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Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle, though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word is a transcription of the ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις (analusis), "a breaking up" (from ana- "up, throughout" + lysis "a loosening").[1] As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Ibn al-Haytham,[2] René Descartes (Discourse on the Method) and Galileo Galilei. It has also been ascribed to Isaac Newton, in the form of a practical method of physical discovery (which he did not name or formally describe). made isotopes in the study of environmental radioactivity.

• Business analysis, involves identifying the needs and determining the solutions to business problems • Price Analysis, involves the breakdown of a price to a unit figure • Market analysis, consists of suppliers and customers, and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand

Computer science
• Analysis of algorithms • Competitive analysis (online algorithm), shows how online algorithms perform and demonstrates the power of randomization in algorithms • Lexical analysis, the process of processing an input sequence of characters and producing as output a sequence of symbols • Object-oriented analysis and design, à la Booch • Program analysis (computer science), the process of automatically analysing the behavior of computer programs • Semantic analysis (computer science), a pass by a compiler that adds semantical information to the parse tree and performs certain checks • Static code analysis, the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs built from that software • Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology, à la Yourdon • Syntax analysis, a process in compilers that recognizes the structure of programming languages, also known as parsing • Worst-case execution time, determines the longest time that a piece of software can take to run

Use in specific fields
See also: Analytical chemistry and List of chemical analysis methods The field of chemistry uses analysis to break down chemical processes and examine chemical reactions between elements of matter. For example, analysis of the concentration of elements is important in managing a nuclear reactor, so nuclear scientists will analyze neutron activation to develop discrete measurements within vast samples. A matrix can have a considerable effect on the way a chemical analysis is conducted and the quality of its results. Analysis can be done manually or with a device. Chemical analysis is an important element of national security among the major world powers with Materials Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) capabilities.

See also: Isotope analysis and Isotope geochemistry Chemists can use isotopes to assist analysts with issues in anthropology, archeology, food chemistry, forensics, geology, and a host of other questions of physical science. Analysts can discern the origins of natural and man-

• Agroecosystem analysis


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• Input-output model if applied to a region, is called Regional Impact Multiplier System • Principal components analysis, a technique that can be used to simplify a dataset

sociology. It also takes the applied approach, looking at individual language development and clinical issues.

Literary theory is the analysis of literature. Some say that literary criticism is a subset of literary theory. The focus can be as diverse as the analysis of Homer or Freud. This is mainly to do with the breaking up of a topic to make it easier to understand.

Engineering Finance
• Financial analysis, the analysis of the accounts and the economic prospects of a firm • Fundamental analysis, a stock valuation method that uses financial analysis • Technical analysis, the study of price action in securities markets in order to forecast future prices

Mathematical analysis can be applied in the study of classical concepts of real numbers, such as the complex variables, trigonometric functions, and algorithms, or of non-classical concepts like constructivism, harmonics, infinity, and vectors.

See also: Intelligence analysis The field of intelligence employs analysts to break down and understand a wide array of questions. intelligence agencies may use heuristics, inductive and deductive reasoning, social network analysis, dynamic network analysis, link analysis, and brainstorming to sort through problems they face. Military intelligence may explore issues through the use of game theory, Red Teaming, and wargaming. Signals intelligence applies cryptanalysis and frequency analysis to break codes and ciphers. Business intelligence applies theories of competitive intelligence analysis and competitor analysis to resolve questions in the marketplace. Law enforcement intelligence applies a number of theories in crime analysis.

• Musical analysis, a process attempting to answer the question "How does this music work?" • Schenkerian analysis

• Philosophical analysis, a general term for the techniques used by philosophers • Analysis is the name of a prominent journal in philosophy.

• Psychoanalysis, seeks to elucidate connections among unconscious components of patients’ mental processes • Transactional analysis

See also: Linguistics Linguistics began with the analysis of Sanskrit and Tamil; today it looks at individual languages and language in general. It breaks language down and analyses its component parts: theory, sounds and their meaning, utterance usage, word origins, the history of words, the meaning of words and word combinations, sentence construction, basic construction beyond the sentence level, stylistics, and conversation. It examines the above using statistics and modeling, and semantics. It analyses language in context of anthropology, biology, evolution, geography, history, neurology, psychology, and

Signal processing
• Finite element analysis, a computer simulation technique used in engineering analysis • Independent component analysis • Link quality analysis, the analysis of signal quality • Path quality analysis

• Analysis of variance (ANOVA), a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts


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• Meta-analysis, combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses • Time-series analysis, methods that attempt to understand a sequence of data points spaced apart at uniform time intervals

• Protocol analysis, a means for extracting persons’ thoughts while they are performing a task

See also
• List of thinking-related topics • Scientific method

• Aura analysis, a technique in which supporters of the method claim that the body’s aura, or energy field is analysed • Bowling analysis, a notation summarizing a cricket bowler’s performance • Lithic analysis, the analysis of stone tools using basic scientific techniques

[1] Online Etymology Dictioanry [2] O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

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