking place in the
in-country with local evaluators and this approach       development world and the evaluation field will
is gathering momentum. this is a significant change      need to keep pace with this change. my hope is
from the days when someone would fly in for a            that new and better approaches are developed
week or two to complete the evaluation and then          that enhance our understanding and increase our
leave again – although this does still happen it is no   knowledge of what makes aid effective. Given our
longer considered to be good practice. In line with      smallness and flexibility as an agency I hope that
the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, partner      we can adopt innovative ways of meeting the
countries are now expected to take charge of their       emerging evaluation challenges.
own evaluation functions with donors providing
                                                         What knowledge and skills are needed
support for this. So a resulting trend is an increase
                                                         to do evaluation work?
in the number of evaluations led and undertaken
by countries themselves. With this increase in           A fairly broad range of competencies are needed
evaluation activity, the community of evaluation         for evaluation work. In addition to the essential
                                                                                                                     Top and above: NZAID undertook
practitioners has been growing worldwide for a           technical skills required, evaluators need to be            an evaluation of the tsunami relief
number of years now. A key challenge will be to          politically aware, have a sound understanding of            effort and reports suggest progress is
                                                                                                                     good. Rebuilding and reconstruction
ensure that this increased evaluation effort results     ethical issues, be able to work cross-culturally and        continues today.
in good quality, credible products that are accepted     perhaps, above all, they need to have very well
and used by all stakeholders.                            developed communication skills and emotional
                                                         resilience. Evaluation is about asking the hard
What are your hopes for the future in this area?
                                                         questions and being prepared to address some
One main hope I have is that nZAID continues             difficult issues. It’s not at all uncommon for evaluation
to be committed to improving the quality of              practitioners to be put under significant pressure
evaluation work and in supporting the work of            to defend their results and evaluative judgements.
our partners in this area. I also hope that we           Producing a highly credible evaluation that gets
can make a wider contribution to international           used widely and contributes to improving the
development evaluation and perhaps even lead             effectiveness of development activities requires not
the way in terms of new approaches. there                only particular expertise but also plenty of gusto!

                                                                                                                                                              35
     OPInIOn PIECE: tHE un systeM


     tRIALS AnD
     trIBuLatIOns
     the united nations (un) was established in 1945 to achieve
     international cooperation in solving problems, and to promote and
     encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
     terence O’Brien, senior fellow at the new Zealand Centre for Strategic
     Studies takes an in-depth look at how the un is working.
                                     It is conventional wisdom today that the un          withhold the resources, the empowerment and
                                     system confronts a future beset with great           the authority that determine just how effectively
                                     uncertainty, although uncertainty has been a         the un can perform. Disillusionment with the
                                     continuous hallmark of its existence, and of its     un is now palpable in many quarters. But the
                                     prospects, since it was founded 60 years ago.        picture is not uniform. For smaller and newer
                                     the system is in profound need of reform             members, the un retains the critical property of
                                     although such a need was first identified in its     legitimisation in international affairs. In other words
                                     early years. It is almost a tradition that the       membership confers legitimacy on the actual
     International day for Mine
     Awareness and Assistance        collective will amongst un members to agree and      existence and participation of states in world
     observed in Sudan – Fred Noy,   implement change is and has been conspicuously       affairs. this belief accounts for the phenomenal
     UN Photo
                                     feeble over the years. As suggested below, that      rise in un membership over 60 years (from
                                     challenge grows ever more complex.                   50 members at the outset to nearly 200 today).
                                                                                          It derives essentially from the universality of
                                     At the operational level the un system is
                                                                                          un membership, which is unique, and from the
                                     burdened with overlapping institutions, imprecise
                                                                                          continuing appeal of the un Charter, based as
                                     mandates, excessive red tape, staff apathy or
                                                                                          it is upon the principle of sovereign equality for
                                     indifference and member state interference. the
                                                                                          all nation states, together with its motivational
                                     principal institutions – the General Assembly, the
                                                                                          commitment to overcome the problems of
                                     Security Council, the Economic and Social Council
                                                                                          poverty, conflict and injustice in the world.
                                     as well as the main committees – suffer from
                                                                                          the un Charter is the nearest thing we have
                                     procedures that are archaic and in many cases,
                                                                                          ever had to a constitution for the world.
                                     like the Security Council, reflect a composition
                                     and method that are a product of a world half a      this sense of the essential legitimising properties
                                     century ago. the aberrations are plenty.             of the un has assumed an additional dimension
                                                                                          since the Cold War ended in 1989/1990. the
                                     the basic truth remains that the un is, of course,
                                                                                          collapse of the Soviet union produced huge relief
                                     only as good as, or as bad as, its member states,
                                                                                          on all sides that superpower confrontation, based
                                     and particularly its powerful member states,
                                                                                          upon mutually assured destruction from nuclear
                                     allow it to be. member governments endow or


36
weapons, was ended. the new context witnessed,
however, a rash of internal conflict driven by
ethnic, cultural, religious and separatist forces in
numerous parts of the world which could not be
simply ignored by the international community
of states. (new Zealand was implicated in
restorative action in widely differing locations:
Bosnia, Afghanistan, East timor and Iraq). the key
question was: who should authorise the use of
military force in the changed circumstances of
the post-Cold War era? Even though the 1990s
demonstrated in effect that the un was not
itself suited to the actual conduct of fighting to
enforce peace, and that this was a task best left
to coalitions of countries ready and willing to
take on the dangerous responsibility, the majority
                                                                                                             Above left: Fourth session
consensus (of which new Zealand is part) inside         the administration of united States president        of Human Rights Council
                                                                                                             – Jean-Marc Ferre, UN Photo
the un was and remains that authorisation of            George W. Bush attempted to marginalise the
                                                                                                             Above: Palestinians give Kofi Annan
such operations is the legitimate prerogative of the    un both before, and more especially after, the       photos and a letter on prisoners in
                                                                                                             Israel – Mark Garten, UN Photo
Security Council.                                       Iraq invasion when differences with the Secretary
                                                        General over the legitimacy of the united States’
It was not surprising that as the world’s most
                                                        actions damaged the relationship. American
powerful nation and the original architect of the
                                                        ambivalence about the un is of long standing. In
un and multilateral system, the united States
                                                        the 1980s, president Ronald Reagan had begun a
resisted the idea that its authority to employ
                                                        policy, endorsed by the united States Congress,
military force should be subject to prior Security
                                                        of withholding mandatory payments to the
Council approval. the protection and promotion
                                                        organisation unless or until it reformed itself in
of American interests and security could not be
                                                        ways that the united States favoured. Over the
subordinated in this way. the nAtO bombing of
                                                        same period America increasingly stood aside
Kosovo in 1999 and the united States invasion of
                                                        from un laws, and the negotiation of new laws,
Iraq in 2003 were spectacular demonstrations of
                                                        where it deemed that united States interests
this conviction, even while the latter represents the
                                                        would not be privileged. For those countries like
most controversial post Cold War action, whose
                                                        new Zealand with an abiding national interest
repercussions still compound middle Eastern
                                                        in equitably applied rules-based behaviour in
turmoil as a source for global instability.
                                                        international relations, this was disquieting.


                                                                                                                                                   37
                                                                                              to the sea bed, from individual human rights to
                                                                                              strengthened international justice – was and is
                                                                                              irreplaceable. moreover, a semi-permanent system
                                                                                              of conference diplomacy invented by the un to
                                                                                              underpin the framework, but derided by critics,
                                                                                              provides a vital opportunity for smaller players,
                                                                                              like new Zealand, to consistently play a part in
                                                                                              the negotiation of international standard setting,
                                                                                              which otherwise would be conclusively denied.
                                                                                              the argument, on the other hand, that the un
                                                                                              system is now simply too large and unwieldy to
                                                                                              produce worthwhile negotiated outcomes, needs
                                                                                              to be taken with a grain of salt. Similar criticism
                                                                                              is heard now of the World trade Organisation
                                                                                              (WtO). Yet the failure of negotiation to yield
                                                                                              agreed outcomes has, the record shows, been
                                                                                              the result as much of the refusal of major powers
                                        At the same time, two significant changes were        to accept outcomes that do not privilege their
                                        reshaping the context for modern international        interests and/or control, as it has been the result
                                        relations. First, the interdependence between         of unwieldy negotiating process.
                                        countries and the interconnection between the         the second change has been the emergence
                                        challenges they confront has been deepened by         of a new group of influential countries that are
                                        globalisation. Climate change, resource depletion,    reshaping the international relations landscape
                                        pollution, health pandemics, the spread of highly     – China, India, Brazil, South Africa and Egypt – in
                                        dangerous weapons, cross-border crime, the            ways that are as yet half visible. the future for
                                        scourge of drugs, illegal migration and terrorism     rules-based international behaviour will depend
                                        are all issues that that no one country or group      vitally, even primarily, upon these countries. It is
                                        of like-minded countries, however powerful,           crucial that they recognise their stake here. Such
                                        alone could surmount. Such reality reinforces the     countries will expect, reasonably enough, access
                                        continuing relevance of a universal framework         to positions of influence in the international
                                        from which to generate ideas and devise a             institutions of the 21st century including the un,
                                        collective response to these modern afflictions.      the International monetary Fund, the World Bank
                                        It is important to accentuate the positive.           and the WtO. Empowering such countries will
                                        In the vital area of post-conflict nation building,   entail however, some disempowering of others
                                        for example, the un, with proper support from         whose relative weight no longer justifies top-line
                                        member states, retains a comparative advantage        positions and the over-representation they have
     Top: Observing the International
     Day of UN Peacekeepers in          over the efforts of individual member states          enjoyed since the un and related systems were
     Addis Ababa, Ethiopia –
                                        – even the most powerful. On top of this,             first established in the mid-20th century. Some
     Rick Bajornas, UN Photo
     Above: UNHCR repatriates           the potential provided by the un system of            countries in this category rank as traditional
     Sudanese Refugees –
                                        specialised agencies for rule making and standard     like-minded friends of this country (particularly
     Tim McKulka, UN Photo
                                        setting across a vast canvas of international         in Europe) who may expect new Zealand
                                        activity – from health to intellectual property,      support for the status quo. new Zealand’s larger
                                        from meteorology to food additives, from space        interests dictate the emergent powers, especially
                                                                                              those in Asia, should assume a rightful place in
38
the international order of things, if necessary at      interim targets for percentage of Gross Domestic
the expense of those no longer justifying such          Product. In Darfur, the responsibility to act to
pre-eminence. the choices and the changes will          protect a large population at real risk seems
nonetheless be a challenge for new Zealand and          incontrovertible but major powers, while calling for
others, especially as the newer powers will expect      a beefed up un peacekeeping presence, display
their own preferences, interests and values to be       little intention to get seriously involved themselves,
reflected more directly in and through those 21st       preferring to give priority to Afghanistan and “the
century institutions that have, to this point, been     global war on terror”.
primarily reflective of Western interests and values.
                                                        the passage of time and the electoral process in

“the choices and the                                    democracies may modify the prevailing diffidence
                                                        about the un. the present (unipolar) power
changes will nonetheless be                             structure in the world is not eternal and change
a challenge for new Zealand                             will inevitably occur, which is an argument in itself
                                                        for strengthening the international institutions so
and others, especially as the                           they can take the strain of change. A first step
newer powers will expect                                is to make the management of the institutions
                                                        more democratic. there is a basic disconnection
their own preferences,                                  between the active promotion of democracy
interests and values to be                              (including by forcible outside persuasion) at the

reflected more directly…”                               level of the nation state, while at the same time
                                                        the management of international institutions grows
Terence O’Brien                                         less democratic, as international law is ignored
the likelihood that powerful states can fashion an      and unilateralism prevails. Checks and balances on
alternative, superior system to replace the un,         the use of power are the cornerstone of national
and one which commands world-wide support,              democracy and it is logical that this be replicated
for the age of 21st century interdependence,            at the international level, but on the clear basis that
defies common sense. Reform of the un will              emergency restorative military action by concerned
nonetheless remain problematic. It is a process,        powers is admissible, subject to effective and timely
not a single silver bullet. Some new projects           international authorisation. unless greater basic
– a new un Peace Commission, a un Human                 symmetry between national and international
Rights Council – as well as some new principles         democratisation is achieved, the grand design to
like the millennium Development Goals and the           spread democracy will be self-defeating.
ethic of the responsibility to protect vulnerable
                                                        Terence O’Brien, a former New Zealand diplomat,
communities from murder and exploitation – are
                                                        served as the New Zealand ambassador to the UN
meritorious. to be truly effective everything
                                                        in New York, including on the Security Council, and       Top: Electing members of
depends, of course, upon effective member state                                                                   the newly established Human
                                                        earlier as the ambassador to the UN in Geneva,            Rights Council, New York
support. Already it seems some key millennium                                                                     – Evan Schneider, UN Photo
                                                        including to the General Agreement on Trade and
Development Goals are unlikely to be met. Even                                                                    Middle: United Nations mission
                                                        Tariffs /WTO. He served too as ambassador to              in Sudan – Tim McKulka,
with its most recent announcements of Official                                                                    UN Photo
                                                        the European Union in Brussels. Earlier in his
Development Assistance increases, new Zealand                                                                     Above: United Nations mission
                                                        career, he was deputy head of the New Zealand             in Sudan – Fred Noy, UN Photo
will still fall short of the (revised downwards)
                                                        External Assistance Division and the New Zealand          The views expressed in this
                                                                                                                  opinion piece belong to the writer
                                                        representative to Cook Islands.                           and do not necessarily represent
                                                                                                                  the views of NZAID, or the
                                                                                                                  New Zealand Government.

                                                                                                                                                       39
     nZaId suPPOrt tO tHE unItED nAtIOnS
     nZAID’s core funding to the un is ‘unearmarked’ – assisting with
     stable and predictable funding for the different agencies.
                                                                                                                2006/2007 support
     united nations development Programme (undP)                                                                           $8 million
     unDP is the un’s global development network – an organisation that advocates for change and
     connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build better lives.
     united nations children’s Fund (unIceF)                                                                            $4.6 million
     unICEF aims to defend children’s rights, and helps meet their basic needs, ensure their survival and increase their
     opportunities to flourish. the agency responds to emergencies by working to strengthen the ability of children
     and their families to handle crises, including situations of armed-conflict, natural disasters and HIV/AIDS.
     united nations Population Fund (unFPa)                                                                                $4 million
     unFPA promotes the right of every woman, man and child to enjoy a life of health and equal
     opportunity. the agency supports countries in using population data for policies and programmes
     to reduce poverty and to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, every young
     person is free of HIV/AIDS, and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect.
     world Food Programme (wFP)                                                                                            $2 million
     the WFP takes the lead role in the food security sector. It responds to refugee and other emergency
     food needs, assists vulnerable groups in protracted relief and rehabilitation situations, and runs food-
     based development programmes, feeding on average 90 million people in over 80 countries.
     united nations refugee agency (unhcr)                                                                              $3.6 million
     unHCR is mandated to lead and coordinate international action for the worldwide
     protection of refugees and the resolution of refugee problems.
     unaIds                                                                                                                $2 million
     As the main advocate for global action on HIV/AIDS, unAIDS leads, strengthens and supports an
     expanded response aimed at preventing transmission of HIV/AIDS, providing care and support, reducing the
     vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV/AIDS, and alleviating the impact of the epidemic.
     Office of the high commissioner for human rights (Ohchr)                                                              $2 million
     OHCHR’s mandate is the promotion and protection of human rights for all. the promotion of universal
     ratification and implementation of international human rights treaties is at the forefront of OHCHR activities.
     Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs (Ocha)                                                            $2 million
     OCHA’s mission is to mobilise and coordinate effective and principled humanitarian action in partnership with national
     and international actors in order to: alleviate human suffering in disasters and emergencies; advocate for the rights of
     people in need of humanitarian assistance; promote preparedness and prevention; and facilitate sustainable solutions.
     united nations Industrial development Organisation (unIdO)                                                            $475,000
     unIDO is the specialist agency of the united nations dedicated to promoting sustainable
     industrial development in countries with developing and transition economies.
     unIFeM                                                                                                                $1 million
     unIFEm financial and technical assistance to innovative programmes and strategies that
     promote women’s rights, political participation and economic security.
     un Mine action service (unMas)                                                                                        $500,000
     unmAS is the focal point for mine action with in the un system and is responsible for coordinating
     all aspects of mine action. At the field level, the agency is responsible for providing mine-action
     assistance in the context of humanitarian emergencies and peacekeeping operations.
     united nations relief and works agency for Palestine refugees in the near east (unrwa)                                $1 million
     the Agency’s goal is to promote the development of the Palestine refugees
     and strengthen the refugee community’s self-reliance.
                                                                                                total                  $31.2 million

40
nEWS & EVEntS

NZAID GeNDer PolIcY                                                                                              Pro-Poor TourIsM worKsHoP
Worldwide, 70% of those living in extreme                                                                        nZAID will host a pro-poor tourism
poverty are women and children. to free                                                                          workshop in June to guide the
those caught in the cycle of poverty, violence,                                                                  agency’s future support for pro-poor
hunger and inequality, empowering women is                                                                       tourism by reflecting upon experience
essential. the nZAID gender policy has just                                                                      with developing partner countries and
been released. It is a document that outlines                                                                    broader experience in the field. Bringing
how nZAID will integrate gender into all of                                                                      together representatives from nZAID
the agency’s work.                                                                                               partner countries engaged in tourism
If you would like a copy of the                                                                                  activities and nZAID programme and
gender policy, please visit our website                                                                          advisory groups, the workshop will
www.nzaid.govt.nz or email                                                                                       explore what pro-poor tourism is, what
communications@nzaid.govt.nz                                                                                     strategies can be used to enhance the non-
                                                                                                                 financial livelihood benefits, participation
DeveloPMeNT PoTeNTIAl                                                                                            and increased economic benefit for the
oF THe rse scHeMe                                                                                                poor, while looking at how nZAID should
                                                  The UNHCR is feeding, housing and protecting a rising number
the movement of labour, including low-            of Iraqi refugees – IRIN                                       engage with pro-poor tourism in the future.
skilled labour, can make an important                                                                            Participation is by invitation.
contribution to development in developing         AID For DIsPlAceD IrAQIs
countries – providing opportunities for           new Zealand has pledged $1 million to the                      MDG-relATeD suPPorT
individuals to earn an income, acquire skills     united nations refugee agency, unHCR,                          For INDoNesIA
and be exposed to new ideas.                      which is feeding, housing and protecting a                     Development indicators in the
                                                  rising number of Iraqi refugees.                               Indonesian province of Papua are among
nZAID, along with other new Zealand
                                                  Escalating violence in Iraq has seen a                         the worst within the country and Papua
government agencies, has been involved
                                                  significant rise in the number of displaced                    is at great risk of failing to meet the
in the launch of the Recognised Seasonal
                                                  Iraqis. the unHCR estimates that over                          millennium Development Goal (mDG)
Employer (RSE) policy, an initiative that
                                                  3.9 million Iraqis have left their homes, with                 targets which are likely to be met
will meet the labour supply needs for
                                                  half that number having fled the country.                      nationally. nZAID is contributing uS$1.35
horticulture and viticulture industries within
                                                  the situation is predicted to worsen by the                    million (over nZ$1.9 million) to the united
new Zealand by facilitating the temporary
                                                  end of the year.                                               nations Development Programme to work
entry of overseas workers to plant, maintain,
                                                                                                                 towards strengthening local government and
harvest and pack crops.                           the pressure on surrounding countries is
                                                                                                                 civil society capacities to develop, implement
the work policy is geared towards Pacific         also immense. the un says this is the biggest
                                                                                                                 and monitor human development in Papua.
states. new Zealand employers are expected        movement of refugees in the middle East
                                                  since 1948, and countries like Syria, Jordan                   Specifically, the programme will provide
to try to recruit from Pacific Islands Forum
                                                  and Lebanon are reaching saturation point.                     support to strengthen skills in such
countries (except Fiji, which is currently
                                                                                                                 areas as planning, design, implementation
suspended). to kick-start the scheme,             new Zealand’s contribution will help Iraqis
                                                                                                                 and monitoring. It will also fund pilot
arrangements to facilitate recruitment and        displaced within their homeland as well as
                                                                                                                 programmes on specific approaches, thereby
pastoral care have been developed with            those who have fled to surrounding states.
                                                                                                                 improving Papuan communities’ access to
Kiribati, tonga, tuvalu, Samoa and Vanuatu.
                                                  NEWZAID                                                        appropriate health and education services,
                                                  Subscribe to the monthly e-newsletter                          and sustainable livelihoods opportunities.
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                                                  Visit www.nzaid.govt.nz for more information.

                                                                                                                                                              41
           contact NZAID

Private Bag 18-901, Wellington
             nEW ZEALAnD

       Phone +64 4 439 8314
            www.nzaid.govt.nz