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					Always Be Careful T.E.A.M.

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   HYDROGENSULFIDE
        (H2S)
         P bar Y Safety Consultants
               Alberta Canada
     WARNING!
KNOW YOUR COMPANY’S H2S
      PROCEDURES




     P bar Y Safety Consultants
           Alberta Canada
                 WHAT IS H2S?
• Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic, colorless (transparent) gas
  heavier than air.
• H2S is a poison that can paralyze your breathing system and kill you
  in minutes. Even in small amounts, it is dangerous to your health.
• H2S means that each molecule of gas is made up of two hydrogen
  atoms and one sulfur atom.

H2S is referred to by a variety of different names:

* H2S                 * Rotten-Egg Gas
* Stink Damp          * Hydro sulfuric Acid
* Sulfurated Hydrogen * Sulfur hydride
* Sour Crude

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
              Where do you find H2S?
      H2S occurs in a variety of natural and industrial settings. It
       is found in large amounts in natural gas and petroleum.
      Most H2S is obtained as a by-product of other operations.
      It can be recovered from natural gas and refining
      Operations and converted to sulfuric acid or high quality
      Sulfur, or disposed of by burning in flare lines. This forms
      Sulfur dioxide (SO2) which under certain meteorological
      conditions and large volumes can be more dangerous than
      H2S




OIL AND GAS     SEWERS        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              BLASTING           LABORATORIES    MINES
                                    Alberta Canada
               Properties of H2S
• Deadly, extremely toxic gas
• Colorless
• Heavier than air- tends to settle in low lying areas. Vapor density
  1.189 (air=1.0)
• Rapidly dispersed by wind
• Burns with a blue flame producing SO2
• Odor of rotten eggs in low concentrate, in high concentration it
  deaden the sense of smell
• Highly corrosive to certain metals
• More deadly that carbon monoxide and almost as toxic as hydrogen
  cyanide which is used for executing criminals
• Flammable and forms explosive mixtures with air or oxygen

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
           Toxicity table
0.13 ppm     Minimal odor
4.60 ppm     Easily detectable
  10 ppm     Beginning eye irritation
  27 ppm     Strong unpleasant odor
 100 ppm     Coughing, eye irritation loss of sense
             of smell
300 ppm      Respiratory tract irritation after one
             hour
700 ppm      Loss of consciousness, possible death
             in 30 minutes-1 hour
1000 ppm     Rapid unconsciousness, stopping of
             breathing, death
2000 ppm     Unconsciousness at once, DEATH even if
             the person is moved to fresh air
              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                    Alberta Canada
               Detection of H2S
There are many ways to detect H2S:

1.   Your nose is usually the first (Low concentrations)
2.   Electronic portable gas detectors
3.   Air sampling tubes
4.   Fixed Electronic H2S Sensors


                      WARNING !
         YOU CANNOT RELY ON YOUR NOSE
         TO TELL HOW MUCH H2S IS PRESENT
                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
             Protection against H2S
        EDUCATION * DETECTION * PROTECTION

  • PERSONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS
  • SAFETY DRILLS
  • ADEQUATE AND PROPER PLACEMENT OF SAFETY EQUIPMENT
  • CONTINGENCY PLAN
  • EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
  • ADHERENCE OF ALL SAFE WORK PRACTICES

When there is a potential H2S hazard, the employee shall
use the provided respiratory protection in accordance with
instructions and training received

                       P bar Y Safety Consultants
                             Alberta Canada
              Breathing Apparatus
There are two basic types:
1.   Self contained apparatus
2.   Supplied Air-breathing apparatus




                     P bar Y Safety Consultants
                           Alberta Canada
      Hazards & Characteristics
• THE PRINCIPAL HAZARD IS DEATH BY INHALATION!
• When the amount of gas absorbed into the blood stream
  exceeds that which is readily oxidized, systemic
  poisoning results, with a general action to the nervous
  system
• Labored respirations occur shortly and respiratory
  paralysis will follow immediately at higher concentration.
• Death will occur from asphyxiation unless the exposed
  person is removed immediately to fresh air, and
  breathing stimulated by artificial respiration.


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                            Alberta Canada
• Other levels of exposure may cause the
  following symptoms individually or in
  combinations:

•   Headache- Dizziness- Excitement
•   Nausea- Coughing- Drowsiness
•   Disorientation- Confusion
•   Dryness and sensation of pain in the nose, throat and
    chest

• Detection of H2S, solely by smell, is highly dangerous as
  the sense of smell is rapidly paralyzed by the gas.
                       P bar Y Safety Consultants
                             Alberta Canada
                 Characteristics

• Extremely toxic, ranking second to Hydrogen Cyanide and
  five (5) to six (6) times more toxic than Carbon Monoxide.
• Colorless
• Offensive Odor, often described as that of rotten eggs.
• Heavier than air- vapor density (specific gravity) 1.189
  (Air = 1.00@ 60* F) vapors may travel considerable distance
  to a source of ignition and flashback.
• Readily dispersed by wind or air currents
• Flammability - Forms an explosive mixture with air
  concentration between 4.3 to 46% by volume.
• Auto-ignition point of 500* F – Cigarettes burn at 1400* F
                       P bar Y Safety Consultants
                             Alberta Canada
• Burns with a blue flame and produces Sulfur Dioxide (S02),
  which is less hazardous than H2S, but very irritating to the
  eyes and lungs, and can cause serious injury. Chemical
  pneumonia can develop in a few hours.
• Soluble in water and liquid hydrocarbons.
• Produces irritation to the eyes, throat, and respiratory
  system.
• Permissible exposure limit (PEL) (OSHA) Threshold Limit
  Value (TLV)- Maximum of 8 hours exposure without
  respiratory equipment- 10 PPM
• Corrosive to all electrochemical metals
• Boiling Point (-79*F)
• Melting Point (-117*F)

                       P bar Y Safety Consultants
                             Alberta Canada
 Toxicity




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      Alberta Canada
• Permissible Limit / Threshold Limit- Concentration at
  which it is believed that all workers may be repeatedly
  exposed day after day without adverse effects.

• Hazardous Limit- Concentration that will cause death
  with short term exposure.

• STEL Short Term Exposure Limit- 15 PPM for a duration
  of no longer than 15 minutes.




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                            Alberta Canada
                   Physical Effects
                        Remember
         1% = 10,000 Parts Per Million (PPM)
     Concentration            Physical Effects
Present (%) PPM Grains/100’ std ft 3(1)
0.000002     0.02      0.0013         Odor Threshold
0.000005     0.05      0.0031         Obvious and unpleasant odor
0.001         10       0.625          Safe for 8 hours exposure
         Wear Respiratory Protection More Than 15 PPM

 0.01        100       6.48                  Kills smell in 3 to 15 minutes
                                             may sting eyes and throat

 0.02        200      12.96                  Kills smell shortly; stings
                                                   eyes and throat
                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
 Concentration                          Physical Effects
Present (%)   PPM     Grains/100’ std ft 3(1)

 0.05         500      32.96            Dizziness, breathing ceases in a few
                                        minutes: needs prompt artificial
                                        respiration

 0.07         700      45.36            Unconscious quickly; death will result
                                        if not rescued promptly

 0.1          1000      64.8            Unconscious at once: followed by
                                        death within minutes.

                              CAUTION
Hydrogen Sulfide is a colorless and transparent gas and is flammable.
It is heavier than air and may accumulate in low places.

1) At 15.00 psia and 60*F.
                             P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                   Alberta Canada
                       Detection
Knowing the limitations of your detection devices can save your
life. When testing, always be prepared for a high concentration
of gas.
                        CAUTION
         Do not rely on your nose to detect H2S

Following is some common detection devices:
LEAD ACETATE, AMPULES OR COATED STRIPS: these
change colors in the presence of H2S. The Color change
indicates the concentration. For use in low concentrations of
gas. They should be used as alternate method of detection.
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                              Alberta Canada
         HAND OPERATED TUBE DETECTORS:

This type of detector incorporates a pump, color metric detector
tube, and a scale that will give a reading of H2S. The pump
draws air to be tested through the detector tube to react with
lead acetate coated silica gel granules. Presence and amount
of gas on the tube are shown by the length of color change on
the tube. Read the scale to determine concentration. Special
tubes may be used for SO2 detection and measurement. For
your protection, it is advised that you take frequent reading with
this type of detector.




                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
          PERSONAL ELECTRONIC MONITORS:
The units are usually hand held or belt mounted, and measure
the H2S concentration at the sensor head continuously.
Monitors give an audible alarm, some readout, at the present
level of H2S.
               FIXED MONITOR SYSTEMS:
Monitors H2S concentration continuously at various locations
where sensor heads are placed. Alarms are activated when
concentration reaches set levels. Excessive exposure to water
and acetylene gas can set off some systems.

                 TUTWILER METHOD:
Chemical analysis for determining H2S concentrations. The test
can be run on very low and high concentrations, and is
extremely accurate and recommended by various state
regulatory agencies.
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                             Alberta Canada
                      Protection
There are three categories of breathing equipment you will find
on location.
1. Escape Unit (an air capsule)
2. Work Unit (air line with a escape bottle)
3. Rescue Unit (30 minutes which can also be used for work)

     BEYOND 15 PPM OF H2S, ALWAYS WEAR YOUR
             BREATHING EQUIPMENT!

Escape Unit are located near work stations. They have a
small, self contained air supply and are designed to give you
enough air to reach a safe area in the event of an emergency.
                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
Work Units allow you to work for an extended period of time in
an H2S or poison environment. They have an air line from a
supplied breathing air source. The unit also has an auxiliary
self-contained air supply (bottle) for escape.

Rescue Units provide a self contained (30 minutes) supply of
air usually carried on your back. The weight is about 35 pounds.
DO NOT COUNT ON A FULL 30 MINUTES since time will vary
with breathing and work. Audible alarms warn when air supply
is low and you have 5 to 7 minutes of air left. Rescue units may
also be used as work units.

Read the instruction for care, use, maintenance and operation
of the 30 minute units on location.
                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
                        CAUTION

Facial hair- glasses- absence of dentures- could cause an
improper face seal. Your future and the future of your family
may depend on it. Contact lenses should not be worn in
contaminated atmospheres with supplied air respirators.

Your breathing equipment will protect you only when you use it
properly. You must care for it, maintain it, and insure you can
get a good seal at all times. All breathing equipment, the
escape unit, the work unit, and the rescue unit all use grade
“D” or “E” breathing air.


                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
             Emergency Rescue
• Put on your proper respiratory equipment.
• Move the victim to fresh air at once…Up Wind or Cross Wind.
• If the victim is unconscious and breathing has stopped. Apply
  mouth to mouth ventilation immediately and continue until
  normal breathing is restored.
• After reviving the victim NEVER LEAVE HIM ALONE.
• Make sure the victim is seen by a physician for possible
  underlying condition.

                      REMEMEBER
Cool headed action in a rescue is critical. It is the ONLY HOPE
for the victim, and is the only hope for YOU, the rescuer, as
well. YOU CAN NOT RESCUE HIM/HER IF YOU ARE NOT
PREPARED!                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                           Alberta Canada
   First Aid & Artificial Respiration
                      REMEMBER
Artificial respiration must always be started as rapidly as
possible because the average person may die in six (6) minutes
or less if his/her oxygen supply is cut off. It is often impossible
to tell exactly when a person has stopped breathing. He/she
may be very near death when you first discover them.

                   ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
                        (mouth to mouth)
Place the victim on his back. If a foreign matter is visible in the
victim’s mouth wipe it out with your finger. Place the palm of
one hand on the forehead and 2 fingers on the bony part of the
                          P the airway.
chin. Lift the chin to open bar Y Safety Consultants
                             Alberta Canada
Maintain the chin lift- Look, Listen, and Feel for breathing. If no
breathing pinch the victim’s nose closed, take a deep breath.
Seal your mouth over the victim’s and give two (2) slow full
breaths.

Check for a pulse at the victim’s neck (carotid pulse) if there is a
pulse but no breathing then you need to keep breathing for the
person.

You should provide at least one breath every five (5) seconds,
or twelve (12) per minute. If the victim’s airway is clear, only
moderate resistance will be felt.

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
Watch the victim’s chest, when you see it rise, stop blowing.
Raise your mouth and turn your head and listen for exhalation.
Watch the victim’s chest to see if it falls. When the victim’s
exhalation is finished, repeat the cycle. As the victim attempts
to breathe, coordinate your breathing with his/hers. After
reviving the victim watch closely and treat for shock.
NEVER LEAVE THE VICTIM ALONE, and have someone else
contact the EMS. Make sure he is evaluated by a physician for
any underlying conditions.



                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
                     Effects on Metal
Hydrogen Sulfide is very corrosive to all electrochemical series
metals. It can also cause hydrogen embrittlement to steel pipe
having a tensile strength of 95,000 psi or more.

Blistering and pitting are two other signs of corrosion that can
indicate the presence of H2S.

Metal components used in H2S areas should be those
manufactured to resist Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC). SSC is a
corrosive action causing unsuitable metals to crack under
normal operation.

API and NACE have set down the requirements of the metal to
be used in H2S service.
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                              Alberta Canada
                  Location Safety
“WARNING NO SMOKING” signs should be strategically
located around the rig location. The following locations are
appropriate: In the dog house, on the floor, around the
substructure, lower landing of all stairs to the rig floor, mud pits,
shale shacker. Designated smoking area should be set up on
all locations.

Poison Gas signs should be placed at strategic points on the
location, such as: entrance to location, lower landing of all
stairs to the rig floor, and all areas around the substance.

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
BUDDY SYSTEM- When H2S reaches high concentration;
workers should team together and work in pairs (Buddy
System). The system is effective only if workers stay together
and are watching for early signs of H2S poisoning. When more
than 300 ppm, the Buddy System must be used.

LANYARDS & SAFETY BELTS- if the distance between
buddies must extend more than an arms length, a lifeline
should be secured between them. The lifeline should be at
least a 400 lbs test, soft, fire resistant rope. Also, in high risk
areas such as inside vessels, tanks, or in a cellar, workers
should have a life line.

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                                Alberta Canada
CASCADE SYSTEM- is a supplied breathing air system usually
consisting of 300 cu. ft. compressed air bottles interconnected
to provide breathing air to the workers. The system is set up
with a regulator to reduce the air pressure going to the work
area. From a cascade system low pressure hose(s) connect to
manifold(s) into which each worker can connect the hose line
for his work-escape unit (breathing equipment).

BRIEFING AREAS- Each drilling and work over location usually
provides at least 2 briefing areas. Briefing areas should be
located on opposite sides of the location in order for one area to
be upwind at all times. The upwind briefing area is the
protection center in the event of an H2S emergency. All
personnel should report to this location in an H2S emergency.
                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
WINDSOCKS-STREAMERS- Wind will disperse H2S very
rapidly. Windsocks or streamers should be installed around the
location for determining prevailing wind and present wind
direction. All Personnel On Location Should Develop Wind
Direction Consciousness.

BUG BLOWERS- Large blowers or fans may be used to
disperse H2S vapors. In calm and extremely light winds, bug
blowers are effective in reducing H2S concentration in the work
area. Bug Blowers should be non spark, explosive proof type.

FLARE GUN- In the event of an H2S gas release, and after all
measures to shut in the well or repair the source of release
have failed, and the public is in danger, then the flare gun could
be used to ignite the source of H2S. Also, in the event of failure
                               bar Y Safety Consultants
of the flare pilot light, theP flare gun could be used.
                                   Alberta Canada
         How does H2S effect you?
When you breath H2S it goes directly through your lungs
and into the blood stream. To protect itself the body
oxidizes the H2S into a harmless compound. If you breath
so much H2S that the body cannot break it down the H2S
builds up in the blood and poisons your system, paralyzing
the nerve centers in the brain which control breathing. Your
lungs stop working and your asphyxiate.
Acceptable exposure limits:
• Acceptable eight hour exposure                   10 ppm
• Short term exposure limit (STEL)                 15 ppm
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                            Alberta Canada
                Rescue Procedures

1.   Put on a full rescue Breathing Apparatus (30 minutes)
2.   Remove the victim immediately to fresh air
3.   If breathing, administer oxygen and monitor
4.   If the victim is not breathing start CPR
5.   Call an ambulance and get emergency treatment
6.   If eyes are effected, wash them with clean water
7.   If the victim has had a minor exposure it would be best
     if he rested and resumed duty the following day


                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
                 Safety measures
When approaching the job site note the following:
1.   Observe condition signs e.g. audio/visual alarms
2.   Check for wind direction (wind sock)
3.   Take note of other personnel and their activity
4.   Enter the site slowly
5.   Observe the escape routes
6.   Make sure your have the appropriate monitoring
     equipment e.g. gas detectors
7.   NO SMOKING!
8.   You have received H2S training
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                           Alberta Canada
           Safety measures                      cont…




 9. Know your company’s emergency procedures
10. Avoid low lying areas
11. Always work with a buddy for mutual safety


   DO NOT PANIC!
 1. Hold your breath
 2. Don Breathing apparatus
 3. Help anyone in distress
 4. Report to the muster point
                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
Guideline                               H2S(ppm)
Comparison                   Exposure Duration (minutes)
(Numbers)    <5        10      15       30      60     120   240    480
ERCB-EPZ                 ?100 to 300?
AEGL-1                0.75             0.60     0.51         0.36   0.33
AEGL-2                 41               32      27           20     17
AEGL-3                 76               59      50           37     31
ERPG -1                                         0.1
ERPG -2                                         30
ERPG -3                                         100
IDLH                                   100
SLOT         800      669      604     508      427    359   302




                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
Immediately Dangerous to Life or
      Health by NIOSH
 • IDLH is for a situation "that poses a threat
   of exposure to airborne contaminants when
   that exposure is likely to cause death or
   immediate or delayed permanent
   adverse health effects or prevent escape
   from such an environment."
 • Purpose is to "ensure that the worker can
   escape from a given contaminated
   environment in the event of failure of the
   respiratory protection equipment.“


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                 Alberta Canada
  Specified Level of Toxicity
Dangerous Toxic Load by HSE

•   Severe distress to almost every one in the
    area
•   Substantial fraction of exposed population
    requiring medical attention
•   Some people seriously injured, requiring
    prolonged treatment
•   Highly susceptible people possibly being
    killed


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                 Alberta Canada
     Why use 100 ppm?

• Olfactory fatigue may occur at l00
  ppm
• Paralysis of the olfactory nerve has
  been reported at 150 ppm
• If higher concentration used as limit
  responders and public may not smell
  the danger
• Select exposure duration to match
  guideline
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     Toxic Load = K Cn t

• Is n constant?
• Data shows it varies with
  concentration and time
• Larger n - Steeper line
• 100 ppm corresponds to
  smaller values of n
• n has to be selected to match
  guideline
         P bar Y Safety Consultants
               Alberta Canada
Sulfide Stress Cracking




       P bar Y Safety Consultants
             Alberta Canada
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking




       P bar Y Safety Consultants
             Alberta Canada
Sulfide Stress Cracking




       P bar Y Safety Consultants
             Alberta Canada
Confined Space Entry
  Training Session




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             Alberta Canada
              Introduction

• Working in confined spaces can involve
  hazards that typically wouldn’t exist in
  other situations
• Hazards frequently aren’t dealt with
  because “there have never been any
  problems before.”



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                      Alberta Canada
                Objective
• To provide an introduction to the hazards,
  protective measures, equipment,
  procedures and duties associated with
  CSE.




                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
              Training Topics
•   Personal and topic introduction
•   Training requirements
•   Definition of terms
•   Confined space hazards
•   Videos
•   Confined space categories
•   Assessing confined spaces
•   Marking confined spaces

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                         Alberta Canada
          Training Topics (cont.)

•   Written procedures
•   Using the permit system
•   Preparing a space for entry
•   Testing the air in a confined space
•   Using ventilation equipment
•   CSE duties
•   Rescue procedures
•   Coordinating working with contractors
•   Auditing the program
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                        Alberta Canada
               Key Definitions

•   Confined space
•   Permit-required confined space
•   Non-permit confined space
•   Hazardous atmosphere
•   Entry
•   Emergency
•   IDLH (e.g. CO 1200, H2S 100 ppm)

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                        Alberta Canada
            Potential CS Hazards
• Oxygen Hazards                  • Engulfment
  – too much or too little             – shifting liquid or solid
                                         substance that traps
• Toxic Hazards                          employee
  – gases, vapors or              • Configuration
    fumes (examples:
                                       – Walls or floor which slope
    hydrogen sulfide,                    downward or taper in can
    sulfur dioxide,                      trap an employee
    carbon monoxide)
                                  • Physical Hazards
• Flammable or                         – Contact with mechanical or
  Explosive Hazards                      electrical equipment, steam
  – vapors or dusts in                   or other sources of heat,
    concentrations large                 moving parts, energy.
    enough to ignite
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                          Alberta Canada
       Hazardous atmosphere
  Hazardous atmosphere:
• (1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its
  lower flammable limit;
• (2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or
  exceeds its LFL;
  NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition
  in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52
  m) or less.
• (3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or
  above 23.5 percent;
• (4) Concentration of a substance capable of causing death,
  incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or
  acute illness in excess of its PEL or other known safe level.
• (5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately
  dangerous to life or health.
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             How do Atmospheric
               Hazards Occur?
•   Previously stored chemicals/products
•   Leaks/spills
•   Infiltration
•   Chemical reactions
•   Operations conducted within the space
•   Inerting with nonflammable products
•   Pneumatic tools
•   Employees are not to enter spaces with any hazardous
    atmospheres.


                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
 What is Air?




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                    Flammable
• UEL       % Upper Explosive Limit
• LEL       % Lower Explosive Limit
• ALARM at 10% LEL
                                                 Example:
                                                 Gasoline




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                          Alberta Canada
                  Methane (CH4)
•   Natural gas, swamp gas.
•   Due to gas leak or organic decay
•   Colorless/odorless flammable gas, or scented
•   LEL = 5%; UEL = 15%




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                               Alberta Canada
         Carbon Monoxide (CO)
•   Colorless, odorless gas
•   Slightly lighter than air
•   Chemical asphyxiant/Flammable. Deadly!
•   Primary source: incomplete combustion of organic
    material
•   Gasoline-fueled combustion engines
•   Signs/Symptoms: Confusion. Dizziness. Headache.
    Nausea. Unconsciousness. Weakness.
•   IDLH = 1200 ppm. 8-Hour PEL = 50 PPM
•   CO Alarm point = 35 ppm


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                            Alberta Canada
      Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
• Sewer gas, stink gas (rotten eggs)
• Odor threshold: 0.02-0.2 ppm
• Colorless, flammable gas. Strong odor BUT
  Fatigues your senses.
• Deadly! Very high concentrations lead to
  cardiorespiratory arrest because of brainstem
  toxicity. Affect nervous system.
• Heavier than air
• IDLH H2S = 100 ppm
• 8 hr. PEL = 10 PPM
• Alarm Point = 10 ppm
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                        Alberta Canada
     Other Chemical Hazards
• Chemical contamination of surfaces
• Routes of entry (skin absorption, eye
  contact, ingestion, injection)
• Types of effects (irritation, chemical burns,
  systemic toxicity)




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                       Alberta Canada
              Physical Hazards

• Electrical                       •   Fire/explosion
• Slips, trips, and falls          •   Noise
• Augers, turbines,                •   Heat
  blades, pumps                    •   Psychological
• Falling objects and
  materials
• Drowning or
  engulfment
• Converging sections
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                          Alberta Canada
Engulfment




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Configuration




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Other Hazards




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Other Hazards




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    Identification, Assessment and
              Classification

•   Confined space inventory
•   Hazard assessments and control
•   Confined space classification
•   Follow-up




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                      Alberta Canada
   Confined Space Categories

• Non-permit spaces
• Permit-required spaces
• Permit-required spaces that can be
  reclassified to non-permit




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                      Alberta Canada
   Reclassifying Permit Spaces
• Eliminate all serious safety hazards prior to entry
• Eliminate all actual and potential air hazards
  prior to entry, (Note: simply controlling air
  hazards ((i.e. ventilation)) is not sufficient)
• Hazards must remain eliminated
• Complete and post reclassification portion of
  permit.



                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
    Permit Space Identification

• Permit entry confined spaces need to
  be identified, usually by signs.
• Confined spaces that will not be entered
  must also be posted.




               P bar Y Safety Consultants
                     Alberta Canada
        Written Procedures


• For each permit space, a written
  procedure must be in place to identify
  hazards and how to enter safely
• Completed procedures will be used with
  the permit or reclassification certificate.
  Post both at entry point.

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                      Alberta Canada
                  Permits

• A permit must be prepared and all
  specified conditions satisfied before
  entering a permit space
• Permit content
• Permit duration
• Entry supervisor duties
• Documentation

                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
          Space Preparation -
           Decontamination


• Make the space as clean as possible
  prior to entry. The goal is to minimize
  the need for PPE.
• If the purpose of the entry is to clean
  the space, take whatever measures
  available to minimize hazards and
  need for PPE.


                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
        Space Preparation -
         Lockout / Tagout
• Before entry, the space must be in a zero
  energy state. Anyone using lockout must
  be trained at the “authorized” level.




                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
        Space Preparation -
       Misc. Physical Hazards
•   Temperature Extremes
•   Noise
•   Slipping Hazards
•   Falling Objects
•   Engulfment
•   Etc..


                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
        Air Testing and Evaluation

• Air inside a permit-required space must be
  tested and evaluated before entry
• Air will be classified as “safe” or “hazardous.”
• Entry into a hazardous atmosphere requires
  approval of at least a general supervisor, the
  facility safety coordinator and entry supervisor
   –   Oxygen
   –   Toxic atmospheres
   –   Flammable atmospheres
       NO ENTRY!

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                          Alberta Canada
         Procedures For Testing

• If possible, test from outside. Test top, middle,
  and bottom. Stratification.
• Test entire portion of space
• Test before ventilating to establish baseline.
• Test while ventilating to ensure contaminants
  have been removed and system itself is not
  causing a hazard.



                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
  Procedures For Testing (cont..)


• Retest whenever there is a change in work or
  conditions. At a minimum, retest
   – At the start of each permit period
   – The start of each workshift
   – Whenever the space and immediate area
     have been left unattended for > 5 minutes.
   – When there is a change in personnel.


                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
 Procedures For Testing (cont.)

• Continuous monitoring required whenever there
  is potential for hazardous atmosphere:
   – Work being done may affect air quality
   – Exhaust ventilation is being used to control a
     hazardous atmosphere
   – Air quality could change based on nature of
     confined space (e.g.., sewer)
• Monitors must be explosion proof and equipped
  with an alarm.
• EHS recommends continuous monitoring even
  when not required.
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                         Alberta Canada
                 Ventilation

Forced ventilation is required when:
• Testing indicates a hazardous
      atmosphere out of acceptable range
• There’s a potential for atmospheric conditions
  to move out of acceptable range
• The work can cause a hazardous
      atmosphere, such as welding, cutting,
      painting, chemical cleaning, etc....


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                        Alberta Canada
           Ventilators/Blowers
• Push clean air in
• If using a portable
  generator to power
  blower, make sure
  exhaust from generator is
  positioned downward from
  the confined space
• If using an extension cord,
  use GFCI cord
• Do not use blowers in
  enclosed spaces where
  damaged asbestos exists
                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
    Performance Requirements
          For Ventilation

• Ventilation may include blowers, fans or other
  air movers
• Selection of system will depend on the space
  size, the gases, vapors, or dusts to be
  exhausted, and the source of make up air
• Blowing fresh air into a space usually works
  best.

                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
    Performance Requirements
       For Ventilation (Cont.)

• Don’t allow discharged air to be re-circulated
  into the space
• Ventilation controls must be located a safe
  distance from the space
• For potentially explosive or combustible
  atmospheres, the system must be explosion
  proof
• Ventilation system should provide an
  audible warning to signal a failure.
                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
        Recognizing Signs and
        Symptoms of Distress
•   Shallow rapid breathing
•   Vision blurred, seeing spots, blackouts
•   Exaggerated sense of feeling good
•   Disorientation
•   Profuse sweating
•   Ringing in the ears
•   Smell of solvents, gases, vapors, etc...

                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
      Signs and Symptoms                       (cont.)

•   Lips have slippery sweet taste
•   Dryness of the throat
•   Chest pains
•   Change in heart rate
•   Sudden skin irritation
•   Loss of manual dexterity/coordination
•   Weakness in the knees

                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
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                      PPE
• See Permit listing.
• Required PPE will vary with the job being
  performed.




                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
       Equipment Requirements

• Equipment needed should be selected on a
  case by case basis
• Written procedures will identify minimum
  equipment requirements
• The permit includes a checklist for equipment
• Equipment training session goes into detail




                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
            Safety Equipment

• You must
  receive
  hands-on
  training in
  use of
  equipment




                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
            RESCUE
• To facilitate non-entry rescue,
  retrieval systems or methods shall
  be used whenever an authorized
  entrant enters a permit space,
  unless the retrieval equipment
  would increase the overall risk of
  entry or would not contribute to
  the rescue of the entrant.

             P bar Y Safety Consultants
                   Alberta Canada
              RESCUE
• When appropriate, authorized entrants
  who enter a permit space must wear a
  chest or full body harness with a
  retrieval line attached to the center of
  their backs near shoulder level, or
  above their heads. The other end of the
  retrieval line is to be attached to a
  mechanical device or to a fixed point
  outside the permit space. A mechanical
  device must be available to retrieve
  personnel from vertical type permit
  spaces more than 5 feet deep.
               P bar Y Safety Consultants
                     Alberta Canada
               Safety Equipment
• Body Harness:
  Straps which may be
  secured about an
  employee in a manner
  that will distribute the
  fall arrest forces over at
  least the thighs, pelvis,
  waist, chest and
  shoulders with means
  for attaching it to other
  components of a
  personal fall arrest
  system
                        P bar Y Safety Consultants
                              Alberta Canada
          Safety Equipment




• Adjusting harness
  – Your harness must fit
    and be adjusted
    correctly in order to
    work comfortably
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
  Safety Equipment
• Lanyard:
A flexible line
  used to
  secure a
  body belt or
  body
  harness to a
  lifeline or
  directly to a
  point of
  anchorage.
          P bar Y Safety Consultants
                Alberta Canada
            Safety Equipment
• Connector:
  A device used to couple
  (connect) parts of the
  personal fall arrest
  system, such as a
  carabiner, or it may be an
  integral component of part
  of the system (such as a
  buckle or “D-ring” sewn
  into a body belt or body
  harness, or a snap-hook
  spliced or sewn to a                           Carabiners
  lanyard or self-retracting
  lanyard.)
                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
        Safety Equipment

                                • Lifeline:
                                    A line provided for
                                    direct or indirect
                                    attachment to a
                                    worker’s body belt,
                                    body harness, lanyard
                                    or deceleration device.
                                    Such lifelines may be
                                    horizontal or vertical in
                                    application

Retractable life lines
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
    Inspection and Calibration
• All equipment must be cleaned, inspected,
  repaired and stored to keep it in a safe
  serviceable condition.
• Equipment must be inspected and
  determined fit for use at the beginning of
  each job.




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                       Alberta Canada
         RESCUE - MSDS
• In addition, if an injured entrant is
  exposed to a substance for which a
  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
  or other similar written information is
  required to be kept at the worksite,
  that MSDS or other written
  information must be made available
  to the medical facility treating the
  exposed entrant.

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                     Alberta Canada
               Contractors

For a permit space, inform them:
• What is known about the space and associated
  hazards
• Of any special procedures or precautions
• Of rescue procedures, and
• Make it clear they are responsible for
  assessment and necessary precautions
• Hold debriefing at end of operations
• Don’t loan equipment unless authorized.
• Provide program only when asked.
• They must follow legal CSE standards.
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Basic First Aid




   P bar Y Safety Consultants
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                   Introduction
• First Aid Remains one of the most important of all life’s
  skills. The simple yet essential skills to preserve life in
  an emergency, to protect a casualty and to speed up the
  healing of wounds, are skills which no parent, teacher,
  workmate, team-mate or student can do without. Acute
  illness & sudden injury have no respect for age status, or
  place or time. It is the “right thing to do” by those around
  us. First Aid is a practical subject. Participation inn this
  unit will give you confidence as well as experience in
  managing a variety of first aid situations which you as a
  student, sportsman, son or brother might find yourself in.

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                            Alberta Canada
    What is First Aid? & The Aims
             of First Aid
• What is First Aid?
• * The initial/first care of the ill or injured

•   The Aims of First Aid -
•   a) Preserve Life
•   b) Prevent Injury or illness from becoming worse
•   c) reassure the ill or injured before medical help if available, if
    required

• What is Medical Aid?
• * Treatment by a doctor, registered nurse or ambulance officer


                              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                    Alberta Canada
           Bandages & Dressings
•   Bandages are used to -
•   A) control bleeding
•   B) keep dressings in position
•   C) give support & pain relief
•   D) Restrict Movement
•   E) Immobilise fractures

•   Dressings are used to -
•   A) Control Bleeding
•   B) Protect Wounds
•   C) Minimise swelling
•   D) Prevent Infection


                           P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                 Alberta Canada
             Slings & Splints
• Slings - Slings are used to support an injury,
  usually to the wrist forearm, or elbow. There are
  made by using a bandage, triangular sling, or
  cloth to support the injury.

• Splints - Are used to immobilise & support Limbs
  (Arms & Legs). Splints rely on attaching a rigid
  object such as a bat, stump, magazine rolled up
  to a limb using a bandage etc


                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
         DR ABC Action Plan
• When you approach the scene of an accident or
  emergency follow the DR ABC Action Plan-
• D - Danger
• R - Response

• A - Airway
• B - Breathing
• C - Circulation


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
               First Aid ABC
• Check for DANGER - to you, others, the
  casualty. Eg (surf, electricity, traffic, car,
  machinery, appliance)
• Check RESPONSE - Is the casualty conscious?
  ( Ask - “Cam you hear me?, Squeeze my hand
  etc)
• 1) If there respond treat injuries such as
  bleeding etc.
• 2) If there is no response put the casualty onto
  their side.

                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
                            ABC
• Clear & open the AIRWAY - Remove anything that is
  blocking airflow such as a mouthguard, vomit, false
  teeth, water
• Check for BREATHING - look for a rise/fall in the chest,
  put you head close to the patients mouth & listen, or feel
  for breath on your cheek.
• 1) If Patient is breathing, put them on their side &
  manage any other injuries
• 2) If Patient is not breathing turn them onto their back
  and commence EAR - Expired Air Resuscitation (mouth
  to mouth etc)


                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
                         ABC
• Check for CIRCULATION -
• Check for a pulse (carotid) side of the neck for
  10 - 15 seconds, other signs of a pulse include
  swallowing/breathing.
• 1) If there is a pulse continue EAR
• 2) If there is no pulse commence CPR
  (Cardiopulmonary Circulation - This means
  supplying air - EAR, & Circulating blood using
  compressions on the Chest.


                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
                       Burns
•   What can cause burns?
•   * Heat - fire, steam, hot objects or liquids
•   *Friction - eg. Rope burn, carpet burn
•   *Chemicals - eg. Acids
•   *Electricity - domestic & high voltage
•   * Radiation - eg. Sun, microwaves


                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
                   Burns
• Burns may result in -
• *The death of various layers of skin
• *Damage to blood vessels, an outpouring
  in form of blisters
• * A raw area - easily infected
• *severe Pain
• Shock/ possibly death

               P bar Y Safety Consultants
                     Alberta Canada
                               Burns
•   Treatment -
•   ABC if necessary
•   *Put out burning using a blanket, jacket or water.
•   *Rinse the burnt area under cool running water for 10 mins
•   *Cover the burn with a non-stick sterile dressing
•   Seek medical Aid urgently

•   WARNING -
•   DO NOT apply lotions/ointments
•   DO NOT prick or break blisters
•   DO NOT Give alcohol to drink
•   DO NOT use towels, cotton wool or adhesive dressings directly on
    the wound

                           P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                 Alberta Canada
                        Poisoning
• Poison - is any substance that, when taken into the
  body, may be harmful.
• Poisons may enter the body by -
• *mouth (swallowed)
• *lungs (inhaled)
• *skin (absorbed/injected)
• Prevention -
• * Do not leave poisons / medicines /chemicals /cleaning products
  within reach of children
• *Dispose of unwanted poisons/medicines etc
• * properly label medicines in childproof containers


                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
 Poisoning - signs & symptoms
• * abdominal pain                 • * smell of fumes
• * nausea/vomiting                • * odours on the
• * burning pains from               breath
  the mouth/stomach                • *bite/injection marks
• * breathing Difficulty             with swelling
• * headache                       • * change of skin
• * blurred vision                   colour
                                   • * burns around the
                                     mouth

                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
                 Poisoning
• Treatment -
• ABC if necessary
• Call Poisons Information Centre
• * Record the name of substance if known
• Any containers found should be taken with
  patient to hospital.
• * Any vomitus should be sent with the casualty
  to hospital
• *Reassure the patient & seek medical aid
  urgently
                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
                   Bites & Stings
• The bites & stings of some animals are potentially dangerous as a
  result of the venom which is injected or because the casualty is
  allergic to some insects
• ** If the casualty has an allergic history or
  shows signs of an allergy -
• 1) ABC
• 2) Apply “Pressure Immobilisation -
• 3)Seek medical Aid urgently
• 4) If the patient carries any medication for the
  allergy this should be taken at once!

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
          Pressure Immobilisation
• Used for management of                   • How to apply pressure
    stings & bites from -                    immobilisation -
•   Blue-ringed octopus                    • 1) Apply bandage firmly,
                                             but not too tight.
•   Box jellyfish
                                           • 2) Bandage from
•   Cone shell                               bite/sting to fingers/toes,
•   Funnel web spider                        then back up to the
                                             armpit/groin
•   snakes
                                           • 3)Apply a splint using
                                             another bandage
                                           • Seek medical aid
                            P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                  Alberta Canada
                 Bites &Stings
•   Bees, Wasps, -
•   1.remove the sting using a fingernail or blade
•   2. Wipe the area clean
•   3. Apply a cold compress, cool water, ice etc
•   Spiders -
•   1. ABC
•   2.reassure the casualty
•   3. Apply a cold pack
•   4. Seek Medical Aid

                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
Personal Protective Equipment
            (PPE)




           P bar Y Safety Consultants
                 Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
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            OBJECTIVES
• Understand PPE principles
• Be familiar with OSHA PPE standards
• Appreciate the role of ANSI PPE
  standards
• Know basic PPE types
• Be aware of safety shower and eyewash
  issues
  – Often required when PPE is used

                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
              Role of PPE
• PPE is widely accepted and used
  – Employers often require PPE to enter a
    worksite
  – Employees often demand “safety gear”
• “Hierarchy of Controls” paradigm
  – Occupational hazards must first be controlled
    by engineering administrative means before
    relying on PPE
  – PPE is a “receiver” control

                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
           Specific PPE types
•   Eye and face protection:
•   Head Protection
•   Foot Protection
•   Electrical Protective Devices
•   Hand Protection
•   Hearing Protection
•   Protective Clothing
•   (Chemical Protective Clothing and Respiratory
    Protection)

                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
      Eye and face protection

• 1910.133, Eye and Face Protection
  – Side protection when hazard from flying objects
  – Prescription eye protection or devices must fit over
    glasses for employees who wear glasses
  – Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked
  – Lenses for protection against radiant energy must
    have an appropriate shade number for the work being
    performed
  – Protective eye and face devices shall comply with
    ANSI Z87.1-1989, "American National Standard
    Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and
    Face Protection," P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
    Eye and face protection
• Additional ANSI requirements
  – Testing
    • Normal, high velocity and high mass impact,
      penetration (plastic)
    • Corrosion and flammability resistance
    • Cleanability
    • Optical criteria
    • Minimum thickness



                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
    Eye and face protection
• Types of protectors:
  – Spectacles
     • Side shields
     • Plano or prescription lenses
     • Special purpose lenses
  – Face shields
     • Secondary protection - used only with primary
       protectors (spectacles or goggles)



                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
     Eye and face protection
• Types of protectors (cont.):
  – Goggles
     • Can be worn over spectacles
     • Direct or Indirect ventilation (for dust, liquids or
       light)
     • Special purpose lenses
  – Welding helmets or hand shields



                     P bar Y Safety Consultants
                           Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
         Head Protection
• Most head injuries occur to workers
  who were not wearing head
  protection




              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                    Alberta Canada
          Head Protection
• 1910.135, Head Protection
  – Employees must wear appropriate protective
    helmets in areas of falling object hazards or
    exposed electrical conductors
  – Protective helmets must comply with ANSI
    Z89.1-1986, "American National Standard for
    Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for
    Industrial Workers-Requirements,"



                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
               Head Protection

• Additional requirements of ANSI Z89.11- 1997
  – ANSI details at
    http://www.msanet.com/msanorthamerica/msaunitedstates/AN
    SI-Z89.1-1997.html
  – Specifications
     • Adjustable headbands, sweat band
     • Shell supported above the head by a suspension cradle
       (crown straps) and/or padding
  – Testing
     •   Force transmission
     •   Apex Penetration
     •   Energy attenuation
     •   Off-center penetration
     •   Electrical
                         P bar Y Safety Consultants
                               Alberta Canada
               Head Protection
• ANSI Z89.1 (cont.)
  – Classifications of head protection
     •   Type I – impact on top only
     •   Type II – top or off-center impact
     •   Class G - limited voltages
     •   Class E - high voltages
     •   Class C - no voltage protection
  – Inspection and maintenance:
     • Daily inspection
     • Avoid painting helmets or cleaning with solvents
           – Consult with the manufacturer
     • Do not store in window of automobile
     • Do not make holes or use metallic decorations
                          P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
           Foot Protection
• Toe and foot injuries account for 5% of all
  disabling workplace injuries. Workers not
  wearing safety shoes have 75% of all
  occupational foot injuries.




                P bar Y Safety Consultants
                      Alberta Canada
            Foot Protection
• 1910.136, Occupational Foot Protection
  – Employees must wear protective footwear in
    areas in danger of foot injuries
    • falling or rolling objects
    • objects piercing the sole
    • electrical hazards
  – Protective footwear shall comply with ANSI
    Z41-1991, "American National Standard for
    Personal Protection-Protective Footwear,"


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
              Foot Protection
• Requirements of ANSI Z41
  – Footwear classified by impact and
    compression resistance
  – Special footwear types
    •   Metatarsal (protects top of foot)
    •   Conductive (primarily for static electricity control)
    •   Electrical hazard (insulated)
    •   Sole puncture resistance



                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
 Electrical Protective Devices
• 1910.137, Electrical protective devices.
  – Insulating blankets, matting, covers, line hose,
    gloves, and rubber sleeves are classified from 0
    to 4 according to electrical resistance:
     • Proof-Test Voltage for Class 0 is 5,000 VAC, or 20,000
       VDC
     • Proof-Test Voltage for Class 4 is 40,000 VAC or
       70,000 VDC
     • Electrical protective equipment must be inspected
       daily for defects



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                            Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
          Hand Protection
• Hand and finger injuries account for 18%
  of all disabling injuries and about 25% of
  all industrial work place accidents




                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
             Hand Protection
• 1910.138, Hand Protection
  – Employees must use appropriate hand
    protection when hands are exposed to
    hazards:
    •   skin absorption of harmful substances
    •   severe cuts or lacerations
    •   severe abrasions
    •   Punctures
    •   chemical burns
    •   thermal burns
    •   harmful temperature extremes
                     P bar Y Safety Consultants
                           Alberta Canada
             Hand Protection
• 1910.138, Hand Protection
  (cont.)
  – Hand protection must be
    selected in accord with an
    evaluation of:
    •   performance characteristics
    •   conditions present
    •   duration of use
    •   hazards and potential hazards
        identified.

                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
           Protective Clothing
• Protective clothing may be worn to shield
  against heat, chemicals, etc.
• Many OSHA standards apply
  –   Carcinogens (asbestos, arsenic, etc.)
  –   Abrasive blasting
  –   Hazardous waste operations
  –   Welding
  –   Saw and paper mills
  –   Fire fighting
  –   Working over water (flotation)
  –   Signaling (visibility)
                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                            Alberta Canada
         Protective Clothing
• Clothing types
  – Coveralls
  – Splash ("acid") suits
  – Totally-encapsulating chemical-protective suit ("moon
    suits")
  – Firefighters "turnout" gear
  – Protective sleeves
  – Aprons
  – Shoe covers, etc.


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
           Protective Clothing
• Select clothing according to hazard and
  worksite conditions
  – Size
     • ANSI/ISEA 101-199 standard
  – Chemical compatibility
     • Addressed later in the course
  – Breathability
     • Heat stress consideration


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                          Alberta Canada
        Hearing Protection
• 1910.95 requires hearing protection for
  employees exposed above 85 dB
  – Hearing protectors are labeled with the NRR
    (noise reduction rating). Refer to 1910.95 for
    guidance.




                  P bar Y Safety Consultants
                        Alberta Canada
      Hearing Protection

• Types:
  – Ear plugs usually best for
    continuous exposure situations
     • Formable (foam)
     • Premolded
     • Custom molded
  – Canal cap protectors are convenient
    when noise areas are frequently
    entered and exited
     • Intra-aural
     • Supra-aural

                     P bar Y Safety Consultants
                           Alberta Canada
        Hearing Protection
• Types (cont.):
  – Ear muffs may be better for high frequencies,
    can be combined with ear plugs for extra
    protection




                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
     Safety Eyewashes and
            Showers
• OSHA standard 1910.151, First Aid
  – " Where the eyes or body of any person may
    be exposed to injurious corrosive materials,
    suitable facilities for quick drenching or
    flushing of the eyes and body shall be
    provided within the work area for immediate
    emergency use."



                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
     Safety Eyewashes and
            Showers
• ANSI Z353.1, Emergency Eyewash and
  Shower Equipment
  – Emergency showers and eyewash units must
    be readily accessible
    • Accessible within 10 seconds
    • Located as close to a hazard as possible (always
      within 100 ft.)
    • Locations well lighted and identified with a highly
      visible sign


                   P bar Y Safety Consultants
                         Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants
      Alberta Canada
    Safety Eyewashes and
           Showers

• ANSI Z353.1, (cont.)
  – Flowrate
    • Showers require at least 30 gpm
    • Eyewash units must provide at least
      0.4 gpm to both eyes for 15 minutes
    • Valves remain activated until
      intentionally shut off
  – Tested weekly

                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
     Safety Eyewashes and
            Showers
• ANSI Z353.1, (cont.)
  – Hand operated drench hoses and eyewash
    bottles may be used to supplement but not
    replace eyewash and emergency shower
    equipment




                 P bar Y Safety Consultants
                       Alberta Canada
Question




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