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					                     VAUXHALL and BOVEY TRACEY
  DATE                                                      EVENT                                                      SOURCE               RERERENCE
1704              Nicholas Crisp born; the son of Thomas Crispe, Citizen and Draper of London, and                                         Toppin, 1933,
                  grandson of Nicholas Crispe, Citizen and Girdler.                                                                        p.39,40,42
                  Thomas Crispe was of Whitham, Essex, and his uncle was Nicholas Chrispe of Chiswick,                                     Bradshaw 1992, p.31
                  and both had been resident in St. Mary le Bowe, Cheapside                                                                Massey 2002, p.96
1708
 2nd December     Nicholas Crisp’s fathers will, which describes him as ‘now about foure years’, leaves him                                Toppin 1933, p.42
                  the ‘Three Mariners with the Outhouses’ in Witham, Essex.
1725
                  Nicholas Crisp apprenticed as haberdasher                                                                                Bradshaw 1992, p.31

1732
          May     Nicholas Crisp was admitted a Freeman of the Haberdashers’ Company                                                       Toppin, 1933, p.40
1737
                  Nicholas Crisp obtained his freedom?                                                                                     Bradshaw 1992, p.31

1740
                  Nicholas Crisp becomes proprietor of a jewellery business in the Cornhill                                                Bradshaw 1992, p.31

1741
       9th July   Nicholas Crisp and his brother Thomas purchased from Jones Raymond one-sixteenth share           From an original bill   Toppin, 1933, p.40
                  of ‘the good ship Wager, burthen Five hundred ninety five ton or thereabout’ on her               of sale in Toppin’s
                  intended voyage to the East Indies (Captain Charles Raymond)                                          possession
1742
                  John Sanders or Saunders was a potter at Lambeth                                                                         Toppin 1946, p.168
1743
     Or earlier   John Sanders had insured his premises which included a workhouse, millhouse, new                                         Watney 1989, p.213
                  warehouse, clayhouse and kiln.
 10, 15, 21/22,   Advertisement for house which Sanders and Crisp paid has been identified as paying rate           Public Advertiser      Valpy 1987, p.87
  24 February     rates for (1753)
                    ‘To be Lett or Sold,
                  A House call’d the TURRETT-HOUSE, between Vaux-Hall and Nine Elms, with a Garden
                  and GROUND adjoining the Thames, very fit for a Distiller, Malster, Timber-Merchant,
                  and such-like Trades, and with or without three Docks for Timber.
                  Particulars to be had at Haberdashers Hall in Maiden-Lane, London; and Proposals for
                  the taking the same will be receiv’d there on or before Wednesday the 2d of March next,
                  when a Committee will meet at Ten o’Clock in the Forenoon for letting or selling the same.’
1745
19th September    An entry in the Poor Rate book for Princes Liberty in the Parish of Lambeth shows ‘John                                  Mallet 1982, p.131
                  Saunders & Co.’ as paying £1 12s. 6d. for the rate declared (This entry follows that for
                  Henry Richards, who is listed as paying 5s. 6d.)
1751
     24th June    A 10 year soap Rock mining licence was granted to ‘Nicholas Crisp of London, Jeweller                                    Nance 1935, p.78,79
                  and John Sanders of Lambeth in the County of Surrey, Potter’ by the Right Honble Hugh                                    Toppin 1946, p.168
                  Viscount Falmouth on the Lizard peninsula.                                                                               Godden 1957, p.67
                  Grant ‘to work upon certain veins or lodes of Mineral Earth commonly called the Soapy                                    Mallet 1982, p.131
                  Rock on that part of Lord Falmouth’s lands in the Parish of Landewednack from the extent                                 Watney 1989, p.213
                  of the Cliffs next to the Sea as far East on the course of the said veins as 50 fathoms                                  Massey 2002, p.96
                  provided the said 50 fathoms do not extend within one fathom of the several or enclosed
                  lands there and in extent from Gothillian Mill North as far as Chynance within the said
                  Parish of Landewednack as the same is now portioned out and allotted Excepting all Tin
                  Toll Tin Works Copper Ore Copper Works Lead Ore and all other mines minerals and
                  metals.’ Dues, one guinea per ton.
10th September    John Sanders insured ‘a brick kiln house for his Pothouse Yard on the E side of Back Lane’                               Britton 1987, p.61
                  for £200; the dimensions being ’40 X 37 = 1480 1 Lofty Storey with Luffer Hole’                                          Watney 1989, p.213
1752
     Or earlier   Nicholas Crisp joined John Saunders at a small porcelain factory in Vauxhall                                             Bradshaw 1992, p.31
              -   The factory was a building of at least three stories, with three trap doors for the purpose of        From ‘The          Toppin, 1933, p.38
                  lowering packages from the upper stories. The factory had an outer yard, closed with ‘great       Reminiscences’ of
                  gates’.                                                                                            John Bacon RA,
                                                                                                                    sculptor and son of
                                                                                                                   John Bacon, Crisp’s
                                                                                                                      apprentice and
                                                                                                                       afterwards an
                                                                                                                   eminent sculptor and
                                                                                                                   RA, written in 1874,
                                                                                                                        then in the possession
                                                                                                                         of a descendant, Mr.
                                                                                                                            John Maunsell
                                                                                                                        Bacon, and examined
                                                                                                                              by Toppin
    Or earlier     Nicholas Crisp was established at Bow Churchyard                                                                              Toppin, 1933, p.40
     autumn         First shipment of soapy rock, 29tons and 12cwt. The Rev. William Borlase refered to                                          Charleston and
                   barrels of steatite being sent to Bristol (Lunds) and London.                                                                 Mallet 1971, p.106
                                                                                                                                                 Watney 1989, p.213
1753
       21st May    Notice of porcelain ware by Mr. Sanders                                                                Public Advertiser      Valpy 1982, p.124
                      ‘                    To the PUBLIC.                                                                                        Watney1989, p.213
                      At Mr. SANDER’s, near the Plate Glasshouse, Vauxhall, is now to be sold, a strong and                                      Massey 2002, p.97
                   useful Manufacture of PORCELAINE WARE, made there of English Materials.
                      The Degree of Success, which has already attended the several Attempts, lately made in
                   England for establishing a Manufactory of Porcelain in Imitation of the Ware of China,
                   gives Reason to hope, that this Design will still continue to be carried on, till it arrive at its
                   due Degree of Perfection.
                      The Pottery Manufacture has, till of late, been so little cultivated in this Country, that all
                   the finest kind of that Ware made from our own Materials was wrought abroad, and
                   imported to us from Holland, under the Name of Delft ware; so denominated from the Town
                   where it was made. \not only the Lead and Tin for Glazing, but the very Earth of which it
                   was formed, was carried from us, like our Wool in ancient Times, to be manufactured in a
                   foreign Country. But for some Time past, by the Industry of our Potters, our Manufacture of
                   Earthen Ware has so much improved, as fully to equal, if not exceed the Dutch; insomuch,
                   that we not only supply ourselves, but even export considerable Quantities.
                      However, the finest of our Manufacture in this Kind, is no other than a course Earth,
                   baked and glazed over with a thin Coat of vitrified Materials, so that the Earth does neither
                   unite into a solid Body, nor admit the Glazing, with which it is covered, to adhere firmly to
                   it; by this Means, not only any sudden Heat, but even the Moisture of the Air, will cause the
                   Glazing to crack and flake off.
                      The Porcelaine Ware of China is free from these Imperfections, and is on this Account
                   become of such general Use, that it must be considered as a great Acquisition to this
                   Nation, could a domestic Manufacture be introduced, that might supply the Place of this
                   foreign Commodity.
                      The essential Properties of China-ware, besides the Beauty of its Colours, are these: That
                   it is as smooth, and as easily cleaned as Glass, and at the same Time bears the hottest
                   Liquors without Danger of breaking. And all European Manufactures are fitted for general
                   Use, in Proportion as they come up to these Characters. And tho’ all the Attempts among us
                   for bringing Pottery-ware to this Perfection are of a very recent Date, yet the Progress,
                   which has already been made herein, gives such a Prospect of farther Success, that it is to
                   be presumed, every one will consider the encouraging and promoting this Design, as doing
                   a considerable Service to the Publick.
        3rd July   Nicholas Crisp of Bow Churchyard, jeweler, bound his apprentice Edward Crisp, son of his                                      Toppin, 1933, p.40
                   brother Thomas of Hackney, diamond cutter.
               -   Battersea Rate Books show that Sanders & Co. were in possession of a Windmill in Nine                Battersea Rate Books     Toppin 1946, p.167
                   Elms adjacent to the ‘Territ House’, together with two Adjoining houses £25 & £30,                                            Watney 1989, p.213
                   For the first quarter they show a Robert Legg as occupier of ‘Dock and Land of Saunders &
                   Co.’ rated at £6, the next two entries being for … Studwell, rated £4, and Saunders & Co.
                   for ‘Mill and 2 Houses,’ rated at £25 and £30. (William Studwell is shown as living at Nine
                   Elms in 1732/3 when his son William was baptized.
                   Saunders & Co. occupied the mill and two houses from the beginning of 1755 to the end of
                   1757, when this entry disappeared.
1754
               -   Battersea Rate Books give the entry ‘Sanders & Crisp for Territt House, £20.’ For one                                         Toppin 1946, p.167
                   quarter only, and Robert Legg had occupied the ‘Tarret’ house in 1752.                                                        Watney 1989, p.213
               -   Nicholas Crisp is shown as a Liveryman of London                                                                              Toppin, 1933, p.40
               -   The following statement appeared in the public advertiser:                                                                    Watney1989, p.214
                     We hear that Mr. Delamain the inventor of the kiln for burning white glazed earthenware
                   with pit-coal instead of wood, has lodged a model of his kiln with the ingenious Mr.
                   Saunders, Potter of Vauxhall.’
                   This could have been for delftware or porcelain
               -   Nicholas Crisp is co-author of a pamphlet attacking the Lord Mayer of London entitled                                         Hillier 1996, p.7 on
                     ‘A refutation of Sir Crisp Gascoyne’s Address to the Liverymen of London.’
                   This was written with five other men in connection with the Elizabeth Canning scandal
    22 March       One of the Founding Members of The Society of Arts
1755
       3rd May     A receipt book belonging to Samuel Martin contains entry                                               BM Additional          Valpy 1988, p.158
                     ‘3 May 1755. Pd. Mr. Crisp of Bow Church Yard for four small figures of Vauxhall China             Manuscripts 41, 358,     Watney1989, p.214
                       – a guinea and a half as pr. rect of Smith for                                                         f.144              Bradshaw 1992, p.31
                                                                 Crisp & Co.
                     _____
                     1:11;6
  Whitsuntide      In the bankruptcy case of Michael Alcock and William Kempston, the petitioner John                   Public Record Office     Toppin, 1933, p.30
                   Bolton stated that at Whitsuntide, 1755, he was prevailed upon by William Kempson to                 in a bankruptcy case     Watney1989, p.214
                   quit the services of Messrs Crispe and Saunders, by whom he was then employed in their                   of Alcock and
                   China Manufactory at Vauxhall…(in order to set up a porcelain manufactory in Kemtish                  Kempson, tried by
                  Town).                                                                                            the Earl of Hardwick
                  The text reads John Bolton who then lived and was ‘employed in the China Manufactory at           on May 4th 1756 and
                  Vauxhall in the County of Surrey under the management and direction of Messieurs Crispe                referring to a
                  and Saunders to quit their service and to engage himself in the service of the said William        previous petition by
                  Kempson in a Porcelaine Manufatory which the said William Kempston had then an                        John Bolton of
                  intention to set up and establish at Kentish Town in Middlesex.’                                     March 30th 1756
              -   Reference to the sculptor John Bacon being bound as Crisp’s apprentice at Vauxhall                The British Magazine    Toppin, 1933,
                    ‘In the year 1755, he was placed with Mr. Crisp of Bow Church tard, who having a                    and Review, or      p.38,40
                  Manufactory of China at Lambeth, which Mr. Bacon sometimes attended, he had an                           Universal        Mallet 1982, p.131
                  opportunity of observing the models of different sculptors, which were frequently sent to a       Miscellany,October,     Watney1989, p.214
                  pottery in the same premises to be burned. The sight of these models inspired him with an           1782, Vol.1, p.256
                  inclination of this art.’                                                                               Also in The
                  Further accounts based on these are given in Cecil’s ‘Memoir of Bacon’ published 1801,             European Magazine
                  and Cunningham’s ‘Lives of the Most Eminent British Sculptors & Architects’, 1830, also            and London Review
                  containing some additions about the things he modeled and painted.                                   for August 1790
       7th June     ‘Court Day the seventh (sixth in Watney)June 1755, John Bacon, son of Thomas Bacon,                 In Crisp’s City
                  of the parish of St. Savoir, Southwark. Bound to Nicholas Crisp, by Indenture for seven                  Company
                  years dated above’
              -   The same statement is given of his apprenticeship in the Gentleman’s Magazine for 1799,              Gentleman’s          Toppin, 1933, p.38
                  p.808,                                                                                             Magazine for 1799,
                    ‘In the year 1755, and at the age of 14, he was bound apprentice to Mr. Crispe of Bow                 p.808
                  church-yard, where he was employed in painting on porcelain. Mr. Crispe had a
                  manufactory of china in Lambeth, where Mr. B. occasionally went and assisted. His then
                  occupation, indeed, was but a feeble step towards his future acquirements, as he was
                  chiefly employed in forming shepherds, shepherdesses, and such like small ornamental
                  pieces, yet, for a self-taught artist to perform even works like these with taste, and, in less
                  than two years, form, (as he did), all the models for the manufactory, was to give
                  indications of no ordinary powers…...In attending the manufactory at Lambeth he had an
                  opportunity of observing the models of different sculptors, which were sent to a pottery, on
                  the same premises, to be burnt. Small circumstances often give rise to important events.
                  From the sight of these models Mr. B. was first inspired with an inclination towards his
                  art…’
1757
       1st June   In the Scavengers’ Rate John Sanders is rated at 24 and had to pay 1s. 6d. (there is no                                   Mallet 1982, p.131
                  mention of Henry Richards as in the 1745 rate)
              -   Crisp and Sanders take out insurance policy in relation to a windmill in Vauxhall                                         Wills ?
                                                                                                                                            Massey 2002, p.96
1758
              -   John Sanders dies and leaves his pottery business to his son William and son-in-law Henry                                 Watney1989, p.215
                  Richards, and from 1759 to 1766 the Nine Elms property is entered as Sanders and                                          Massey 2002, p.97
                  Richards & Co. Mortimer’s Directory for 1763 gives Sanders and Richards of Vauxhall,
                  potters manufacturing blue and white and plain white Earthern Ware.
              -   Crisp enters a manuscript for the gold medal offered by the Society for the Arts for ‘the best       Erskine Muray        Mallet 1973, p.95
                  treatise on searching for cobalt, trying it, and making zaffre and smalt with it’                  archives MS 5153       Turnbull 1997, p.147
                  A copy of this manuscript was sent to Lord Alva (Lord Barjarg) from which he could have
                  a copy made. This is now in the Erskine Murray archives, MS 5153 and consists of forty
                  eight quarto pages bound in vellum, and starts with translations of foreign descriptions of
                  methods of processing cobalt ore including an engraving of a German furnace, and
                  followed by details of the authors system. There are four painted plans from different
                  perspectives of the English reverbatory furnace used to smelt the cobalt ore.
                  An accompanying letter from Crisp which is undated, but probably about 1762, is also in
                  the archives. This letter goes on to say
                    ‘I am erecting for grinding our hard bodies of a Mill of a very simple Construction which
                  I will endeavour to make your Lordship know, it is extremely simple and cheap and may be
                  made by a Carpenter, it is taken from the Staffordshire Mill the Makers of the White-Stone-
                  Ware use…’
1759
              -   Crisp and Sanders insure their property with the Hand in Hand insurance company                                           Toppin 1946, p.167
                    ‘A building value £350 brick, £50 timber, being a windmill etc. in a yard on the NW side                                Watney1989, p.213
                  of the Road from Vauxhall to Nine Elms behind the Teritt House in their own possession:
                  Windmill 4 sto high 32ft dia. With a stage round 9ft. wide £250 Drying Sheds, House & 62
                  X 16 = 992 £100. Stables behind do 78 X 18 = 1248 £50.’
                  Three weeks later on 13th Feb
                    ‘a timber building being two tenements on the N side of a lane leading from Vauxhall to
                  Nine Elms being the first building W from the 3-mile stone now in possession of Crisp &
                  Sanders £200. Also a timber house in a yard behind the aforesaid house on the N side of the
                  Lane aforesaid known by the Terit House in their own possession £350 being 2 sto &gtts 30
                  X 30 = 900 £340, and shed 14 X 10 = 140, £10.’
                  None of these were renewed after their term of seven years ending 1766
1760
   1st January    Viscount Falmouth transferred the soap rock licence (granted in 1751) to John Baddely of                                  Watney1989, p.215
                  Shelton and William Yates of Newcastle-under-Lyme, for a term of 10 years                                                 Massey 2002, p.97
1761
       7th July   Edward Crisp, the nephew of Nicholas Crisp, of Cornhill, Jeweler and Goldsmith, obtained                                  Toppin, 1933, p.40
                  his freedom in the Haberdashers’ Company
                    ‘by Nicholas Crisp…Bowchurch Yard, Cheapside, Jeweller.’
                  Note: this is not St. Mary, Stratford, Bow, Middlesex, near the Bow China Works
       9th July   In the Scavengers Rate, Henry Richards takes the place of John Sanders’ name , the                                        Mallet 1982, p.132
                  property is still rated at 24, Richards paying 2s. 0d.
17th September    Letter from Nicholas Crisp to James Erskine, Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) concerning the           Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.145
                  Scottish cobalt mine in the Ochill hills                                                              archive in the
                    ‘Sir I recd your favour yesterday by a Gentleman with severall specimens of Ore of                National Library of
                  Cobalt. Upon the inspection of them I am more convinced of it from the resemblance they                  Scotland,
                  bear to some Cobalt I tried last year from the same mine, which was very good, in my                 MS5098 f. 126
                  opinion that sample was equal to the Saxon.’
                  A postscript to the letter gives the prices paid in London for zaffre:
                    ‘10s. to 20 shillings pr lb according to its goodness. Smalt is from 7d. pr lb to 2s. pr lb in
                  proportion to its goodness…..we have lately sent an order to Saxony for a cask of the best
                  Zaffre that can be provided. If we can have it, will send you some samples of it, and the
                  price.’
26th September    A Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva describe various trials carried out on the cobalt          Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.145
                  ore                                                                                                   archive in the
                    ‘another property I observe in these ores, and in the Zaffre made from them is, that they         National Library of
                  are apt to spread in the fire, not give a clean distinct line, well defined, but an uneven, or as        Scotland,
                  we term it a Wooly line.’                                                                            MS5098 f. 128
  13th October    Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva in connection with an undertaking to find a                  Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.146
                  Cornish miner to send to Scotland:                                                                    archive in the
                    ‘I have at last met a man from Cornwall to send into your country. I have wrote to him            National Library of
                  tonight to sett out directly or as soon as he can settle his affairs.’                                   Scotland,
                  This was a Mr. Phillips who duly arrived in Alva, and appears to have remained there for              MS5098 f. 13
                  some time, closely involved with the mine.
    November      Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva concerning further trials of the Scottish cobalt:            Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.145
                    This morning I have had some Tryalls, brought home of the Cobalts Nos. 2, 3 and the                 archive in the
                  Zaffre No. 10. I have had them go through a long tryall at our manufacture of                       National Library of
                  Porcelain…..We have roasted it a good deal which has improved it, and the colour is                      Scotland,
                  strong and good but spreads a good deal.’                                                             MS5098 f. 136
29th December     A company was set up to exploit the cobalt mine and Lord Alva suggested that Nicholas                Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.145
                  Crisp become a partner. There were ten partners in total each committed to provide £300 of            archive in the
                  capital and the ‘Articles of Agreement of the Copartnery for raising & manufacturing cobalt         National Library of
                  and other metals and minerals…’ were signed between 11 th March 1761 and 2nd February                    Scotland,
                  1762. Subscriber number eight was Nicholas Crisp Esq. of Bow Church Yard who                         MS5099 f. 49, 50
                  acknowledged receipt of the articles on 29th December and said he would sign them. The
                  lease of the mine was for thirty years from 1st January 1761, one of the conditions being
                  that ‘ the Company shall have equal to eight pickmen employed for at least six months of
                  the year.’
              -   Porcelain factory fails ?                                                                                                 Bradshaw 1992, p.31
1762
                  An advertisement gives Crisp’s Cornhill shop as ‘next door to Johnson’s Coffee House.’                                    Toppin, 1933, p.41
                  In Mortimers Directory under potters, Sanders and Richards of Vauxhall appear, but                                        Toppin, 1933, p.41
                  Nicholas and Edward Crisp are shown as Jewellers of Bow Churchyard, or Cornhill..
     16th April   Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva giving him                                                   Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.145
                    ‘a power for your Lordship to vote for me at our quarterly Courts or when they are                  archive in the
                  held…’                                                                                              National Library of
                                                                                                                           Scotland,
                                                                                                                       MS5098 f. 152
       4th May    Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva indicating that he remained a jeweller                       Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.149
                     ‘I am much obliged to your Lordship for your recommendation to Sir James Erskine and               archive in the
                  if any Gentleman wants anything in the way of Iewells and are not particularly engaged I            National Library of
                  shall be much obliged for your Lordship’s recommendations, flattering my self that in point              Scotland,
                  of Ellegance, of cheapness, I shall at least equall any other….’                                     MS5098 f. 157
     11th May     Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) concerning the Scottish                 Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.146
                  cobalt mine in the Ochill hills and firstly mentioning the possibility of finding silver near         archive in the
                  the cobalt ore ‘for the cobalt contains no inconsiderable quantity of it.’                          National Library of
                  He then describes his porcelain activities                                                               Scotland,
                     ‘I formerly hinted to your Lordship that I had a work which could be applied to the               MS5098 f. 160
                  making of zaffre and smalt without much expence. It is a porcellane work, in which we have
                  Mills, and Furnaces, to Burn, Calcine, Melt, and Grind our Glaze, Blue & Materialls, and
                  by the means of which I have had much experience in the making Glass and all
                  compositions of Vitrifiable Earths, colouring metals, and zaffre – and could dispose of the
                  Zaffre if there is quantity sufficient to all the Houses who consume it as we have sold
                  considerable quantities after improving it, better than it came from Saxony.’
                  With regards to obtaining help from Germany he writes
                     ‘If an expert Miner could be gott, I should be very glad, but they are in Germany no great
                  proficients in Glass Works. And I have had very costly experience of German
                  Knowledge….It has cost me a great deal to find out that a German when he comes here
                  knows little, their Fewells, materials, and construction of their Furnaces are different, and
                  to this day they do not know the true application of the reverberatory Furnace, which is the
                  most usefull of all in the application of the Fewell of this Country.’ (meaning coal)
                  He then lists the materials for making zaffre and smalt
                     ‘The first thing necessary (after the cobalt) is a Clean Fusible Sand…’ and recommends
                  sand from the Isle of Wight, some of which was exported to Scotland. He also emphasized
                  the need to sve the arsenic and sulphur produced, ‘not only in point of profit but also to
                  prevent poisoning the Ground and Air, and killing or at least hurting the Inhabitents and
                  Cattle.’
1763
            -   In Mortimers Directory for this year, the firm is listed as ‘Sanders and Richards, Vauxhall’       Mortimers Universal   Toppin 1946, p.168
                                                                                                                   Directory for 1763    Mallet 1982, p.132
       nd
   22 March     Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) asking for a ton of ore                Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.148
                  ‘as I have a place ready and a Furnace immediately to work a considerable quantity I do            archive in the
                not see why half a tonn or more may not be worked every week.’                                     National Library of
                                                                                                                        Scotland,
                                                                                                                     MS5099 f. 7, 8
   29th March   In a letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva describing some problems with crucibles, he            Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.148
                writes:                                                                                              archive in the
                  ‘I have given a small quantity of each to one of our best Chymists to see what he can            National Library of
                make of it without letting him into my method, which is something singular.’                            Scotland,
                                                                                                                    MS5099 f. 9, 10
     20th May   Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva about some success in extracting cobalt, he had             Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.148
                  ‘calcined it together, and in two or three roastings in our Kilns brought it to as Good            archive in the
                Zaffre as any from Saxony.’,                                                                       National Library of
                Following which considerable quantities of ore were shipped down to him.                                Scotland,
                In September Eighteen items are listed in a                                                          MS5099 f. 19,
                  ‘Note of casks sent to Mr. Crisp at London from Alva on board Lovely Anne at Leith,                MS 5099 f. 25
                John Smith Master.’
            -   Crisp and his brother had been entrusted with the pension fund of John Andrews who was                                   Massey 2002, p.97
                working in India for the East India Company, and holding about £18000 which had been
                speculatively invested in cargoes of various ships, contrary to Andrews instructions.
   November     Nicholas Crisp was one of the Assignees of the estate of Andrew Hunter, of Great Russell                                 Toppin, 1933, p.40
                Street, Bloomsbury, Jeweller, who was bankrupt, and had taken upon himself the sole care                                 Watney1989, p.215
                and management of Hunter’s affairs, on behalf of his creditors. He seems to have collected                               Massey2002, p.97
                about £2000, but by October of the following year he failed to produce the balance of
                £1500 owing to the creditors, ‘obsconded,’ and turned insolvent. The following month
                (November 1763), a commission of bankrupt was awarded against Nicholas Crisp, Edward
                Crisp (nephew), and Thomas Crisp (elder brother), Merchants, Jewellers and Partners.
                Their joint and separate estates and effects were seized, and Nicholas Crisp was discharged
                from being an Assignee of Hunters Estate.
20th December   Letter from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) concerning the Scottish cobalt         Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.149
                mine in the Ochill hills                                                                             archive in the      Massey 2002, p.98
                  ‘My Lord, Your Lordship’s last favour and for which in my situation I consider my self as        National Library of
                very particularly obliged is not just now before me, as I am just come from examining the               Scotland,
                Cobalts. No. 1 is a very excellent one indeed, No. 2 very fine, and the following Numbers,           MS5099 f. 27
                all of which are exceedingly good, except No. 13 gives a very good colour both on Earthen
                Ware, and China, and if the others were not so fine I should consider that as a considerable
                acquisition….. I have made some excellent zaffre, with No. 1 which in my opinion exceeds
                the famous Mazareen blue of the Chelsea Manufactures a piece of which I propose to send
                down as soon as they are finished. I have also made some smalt from the same, which is
                very fine and strong better for painting than the foreign smalt as it is stronger. But it is not
                quite so bright as the foreign so that I must have further tryall at that. I am persuaded that
                we have the opertunities of selling among the trade all the Zaffre that is used in this
                Kingdom. For I am clear we can make it much better from this ore than what is imported
                from abroad. I hope my Lord this will give you great satisfaction in the concern at Alva. I
                have spent a great part of the Leisure hours of my life in the porcellane, Delft, and stone
                ware Manufactures. I am very loath to give them up now, when they are brought to great
                perfection. If that must be my fate my Lord here, is there any prospect or probability of
                Erecting them in Scotland to advantage, your Lordships thoughts on this head will be very
                obliging.’
1764
    February    Nicholas Crisp was again in the Bankruptcy Court for appropriating £95 which he had                                      Toppin, 1933, p.41
                collected as Treasurer of a fund supporting the Minister of the Congregation of Protestant                               Watney1989, p.215
                Dissenters, assembling at the meeting house in Bury Street, of which ‘for a great many
                years’ before his bankruptcy he had been a member.
        March   Crisp stops paying his £2 subscription to the Society of Arts.                                                           Watney1989, p.215
   24th March   Further correspondence from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) showing                Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.150
                some optimism in his cobalt workings                                                                 archive in the
                  ‘My Lord, I have received a pleasure this Afternoon, which has so elevated my spirits, I         National Library of
                cannot help communicated to your Lordship. Besides the Smalt before the Society, I have                 Scotland,
                been making some at home in my own wind furnace four samples of which I have produced                MS5099 f. 39
                to an imminent Colourman, with some of the best I could import from Saxony of the FFF (a
                measurement of fineness). He has tried them all without being informed of the FFF being
                foreign and he has fixed upon that as the worst of the five, and that the other four were
                greatly preferable to it. This has cleared up all my difficulties, and given me so much
                pleasure I could not help communicating it to your Lordship immediately. The consumption
                of this article is very great.’
                Also in an undated letter Crisp wrote of making a ‘quantity of something more than the
                weight required of exceeding good smalt and zaffre to be delivered to the Society on
                Tuesday next. The Smalt is ground in our Windmill and the Zaffre made with sand we use in
                the Composition of our Glaze.’ In persuit of his claim for the premium being offered by the
                Society of Arts. (MS 5099 f. 153)
   31st March   Discussing more sample trials, Nicholas Crisp wrote to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg):              Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.150
                  ‘to my surprise….gave a very good purple colour, by which I suppose it is a species of             archive in the
                magnesia…I shall try this purple colour further in glass, on the pottery and porcellane…’          National Library of
                He goes on to say ‘The Society have not yet enered upon the premium for the Zaffre and                  Scotland,
                   Smalt but have confirmed the premium of £100 for establishing a manufacture for those              MS5099 f. 41
                   articles’. He wanted to do two or three more trials before offering the material for sale. He
                   finishes his letter by asking ‘how your Lordship likes those Little Vases.’
     21st April    At a meeting of the Society of Arts Chemistry Committee Nicholas Crisp is awarded a £50                                Mallet 1972/3
                   premium for zaffre and smalt from British cobalt, and described as ‘Watchmaker of Bow                                  Watney1989, p.215
                   Church Yard’                                                                                                           Turnbull 1997, p.150
           May     Nicholas Crisp, Thomas Crisp (then of Catherine Court – London Magazine, August 1764 –                                 Toppin, 1933, p.41
                   bankrupt), and Thomas Saunders were brought to the bankruptcy court by John Andrews,                                   Watney1989, p.215
                   who had been in India between 1756 and 1761 and sent money to them for investment.
                   They had not done this and owed him £13157 19s. 9d. besides interest. Whether he
                   recovered this money is not known.
       31st May    Auction of Crisp porcelain stock                                                                  Daily Advertiser     Valpy 1987, p.86
        1st June     ‘28/30 May, 1Jjune, 1764.                                                                                            Watney1989, p.215
                     To be sold by Auction by S. TAYLOR, Exchange-Broker, at his Room over the Royal                                      Massey 2002, p.97
                   Exchange, on Thursday next, at Twelve o’Clock, by Order of the Assignees of Mess.
                   CRISPS, All the entire Stock of their valuable Porcelain Manufactory at Lambeth, which is
                   removed for Conveniency to Taylor’s Room over the Royal Exchange; consisting of curious
                   Figures, all Sorts of the ornamental Toys, Knife-Handles, and Variety of all Kinds of useful
                   Sorts, etc.
                     To be seen on Tuesday Morning, from Eleven o’Clock, till six, every Day, and on the
                   Sale-Day, till One; where Catalogues may be had gratis; and at his House in Batholomew-
                   Close.’
        4th July   John Bacon comes out of his apprenticeship two years after it should have expired.                Haberdashers’        Toppin, 1933, p.41
                     Freedom . John Bacon, of Paternoster Row, Spitalfields, London, by Nicholas Crisp, of          Company records       Watney1989, p.216
                   Bow Churchyard, Traveller.’
   22/25 Dec.      In a newspaper advertisement is the announcement                                                                       Watney1989, p.217
                     ‘A few Gentlemen of Fortune have undertaken to set up a new manufactory of China at                                  Adams & Thomas
                   Exeter’.                                                                                                               1996, p.18
                                                                                                                                          Massey 2002, p.98
                   Thomas Crisp dies                                                                                                      Toppin, 1933, p.41
1765
       undated     A final letter in the archive from Nicholas Crisp to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) bearing       Erskine Murray       Turnbull 1997, p.150
                   the date 1765 on the back and written in another hand mentions sending samples of smalt            archive in the      Massey 2002, p.98
                   and goes on                                                                                      National Library of
                     ‘I have found out a place where Coals, and the Sand these samples are made from are to              Scotland,
                   be had for almost nothing, with a River to wash the Smalts with a [clear] as crystal, and          MS5099 f. 52
                   where a Mill is already erected for another purpose on a Rapid Stream which has put me
                   out of coceit with the Town.’ (Bovey Tracey?)
1766
   10/12 June      A newspaper announcement states                                                                 London Evening Post    Watney1989, p.217
                     ‘We are informed that a considerable manufacture of English porcelaine is going to be                                Adams & Thomas
                   established in a cheap country, a few miles West of Exeter, that this manufacture is on the                            1996, p.18
                   true principles of the Chinese porcelaine, the materials being English earth alone, without                            Massey 2002, p.98
                   the mixture of any foreign materials or composition of art whatever’
1767
   3rd January     In a letter from William Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                British Library     Massey 2002, p.106
                      We intend to continue our Experiments in the small Kiln mention’d in my last, so long as
                   it will afford us any Lights, and shall Endeavour to make Ware as perfect as we possibly
                   can in this Kiln; in order to this I intend in my way home to call at Bovey on a Potter, who
                   is a good hand in turning Vessells and Understands the Application of the Glaze – When we
                   have done all we can this way, we intend to build a small kiln at Plymouth with a
                   proportionate Apparatus and employ this single Hand in making White China ware.’
 27th February     In a letter from William Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                               Cornwall County      Wills 1980
                      ‘Potter is a young man bred up in the Bovey Pottery and a pretty good Workman that can         Records Office,      Massey 2002, p.106
                   make common Vessels very well, and I believe is handy enough in the Application of glaze.             Truro
                   I know he carried on a little Manufacture of the Tortoise Shell ware at Bovey in which the
                   Application of the Glaze is the same as ours, so I think he will be a very Proper hand to
                   begin with, but as soon as we can make perfect ware I Intirely agree with thee that the best
                   hands we can procure should be Entertained, both as Potter and Painter and Burner.’
                   The Bovey potter is engaged on 13th March.
   14th March      Crisp was not present at a meeting of the Society of Arts when a premium for the                                       Watney1989, p.216
                   manufacture of porcelain was discussed by the Committee for Chemistry
       3rd May     In a letter from William Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                               Cornwall County      Wills 1980
                      I order’d the potter to come to Plymouth but having heard nothing from him I am                Records Office,      Massey 2002, p.106
                   apprehensive my letter Miscarried – Bovey being out of the post Road. I have by this Post             Truro
                   writ him and A friend I have in that place to hasten him away and to send us some Tuns of
                   pipeclay from Teighnmouth which we shall want for Cassettes and which I had ordered…
                   as soon as the potter hath finish’d our Remaining experiments in the little kiln I intend to
                   send him down to St. Stephens to fix this Mill and Set it to Work.’
                   The potter had still not come on 12th May
27th September     In a letter from William Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                               Cornwall County      Wills 1980 &1998,
                      ‘I sent thee by the Fowey post a few pieces of Porcellien done at Bovey…’                      Records Office,      P. 7
                                                                                                                         Truro            Watney1989, p.217
                                                                                                                                          Adams & Thomas
                                                                                                                                          1996, p.19
                                                                                                                                          Massey 2002, p.106
   6th October     In a letter from William Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                British Library     Massey 2002, p.106
                   ‘On my return from Bovey two days since, I rec. thine of 29th ult. And although I can give
                 thee no acct of our Experiments (ie in Plymouth) … yet as I thought that my Acct of what
                 hath been and is about to be done at Bovey should be agreeable to thee I have forwarded a
                 letter on that head…
                   we shall have some considerable Assistance from the Bovey hands in point of Elegance,
                 there being one of them who hath work’d in all the China factorys in England but
                 Worcester.
                   It is easy to see that N. Crisp wants to have the Affair at first carried into a Considerable
                 Manufacture at Bovey, this is very Natural as he hath been at a great Expense about
                 Erections &c. but nothing can determine this in his favour but the suitableness of the coals
                 to our process. I told him so plainly and that he must not expect the Interest of the concern
                 could be sacrificed to any view of his. He appeared candid enough not to expect it. What
                 was agreed on was, that we are to send him 3 or 4 hundred weight of the Materials for them
                 to try their skill on in the round kiln’s, these experiments are to be made with a View to
                 profit as well as the cleanliness of the ware, a few pretty samples must not determine the
                 merits of the case but the productions of whole kilns,the expense of this by his acc. Will not
                 exceed 10 or 12 Guineas he is to render a Regular Acct of this. And as I told him there can
                 be no doubt but for his own sake he will be a good Oeconomist, we shall send him the
                 materials the latter End of this week, thou mayest rest fully satisfied of his being sincerely
                 and Cordially embark’d with us, the Man is I think naturally fair and Ingenuous. Nothing
                 but our Undertaking can keep him from Sinking, he and indeed all his Workmen are in the
                 highest Spirits at the View of the Connextion they cannot say Enough of the Excellence of
                 our Materials and appear sincerely certain that we cannot fail of Success, they have
                 finish’d and burnt a handsome figure. I think above a foot high and have fine moulds for the
                 Figures of the seasons, that are about 20 inches high, from which figures are to be wrought
                 and burnt when we send them the Stock of Materials, as they are rapidly Expeditious. I
                 make no doubt but in a very few weeks to send thee Sundry idols of this kind, that may
                 without discredit to Western Materials or Pottery, stand the Criticism of the Ladies, but we
                 cannot whatever hands we have arrive at Perfection, in any part of our works immediately,
                 our Materials to attain this must be prepared Mixt up and laid by to Mellow for some
                 Months, but this will not stop us from doing somethings I hope not Unprofitability in a
                 smaller way
                   Some of the Proprietors thinking the Penalty of £1000 to small on my Representing this to
                 N. Crisp he readily agreed to make it £10,000, which I shall soon get done, upon the whole
                 the Bovey Negotiation turn’d out very Satisfactory. ‘twas conducted with frankness and
                 Candour on all sides. And it gives me pleasure to hope that a Man Ingenious Enough and to
                 all Appearance honest, with a very decent Family may meet with an Asylum in our
                 Undertaking to all our Mutual Advantages.’
  23rd October   The next letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                   Cornwall County    Wills 1980 &1998,
                   ‘Our Potter is a poor fireman, he acted I don’t doubt for the best and burnt a great deal       Records Office,    P. 9
                 of Wood with his Chark pitcoal, which chill’d the latter and I am convinc’d it was the cause          Truro          Watney1989, p.217
                 of the Miscarriage in both burnings.                                                                                 Adams & Thomas
                   I have just recd the figure I mention’d in my last from Bovey which I shall send thee pr                           1996, p.19
                 the next wagon. Nicholas Crisp is preparing for burning, having recd a pretty large                                  Massey 2002, p.107.
                 Quantity of Materials from us, he makes no doubt of carrying the affair Immediately into
                 Manufacture which he will certainly do if his kilns answer, I have given him every
                 Intimation that my thought and Experience could Suggest to guard him from
                 Disappointment. He will proceed on the high biscuit plan and the finishing and dressing
                 part, whilst we at Plymouth shall persevere in our Endeavours to perfect our body and
                 glaze on the Chinese Plan, and I have no doubt but with a little patience we shall succeed.’
  31st October   The next letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                    British Library   Massey 2002, p.107
                   The best piece (in a recently fired Plymouth kiln) …will be forwarded to thee with a
                 Bovey Image By the next wagan which I think Considering the Infancy of Our Undertaking
                 Reflects no dishonour on it but this is left to thy Judgement.
                   I have by this Post Recd. 2 Sensible Letters from Bovey – they too Burnt last week and by
                 the samples sent Quite clean. Tho they too were short in fire by this Accot. Their wood was
                 poor and they had not Enough of it however this Experiment of Crisps gives me great
                 Pleasure as it affords a Reasonable ground to Expect Our Ware may be burnt in the
                 common kilns which are much more manageable Instruments than what we have used at
                 Plymouth-
                   Crisp writes me he shall light another fire Tomorrow and strongly Presses me to be
                 present at The Burning and Opening this kiln. I want No Inclination to oblige him. But my
                 Brother is Laid up in the gout and very Weak, if he is much better tomorrow I think I shall
                 go. For indeed we have much to say to Each other about the glaze which is the only thing
                 we want to perfect and I think we are no great distance from it.
                   If this kiln of Crisps Turns Out well tis high Time to think in Earnest about our Patent.
                 From what hath been already done our success is Indubitable.’
20th November    The next letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                    British Library   Massey 2002, p.108
                   ‘I was at Bovey attemding a burning there, when thine of the 12 th Inst. Was recd. When I
                 came the kiln was burning, and some promising samples were drawn, but for the last twelve
                 hours they advanced not a lot in point of heat and were short of fire after a burning
                 continued for 43 hours, tis necessary to note that as the petunse was scarce with them, they
                 had but one fourth part of this ingredient in their body, tis my opinion if the body had been
                 composed of equal parts of Caulin and Petunse we should have had a good deal of fine
                 ware from this kiln. Their glaze in general is much too thin owing to the harshness of the
                 biscuit, this they promise to remedy next time. I shall send the sum of the best productions
                 of this kiln the next return of the Wagon. The point is not yet fairly settled whether the
                 Bovey kilns will answer but will be soon however between their kiln and ours there is an
                 absolute certainty of a kiln that will completely answer all our purposes. Our kiln will in
                 fallibly burn clear and theirs sound. This depends on their method of applying the fuel now
                 we can easily alter our kilns so as to apply our fuel in the same manner.
                    It does not hitherto certainly appear that would hath any advantage over coal we have
                 thought that their glaze hath more luster than our but whether this is owing to the superior
                 hardness of their biscuit and thinness of the glaze or to a difference in the fuel is not
                 certain. As our potter has been absent for a week since we last burnt, we have done nothing
                 that way of late…If we continue to have unsound ware, we shall immediately meke the
                 necessary alteration to put our kiln in respect of the method of applying the fuel on the
                 same footing with theirs at Bovey and we shall be ready for this the week after next as our
                 new made bricks will be burnt by that time…. I entirely agree with thee that the Bovey
                 people will be of great help to us with regard to the mechanical part of our affair besides
                 they are at hand and will be very glad to be employed by us for their affair is at its last gasp
                 and in regard to N Crisp I really think him a proper person to superintend the affair. But
                 the poor man is in Debt and cannot leave Bovey without our help. He imbosom’d himself to
                 me this last time in a very modest manner, said he only wanted the money to be lent to him.
                 I think about £50, that he would allow or repay it as soon as he could. He is concerned in a
                 Mine that I am well informed is a very promising one, And tis my cool opinion that by a
                 little Well Judged generosity we may save a decent family from a real distress if not from
                 utter ruin and secure the Assistance of a sensible Good Natured Man, and very proper to
                 manage under us, as he hath a good deal of knowledge relative to the details of our
                 Undertaking. And if we miss him I am persuaded we shall have great difficulty to find a
                 person proper to fill up his place. Thou will therefore be pleased to give me thy thoughts
                 what I should do about him in thy next.’
20th December    The next letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                    Cornwall County    Wills 1980 &1998,
                    ‘ By some experiments lately made I have fixt to certainty that the tint of yellow or cream     Records Office,    P. 10
                 colour in the Bovey pieces is absolutely owing to the kiln and not to want of fire. I have             Truro          Watney1989, p.217
                 made many experiments on glaze and have discover’d one which is quite free from cracks                                Adams & Thomas
                 and perfectly fine and lustrous. We have made the proposed Alteration in our kiln which                               1996, p.21
                 will now have all the advantage of theirs at Bovey in point of administering the fire and at                          Massey 1996, p.68
                 the same time Infallibly burn clear.                                                                                  Massey 1998, p.303
                    Nothing remains but to carry the affair into Manufacture there being with proper                                   Massey 2002, p.208
                 Oeconomy no doubt of our success, but it is previously necessary to get a Mill to grind our
                 Stone in Quantities not only sufficient for our Immediate consumption but to Enable us to
                 lay up a large quantity of paste for the body, for we can never do our materials full Justice
                 but by keeping the mixture rotting and Mellowing together for some months, we have a Mill
                 near this Town in View and some steps, have been taken to secure it. The Bovey people
                 have been doing little for us of late for want of materials, they have now a good quantity
                 and will go on again briskly. Poor Crisp is quite ground, I have taken three of his head
                 Servants off his hands and they are now in our pay. One is the (person) that makes our
                 Images, can do pottery well in Modelling and making moulds as well for Vessels in these
                 Moulds.
                    The second is I think a very good painter, a care full sober fellow who knows a good deal
                 of China Ware making ( the nature of kilns and fires), these two have been employ’d for
                 years in the Chelsea, Bow and Vauxhall China Potteries.
                    The other is a burner and esteemed a good hand, they will continue at Bovey till they
                 have wrought up Materialls. As these are people I know I thought twas much better [to]
                 secure them than to be at the trouble of picking up hands from the factories in town, who tis
                 five to one Would prove Sots or Scoundrels as the best Servants are not found of shifting
                 Qoarters and prudent Masters are loath to part with them.
                    I hope very soon to send thee some tolerable things from Plymo , I mean sound and well
                 glazed, as we propose to set fire to our kiln to morrow. My affairs and health make it
                 necessary for me to take a Journey which will keep me abroad three weeks but I have taken
                 care that our hands shall not be Idle in my Ascence. I shall write N. Crisp this post to alter
                 his kiln when I make no doubt that it will burn as clear as ours, and we shall soon be able
                 to send thee some handsome pieces of Porcellain which will put Lauragais composition out
                 of countenance…’
1768
  19th January   Cookworthy wrote:                                                                                  Cornwall County    Wills 1980 &1998,
                   ‘Two of the persons we have employ’d from Bovey are very good Judges of burning and I            Records Office,    P. 10, 11
                 am persuaded we shall want no assistance in that important part of our process…..                      Truro          Adams & Thomas
                   A very few experiments here and at Bovey is all that remains to be done in regard to our                            1996, p.22
                 main points, we have fully determined our body and glaze to be excellent, the best                                    Massey 2002, p.109
                 composition for Safeguards is the only Desideratum. The Bovey people have a good one but
                 possibly a better than theirs may be discovered, this is properly the Potters business tho I
                 shall give them all the Assistance in my power. Every body here and all at Bovey seem
                 Certain we must soon succeed and for my own part I can see nothing that can hinder us,
                 and with the Concurrence of the Proprietors I would Immediately order for a Barge load of
                 Materials and fitt up the Mill to grind a sufficient quantity of stone not only for Immediate
                 consumption but to have a Quantity of Paste to lay by as tis on all hands acknowledge and I
                 know it to be true that the paste is greatly improv’d by lying in Mixture. I shall hope for thy
                 Early Answer as we cannot proceed without the mill and all out hands will soon be Idle.’
  28th January   Cookworthy’s next letter:                                                                          Cornwall County    Wills 1980 &1998,
                   ‘The fuel we have used at Plymouth hath been Sea Coal, theirs at Bovey Wood, we cannot           Records Office,    P. 11
                 yet find that the latter hath any certain right of Preference, future Experiments must                 Truro          Adams & Thomas
                 determine this and if wood is the proper place for carrying on our Manufacture.’                                      1996, p.22
                                                                                                                                       Massey 2002, p.109
  2nd February   Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                              British Library   Massey 2002, p.109
                  ‘When I writ thee my last Nicholas Crisp was with us, and the three Men we had Engaged
             came down to Plymouth but that letter was writ in a hurry. As I wanted time properly to
             Enter into those matters, as they imputed their want of Success to want of fire and I thought
             it was owing to the Nature of the kiln, an Experiment was made in the Wind furnace which
             demonstrated even to their satisfaction that their Deficiency in point of Colour and Lucid
             transparency in the ware was owing to the nature of the kiln so that now my Observation on
             the kilns in use, which I made in the very early part of our Correspondance, Viz that they
             would not do for Our body and Glaze is prov’d to be strictly true….the fuel we have used at
             Plymouth have been Sea coals and coaks, at Bovey they have used wood, there yet appears
             no reason to giving the latter Preference. We shall in no long time give wood a fair trial
             having a Considerable quantity by us if it answer better than coal. Lostwithel is doubtless
             the place for carrying on our Manufacture, but I think we had best at first go on at
             Plymouth till we carried our process to some degree of Perfection…
                I really think Crisp a very proper person to act as our Superintendant under a Committee
             he is by what I can observe of him a very honest Modest Ingenious man not deep indeed but
             hath great deal of that knowledge of the detail of the Various branches of our Manufacture
             which we shall want and is active and ingenious and I am thoroughly satisfied of his
             Integrity. I know it may be objected we don’t want him Just now. I admit it but the poor
             Man is ruined and must be supported for the present if we expect to have his Services
             thereafter. My heart hath been greatly pained for him and his family a Wife and three
             Daughters decent well bread People and what they will do if our affairs do not afford them
             an Asylum I cannot think. I have been very free with N Crisp Offered him my countenance
             and Assistance to get him a letter of Licence from his Creditors and have told him that he
             must not expect than a Guinea a week Just for Substinance in the infant state of our
             Manufacture, he appears very thankful for this as in deed he has reason. Tradesmen refer
             everything to immediate Profit for my own part I regard the Affairs of this world intended
             by him who hath engaged us in them as Occasions of Exercising within bounds of Prudence
             the duties of humanity and I am greatly mistaken if this is not the most Effectual way of
             securing our interest even here. Thy neighbourhood talks much of thy Charity, never can a
             more proper Object offer than Poor Crisp and his family.
                I have taken off half a tun of Zaffora from his hands having lend him near £50 on it. I
             can’t say whether the whole is of the same kind with what thou praises, but he says tis very
             fine
                …I have subjoined a plan of our little Manufacture with the Expenses we are at present in
             Workman’s Wages pr Week…
                Person’s Employed at Present

              A Painter John Brittan at £1.1 p week                                1. 1. 0
              A Figure Maker & Moulder Thomas Hammersley At £1.1 do               1. 1. 0
              A Thrower William Ellis 15/- p week                                  15. 0
              A Turner William Parsons 10/- p week                                 10. 0
              A Labourer John Stevens 8/ p week                                      8. 0
                                                                               £3. 15. 0
13th March   Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                            British Library   Massey 2002, p.110
                ‘Last post brought me an Account that poor Crisp was Arrested and sent to prison, his
             wife who wrote me gave me a pathetic Description of the deplorable stste of his Family as
             she wanted money to carry on a branch of the Pottery business, which I hope and believe
             brings them in some profit, she was at the time Ignorant that our Committee had sent her a
             bill for three guineas for a turning Lathe which we had of her husband. I had suspended the
             sending of the 10 gunnies thou hast ordered me to give him till some pressing Necessity
             call’d for this Relief. I sent her by return of the post a bill for 10 guineas and have just
             received a letter from her filled with strong expressions of thankfulness and gratitude to her
             for that seasonable Charity and a note Acknowledging a receipt of the money on fer
             Husband’s Account.
                …We have clay enough by us and have sent a tonne of stone to the Bovey mill to be
             ground. I had a letter from Crisp some time since that part of his stone was put into the mill
             but that the confusion his family must be in should render themfrom giving due attention to
             it. I have sent our painter this day to Boney to dispatch what is hround by the next wagon….
             Our servants behave well amd I verily believe are zealous for it’s success and we who are
             on the spot can see nothing at present to hinder us.
  5th June   Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                           Cornwall County    Wills 1980 &1998,
                ‘Our Painter Britton on his return last week from Boconnick and St Stevens informed me        Records Office,    P. 13
             that Bolton the Enameller, who is concern’d with N. Crisp, has been at our work at the               Truro          Watney1989, p.218
             latter place. He told the Workmen he was acquainted with me and came with my leave,                                 Adams & Thomas
             gave them money and desired them to direct him where to mett with an Earth of the same                              1996, p.23
             kind they were washing, but said it must not be on Mr. Pitts land. The fellows accordingly                          Massey 2002, p.111
             directed him to a farmer as he is a bold fellow of the Projecting kind who makes nothing
             but Patents, and told one of our potters sometime since that Deluge was not bounded by thy
             Estate and that he did not doubt but to find an Earth of the same kind in its Neighbourhood.
             I have no apprehension of any formidable Rivalship from Bovey, but should they be in the
             use of our Materials before our Patent is taken out we shall not be able to Obtain it. I
             thought it right thou shouldst be informed of these matters that thou mayst consult thy
             Attorney and the necessary Measures may be taken to prevent this fellow’s Defeating us.’
                Cookworthy’s Letters Patent was on the 17th March 1768 and the enrollment of his
             Specification on 14th July.
             Britton or Britain was probably Crisp’s head painter at Bovey and Vauxhall and had
             previously been at Chelsea and Bow. Pountney states that John Britain was apprenticed to
             Thomas Cantle and his wife on 2nd January 1750 at the Temple Back Pottery in Bristol. In
             1773 Champion appointed him manager of his works.
  5th June   Letter from John Stephenson to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg) concerning his concern             Erskine Murray     Turnbull 1997, p.150
                  about Crisp’s contribution to the cobalt undertaking                                                 archive in the
                    ‘Mr. Crisp seems to be a misfortune. And if he has any share of honesty in him, may in           National Library of
                  time discharge his part, but by what I find from Mr. Sherreffs letters [he was the manager of           Scotland,
                  the mine] & yours he has been so craving for more cobalt that I much doubt it, I shall              MS5099 f. 71, 72
                  however correspond with him once more and endevour to make something of him if I can.’
     17th June    Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                              Cornwall County        Wills 1980 &1998,
                    ‘I am pleased to find that effectual care hath been taken to put it out of Boltons power to       Records Office,        P. 13
                  give us any trouble. How far Crisp is concern’d with him I cannot say, I dare not condemn               Truro              Watney1989, p.218
                  him but wish it was in my power fully to justify him. I think tis the best way to let them alone                           Adams & Thomas
                  a little and see what they will do.’                                                                                       1996, p.23
                                                                                                                                             Massey 2002, p.111
       2nd July   Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                              Cornwall County        Wills 1980 &1998,
                    ‘To do justice to our Chief Workmen, Viz. Hamersly and Brittain, they Appear to Exert             Records Office,        P. 14
                  themselves to the Utmost to give our Undertaking Success…                                               Truro              Watney1989, p.218
                    I am perfectly Acquainted with the Nature of…bagged kilns (as used at Worcester) And by                                  Massey 2002, p.111
                  all the Experiments I have made will not answer for our Body as there is no current of Air
                  thro the Middle of the Kiln, which I think Absolutely Necessary to preserve our body from
                  being stain’d by the Phlogiston which doth not Affect theirs, and all our Experiments at
                  Bovey confirmed me in this Judgment.’
21st September    Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                              Cornwall County        Watney1989, p.218
                    ‘The person who carries on the China Manufactory thou Visits in Scotland is called                Records Office,
                  Littler and is well known to our Hammersly as well as the proprietors at Derby…’                        Truro
                  [Hammersley was an image and mould maker who had been one of Nicholas Crisp’s key
                  men at Bovey and Vauxhall before being employed by William Cookworthy and probably
                  came from Staffordshire.]
  11th October    Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt:                                                               British Library       Massey 2002, p.111
                   ‘Crisp’s kiln at Bovey was of this kind (i.e. traditional English kiln) yet I never saw but two
                  pieces of all their productions but was smoked.’
1769
  19th January    Letter from Cookworthy to Thomas Pitt written in Truro:                                              British Library       Massey 2002, p.111
                    …Crisp who is good judge in these matters (method of gilding) assures me that the
                  precipitation by tin is not necessary but if it was it is easily done…’
       August     In a Waste Book of Payments and Disbursments kept by Samuel Martin, who was a                        BM additional         Valpy 1988, p.159
                  member of the Society of Arts, as was Nicholas Crisp, and who may have given Crisp some            manuscripts 41, 359     Watney1989, p.216,
                  financial assistance, has the following entry:                                                                             219
                    ‘Aug 1769                                                                                                                Adams & Thomas
                     28 Gave Mr. Nicholas Crispe at Indihoe in Devon                  £                                                      1996, p.24
                         by draught of this date on Messrs Drummonds                 25   f. 93                                              Massey 2002, p.112*
                     (31st October 1769) Paid Mr Ward being disbursed with Mr Crisps project to the
                      Russian Ambassador, sent by penny post 1
                      Aug 1770
                     10 Gave Mr. Nich. Crisp of Indihoe by draught
                         on Drummonds’                                               20   f. 124
                  (in the margin – ‘Chary’ – charity)
                  In the ledgers of the bank accounts of Martins with Drummonds Bank*:
                    1762 Sept. 11 To (cash paid) Nich Crisp          (£) 41. 1. 2
                    1765 Sept. 12 To (cash paid) Nich Crisp          (£) 20 –
                    1769 Sept. 19 To (cash paid) Nich Crisp          (£) 25 –
                    1770 Sept. 10 To (cash paid) Nich Crisp          (£) 20 -
1770
     May and      In the rate books for Princess Liberty, Henry Richards pays £39 19s. 6d.                                                   Mallet 1982, p.132
    December
           -      John Sanders appears to have left the Battersea district and may have been the potter who                                  Toppin 1946, p.168
                  had an ‘Earthen Warehouse’ at 340 Wapping in 1790
              -   Letter from Alexander Shirreff [cobalt mine manager] to Lord Alva (later Lord Barjarg)              Erskine Murray         Turnbull 1997, p.151
                  trying to sort out the affairs of the cobalt mine:                                                   archive in the
                    I enclose the Cobalt Company Acct balanced in my favour at the 15 June 1769 £223.12.3.           National Library of
                  There should have been a Meeting, but was not; and as I despair having any, & interest                  Scotland,
                  running up, I have sent a copy of the Accmpt to each of the partners concern’d for payment          MS5099 f. 118
                  of the proportion of the Balance; now wt Interest £240.6.9. which to each Concern’d is £30.
                  There being only eight, as nothing will be recovered from Sir Harry Erskine or Mr. Crisp.’
1774
       9th July   Crisp is Buried at Bovey Tracey having been there about eight years                                                        Stretton, 1972, p.126
                                                                                                                                             Watney1989, p.219
1775
              -   In Josiah Wedgwood’s diary kept when visiting the West of England in the company of                John Wedgewood’s        Godden 1957, p.67
                  John Turner of Lane End Staffordshire , he says he ‘Left London 29th May 1775’ and two                 diary entitled      Stretton, 1972, p.125
                  days later he passes through Chudleigh and writes:                                                     ‘Journey into       Adams & Thomas
                     ‘from thence I went to Bovey Tracey to see a pot work which had been many years                     Cornwall, in        1996, p.24
                  carried on at that place, and under so many apparent advantages that it would be a matter             company with
                  of surprise to those who have not considered the difficulty of removing the manufacture that       Mr. Turner in search
                  it was not in a more flourishing and improved stste than we saw. A Mr. Crisp from London           of Growan Stone &
                  endeavoured to make a kind of porcelain here, but did little more than make some                         Clay, etc.’
                  experiments, and these unsuccessfully. They afterwards made white stone ware, glazed with          (published in full in
                  Salts & had a fireman, and I believe some other workmen, from our country, but it was still         the Proceedings of
                  a losing concern to them. It is now under the management of one Ellis, & the money                   the Wedgewood
                  advanced by some partners at a distance. They now make Queens Ware, or cream-colour,                      Society,
                  but it is a poor trifling concern, & conducted in a wretched slovenly manner.                     Vol.1, Nos. 1, 2
                    The advantages I mentioned consist in their having the clay within 5 or 6 miles of them,
                  from the same pits which furnish our potteries in Staffordshire, & their flints from Exeter or
                  Halldown hill. The coals are only 2/6 per ton, at the pit, and so near the works, that only
                  wheelbarrows are used for their conveyance to the works
                    Notwhithstanding all which advantages, besides labor being much cheaper with them
                  than us, we can carry their clay and flints from Devonshire into Staffordshire, there
                  manufacture them into ware, & send it back to their own doors, better & cheaper than they
                  can make it.’
                  This is the Indio Pottery
       6th July   Wedgwood wrote to Thomas Bentley, his partner                                                    Wedgwood Museum     Stretton, 1972, p.126
                    ‘I have had too much experience of the delicacy and unaccountable uncertainty of these             Archives        Watney1989, p.219
                  fine bodies to be sanguine in my expectations – and Crisp – Poor Crisp haunts my                                     Adams & Thomas
                  imagination Continually – Ever persuing – Just upon the point of overtaking – but never in                           1996, p.24
                  possession of his favourite subject! There are a good many lessons in the poor Man’s life,
                  labours and Catastrophe if we could profit by example; but that wisdom, alas, is denied us.’
1788
       October    Nicholas Crisp’s daughter Anne died. She was described as the youngest daughter of the                               Toppin 1933, p.42
                  late Nicholas Crisp, Jeweller, of Bow Churchyard.
1794
       3rd May    Nicholas Crisp’s widow died in Taunton aged eighty one




                                                                                                                        12-Nov-10
Bibliography
Aubrey J. Toppin, ECC Transactions Vol.1, No. 1, Nicholas Crisp, Jeweller and Potter, 1933
E. Morton Nance, ECC Transactions Vol.1, No. 3, Soaprock Licences, 1935
N. Neild, ECC Transactions Vol.1, No. 3, Early polychrome transfer on porcelain, 1935
Aubrey J. Toppin, ECC Transactions Vol.2, No. 9, p.167, 1946
G. Godden, ECC Transactions Vol. 4, Pts 1 & 2,, Note on Nicholas Crisp, 1957
B. Watney, ECC Transactions Vol. 4, Pt. 4, Four Groups of Porcelain, possibly Liverpool, 1959
R.J.Charleston and J.Mallet, ECC Transactions Vol.8, Pt.1, A Problematical Group of Eighteenth-century Porcelains, 1971
N.Stretton, ECC Transactions Vol.8, Pt.2, The Indio Pottery at Bovey Tracey, 1972
J. V .J. Mallet, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Nicholas Crisp, Founding Member of the Society of Arts, pts I-III, Dec.1972-Feb1973.
G.Wills, Apollo Vols.CXII,CXIII, Nos.226,227, The Plymouth Porcelain Factory: Letters to Thomas Pitt, 1766-1769, 1980,1981, [CCC 1998]
N. Valpy, ECC Transactions Vol. 11, pt.2, Extracts from Eighteenth Century London Newspapers, 1982
J.V.G. Mallet, ECC Transactions Vol. 11, Pt. 2, Vauxhall ‘Porcelain Ware’:a a note, 1982
Frank Britton, London Delftware, 1987
N.Valpy,ECC Transactions Vol.13, Pt.1, Extracts from 18th Century London Newspapers and Add’l Manuscripts, British Library, 1987
N. Valpy, ECC Transactions Vol.13, Pt.2, Nicholas Crisp: A Newly-found Benefactor, 1988
Bernard M. Watney, ECC Transactions Vol.13, Pt.3, The Vauxhall China Works, 1751-1764, 1989
B.M. Watney, ECC Transactions Vol. 14, Pt. 1, Recent excavations on London porcelain sites: Vauxhall and Limehouse, 1990
P. Bradshaw, Bow Porcelain Figures 1748-1774, 1992.
B.Adams and A.Thomas, A Potwork in Devonshire, 1996
B. Hillier, ECC Transactions Vol. 16, Pt. 1, Nicholas Crisp and the Elizabeth Canning scandal, 1996
R. Massey, ECC Transactions Vol. 16, Pt. 1, Vauxhall and Plymouth figures a connection: Thomas Hammersley, 1996
J. Turnbull, ECC Transactions Vol. 16, Pt. 2, Scottish cobalt and Nicholas Crisp, 1997
R. Massey, ECC Transactions Vol. 16, Pt. 3, A curious odyssey: a Vauxhall workman and some dated pieces, 1998
M. Bimson and I. Freestone, ECC Transactions Vol. 18, Pt. 1, Phosphatic porcelain from the Vauxhall site, 2002
R. Massey, ECC Transactions Vol. 18, Pt. 1, Nicholas Crisp at Bovey Tracey, 2002
S. Spero, ECC Transactions Vol. 18, Pt. 2, Vauxhall porcelain – a tentative chronology, 2003
Ceramics of Vauxhall, 18th century Pottery and Porcelain, The English Ceramic Circle exhibition, 2007




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Description: Parts of Financial Statement Usefull to Creditors document sample