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              Dr. Mashadi Said
(Secretary of Master‟s Program in Translation of
         Gunadarma University, Jakarta)

   Drs. In English Literature and Education, 1984
   Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Linguistics, 1990
   Magister in English Education, 1994
   Ph D. in English Education, 1998
1. What is translation?

a. Translation consists of transferring
the meaning of the source language
text into the receptor language text.
What is translation?
   B. . Catford (1965: 20) Translation is
    the replacement of textual material in
    one language by equivalent textual
    material in another language.
    (Penerjemahan adalah penggantian
    materi tekstual dalam suatu bahasa
    dengan materi tekstual yang padan
    dalam bahasa lain.
What is translation?
   C. Translating consists of reproducing in
    the receptor language the closest
    natural equivalent of the source
    language message, first in terms of
    meaning and secondly in terms of style
    (Nida and Taber, 1982)
What is translation?
   D. Translation is the general term referring to
    the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one
    language (source) to another (target),
    whether the languages are in written or oral
    form; whether the languages have
    established orthographies or do not have
    such standardization or whether one or both
    languages is based on signs, as with sign
    languages of the deaf (Brislin, 1976)
What is translation?
   E. Translation is a process of finding a
    TL equivalent for an SL utterance.
    (Pinhuhuck, 1977:38)
   F. Translation is a craft consisting in the
    attempt to replace a written message
    and/or statement in one language by
    the same message and/or statement in
    another language. (Newmark, 1981:7)
What is translation?
   G. (McGuire, 1980:2) Translation involves the
    rendering of a source language (SL) text into
    the target language (TL) so as to ensure that
    (1) the surface meaning of the two will be
    approximately similar and (2) the structure of
    the SL will be preserved as closely as
    possible, but not so closely that the TL
    structure will be seriously distorted.
What is translation?
   H. Translation is a transfer process
    which aims at the transformation of a
    written SL text into an optimally
    equivalent TL text, and which requires
    the syntactic, the systematic and the
    pragmatic understanding and analytical
    processing of the SL (Wilss and Noss,
What is the process of transferring the meaning
into the receptor lg. text?

  Translation consist of studying the lexicon,
  grammatical structure, communication
  situation, and cultural context of the source
  language text, analyzing it in order to
  determine its meaning, and then
  reconstructing this same meaning using the
  lexicon and grammatical structure which are
  appropriate in the receptor language and its
  cultural context.
3.   What are the characteristics of
     language which affect translation?
a) Meaning components are “packaged” into
   lexical items, but they are „packaged‟
   differently in one language than in another.
   Many times a single word in the source
   language will need to be translated by
   several words.
b) It is characteristic of language that the
   same meaning component will occur in
   several surface structure lexical items
3.   What are the characteristics of
     language which affect translation?

 c) It is further characteristics of languages
    that one form will be used to represent
    several alternative meaning.
 d) Whole sentences may also have several
    functions. A question form may be used
    for a nonquestion.
 e) A single meaning may be expressed in a
    variety of forms.
4. What is the goal of a translator?

The goal of a translator should be to
produce a receptor language text
(translation), which is idiomatic; that is,
one which has the same meaning as
the source language but is expressed in
the natural form of the receptor
language. The meaning, not the form,
is retained.
5.     Is it necessary to change the form
       when translating?

Anything that can be said in one language can be said in
another. It is possible to translate. The goal of the translator is
to keep the meaning constant. Whenever necessary, the
receptor language form should be changed in order that the
source language meaning not be distorted. Since a meaning
expressed by a particular form in one language may be
expressed by quite a different form in another language, it is
often necessary to change the form when translating. It is not
uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated
with an active construction or vice versa, depending on the
natural form of the receptor language.
6. What is literal Translation?

 Literal translation or form-based
 translation attempt to follow the form of
 the source language.
7. What is idiomatic translation?
 Idiomatic translation or meaning-based
 translations makes every effort to
 communicate the meaning of the source
 language text in the natural forms of the
 receptor language. The basic overriding
 principle is that an idiomatic translation
 reproduces the meaning of the source
 language (that is, the meaning intended by
 the original communicator) in the natural
 form of the receptor language.
8.     How does a translator know that he
       is successful in his translation task?

     He will know that he is successful if the
     receptor language readers do not
     recognize his work as a translation at
     all, but simply as a text written in the
     receptor language for their information
     and enjoyment.
 9.   How does a translator make his translation
      as dynamic as the original text?

For the translation to have the same
dynamics as the original, it will need to
natural and easy to understand so that
the readers will find it easy to grasp the
message, including both the information
and the emotional effect intended by
the source language writer.
10. What is non-equivalence?

 Non-equivalence at word level means
 that the target language has no direct
 equivalent for a word which occurs in
 the text.
11. Why non-equivalence?
   Culture-specific concepts (Religious
    belief, a social custom, or a type of food
    and tools).
12. How do we handle a non-
   Translation by a more general word
   Translation by a more natural/less
    expressive word
   Translation by cultural substitution
   Translation using a loan word or loan
    word plus explanation
12. How do we handle a non-
   Translation by paraphrase using a
    related word
   Translation by paraphrase using
    unrelated words
   Translation by omission
   Translation by illustration
13. How do we establish a
    translation project?

 There are a number of matters which
 include the text, the target, the team,
 and the tools which need to be clearly
 understood before beginning a
 translation project.
13. How do we establish a
    translation project?
   Text refers to the source language
    document which is to be translated
   Target refers to the audience. For
    whom is the translation being
    13. How do we establish a
        translation project?
   Team refers to the people who will be
    involved in the project. The team may consist
        1) co-translator, where one is a specialist in the
    source language and the other a specialist in the
    receptor language,
        2) a translator with capability to handle both
    source language and receptor language matters and
    ad advisor or consultant,
        3) a committee working together with specific
    responsibilities delegated to each one.
13. How do we establish a
    translation project?
   Tools refers to the written source
    materials which will be used by the
    translators as helps. These include
    dictionaries, lexicons, grammars,
    cultural descriptions, etc.

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