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Argentina

Argentina
Argentine Republic República Argentina Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti

Independence - May Revolution - Declared Area - Total
Flag Coat of arms

from Spain 25 May 1810 9 July 1816 2,766,890 km2 (8th) 1,068,302 sq mi 1.1 40,482,000 (30th) 36,260,130 2008 estimate $572.860 billion[4] (23rd) $14,413[4] (57th) 2008 estimate $326.474 billion[4] (31st) $8,214[4] (66th) 49[5] (high) ▲ 0.860 (high) (46th) Peso (ARS) ART (UTC-3) ART (UTC-2) right .ar +54

Motto: En unión y libertad "In Unity and Freedom" Anthem: Himno Nacional Argentino

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Water (%)

Population - 2008 estimate - 2001 census GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2006) HDI (2006) Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Drives on the

Map of Argentina, including territorial claims, in orthographic projection. The areas in light green are subject to territorial disputes with Chile and the United Kingdom, and are not under Argentine de facto control.[1]

Internet TLD Calling code

Capital (and largest city) Official languages Ethnic groups

Buenos Aires
34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.6°S 58.383°W / -34.6; -58.383

Spanish 86% European (Italian, Spanish, French, German and Others) 8% Mestizo 2% Amerindian 4% Other
[2][3]

Demonym Government President Vice President

Argentine, Argentinian Federal presidential republic Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Julio Cobos

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic[6] (Spanish: República Argentina, Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika aɾxenˈtina]), is a country in South America, constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the second largest country in South America and eighth in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish-speaking nations, though Mexico, Colombia and Spain are more populous. Its continental area is 2,766,890 km2 (1,068,302 sq mi), between the Andes mountain range in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east and south. Argentina borders Paraguay and Bolivia to the north, Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast, and Chile to the west and south. Argentina also claims 969,464 km2 (374,312 sq mi) of Antarctica, known as Argentine Antarctica, overlapping other claims made by Chile (Chilean Antarctic Territory) and the United Kingdom (British Antarctic Territory); all

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such claims have been suspended by the Antarctic Treaty of 1961. Argentina has the second highest Human Development Index level[7] and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity in Latin America.[4] Argentina’s nominal GDP is the 30th largest in the world;[8] but when purchasing power is taken into account, its total GDP makes it the 23rd largest economy in the world.[9] The country is currently classified as an UpperMiddle Income Country[10] or as a secondary emerging market by the World Bank.[11][12] Argentina is also one of the G-20 major economies.

Argentina
Ten years later (1612) Ruy Díaz de Guzmán published the book Historia del descubrimiento, población, y conquista del Río de la Plata ("History of the discovery, population, and conquest of the Río de la Plata"), naming the territory discovered by Solís as Tierra Argentina ("Land of Silver", "Silvery Land"). In 1776 the Virreinato del Río de la Plata (Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata) was created, named after the river; it included present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Pre-Columbian era

History
Etymology

Río de la Plata aborigines (1603) The name of Argentina is derived from the Latin argentum (silver), which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek ἀργήντος (argēntos), gen. of ἀργήεις (argēeis), "white, shining"[13]. Αργεντινός (argentinos) was an ancient Greek epithet meaning "silvery"[14]. The first use of the name Argentina can be traced back to the first voyages made by the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors to the Río de la Plata which means "Silver River", on the first years of 16th century. Alejo García, one of the survivors of the shipwrecked expedition mounted by Juan Díaz de Solís at 1516, heard notices about a powerful White King in a country very rich in silver, at the mountains, called "Sierra de Plata". García then organized an expedition and reached Potosi’s area, gaining several silver objects and gifts. He was killed by the payaguas, returning to Santa Catarina, Brazil. Because of this the Portuguese named the river found by Vespucio or Solis Río da Plata ("River of the Silver"). The news about the legendary Sierra del Plata (a mountain rich in silver) reached Portugal and Spain around 1524. The first mention of the Argentina name was in Martin del Barco Centenera’s poem La Argentina, published in Spain in 1602.

The Buenos Aires Cabildo, scene of the 1810 resolution that led to independence The earliest evidence of human presence in Argentina found thus far is in Patagonia (Piedra Museo, Santa Cruz) and dates from 11,000 BC (Santa María, Huarpes, Diaguitas and Sanavirones, among others). The Inca Empire under the rule of King Pachacutec launched an offensive in 1480 and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu; the Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca, sweet potato and yerba mate. The central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia) were dominated by nomadic cultures, unified in the 17th century by the Mapuches.

Colonial era
European explorers arrived in 1516. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, and the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776. This area was largely a country of Spanish

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immigrants and their descendants, known as criollos, and others of native cultures and of descendants of African slaves, present in significant numbers. A third of Colonial-era settlers gathered in Buenos Aires and other cities, others living on the pampas as gauchos, for instance. Indigenous peoples inhabited much of the rest of Argentina. The British Empire launched two invasions of Buenos Aires in 1806-07, but the criollo population repelled both attempts.

Argentina

Independence

Gen. José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina and Perú. On 25 May 1810, after confirmation of the rumors on the overthrow of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon, citizens of Buenos Aires created the First Government Junta (May Revolution). Two nations emerged in what is now Argentina: the United Provinces of South America (1810) and the Liga Federal (1815). Other provinces, as a result of differences between autonomist and centralist quarters, delayed taking part in a unified State; Paraguay seceded, declaring its independence in 1811. Military campaigns led by General José de San Martín between 1814 and 1817 made independence increasingly a reality. Argentines revere San Martín as the hero of national independence. General José de San Martín and his regiment crossed the Andes in 1817 to defeat royalist forces in Chile and Perú, thus securing independence. The Congress of Tucumán gathered on 9 July 1816 and finally issued a formal Declaration of Independence from Spain. The Liga Federal was crushed

Pres. Julio Roca dominated politics and policy from 1880 to 1906. in 1820 by forces of the United Provinces of South America and some Portuguese brigades from Brazil, and its provinces were absorbed into United Provinces of South America. Bolivia declared itself independent in 1825, and Uruguay was created in 1828 as a result of a truce following the Argentina-Brazil War. The controversial truce led to the rise of Buenos Aires Province Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas, who, as a federalist, exercised a reign of terror and kept the fragile confederacy together. The centralist Unitarios and the Federales maintained an internecine conflict until Governor Rosas’ 1852 overthrow, and to help prevent future struggle during the tenous times that followed, a Constitution was promulgated in 1853. The constitution, drafted by legal scholar Juan Bautista Alberdi, was defended by Franciscan Friar Mamerto Esquiú and endured through its first difficult years. National unity was reinforced by an 1865 attack

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Argentina

Gov. Juan Manuel de Rosas during his 1829-52 regime. on local British interests by Paraguay, resulting in the War of the Triple Alliance and devastating Paraguay.[15]

Pres. Hipólito Yrigoyen, 1928. Patient activist for universal (male) suffrage and the country’s first president so elected. and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy by 15-fold.[18] Conservative interests dominated Argentine politics through nondemocratic means until, in 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal male suffrage and the secret ballot. This allowed their traditional rivals, the centrist Radical Civic Union, to win the country’s first free elections in 1916. President Hipólito Yrigoyen enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small business. But having been politically imposing and beset by the Great Depression, the military forced him from power in 1930. This led to another decade of Conservative rule, whose economists turned to more protectionist policies and whose electoral policy was one of "patriotic fraud." The country was neutral during World War I and most of World War II, becoming an important source of foodstuffs for the Allied Nations.[18]

Emergence of modern Argentina

The Port of Buenos Aires (1900). Maritime trade led to accelerated development after 1875. A wave of foreign investment and immigration from Europe after 1870 led to the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and the economy, leading to the strengthening of a cohesive state. The rule of law was consolidated in large measure by Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield, whose 1860 Commercial Code and 1869 Civil Code laid the foundation for Argentina’s statutory laws. However, the "Conquest of the Desert" in the 1870s subdued the remaining indigenous tribes throughout the southern Pampas and Patagonia and left 1,300 indigenous dead.[16][17] Argentina increased in prosperity and prominence between 1880 and 1929, while emerging as one of the 10 richest countries in the world, benefiting from an agricultural export-led economy. Driven by immigration

From Perón to the last dictatorship
In 1946, General Juan Perón was elected president, creating a big tent movement referred to as "Peronism." His hugely popular wife, Evita, played a central political role until her death in 1952, mostly through the Eva Perón Foundation and the Peronist Women’s Party.[19] During Perón’s tenure, wages and working conditions improved appreciably, the number of unionized workers quadrupled, government programs increased and urban development was prioritized over the agrarian sector.[20]

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Following an attempt to purge the Peronist influence and the banning of Peronists from political life, elections in 1958 brought Arturo Frondizi to office. Frondizi enjoyed some support from Perón’s followers, and his policies encouraged needed investment in energy and industry, both of which were chalking up sizable trade deficits for Argentina. The military, however, frequently interfered on behalf of conservative interests and the results were mixed.[18] Frondizi was forced to resign in 1962. Arturo Illia, elected in 1963, enacted expansionist policies; but despite prosperity, his attempts to include Peronists in the political process resulted in the armed forces’ retaking power in a quiet 1966 coup. Though repressive, this new regime continued to encourage domestic development and invested record amounts into public works. The economy grew strongly, and income poverty declined to 7% by 1975, still a record low. Partly because of their repressiveness, political violence began to escalate and, from exile, Perón skillfully co-opted student and labor protests, which eventually resulted in the military regime’s call for free elections in 1973 and his return from Spanish exile.[24] Taking office that year, Perón died in July 1974, leaving his third wife Isabel, the Vice President, to succeed him in office. Mrs. Perón had been chosen as a compromise among feuding Peronist factions who could agree on no other running mate; secretly, though, she was beholden to Perón’s most fascist advisers. The resulting conflict between left and right-wing extremists led to mayhem and financial chaos and, on 24 March 1976, a coup d’état removed her from office.

President Juan Perón (1946) Formerly stable prices and exchange rates were disrupted, however: the peso lost about 70% of its value from early 1948 to early 1950, and inflation reached 50% in 1951.[21] Foreign policy became more isolationist, straining U.S.-Argentine relations. Perón intensified censorship as well as repression: 110 publications were shuttered,[22] and numerous opposition figures were imprisoned and tortured.[23] Over time, he rid himself of many important and capable advisers, while promoting patronage. A violent coup, which bombarded the Casa Rosada and its surroundings killing many, deposed him in 1955. He fled into exile, eventually residing in Spain.

Arturo Frondizi (2nd from left) hosts U.S. President John F. Kennedy, 1961. Frondizi’s policies helped make Argentina nearly self-sufficient in energy and industry.

Economist José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz and President Jorge Videla, both of whose policies left a traumatic legacy in Argentina.

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by the British in the Falklands War discredited the military regime and led to free elections in 1983.

Democracy
Raúl Alfonsín’s government took steps to account for the "disappeared", established civilian control of the armed forces and consolidated democratic institutions. The members of the three military juntas were prosecuted and sentenced to life terms. The previous regime’s foreign debt, however, left the Argentine economy saddled by the conditions imposed on it by both its private creditors and the IMF, and priority was given to servicing the foreign debt at the expense of public works and domestic credit. Alfonsín’s failure to resolve worsening economic problems caused him to lose public confidence. Following a 1989 currency crisis that resulted in a sudden and ruinous 15-fold jump in prices, he left office five months early.[27] Newly elected President Carlos Menem began pursuing privatizations and, after a second bout of hyperinflation in 1990, reached out to economist Domingo Cavallo, who imposed a peso-dollar fixed exchange rate in 1991 and adopted far-reaching market-based policies, dismantling protectionist barriers and business regulations, while accelerating privatizations. These reforms contributed to significant increases in investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s; but the peso’s fixed value could only be maintained by flooding the market with dollars, resulting in a renewed increase in the foreign debt. Towards 1998, however, a series of international financial crises and overvaluation of the pegged peso caused a gradual slide into economic crisis. The sense of stability and well being which had prevailed during the 1990s eroded quickly, and by the end of his term in 1999, these accumulating problems and reports of corruption had made Menem unpopular.[28]

Raúl Alfonsín (left) greets supporters during the 1983 campaign with his trademark salute.

Pres. Leopoldo Galtieri’s 1982 takeover of the Falkland Islands cost Argentina lives and prestige. In the late 1960s and the early 1970s, ultra-leftist armed groups such as People’s Revolutionary Army kidnapped and murdered people almost weekly.[25] The self-styled National Reorganization Process promptly repressed opposition and leftist groups using brutal, illegal measures (the "Dirty War"); thousands of dissidents "disappeared", while the SIDE cooperated with Chile’s DINA, other South American intelligence agencies and with the CIA in Operation Condor. Many of the military leaders that took part in the Dirty War were trained in the U.S.-financed School of the Americas, among them Argentine dictators Roberto Viola and Leopoldo Galtieri.[26] This new dictatorship at first brought some stability and built numerous important public works; but their frequent wage freezes and deregulation of finance led to a sharp fall in living standards and record foreign debt.[18] Deindustrialization, the peso’s collapse and crushing real interest rates, as well as unprecedented corruption, public revulsion in the face of alleged human rights abuses and, finally, the country’s 1982 defeat

Brazilian Presidents Lula da Silva (since 2003) and José Sarney (1985-90) reunite with Argentine Presidents Néstor Kirchner (2003-07) and Raúl Alfonsín (1983-89) to commemorate 20 years of productive trade talks.

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President Fernando de la Rúa inherited diminished competitiveness in exports, as well as chronic fiscal deficits. The governing coalition developed rifts, and his returning Cavallo to the Economy Ministry was interpreted as a crisis move by speculators. The decision backfired and Cavallo was eventually forced to take measures to halt a wave of capital flight and to stem the imminent debt crisis (culminating in the freezing of bank accounts). A climate of popular discontent ensued, and on 20 December 2001 Argentina dove into its worst institutional and economic crisis since the 1890 Barings financial debacle. There were violent street protests, which clashed with police and resulted in several fatalities. The increasingly chaotic climate, amid riots accompanied by cries that "they should all go", finally resulted in the resignation of President de la Rúa.[29] Three presidents followed in quick succession over two weeks, culminating in the appointment of interim President Eduardo Duhalde by the Legislative Assembly on 2 January 2002. Argentina defaulted on its international debt, and the peso’s 11 year-old tie to the U.S. dollar was rescinded, causing a major depreciation of the peso and a spike in inflation. Duhalde, a Peronist with a center-left economic position, had to cope with a financial and socio-economic crisis, with unemployment as high as 25% by late 2002 and the lowest real wages in sixty years. The crisis accentuated the people’s mistrust in politicians and institutions. Following a year racked by protest, the economy began to stabilize by late 2002, and restrictions on bank withdrawals were lifted in December.[30] Benefiting from a devalued exchange rate the government implemented new policies based on re-industrialization, import substitution and increased exports and began seeing consistent fiscal and trade surpluses. Governor Néstor Kirchner, a social democratic Peronist, was elected president in May 2003 and during Kirchner’s presidency Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with a steep discount (about 66%) on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, renegotiated contracts with utilities and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises. Kirchner and his economists, notably Roberto Lavagna, also pursued vigorous income policies and public works investments.[31] Argentina has since been enjoying economic growth but despite his popularity, Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. Winning by a landslide that October, she became the first woman elected President of Argentina and in a disputed result, Fabiana Ríos, a center-left (ARI) candidate in Tierra del Fuego Province became the first woman in Argentine history to be elected governor. President Cristina Kirchner, despite carrying large majorities in Congress, saw controversial plans for higher agricultural export taxes defeated by Vice President Julio Cobos’ surprise tie-breaking vote against

Argentina

Current president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, in office since December 2007. them on 16 July 2008. Following massive agrarian protests and lockouts from March to July robust economic growth quickly returned and double-digit inflation eased somewhat. The global financial crisis has since prompted Mrs. Kirchner to step up her husband’s policy of state intervention in troubled sectors of the economy.[32]

Geography
Main features
The total surface area of Argentina (not including the Antarctic claim) is 2,766,891 km2 (1,068,303 sq mi), of which 2,736,691 km2 (1,056,642 sq mi) is land and 30,200 km2 (11,700 sq mi) (1.1%) is water. Argentina is about 3,900 km (2,500 mi) long from north to south, and 1,400 km (870 mi) from east to west (maximum values). It can roughly be divided into four parts: the fertile plains of the Pampas in the center of the country, the source of Argentina’s agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling, oil-rich plateau of Patagonia in the southern half down to Tierra del Fuego; the subtropical flats of the Gran Chaco in the north, and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile.

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Topographic map of Argentina (including some territorial claims). The highest point above sea level in Argentina is located in Mendoza. Cerro Aconcagua, at 6,962 m (22,841 ft). It is the highest mountain in the Americas, the Southern,[33] and Western Hemisphere.[34] The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz, −105 meters (−344 ft) below sea level.[35] This is also the lowest point on the South American continent. The geographic center of the country is located in south-central La Pampa Province. Argentina’s easternmost continental point is northeast of the town of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones (26°15′S 53°38′W / 26.25°S 53.633°W / -26.25; -53.633 (Argentina’s easternmost continental point)), the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz (49°33′S 73°35′W / 49.55°S 73.583°W / -49.55; -73.583 (Argentina’s westernmost point)). The northernmost point is located at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers, Jujuy (21°46′S 66°13′W / 21.767°S 66.217°W / -21.767; -66.217 (Argentina’s northernmost point)), and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego (55°03′S 66°31′W / 55.05°S 66.517°W / -55.05; -66.517 (Argentina’s southernmost point)).[36] The country has a territorial claim over a portion of Antarctica (unrecognized by any other country), where, from 1904, it has maintained a constant presence.

Source: CIA[37] Political map of Argentina showing the area it controls. The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) are controlled by the United Kingdom but are claimed by Argentina. The country is traditionally divided into several major geographically distinct regions: Pampas The plains west and south from Buenos Aires. Called the Humid Pampa, they cover most of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Córdoba and large portions of the provinces of Santa Fe and La Pampa. The western part of La Pampa and the province San Luis are also mostly plains (the Dry Pampa); but they are drier and used mainly for grazing. The Sierra de Córdoba in the homonymous province (extending into San Luis) is

Geographic regions
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the most important geographical feature of the pampas. Gran Chaco The Gran Chaco region in the north of the country is seasonal dry/wet, mainly cotton growing and livestock raising. It covers the provinces of Chaco and Formosa. It is dotted with subtropical forests, scrubland, and some wetlands, home to a large number of plant and animal species. The province of Santiago del Estero lies in the drier region of the Gran Chaco. Mesopotamia The land between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers is called Mesopotamia, and it is shared by the provinces of Corrientes and Entre Ríos. It features flatland apt for grazing and plant growing, and the Iberá Wetlands in central Corrientes. Misiones Province is more tropical and belongs within the Brazilian Highlands geographic feature. It features subtropical rainforests and the Iguazú Falls. Patagonia The steppes of Patagonia, in the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, are of Tertiary origin. Most of the region is semiarid in the north to cold and arid in the far south, but forests grow in its western fringes which are dotted with several large lakes. Tierra del Fuego is cool and wet, moderated by oceanic influences. Northern Patagonia (Río Negro, south of the homonymous river, and Neuquén) can also be referred as the Comahue region. Cuyo West-central Argentina is dominated by the imposing Andes Mountains. To their east is the arid region known as Cuyo. Melting waters from high in the mountains form the backbone of irrigated lowland oasis, at the center of a rich fruit and wine growing region in Mendoza and San Juan provinces. Further north the region gets hotter and drier with more geographical accidents in La Rioja Province. The region’s easternmost border is marked by the Sierras Pampeanas, a series of three low mountain ranges that spread from north to south in the northern half of the province of San Luis. NOA or Northwest This region is the highest in average elevation. Parallel mountain ranges, several of which have peaks higher than 6,000 m (19,685 ft), dominate the area. These ranges grow wider in geographic extent towards the north. They are cut by fertile river valleys, the most important being the

Argentina
Calchaquí Valleys in the provinces of Catamarca, Tucumán, and Salta. Farther north Jujuy Province near Bolivia lies mainly within the Altiplano plateau of the Central Andes. The Tropic of Capricorn goes through the far north of the region.

Provinces

Provinces of Argentina. Argentina claims the Falkland Islands ("Islas Malvinas"), a UK overseas territory, as well as a slice of Antarctica, both of which it assigns to its Tierra del Fuego Province. Further information: Provinces of Argentina and Governors in Argentina Argentina is divided into twenty-three provinces (provincias; singular provincia), and one autonomous city (commonly known as the capital federal, but officially Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires): Province Capital Province Capital Mendoza Mendoza Buenos Aires Autonomous City Provincia La Plata de Buenos Aires

Misiones Posadas

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Catamarca San Fdo. del Valle de Catamarca Chaco Chubut Córdoba Resistencia Rawson Córdoba Neuquén Neuquén

Argentina

Río Negro Salta San Luis

Viedma Salta San Luis

Corrientes Corrientes Entre Ríos Paraná

San Juan Santa Cruz

San Juan

Sailboats on the Uruguay River Río Gallegos important rivers are the Atuel and Mendoza in the homFormosa Formosa Santa Fe Santa Fe onymous province, the Chubut in Patagonia, the Río Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta. Jujuy San SalSantiago Santiago There are several large lakes in Argentina, many of vador del del them in Patagonia. Among these are lakes Argentino and de Jujuy Estero Estero Viedma in Santa Cruz, Nahuel Huapi between Río Negro La Pampa Santa Rosa Tierra Ushuaiaand Neuquén and Fagnano in Tierra del Fuego and Colhué Huapi and Musters in Chubut. Lake Buenos Aires del and O’Higgins/San Martín Lake are shared with Chile. Fuego Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, is the largest salt water lake in La Rioja La Rioja Tucumán San the country. There are numerous reservoirs created by Miguel dams. Argentina features various hot springs, such as de those at Termas de Río Hondo with temperatures Tucumán between 65°C and 89°C.[38] The largest oil spill to ever occur in fresh water was Though declared the capital in 1853, the city did not becaused by a Shell tanker ship in the Rio de la Plata, Magcome the capital of the country until 1880. There have dalena, Argentina, on January 15, 1999, polluting the enbeen moves to relocate the administrative centre elsevironment, drinkable water, plants and animals.[39] where. During the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín, a law was passed ordering the transfer of the federal capital to Coastal areas and seas Viedma, a city in the Patagonian province of Río Negro. Studies were underway when economic problems halted Argentina has 4,665 kilometres (2,899 mi) of coastthe project in 1989. Though the law was never formally line.[40] The continental platform is unusually wide; this repealed, it is now treated as a relic. shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean is called Mar ArgenProvinces are divided into smaller secondary units tino. The Argentine Atlantic coast has been a favorite called departamentos ("departments"), of which there are among local vacationers for over a hundred years. The 376 in total. Buenos Aires Province has 134 similar diviwaters are rich in fisheries and suspected of holding imsions known as partidos. Departamentos and partidos are portant hydrocarbon energy resources. Argentina’s further subdivided into municipalities or districts. coastline varies between areas of sand dunes and cliffs. In descending order by number of inhabitants, the The two major ocean currents affecting the coast are the major cities in Argentina are Buenos Aires, Córdoba, warm Brazil Current and the cold Falkland Current. BeRosario, Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, cause of the unevenness of the coastal landmass, the two Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan, Resistencia and Neuquén. currents alternate in their influence on climate and do

Rivers and lakes
Major rivers in Argentina include the Pilcomayo, Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Río Negro, Salado, Uruguay and the largest river, the Paraná. The latter two flow together before meeting the Atlantic Ocean, forming the estuary of the Río de la Plata. Regionally

not allow temperatures to fall evenly with higher latitude. The southern coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the north shore of the Drake Passage.

Climate
Because of longitudinal and elevation amplitudes, Argentina is subject to a variety of climates. As a rule, the

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Argentina
mild conditions. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects westcentral Argentina. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000-meter (20,000 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; when the Zonda blows (June-November), snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect the higher elevations. The Sudestada ("southeasterlies") could be considered similar to the Nor’easter, though snowfall is rarely involved (but is not unprecedented). Both are associated with a deep winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the coasts of central Argentina and in the Río de la Plata estuary. The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience long periods of daylight from November to February (up to nineteen hours) and extended nights from May to August. All of Argentina uses UTC-3 time zone. The country does observe daylight saving time occasionally.

Panoramic view of Bristol Beach in the city of Mar del Plata in winter.

A mild climate typifies the region of the Pampas

Population
Contemporary figures
The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina (INDEC) 2001 census showed the population of Argentina was 36,260,130. It ranks third in South America in total population and 30th globally. The 2008 estimate is 40,482,000. Argentina’s population density is 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population is not evenly distributed with the city of Buenos Aires having a population density of over 14,000 inhab./km², while Santa Cruz province has fewer than 1 inhab./km². Benefiting from a moderate birth rate since the 1930s,[41] Argentina is the only nation in Latin America with a net positive migration rate; about +0.4 net immigrants per 1,000 locals, yearly.[42]

The Andean range over the southern province of Santa Cruz. climate is predominantly temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south. The north of the country is characterized by very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts. Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (western Argentina produces some of the world’s largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions. The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina. A record high temperature of 49.1 °C (120.4 °F), was recorded at Villa de María, Córdoba, on 2 January 1920. The lowest temperature recorded was −39 °C (−38 °F) at Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan, on 17 July 1972. Major wind currents in Argentina include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating

Cities and metropolitan areas
Argentina’s 25 largest metropolitan areas are:
[43]

Demographics
See also: Immigration to Argentina

Ethnicity
Argentina, as with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia and the United States is considered a country of immigrants[44]

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Rank City 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Buenos Aires Córdoba Rosario Mendoza San Miguel de Tucumán La Plata Mar del Plata Salta Santa Fe San Juan Resistencia Santiago del Estero Corrientes Bahía Blanca San Salvador de Jujuy Posadas Paraná Neuquén Formosa San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca San Luis La Rioja Río Cuarto Concordia Comodoro Rivadavia Province City + 31 partidos in Buenos Aires Province Córdoba Santa Fe Mendoza Tucumán Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Salta Santa Fe San Juan Chaco Santiago del Estero Corrientes Buenos Aires Jujuy Misiones Entre Ríos Neuquén Formosa Catamarca San Luis La Rioja Córdoba Entre Ríos Chubut Population Region 12,789,000 Pampas 1,372,000 1,242,000 885,000 789,000 732,000 604,000 516,000 493,000 453,000 377,000 357,000 345,000 304,000 298,000 287,000 268,000 255,000 229,000 196,000 192,000 172,000 161,000 148,000 141,000 Pampas Pampas Cuyo

Argentina

NOA (northwest) Pampas Pampas NOA (northwest) Pampas Cuyo Gran Chaco Gran Chaco Mesopotamia Pampas NOA (northwest) Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Patagonia Gran Chaco NOA (northwest) Cuyo NOA (northwest) Pampas Mesopotamia Patagonia

Monument to the Argentine Flag, Rosario Puerto Madero Docklands, Buenos Aires. Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers and of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe and around 86% of Argentina’s population self-identify as of European descent[45]. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.

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Argentina

Córdoba city centre

Fiesta del Inmigrante or "Immigrants’ Festival" celebrates the immigration to Argentina during the 19th and 20th century in the town of Oberá, Misiones. San Martin Boulevard, Mendoza Up to 25 million Argentines have some degree of Italian descent, around 60% of the total population.[46] An estimated 8 % of the population is mestizo.[45] A further 4 % of Argentines were of Arab or East Asian heritage.[2] In the last national census, based on self-identification, 600,000 Argentines (1.6 %) declared to be Amerindians[3] (see Demographics of Argentina for genetic studies on the matter). Following the arrival of the initial Spanish colonists, over 6.2 million Europeans emigrated to Argentina from the mid-19th to mid-20th centuries.[47] Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy; later from Campania and Calabria),[48] Spain (mostly Galicians and Basques)[49] and France.[50] Smaller but significant numbers of immigrants came from Germany and Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Eastern Europeans were also numerous from Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and from Central Europe (particularly Poland, Hungary, Romania, Croatia and Slovenia).[51] Sizable numbers of immigrants also arrived from Balkan countries (Macedonia and Montenegro).[52] There is a large Armenian community and the Chubut Valley has a significant population of Welsh descent.[53]

Built in 1906 to welcome hundreds of newcomers daily, the Immigrants’ Hotel is now a national museum.

Minorities
See also: Asian Argentine and Jewish Argentine Small but growing numbers of people from East Asia have also settled in Argentina, mainly in Buenos Aires. The first Asian-Argentines were of Japanese descent; Koreans, Vietnamese, and Chinese followed, now at over 60,000.[54] The majority of Argentina’s Jewish community are Ashkenazi Jews, while about 15–20% are Sephardic groups, primarily Syrian Jews. Argentina’s Jewish community is the fifth largest in the world. Patagonia houses a unique community of South African Boers who settled there after their bitter war with England that ended in 1902. There are an estimated

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100-120 Boer families still living on the land assigned to them by General Julio Roca. They are mainly an agricultural community. Argentina is home to a large community from the Arab world, made up mostly of immigrants from Syria and Lebanon. Most are Christians of the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic (Maronite) Churches, with small Muslim and Jewish minorities. Many have gained prominent status in national business and politics, including former president Carlos Menem, the son of Syrian settlers from the province of La Rioja. Although relatively few in number, English immigrants to Argentina have played a disproportionately large role in forming the modern state. Anglo-Argentines were traditionally often found in positions of influence in the railway, industrial and agricultural sectors. The history of the English Argentine position was complicated when their economic influence was finally eroded by Juan Perón’s nationalisation of many Britishowned companies in the 1940s and, more recently, by the Falklands War in 1982. The officially recognized indigenous population in the country, according to the 2004-05 "Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples", stands at approximately 600,000 (around 1.6% of the total population), the most numerous of whom are the Mapuche people.[3] Criticisms of the national census state that data has historically been collected using the category of national origin rather than race in Argentina, leading to undercounting Afro-Argentines and mestizos.[55] The 1887 national census was the final year where blacks were included as a separate category before it was discontinued by the government.[56]

Argentina

Governor’s offices, Tucumán

Federal courthouse, La Plata their respective metropolitan areas the second and third-largest cities in Argentina, Córdoba and Rosario, contain around 1.3 and 1.2 million inhabitants respectively with five other metro areas being home to at least half a million people.[43] Most European immigrants to Argentina settled in the cities which offered jobs, education and other opportunities enabling newcomers to enter the middle class. Many also settled in the growing small towns along the expanding railway system and since the 1930s many rural workers have moved to the big cities. The 1990s saw many rural towns become ghost towns when train services ceased and local products manufactured on a small scale were replaced by massive amounts of cheap imported goods. Slums, villas miserias, which have long blighted the outskirts of a number of Argentine cities expanded during that decade and are thought to contain around 750,000 households (four million people)[60]. These are inhabited by impoverished lower-class urban dwellers, rural migrants from the interior (mainly from the north) and a large number of immigrants from neighbouring countries that settled in Argentine cities between the 1960s and the 1990s. Though a significant proportion ot those immigrants left

Illegal immigrants
Illegal immigration has been a recent factor in Argentine demographics. Most illegal immigrants come from Bolivia and Paraguay, countries which border Argentina to the north. Smaller numbers arrive from Peru, Ecuador and Romania.[57] The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Great Homeland")[58] to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status; so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[59]

Urbanization
See also: List of cities in Argentina Argentina’s population is highly urbanized with the country’s ten largest metro areas being home to half the total population, and fewer than one in ten living in rural areas.[43] About 3 million people live in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the Greater Buenos Aires metro area totals 12.8 million (2008), making it one of the largest conurbations in the world. Together with

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during the 2001-2002 crisis, many have returned during the economic recovery that followed. Many urban areas appear European, reflecting the influence of the European immigrants. Many cities are built in a Spanish grid style around a main square, or plaza, with a cathedral and important government buildings often facing the plaza. The general layout of the cities is called damero, meaning checkerboard, since it is based on a pattern of square blocks, though modern developments sometimes depart from it. The city of La Plata built at the end of the nineteenth century is organized as a checkerboard with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals and was the first in South America with electric street illumination.[61]

Argentina

Economy

Freight rail yard in Rosario. The nations’ railways move 25 million metric tons of cargo annually.[62] trade, and a weak rule of law coupled with corruption and a bloated bureaucracy.[63] Even during its era of decline between 1930 and 1980, however, the Argentine economy created Latin America’s largest proportional middle class;[18] but this segment of the population has suffered from a succession of economic crises between 1981 and 2002, when the relative decline became absolute. Argentina’s economy started to slowly lose ground after 1930[64] when it entered the Great Depression and recovered slowly, afterwards. Erratic policies helped lead to serious bouts of stagflation in the 1949-52 and 1959-63 cycles and the country lost its place among the world’s prosperous nations, even as it continued to industrialize.[18] Following a promising decade, the economy further declined during the military dictatorship that lasted from 1976 to 1983 and for some time afterwards.[65] The regime engaged in a disorganized and corrupt financial liberalization that increased the debt burden and interrupted industrial development and upward social mobility; over 400,000 companies of all sizes went bankrupt by 1982[18] and economic decisions made from 1983 through 2001 failed to revert the situation. Record foreign debt interest payments, tax evasion and capital flight resulted in a balance of payments crisis that plagued Argentina with serious stagflation from 1975 to 1990. Attempting to remedy this, economist Domingo Cavallo pegged the peso to the U.S. dollar in 1991 and limited the growth in the money supply. His team then embarked on a path of trade liberalization, deregulation and privatization. Inflation dropped and GDP grew by one third in four years;[62] but external economic shocks and failures of the system diluted benefits, causing the economy to crumble slowly from 1995 until the collapse in 2001. That year and the next, the economy suffered its sharpest decline since 1930.[62] By 2002, Argentina had defaulted on its debt, its GDP had shrunk, unemployment reached 25% and the peso had depreciated 70% after being devalued and floated.

The Buenos Aires waterfront and three sectors leading the recent economic recovery: construction, foreign trade and tourism.

Newbery Airfield, Buenos Aires. It connects the vast nation to its capital, and to neighbouring Uruguay. International flights operate through Ministro Pistarini airport at Ezeiza. Argentina has abundant natural resources, a well-educated population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a relatively diversified industrial base. Domestic instability and global trends, however, contributed to Argentina’s decline from its noteworthy position as the world’s 10th wealthiest nation per capita in 1913 to the world’s 36th wealthiest in 1998.[63] Though no consensus exists explaining this, systemic problems have included increasingly burdensome debt, uncertainty over the monetary system, excessive regulation, barriers to free

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In 2003 expansionary policies and commodity exports triggered a rebound in GDP. This trend has been largely maintained, creating millions of jobs and encouraging internal consumption. The socio-economic situation has been steadily improving and the economy grew around 9% annually for five consecutive years between 2003 and 2007 and 7% in 2008.[66] Inflation, however, though officially hovering around 9% since 2006, was privately estimated at 12-15% that year and over 15% in 2008,[67] becoming a contentious issue again. The urban income poverty rate has dropped to 18% as of mid-2008, a third of the peak level observed in 2002, though still above the level prior to 1976.[68][69] Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is still considerably unequal.[70][71] Argentina faces slowing economic growth in light of an international financial crisis. The Kirchner administration responded at the end of 2008 with a record US$32 billion public-works program for 2009-10 and a further US$4 billion in new tax cuts and subsidies.[72][73] Kirchner has also nationalized private pensions, which required growing subsidies to cover, in a move designed to shed a budgetary drain as well as to finance high government spending and debt obligations.[74][75]

Argentina

Sectors
See also: Agriculture in Argentina and Tourism in Argentina Natural resources Argentina is one of the world’s major agricultural producers, ranking third worldwide in production of honey, soybeans and sunflower seeds and is ranked as fifth in the production of maize and eleventh in wheat. In 2007, agricultural output accounted for 9.4% of GDP and nearly one third of all exports. Soy and its byproducts, mainly animal feed and vegetable oils, are major export commodities at 24% of the total. Wheat, maize, sorghum and other cereals totaled 8%.[66] Cattle-raising is also a major industry, though mostly for domestic consumption. Beef, leather and dairy were 5% of total exports.[66] Sheep-raising and wool are important in Patagonia, though these activities have declined by half since 1990.[66] Fruits and vegetables made up 4% of exports: apples and pears in the Río Negro valley; oranges and other citrus in the northwest and Mesopotamia; grapes and strawberries in Cuyo and berries in the far south. Cotton and tobacco are major crops in the Gran Chaco, sugarcane and chile peppers in the northwest and olives and garlic in Cuyo. Yerba Mate (Misiones), tomatoes (Salta) and peaches (Mendoza) are grown for domestic consumption. Argentina is the world’s fifth-largest wine producer, and fine wine production has taken major leaps in quality. A growing export, total viticulture potential is far from having been met. Mendoza is the largest wine

View of pampas soy fields. Though Argentina is now an industrial and service economy, agriculture still earns more than half the foreign exchange.

Vineyards on the Andes foothills, San Juan province. region, followed by San Juan.[76] A strike by farmers, protesting an increase in export taxes for their products, began 13 March 2008 and butchers and supermarkets were among the first affected by shortages.[77] Following a series of failed negotiations and the 16 July defeat of the export tax-hike in the Senate, the strikes and lockouts largely subsided.[78] Argentine fisheries bring in about a million tons of catch annually[66] and are centered around Argentine hake which makes up 50% of the catch, pollack, squid and centolla crab. Forestry has long history in every

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Argentine region, apart from the pampas, accounting for almost 14 million m3 of roundwood harvests[79]; elm for cellulose, pine and eucalyptus for furniture as well as for paper products 1.5 million tons are all widely harvested. Fisheries and logging each account for 2% of exports. [66] Petroleum fuels, oil and natural gas are 12% of Argentina’s exports. The most important oil fields lie in Patagonia and Cuyo. A network of pipelines send raw product to Bahia Blanca, center of the petrochemical industry, and to the La Plata-Rosario industrial belt. Mining is a growing industry where the northwest and San Juan Province are the main regions of activity. Coal is mined in Santa Cruz Province. Metals mined include gold, silver, zinc, magnesium, sulfur, tungsten, uranium and particularly copper. These exports soared from US$ 200 million in 1996 to US$1.2 billion in 2004[80] and to over US$ 2 billion in 2007.[66] Manufacturing

Argentina
country is one of the largest producers and exporters, alongside Canada and Russia, of Cobalt-60 which is a radioactive isotope widely used in cancer therapy. Service Industries

Well-known for its productive agriculture, Argentina also benefits from a well-developed service sector The service sector is the biggest contributor to total GDP, accounting for 58%. Argentina enjoys a diversified service sector, which includes well-developed social, corporate, financial, insurance, real-estate, transport and communication services, as well as vigorous commercial and tourist trades. The telecommunications sector has been growing at a fast pace with an important penetration of mobile telephony (more than 75% of the population)[82], the Internet (with more than 16 million people online),[83] and broadband services (4.1%). Regular telephone services (with 9.5 million lines)[84] and mail services are robust. Tourism is increasingly important and provided 8% of economic output (over US$20 billion) in 2006.[85] Argentines, who have long been active travelers within their own country,[86] accounted for over 80% of this though growing international tourism (4.2 million visited Argentina in 2006) contributed almost US$3.4 billion that year.[85] Stagnant for over two decades domestic travel has increased robustly in the last few years[87] and visitors are flocking to a country seen as affordable, fun because of its variety and safe[88]. Cosmopolitan Buenos Aires, Rosario and the ocean-fronts of Mar del Plata & Pinamar, the Iguazu Falls, colonial Salta & Jujuy are rich in indigenous culture. The scenic foothills of Córdoba, the wineries of Mendoza, the ski slopes and lakes near Bariloche, the grottoes at San Antonio Oeste, Perito Moreno Glacier and Tierra del Fuego.

The Yacyretá Dam hydroelectric complex is the second largest in the world Manufacturing is the nation’s largest single sector in the economy with 21.5% of the GDP in 2007 and is wellintegrated into Argentine agriculture, accounting for nearly two-thirds of exports in all, with half the nation’s industrial exports being agricultural in nature.[66] Leading sectors by production value are: food processing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, farming equipment & auto parts, iron, steel & aluminum, petroleum, as well as home appliances and industrial machinery. Other manufactured goods include textiles & leather, plastics & tires, forestry products, publishing, cement, glass and tobacco products. Nearly half the nation’s industries are in and around Buenos Aires although Córdoba and Rosario are also home to significant industrial centers. Construction permits nationwide neared 16 million m2 (170 million ft2) in 2005 and the sector is 6% of GDP. Two-thirds of this total was residential construction.[66] Argentina produces electricity in large part through well developed natural gas and hydroelectric resources. Nuclear energy is also of high importance[81] and the

Politics
Government
See also: Law of Argentina and Government of Argentina

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Argentina

The Casa Rosada, seat of the Executive branch. Argentina’s political framework is a federal presidential representative democratic republic, in which the President of The Argentine Nation is both head of state and head of government, complemented by a pluriform multi-party system. The current president is Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, with Julio Cobos as vice president. The Argentine Constitution of 1853 mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. Executive power resides in the President and the Cabinet. The President and Vice President are directly elected to four-year terms and are limited to two terms. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the president and are not subject to legislative ratification. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Nación, consisting of a Senate (Senado) of seventy-two seats, and a Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) of 257 members. Senators serve six-year terms, with one-third standing for reelection every two years. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are directly elected to four-year term via a system of proportional representation, with half of the members of the lower house being elected every two years. A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Argentine Supreme Court of Justice has seven members who are appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate. The rest of the judges are appointed by the Council of Magistrates of the Nation, a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, the Congress and the executive. Argentina is a member of an international block, Mercosur, which has some legislative supranational functions. Mercosur is composed of five full members: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. It has five associate members without full voting rights: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

The Argentine Legislature, Buenos Aires.

The Argentine Supreme Court.

Safety and Security
Argentina has a relatively stable government, civil society and among the lowest crime rates in the region; however street crime in larger cities such as Buenos Aires is still a significant problem. Residents and tourists alike are often the targets of muggings, theft, and kidnappings - although most victims are not physically injured when robbed. One particularly dangerous crime reported in Argentina is “express kidnapping,” where victims are grabbed off the street based on their appearance and vulnerability, and made to withdraw money from ATMs. Their family members and associates are

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then contacted for an additional ransom of whatever money they have on hand or can collect within a short period of time - usually a couple of hours. If the ransom is paid, the victim is quickly released unharmed.[89] Other dangers to safety and security in Argentina include public demonstrations, which are common in most big cities. While most demonstrations are peaceful, they sometimes serve as an occasion for criminals to vandalize private property and engage in violent confrontations with police. [90] However, the U.S. Department of State warns that the greatest threat to life and limb in Argentina is from traffic accidents. The State Department warns that "drivers frequently ignore traffic laws and vehicles often travel at excessive speeds" and that "traffic accidents are the primary threat to life and limb in Argentina."[91] Argentina has the highest traffic mortality rate in South America, with Argentine drivers causing 20 deaths each day (about 7,000 a year), and over 120,000 people injured or maimed each year. Pedestrians should exercise particular caution.[92]

Argentina
1 million km² in Antarctica, between the 25°W and the 74°W meridians and the 60°S parallel. Claimed by the United Kingdom, they have occupied this area since 1833, though since 1904 the Orcadas Base, an Argentine scientific post, has been maintained by mutual agreement. Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member of the Antarctic Treaty System and the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is established in Buenos Aires.[95]

Military

Foreign policy
While Argentina has employed threats and force to pursue its claims against Chile in the Beagle channel and Laguna del Desierto, against Britain in Antarctica[93] and the Falklands, as well as against illegal trawlers, this behavior constituted the exception rather than the rule in Argentine international relations. Argentina was the only country from Latin America to participate in the 1991 Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations. It was also the only Latin American country involved in every phase of the Haiti operation. Argentina has contributed worldwide to peacekeeping operations, including in El Salvador-Honduras-Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador-Peru, Western Sahara, Angola, Kuwait, Cyprus, Croatia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor Leste. In recognition of its contributions to international security, U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally in January 1998. It was last elected as a temporary member of the UN Security Council in 2005. The United Nations White Helmets, a bulwark of peacekeeping and humanitarian aid efforts, were first deployed in 1994 following an Argentine initiative. [94] On 4-5 November 2005, the Argentine city of Mar del Plata hosted the Fourth Summit of the Americas. This summit was marked by a number of anti-U.S. protests. As of 2006, Argentina has been emphasizing Mercosur as its first international priority; by contrast, during the 1990s, it relied more heavily on its relationship with the United States. Argentina has long claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), the South Shetland Islands, the South Sandwich Islands and almost

Libertador Building (Ministry of Defense and Army Headquarters) and the flagship Sarmiento frigate. Argentina’s armed forces are controlled by the Defense Ministry, with the country’s President as their Commander-in-Chief. Historically, Argentina’s military has been one of the best equipped in the region (for example, developing its own advanced jet fighters as early as the 1950s);[96] but, of late, it has faced sharper expenditure cutbacks than most other armed forces in Latin America. Indeed, since 1981, real military expenditures have fallen by about half and are today less than US$3 billion.[97] The age of allowable military service is 18 years; there is no obligatory military service and currently no conscription. Recently, Argentina’s armed forces have numbered about 70,000 active duty personnel, a reduction of over a third from levels before the return to democracy in 1983.[98] The armed forces are composed of a traditional Army, Navy, and Air Force. Controlled by a separate ministry (the Interior Ministry), Argentine territorial waters are patrolled by the Naval Prefecture and the border regions by the National Gendarmerie; both arms however maintain liaison with the Defense Ministry. Argentina’s Armed Forces are currently undertaking major operations in Haiti and Cyprus, in accordance with UN mandates.

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Argentina
roads (not including private rural roads) of which 72,000 km (45,000 mi) are paved[100] and 1,575 km (980 mi) are expressways,[101] many of which are privatized tollways. Having doubled in length in recent years, multilane expressways now connect several major cities with more under construction.[102] Expressways are, however, currently inadequate to deal with local traffic, as 9.2 million motor vehicles are registered nationally as of 2008 (230 per 1000 population).[103] The railway network has a total length of 34,059 km (21,170 mi).[104] After decades of declining service and inadequate maintenance, most intercity passenger services shut down in 1992 when the rail company was privatized, and thousands of kilometers of track (excluding the above total) are now in disuse. Intercity rail services are currently being reactivated among several cities and, though also privatized, metro rail services in Buenos Aires have continued; in part thanks to their easy access to the Buenos Aires subways, these continue to be in great demand. Inaugurated in 1913, the Buenos Aires Metro was the first subway system built in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere.[105] It is no longer the most extensive in Latin America; but, its 33 miles (53 km) of track carry nearly 900,000 passengers daily.[62] Argentina has around 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of navigable waterways, and these carry more cargo than do the country’s renown freight railways.[106] This includes an extensive network of canals, though Argentina is blessed with ample natural waterways, as well; the most significant among these being the Río de la Plata, Paraná, Uruguay, Río Negro and Paraguay rivers.

Transportation

Motorway in Buenos Aires (Av. General Paz)

Flora
A cargo ship in front of the Rosario-Victoria Bridge.

The ceibo is the National Flower of Argentina Subtropical plants dominate the north, part of the Gran Chaco region of South America. The genus Dalbergia of trees is well disseminated with representatives like the Brazilian Rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba

Light rail in Buenos Aires Argentina’s transport infrastructure is relatively advanced.[99] There are over 230,000 km (144,000 mi) of

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Argentina
Most of Patagonia in the south lies within the rain shadow of the Andes. The flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is well suited to withstand dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests grow in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego. Conifers native to the region include alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides), ciprés de la cordillera (Austrocedrus chilensis), ciprés de las guaitecas (Pilgerodendron uviferum), huililahuán (Podocarpus nubigenus), lleuque (Prumnopitys andina), mañío hembra (Saxegothaea conspicua) and pehuén (Araucaria araucana), while native broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus including coigüe or coihue, lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) and ñire (Nothofagus Antarctica). Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue (Chusquea culeou).[108] In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many river oasis, grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In the northwest of Argentina there are many species of cacti. In the highest elevations (above 4,000 m or 13,000 ft), no vegetation grows because of the extreme altitude. The ceibo flower, of the tree Erythrina crista-galli, is the national flower of Argentina.

Palo borracho (Argentina

Fauna
Further information: List of national parks of Argentina

Caldén trees in the semi-arid Pampas and prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands dotting the region. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The original pampa had virtually no trees; today along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias), some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present. The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the ombú, an evergreen. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This is what makes the region one of the most agriculturaly productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.[107]

The hornero is one of the national emblems of Argentina. Many species live in the subtropical north. Big cats like the jaguar, cougar, and ocelot; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles) and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, raccoon and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans and swallows.

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Argentina
streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American dorado fish. Outstanding snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and the very venomous yarará pit viper and South American rattle snake. The Hornero was elected the National Bird after a survey in 1928.[109]

Culture

Male sea lion in Mar del Plata

Architect Alejandro Bustillo and sculptor Lola Mora’s work, Rosario.

The puma inhabits the northeast of the country The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias and the rhea (ñandú), a flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia. The western mountains are home to different animals. These include the llama, guanaco, vicuña, among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean Mountain Cat, kodkod and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean Condor. Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world’s smallest deer), and introduced, nonnative wild boar.[108] The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants. The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and spider crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and

Street in Buenos Aires CBD.

Second Empire and Neoclassical architecture at Buenos Aires city centre.

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See also: List of Argentines Argentine culture has significant European influences. Buenos Aires, considered by many its cultural capital, is often said to be the most European city in South America, as a result both of the prevalence of people of European descent and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture. The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions (like yerba mate infusions) have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.

Argentina
fully united entity in the 1850s, with a strong constitution and a defined nation-building plan. The struggle between the Federalists (who favored a loose confederation of provinces based on rural conservatism) and the Unitarians (pro-liberalism and advocates of a strong central government that would encourage European immigration), set the tone for Argentine literature of the time. The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, and Facundo[111] by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example. Hernández, a federalist, opposed to the centralizing, modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote immigration was the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society. Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. It was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late nineteenth century, and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph. Argentina has produced many more internationally noted writers, poets and intellectuals: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh. A number of Argentine caricaturists have also become influential: Roberto Fontanarrosa’s grotesque characters captured life’s absurdities with quick-witted commentary and Quino (born Joaquin Salvador Lavado), has entertained readers the world over, while dipping into current events with soup-hating Mafalda and her comic strip gang.

Literature

When I think of what I’ve lost, I ask "who know themselves better than the blind?" - for every thought becomes a tool. Jorge Luis Borges
[110]

Film and theatre
Argentina is a major producer of motion pictures. The world’s first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918. Argentine cinema enjoyed a ’golden age’ in the 1930s through the 1950s with scores of productions, many now considered classics of Spanish-language film. The industry produced actors who became the first movie stars of Argentine cinema, often tango performers such as Libertad Lamarque, Floren Delbene, Tito

Argentina has a rich history of world-class literature, including one of the twentieth century’s most critically acclaimed writers, Jorge Luis Borges. The country has been a leader in Latin American literature since becoming a

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Argentina

Gran Rex Cinema, Buenos Aires. Lusiardo, Tita Merello, Roberto Escalada and Hugo del Carril. More recent films from the "New Wave" of cinema since the 1980s have achieved worldwide recognition, such as The Official Story (La historia official), Nine Queens (Nueve reinas), Man Facing Southeast (Hombre mirando al sudeste), Son of the Bride (El hijo de la novia), The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de motocicleta), or Iluminados por el fuego. Argentine composer Gustavo Santaolalla, Eugenio Zanetti and Luis Enrique Bacalov all are Academy Award winners. Although rarely rivaling Hollywood-type movies in popularity, local films are released weekly and widely followed in Argentina and internationally. Even low-budget films have earned prizes in cinema festivals (such as Cannes). The city of Mar del Plata organizes its own film festival, while Buenos Aires has its independent cinema counterpart. The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America, and viewing per capita is the highest in the region. A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide.[112] Argentina is a major center of cinema; it is compared to European countries in terms of people who attend movie theaters. An example of this was Spider-Man 3 which took in 466,586 the first day—a record in Argentina. In Italy it took in 400,000 and Germany 486,571, breaking all records for first day release.[113] Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater. The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances. Built at the end of the 19th century, Teatro Colón’s acoustic is considered the best in the world. Currently it is undergoing major refurbishment, in order to preserve its outstanding sound characteristics, the French-romantic style, the impressive Golden Room (a minor auditorium targeted to Chamber Music performances) and the museum at the entrance. Artists, composers and conductors who have performed in this opera house include Enrico Caruso, Beniamino Gigli, Felix Weingartner, Artur Nikisch, Richard Strauss, Arturo Toscanini, Igor Stravinsky, Paul

The Buenos Aires Teatro Colón, one of the world’s great opera houses. Hindemith, Camille Saint-Saëns, Manuel de Falla, Aaron Copland, Krzysztof Penderecki, Gian-Carlo Menotti, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Herbert von Karajan, Tullio Serafin, Gino Marinuzzi, Albert Wolff, Víctor De Sabata, Leonard Bernstein, Mstislav Rostropovich, Sir Malcolm Sargent, Karl Böhm, Fernando Previtali, Sir Thomas Beecham, Ferdinand Leitner, Lorin Maazel, Igor Markevitch, Bernard Haitink, Zubin Mehta, Marek Janowsky, Aldo Ceccato, Riccardo Muti, Kurt Masur, Michel Corboz, FranzPaul Decker, Riccardo Chailly, Sir Simon Rattle, Claudio Abbado and René Jacobs With its program of national and international caliber, Calle Corrientes, or Corrientes Avenue, is synonymous with the art. It is thought of as ’the street that never sleeps’ and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires.[114] Many great careers in acting, music, and film have begun in its many theaters. The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantes functions as the national stage theater of Argentina. The El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Griselda Gambaro, Roberto Cossa and Carlos Gorostiza are Argentine playwrights well-known internationally. Julio Bocca and Jorge Donn are two of the great ballet dancers of the modern era.

Architecture, painting and sculpture
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country’s cityscapes and, in recent decades, those around the world. Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulĉiĉ left an Art Deco legacy. Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally and César Pelli’s and Patricio Pouchulu’s Futurist creations have graced cities, worldwide. Pelli’s 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s, in

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Argentina

Font of the Nereids (1903) by Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin’s. particular, made him one of the world’s most prestigious architects. One of the most influential Argentine figures in fine arts was Xul Solar, whose surrealist work used watercolors as readily as unorthodox painting media; he also "invented" two imaginary languages. The works of Cándido López (in Naïve art style), Ernesto de la Cárcova (realism), Fernando Fader (impressionism), Emilio Pettoruti (cubist), Antonio Berni (neo-figurative), Gyula Košice (constructivism) and Guillermo Kuitca (abstract) are appreciated internationally. Benito Quinquela Martín is considered to be the quintessential ’port’ painter, for which the city of Buenos Aires and the working class and immigrantbound La Boca neighborhood, in particular, was excellently suited. A similar environment inspired Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s. Realist sculptors Lola Mora’s and Rogelio Yrurtia’s evocative monuments became the part of the national landscape and today, Lucio Fontana and Leon Ferrari are acclaimed sculptors and conceptual artists. Ciruelo is a world-famous fantasy artist and sculptor and Eduardo Mac Entyre’s geometric designs have influenced advertisers worldwide since the 1970s.

Yerba mate (an invigorating green tea) in its traditional gourd.

An asado with sliced provolone. Thin sandwiches, sandwiches de miga, are also popular. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world.[115] The Argentine wine industry, long among the largest outside Europe, has benefited from growing investment since 1992; in 2007, 60% of foreign investment worldwide in viticulture was destined to Argentina.[116] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world, with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. Malbec grape, a discardable varietal in France (country of origin), has found in Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world’s best Malbec. Mendoza is one of the eight wine capitals of the world[117] and

Food and drink
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of indigenous creations, which include empanadas (a stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humitas and yerba mate, all originally indigenous Amerindian staples, the latter considered Argentina’s national beverage. Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage), facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de Leche. The Argentine barbecue, asado as well as a parrillada, includes various types of meats, among them chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and morcilla (blood sausage).

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accounts for 70% of the country’s total wine production. "Wine tourism" is important in the Province of Mendoza, with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas, Mount Aconcagua, 6,952 m (22,808 ft) high, providing a very desirable destination for international tourism.

Argentina
international championship for the sport, held in Miami, Florida, in 1993. Volleyball and basketball are also popular; a number of basketball players participate in the United States National Basketball Association and European leagues. Manu Ginobili, Andres Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, and Fabricio Oberto are a few, and the national team won Olympic Gold in the Athens Olympics and the bronze medal in 2008. Argentina is currently ranked first at FIBA. Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas" (see Argentina national rugby union team), with many of its players playing in Europe. Argentina beat host nation France twice in the Rugby World Cup 2007, placing them third in the competition. The Pumas are currently fourth in the International Rugby Board’s official world rankings. Argentine tennis is very competitive on the world stage, with dozens of players, male and female, in active tour. Other popular sports include field hockey (the top female sport, see Las Leonas), golf, and sailing. Argentina has the highest number of highly ranked polo players in the world, and the national squad has been the uninterrupted world champion since 1949. Cricket is growing in popularity because of the National Team’s recent successes where they came as the underdogs and finished runner’s up of the Inaugural World Cricket League Division 3. Baseball is played in a most limited fashion, as well as the Gridiron.[122] Motorsports are well represented in Argentina, with Turismo Carretera and TC 2000 being the most popular car racing formats. The Rally Argentina is part of the World Rally Championship (currently held in Córdoba Province). In Formula 1 racing, the country produced one world champion (Juan Manuel Fangio, five times) and two runners-up (Froilán González and Carlos Reutemann, once each) Enjoying a small, though loyal, following, the official national sport of Argentina is pato, played with a sixhandle ball on horseback.

Sports
Further information: Sport in Argentina

Ignacio Corleto of Los Pumas on his way to score a try against France in the 2007 Rugby World Cup. Beating France 17 - 12, Argentina reached third place in the tournament. Football (Association football) is the most popular sport in Argentina, whose national team was twice FIFA World Cup Champion and Olympic Gold medalist, as well as Copa América winners fourteen times.[118] Including other international cups and club tournaments, Argentine football is the most decorated in the world, counting 227 international titles as of early 2008;[119] Argentine players contribute greatly to other countries’ football, as well: in early 2008, 1095 Argentine footballers played professionally in 63 other nations.[120] Over 540,000 people are registered football players;[121] this is about one in twenty-five adult males, though the sport has become increasingly popular among girls and women, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006. The Argentine Football Association was formed in 1893 and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world. The 1891 league tournament organized in Argentina made it the third in football history, following the ones in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The AFA today counts 390 professional teams, of which only 20 at any one time belong to the Premier Division. Among the fifteen teams honored with a national tournament title since the AFA went professional in 1931, River Plate has won 33 and Boca Juniors, 23. Other "big" teams are: Independiente (14 national titles), San Lorenzo de Almagro (10) and Racing (7).[121] Over the last twenty years, futsal and beach football have garnered a growing following. The Argentine beach football team was one of four competitors in the first

River Plate Stadium, venue of the 1978 World Cup finals.

Music
Tango, the music and lyrics (often sung in a form of slang called lunfardo), is Argentina’s musical symbol. The Milonga dance was a predecessor, slowly evolving into modern tango. By the 1930s ,tango had changed from a dance-focused music to one of lyric and poetry, with singers like Carlos Gardel, Roberto Goyeneche, Hugo del Carril, Tita Merello and Edmundo Rivero. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral

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Argentina
Argentine rock, called rock nacional, is the most popular music among youth. Arguably the most listened form of Spanish-language rock, its influence and success internationally owes to a rich, uninterrupted development. Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo, and composers like Charly García, Luis Alberto Spinetta, and Fito Páez are referents of national culture. Mid-1960s Buenos Aires and Rosario were cradles of the music and by 1970, Argentine rock was well-established among middle class youth (see Almendra, Sui Generis, Pappo, Crucis). Seru Giran bridged the gap into the 1980s, when Argentine bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere (Enanitos Verdes, Fabulosos Cadillacs, Virus, Andrés Calamaro). There are many sub-genres: underground, pop-oriented and some associated with the working class (La Renga, Attaque 77, Divididos, Hermética, V8 and Los Redonditos). Current popular bands include: Babasonicos, Rata Blanca, Horcas, Attaque 77, Bersuit, Los Piojos, Intoxicados, Catupecu Machu, Carajo and Miranda!. European classical music is well represented in Argentina. Buenos Aires is home to the world-renowned Colón Theater. Classical musicians, such as Martha Argerich, Daniel Barenboim, Eduardo Alonso-Crespo, Eduardo Delgado and classical composers such as Alberto Ginastera, are internationally acclaimed, as are film score composers like Lalo Schiffrin and Gustavo Santaolalla. All major cities in Argentina have impressive theaters or opera houses, and provincial or city orchestras. Some cities have annual events and important classical music festivals like Semana Musical Llao Llao in San Carlos de Bariloche and the multitudinous Amadeus in Buenos Aires.

Carlos Gardel, still the standard among Tango vocalists. groups too, like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese, Anibal Troilo, Francisco Canaro and Juan D’Arienzo. Incorporating acoustic music and later, synthesizers into the genre after 1955, bandoneon virtuoso Astor Piazzolla popularized "new tango" creating a more subtle, intellectual and listener-oriented trend. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity; ever-evolving, neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and the Gotan Project.

Mercedes Sosa, the grande dame of Argentine folk music. Argentine folk music is uniquely vast. Beyond dozens of regional dances, a national folk style emerged in the 1930s. Perón’s Argentina would give rise to Nueva Canción, as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. Atahualpa Yupanqui, the greatest Argentine folk musician, and Mercedes Sosa would be defining figures in shaping Nueva Canción,

Progressive rock musician Charly Garcia.

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gaining worldwide popularity in the process. The style found a huge reception in Chile, where it took off in the 1970s and went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music.[123] Today, Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. Leon Gieco’s folk-rock bridged the gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock, introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours. Other notable musicians include Gato Barbieri with his free jazz compositions and Jaime Torres with his Andean music.

Argentina
Sunni).[124] Buenos Aires is home to one of the largest mosques in Latin America. A recent national study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious; this includes those who believe in God, though not religion, agnostics (4%) and atheists (5%). Among the respondents, only 24% attended religious services regularly, and only Protestants attended services in the majority of cases.[126] According to the Constitution, the Argentine government should support Roman Catholicism and, though the President and Vice President were historically required to be of this faith (until 1994), no other government official need have been; indeed, since 1945, numerous Jews have held prominent posts. Catholic policy, however, remains influential in government and still helps shape or defeat a variety of legislation. Popular opinion, for its part, opposes the Catholic Church’s status as the sole recipient of public subsidies (only one in three supports the policy), though the majority approve of state subsidies for religious social and charitable work, for the maintenance of buildings and for the inclusion of religious studies in schools. Education in Argentina, public or private, has long been mostly secular.[126]

Religion

Language
The Cathedral of Córdoba, dating back to the seventeenth century. See also: State-Church relations in Argentina Argentines are predominantly Roman Catholic. Historically, around 90% have indentified themselves as Roman Catholic according to different surveys.[124] The Church, however, estimates an affiliation of 70%[125] and a recent national survey supported this estimate: the study found that 76% declare themselves Roman Catholic. Evangelical churches, which have gained a foothold in Argentina since the 1980s, are adhered to by 9% of the total population.[126] Pentecostal churches and traditional Protestant denominations are present in most communities. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), numbering over 330,000 (the seventhlargest congregation in the world), are also present. [127] The country is home to the largest Jewish population in Latin America; although it has been decreasing since 1960s, the community still numbers around 230,000. The Argentine Jewish population was possibly the thirdlargest (after those in the United States and the USSR) following World War II, when it numbered over 400,000; since then, the appeal of Israel and economic and cultural pressures at home have led many to leave, though instability in Israel has resulted in a modest reversal of the trend since 2003.[124][128] Islam in Argentina constitutes approximately 1.5% of the population, or an estimated 500,000-600,000 (93%

Café de los Angelitos, like many Argentine coffee houses, a meeting point for musical and literary talent. See also: List of indigenous languages in Argentina The official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known as porteños) is closer to the Neapolitan dialect of Italian than any other spoken language. Italian immigration and other European immigrations influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well.

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Argentines are the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs what is known as voseo (the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú (you), which occasions the use of alternate verb forms as well). The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. According to one survey, there are around 1.5 million Italian speakers (which makes it the second most spoken language in the country) and 1 million speakers of North Levantine Spoken Arabic.[129] Standard German is spoken by between 400,000 and 500,000[130] Argentines of German ancestry, though it has also been stated that the there could be as many as 1.8 million.[131] German is the third or fourth most spoken language in Argentina. Some indigenous communities have retained their original languages. Guaraní is spoken by some in the northeast, especially in Corrientes (where it enjoys official status) and Misiones. Quechua is spoken by some in the northwest and has a local variant in Santiago del Estero. Aymara is spoken by members of the Bolivian community who migrated to Argentina from Bolivia. In Patagonia there are several Welsh-speaking communities, with some 25,000 estimated second-language speakers.[129] More recent immigrants have brought Chinese and Korean, mostly to Buenos Aires. English, Brazilian Portuguese and French are also spoken. English is commonly taught at schools as a second language and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese and French.

Argentina
Christmas or "Santa Claus"). New Year’s Day is also marked with fireworks. Other widely observed holidays include Good Friday, Easter, Labor Day (1 May) and Sovereignty Day (formerly Malvinas Day, 2 April).

Education
After independence, Argentina constructed a national public education system in comparison to other nations, placing the country high up in the global rankings of literacy. Today the country has a literacy rate of 97%, and three in eight adults over age 20 have completed secondary school studies or higher.[66]

The ubiquitous white uniform of Argentine school children; it is a national symbol of learning. School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17. The Argentine school system consists of a primary or lower school level lasting six or seven years, and a secondary or high school level lasting between five to six years. In the 1990s, the system was split into different types of high school instruction, called Educacion Secundaria and the Polimodal. Some provinces adopted the Polimodal while others did not. A project in the executive branch to repeal this measure and return to a more traditional secondary level system was approved in 2006.[132] President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is overwhelmingly credited in pushing and implementing a free, modern education system in Argentina. The 1918 University reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities. Education is funded by tax payers at all levels except for the majority of graduate studies. There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels. Around 11.4 million people were enrolled in formal education of some kind in 2005: Level Initial Primary Secondary Vocational Schools Teachers 1 Students 16,298 22,196 22,080 1,870 79,721 289,898 133,225 15,747 1,324,529 4,683,963 3,372,411 509,134

Holidays

Nueve de Julio Avenue, sometimes referred to as "the World’s widest avenue." Its name honors Argentine Independence Day (9 July 1816). Though holidays of many faiths are respected, public holidays usually include most Catholic holidays. Historic holidays include the celebration of the May Revolution (25 May), the Independence Day (9 July), National Flag Day (20 June) and the death of José de San Martín (17 August). The extended family gathers on Christmas Eve at around 9 p.m. for dinner, music, and often dancing. Candies are served just before midnight, when the fireworks begin. They also open gifts from Papá Noel (Father

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Argentina

Universities 85
[66]

117,359

1,527,310

1 excludes 185,776 teachers not classified by level

Public education in Argentina is tuition-free from the primary to the university levels. Though literacy was nearly universal as early as 1947,[66] the majority of Argentine youth had little access to education beyond the compulsory seven years of grade school during the first half of the 20th century; since then, when the tuitionfree system was extended to the secondary and university levels, demand for these facilities has often outstripped budgets (particularly since the 1970s).[133] Consequently, public education is now widely found wanting and in decline; this has helped private education flourish, though it has also caused a marked inequity between those who can afford it (usually the middle and upper classes) and the rest of society, as private schools often have no scholarship systems in place. Roughly one in four primary and secondary students and one in six university students attend private institutions.[66][133] There are thirty-eight public universities across the country,[134] as well as numerous private ones. The Universities of Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, and the National Technological University are among the most important. Public universities faced cutbacks in spending during the 1980s and 1990s, which led to a decline in overall quality.

The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country’s 3,000 medical graduates, annually.[135] accompanied by the construction of over 4,000 public clinics and hospitals.[137][138] These (totaling 8,000) serve the roughly 40% of Argentines who belong to neither an Obra Social nor to one of 280 private health insurance companies operating in Argentina as of 2006.[139] Private health insurance in Argentina, which was first made available in 1932 by Dr. Alejandro Schvarzer, covered 1.1 million households in 2006 (about 10%) and collected monthly premiums of about US$100, on average (though larger families often pay US$300). This system operates nearly 10,000 clinics and 18,000 beds.[139][140] Health care costs in Argentina amount to almost 10% of GDP and have been growing in pace with the percentage of Argentines over 65 (7% in 1970). Public and private spending have historically split this about evenly: public funds are mainly spent through Obras, which in turn, refer patients needing hospitalization to private and public clinics; private funds are spent evenly between private insurers’ coverage and out-of-pocket expenses.[141][142] In all, Argentina has over 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to those in developed nations).[140][143] The relatively high access to medical care Argentines have enjoyed has historically resulted in mortality patterns that are nearly similar to those in developed nations: from

Health care
Health care in Argentina is provided for through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Government efforts to improve public health in Argentina can be traced to Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz’s first Medical Tribunal of 1780.[136] Following independence, the establishment of the University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine in 1822 was complemented by the one in the National University of Córdoba, in 1877. The training of doctors and nurses at these and other schools enabled the rapid development of health care cooperatives, which during the Administration of Juan Perón became publicly subsidized Obras Sociales. Today, these number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the Argentine population; the national INSSJP covers nearly all of Argentina’s five million senior citizens.[137] Perón’s Minister of Health, Dr. Ramón Carrillo, borrowed both from German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck’s support for employer or guild-sponsored plans and British Health Minister William Beveridge’s National Health Service, as the encouragement of Obras Sociales and the creation of the INSSJP (then called PAMI) was

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1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease have increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries a steady 6% and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths, which accounted for 19% of all deaths in 1953, did so for only 3% in 2005.[140][144] The availability of health care has helped reduce infant mortality in Argentina from 69 per 1000 live births in 1948 to 12.9 in 2006[140] and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.[37][145] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages in both eras, they continue to fall somewhat short of levels seen in developed nations and in 2006, ranked fourth in Latin America.[143]

Argentina
significant advances in wound-healing therapies and in the treatment of heart disease and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world’s first ever coronary bypass surgery and Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals; César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies; Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe method of blood transfusion,Enrique Finochietto designed operating table tools such as the surgical scissors that bear his name ("Finochietto scissors") and a surgical rib-spreader.[147] They have likewise contributed to bioscience in efforts like the Human Genome Project, where Argentine scientists have successfully mapped the genome of a living being, a world first.[148][149]

Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in Argentina faces five key challenges: (i) low coverage with higher levels of service provision for its income level; (ii) poor service quality; and (iii) high levels of pollution; (iv) low cost recovery; and (v) unclear allocation of responsibilities between institutions in the sector. The 2001 Census revealed that, since 1980, very little progress had been made in reducing the prevalence of those without indoor running water or indoor plumbing (about 20% of the population, as of 2001).[146] Great regional disparities continued to exist since the problem affected 2% of those in the city of Buenos Aires, and, in the historically underdeveloped provinces of Formosa and Santiago del Estero, a little over half lacked these amenities.[146]

Science and technology

Dr. Luis Agote (2nd from right) overseeing history’s first safe and effective blood transfusion, 1914. Argentina’s nuclear program is highly advanced, having resulted in a research reactor in 1957 and Latin America’s first on-line commercial reactor in 1974. Argentina developed its nuclear program without being overly dependent on foreign technology. Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[150] In other areas, Juan Vucetich, a Croatian immigrant, was the father of modern fingerprinting [151] Raúl Pateras de Pescara demon(dactiloscopy). strated the world’s first flight of a helicopter, Hungarian-Argentine László Bíró mass-produced the first modern ball point pens and Eduardo Taurozzi developed the pendular combustion engine.[152] Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading

Dr. Luis Federico Leloir (left) and his staff toast to his 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Argentina has contributed many distinguished doctors, scientists and inventors to the world, including three Nobel Prize laureates in sciences. Argentines have been responsible for major breakthroughs in world medicine; their research has led to

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figure in string theory. An Argentine satellite, the PEHUENSAT-1[153] was successfully launched on 10 January 2007 using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The Pierre Auger Observatory near Malargüe, Mendoza, is the World’s foremost cosmic ray observatory.[154]

Argentina
The Argentine publishing industry ranks with those in Spain and Mexico as the most important in the Spanish speaking world. Argentine readers can avail themselves of the largest bookstore chains in Latin America, El Ateneo and Yenny.

Communications and media
Print

Radio and television
Argentina was a pioneering nation in radio broadcasting. At 9 pm on 27 August 1920, Sociedad Radio Argentina announced: "We now bring to your homes a live performance of Richard Wagner’s Parsifal opera from the Coliseo Theater in downtown Buenos Aires"; only about twenty homes in the city had a receiver to tune in. The world’s first radio station was the only one in the country until 1922, when Radio Cultura went on the air; by 1925, there were twelve stations in Buenos Aires and ten in other cities. The 1930s were the "golden age" of radio in Argentina, with live variety, news, soap opera and sport shows.[157]

Public television, Buenos Aires. On the air since 1951, Argentine TV broadcasting was the first in Latin America. Funeral of famed First Lady Evita Perón, as covered by Clarín. The print media industry in Argentina is highly developed and independent of the government. There are over two hundred newspapers in the country. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires, including the centrist Clarín, the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most-widely circulated in the Spanishspeaking world.[155] Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right) published since 1870, Página/ 12 (left), Ámbito Financiero (business conservative), Olé (sports) and Crónica (populist). Two Argentine foreign language newspapers enjoy a relatively high circulation: the Argentinisches Tageblatt in German and the The Buenos Aires Herald, published since 1876. Regional papers with especially high influence include La Voz del Interior (Córdoba), Diario Río Negro (General Roca, Rio Negro), Los Andes (Mendoza), La Capital (Rosario, Santa Fe), El Tribuno (Salta) and La Gaceta de Tucumán. The most circulated newsmagazine in Argentina is Noticias.[156] There are currently 260 AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina.[158] Radio remains an important medium in Argentina. Music and youth variety programs dominate FM formats; news, debate, and sports are AM radio’s primary broadcasts. Amateur radio is widespread in the country. Radio still serves a vital service of information, entertainment and even life saving in the most remote communities. The Argentine television industry is large and diverse, widely viewed in Latin America, and its productions seen around the world. Many local programs are broadcast by networks in other countries, and others have their rights purchased by foreign producers for adaptations in their own markets. Argentina has five major networks. All provincial capitals and other large cities have at least one local station. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, similar to percentages in North America.[159] Many cable networks operate from Argentina and serve the Spanish-speaking world, including

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Organization Columbia and Yale Universities The Economist Fund for Peace Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal International Living Reporters Without Borders Transparency International United Nations Development Programme Survey Environmental Performance Index Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 Failed States Index Index of Economic Freedom Quality-of-life Index, 2008 Worldwide Press Freedom Index Corruption Perceptions Index Human Development Index

Argentina
Ranking 38 out of 149 40 out of 111 151 out of 177 107 out of 157 13 out of 192 68 out of 173 105 out of 180 38 out of 177

Utilísima Satelital, TyC Sports, Fox Sports en Español (with the United States and México), MTV Argentina, Cosmopolitan TV and the news network Todo Noticias.

International rankings See also Notes
[1]

[2] [3] [4]

[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

[16] Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6. [17] Argentina Desert War 1879-1880 [18] ^ Lewis, Paul. The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1990. [19] Barnes, John. Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York: Grove Press, 1978. [20] Todo Argentina: Perón (Spanish) [21] INDEC (precios) [22] Foster et al (1998), Culture and Customs of Argentina, Greenwood, p. 62, ISBN 9780313303197, See Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=iZSovereignty of South Georgia and the South rJyz2pSsC&pg=PA62 Sandwich Islands and the List of Antarctic [23] Feitlowitz, Marguerite. A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina territorial claims and the Legacies of Torture. Oxford University Press, ^ Argentina 2002. ^ INDEC: Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas [24] Rock, David. Argentina, 1516-1982. University of (ECPI) 2004 - 2005 (Spanish) California Press, 1987. ^ "Argentina". International Monetary Fund. [25] Nancy Scheper-Hughes. Child Survival: Anthropological http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/ Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of weodata/ Children. weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=213%2C273%2C228&s=PPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=&pr.x=68&pr [26] Andersen, Martin. Dossier Secreto. Westview Press, Retrieved on 2009-04-22. 1993. CIA World FactbookGini listings [27] Todo Argentina: Alfonsín (Spanish) "Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution". [28] Todo Argentina: Menem (Spanish) http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/ar00000_.html. [29] Todo Argentina: de la Rúa (Spanish) [1] [30] Todo Argentina: Duhalde (Spanish) Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Country [31] Todo Argentina: Kirchner (Spanish) Fact Sheets - Argentina [32] Crítica (Spanish) International GDP ranking [33] Mountains of the Earth The Highest Mountain Peak Country Classifications by the World Bank on Each Continent Emerging Markets - Argentina [34] Aconcagua, the highest in the Western Hemisphere The Global Emerging Markets Database [35] Depressions The Lowest Surface Point on Each Argeeis, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Continent Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus [36] "Argentine topography, hydrography, and climate" (in Argentinos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Spanish). Chamber of Deputies of the Province of Santa Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus Cruz. http://www.hcdsc.gov.ar/biblioteca/ISES/ "War of the Triple Alliance: Reality and Myth". geografiaargentina.asp. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/ [37] ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Argentina Guerra_de_la_Triple_Alianza#cite_note-0. [38] About Termas de Río Hondo. [39] Magdalena oil spill

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[40] "Global Argentina". National Law Center for InterAmerican Free Trade. 1997. http://www.natlaw.com/ pubs/sparcs1.htm. [41] Statistical Abstract of Latin America. UCLA Press, 1990. [42] CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency [43] ^ INDEC [44] Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que «la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña.» (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. [en línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 [Citado FECHA]. (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, N° 14). Disponible en la World Wide Web:http://www.iigg.fsoc.uba.ar/docs/dt/ dt14.pdf); El antropólogo brasileño Darcy Ribeiro incluye a la Argentina dentro de los «pueblos trasplantados» de América, junto con Uruguay, Canadá y Estados Unidos (Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.); El historiador argentino José Luis Romero define a la Argentina como un «país aluvial» (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) [45] ^ Argentina [46] Travel for good: Argentina [47] Yale: Immigration History [48] Federaciones Regionales www.feditalia.org.ar [49] Historical references [50] Monografías [51] "Inmigración a la Argentina: Daguerrotipistas y fotógrafos" - Monografías.com (Spanish) [52] Montenegrinos Argentinos [53] BBC - h2g2 - Y Wladfa - The Welsh in Patagonia [54] Jóvenes Argenchinos Clarin.com 22 September 2006 [55] Racial Discrimination in Argentina [56] Blacks in Argentina - officially a few, but maybe a million [57] "El varieté de la calle Florida" (Editorial) - Clarín (Spanish) [58] Patria Grande [59] Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior - Sociedad - Perfil.com [60] El derecho a la vivienda en la Argentina [61] - EDELAP - 120 años de alumbrado público [62] ^ Política Económica - Página Principal [63] ^ Argentina’s Economic Crisis: An "Absence of Capitalism"

Argentina
[64] Political Economic History And Regional Economic Development In Argentina [65] Argentina - Economic development [66] ^ INDEC [67] Inflación verdadera [68] INDEC Household Survey [69] "Argentina Country Brief" World Bank [70] International Monetary Fund. Economic Prospects and Policy IssuesPDF (567 KB). [71] InfoBAE, 20 September 2006. Para los bancos la Argentina seguirá creciendo en 2006. [72] TELAM [73] Clarín [74] Clarín [75] "Cristina’s looking-glass world". The Economist. October 23rd 2008. http://www.economist.com/ displaystory.cfm?story_id=12474636. [76] La Franco Argentine(Spanish) [77] Store shelves grow bare as Argentine farmers continue strike [78] Clarín [79] FAO [80] Investing in Argentina: MiningPDFEconomy Ministry of Argentina (Spanish) [81] CNEA:Themes in Nuclear Energy and Physics [82] Explosive Growth: 3 of 4 Argentines have a cell phone (01-02-2006)Clarin.com 1 February 2006 (Spanish) [83] Internet Usage Stats and Market Reports [84] Communications. Argentina CIA Factbook [85] ^ World Economic Forum [86] National Geographic Magazine. November, 1939. [87] "Gran número de turistas eligieron la ciudad de Mar del Plata". Hostnews.com.ar. http://www.hostnews.com.ar/ 2007/sal/071159.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-21. [88] Luongo, Michael. Frommer’s Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007. [89] U.S Department of State Country Guide [90] U.S Department of State Country Guide [91] U.S Department of State Country Guide [92] See Luchemos por la Vida - Asociación Civil [93] See Relaciones bilaterales sin diálogo, 1945-1965buques de la Armada Argentina llevaron a cabo maniobras en las aguas adyacentes a las Islas Malvinas realizaron desembarcos en distintas islas de las "Dependencias" … incidentes menores entre los presentes en el Puerto Melchior … en la Bahía Esperanza y la Argentina anunció una progresiva ocupación de esa región.… [94] White Helmets Commission [95] Antarctic Treaty Secretariat [96] Pulqui: Argentina’s Jet AdventureIPMStockholm.org [97] http://www.mecon.gov.ar/peconomica/docs/ gp_nac.xls [98] NationMaster - Argentine Military statistics

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[99] Infrastructure. Argentina. National Economies Encyclopedia [100] http://www.adefa.com.ar/anuario_2007/ fscommand/complementary_data.pdf [101] http://www.grupopayne.com.ar/archivo/01/0112/ 011211/institucionales/institucionales.html [102] La república digital. "Se dará inicio a las obras de la Autopista Mesopotámica". http://www.larepublicadigital.com.ar/ spip.php?article3058. Retrieved on 14 February 2008. [103] DNRPA [104] Argentina.gov.ar [105] Buenos Aires Transport Subway [106] Encyclopedia Britannica, Book of the Year (various issues): statistical appendix. [107] WWF [108] ^ [2] Animals in Argentina [109] [3] Info about Hornero [110] Borges, Jorge Luis. Siete Noches. Obras Completas, vol. III. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1994. [111] e-libro.net. Free digital books. FacundoPDF (638 KB). [112] About Gavin Esler’s Argentina diarynews.bbc.co.uk 3 April 2006. [113] ’Spider-Man 3’ breaks Euro records Entertainment News, Film News, Media - Variety [114] Adams, Fiona. (2001). Culture Shock Argentina. Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55868-529-4. [115] Choices Article - Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina [116] AWPro [117] Amazing Mendoza Tours: Mendoza Global Wine Capital [118] http://fifaworldcup.yahoo.com/06/en/w/team/ profile.html?team=ARG [119] AFA [120] Libro de pases [121] ^ Equis [122] About the culture [123] Music: ’El Derecho de vivir en paz’ from http://www.msu.edu/~chapmanb/jara/ enueva.html [124] ^ U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report 2006 [125] Marita Carballo. Valores culturales al cambio del milenio (ISBN 950-794-064-2). Cited in La Nación, 8 May 2005 [126] ^ Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias [127] Number of Mormons in Argentina [128] Clarín [129] ^ Languages of Argentina [130] WorldLanguage website. Retrieved on 2007-01-29 [131] swissinfo - La rápida recuperación económica tras la crisis argentina es un argumento para conseguir inversiones

Argentina
[132] La Iglesia salió a defender la ley de Educación que el Gobierno quiere modificar Clarin.com 20 July 2006 (Spanish) [133] ^ Illiteracy [134] Argentine Higher Education Official Site [135] AMA [136] UBA School of Medicine [137] ^ IADB [138] Biografía de Ramón Carrillo [139] ^ Coopsalud [140] ^ DEIS [141] Argentina: From Insolvency to Growth. World Bank Press, 1993. [142] Situación de la Salud [143] ^ UNData [144] UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957. [145] UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997. [146] ^ http://www.indec.mecon.ar/censo2001s2/ ampliada_index.asp?mode=01 [147] Enrique Finochietto [148] Science and Education in Argentina [149] [4] [150] Argentina Non-Proliferation [151] Julia Rodríguez, Columbia University. The Argentine Fingerprint System. [152] Argentine Talent Without Frontiers [153] PEHUENSAT-1 [154] Pierre Auger Observatory [155] PRN News [156] Editorial Perfíl [157] Radio With a Past in Argentina Don Moore [158] Mi Buenos Aires Querido [159] Homes with Cable TV in Latin America Trends in Latin American networking

References
• (Spanish) Historia de las Relaciones Exteriores Argentinas. History of Argentine foreign relations. • (Spanish) Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Comercio Internacional y Culto (official website of the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations, International Trade and Worship) • (Spanish) Presidency of Argentina • The Special Relationship between Argentina and Brazil • (Spanish) Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina

External links
Government • Global Integrity Report: Argentina has information on anti-corruption efforts • Official website - In English • Government of Argentina (Spanish) • The President of Argentina

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Chief of State and Cabinet Members General information • Argentina entry at The World Factbook • Argentina at UCB Libraries GovPubs • Argentina at the Open Directory Project • • • •

Argentina
Wikimedia Atlas of Argentina Argentina travel guide from Wikitravel World Bank’s country data profile for Argentina. World Intellectual Property Handbook: Argentina

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