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State of Alabama Governor Lieutenant Governor U.S. Senators U.S. House delegation Time zone Flag of Alabama Seal Nickname(s): Yellowhammer State, Heart of Dixie, Cotton State Motto(s): Audemus jura nostra defendere (Latin) Abbreviations Website Robert R. Riley (R) Jim Folsom, Jr. (D) Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) 4 Republicans, 3 Democrats (list) Central: UTC-6/DST-5 AL Ala. US-AL www.alabama.gov
Official language(s) Spoken language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total - Width - Length - % water - Latitude - Longitude Population - Total - Density Elevation - Highest point - Mean - Lowest point Admission to Union
English English (96.17%) Spanish (2.12%) Alabamian or Alabaman Montgomery Birmingham 229,800 (2007 estimate) Greater Birmingham Area Ranked 30th in the US 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²) 190 miles (306 km) 330 miles (531 km) 3.20 30° 11′ N to 35° N 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W Ranked 23rd in the US 4,661,900 (2008 est.) 4,447,100 (2000) 84.83/sq mi (33.84/km²) Ranked 27th in the US Mount Cheaha 2,405 ft (734 m) 499 ft (152 m) Gulf of Mexico 0 ft (0 m) December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Alabama (formally, the State of Alabama; /ˌæləˈbæmə/ ) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population with almost 4.6 million residents in 2006. From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern states, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. White rural interests dominated the state legislature until the 1960s, while urban interests and African Americans were underrepresented. In the years following World War II, Alabama experienced significant recovery as the economy of the state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and high technology, as well as the establishment or expansion of multiple military installations, primarily those of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. Today, the state is heavily invested in aerospace, education, health care, and banking, and various heavy industries including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, which is also the name of the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie". The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, and the largest city by population is Birmingham. The largest city by total land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile.
Etymology of state name
The Alabama, a Muskogean tribe, which resided just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River, served as the etymological source of the names of the river and
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state. In the Alabama language, the word for an Alabama person is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form "Alabama persons" is Albaamaha). The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name. The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources. The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively. As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou. Although the origin of Alabama was evident, the meaning of the tribe’s name was not always clear. An article without a byline appearing in the Jacksonville Republican on July 27, 1842, originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence that would support this translation. It is now generally accepted that the word comes from the Choctaw words alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather"). This results in translations such as "clearers of the thicket" or even "herb gatherers" which may refer to clearing of land for the purpose of planting crops or to collection of medicinal plants by medicine men.
British West Florida from 1763 to 1780, and part of Spanish West Florida from 1780 to 1814. Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the American Mississippi territory thereafter. Its statehood was delayed by the lack of a coastline; rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814. Alabama was the twenty-second state, admitted to the Union in 1819. Its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men. Alabama was the new frontier in the 1820s and 1830s. Settlers rapidly arrived to take advantage of fertile soils. Planters brought slaves with them, and traders brought in more from the Upper South as the cotton plantations expanded. The economy of the central "Black Belt" featured large cotton plantations whose owners built their wealth on the labor of enslaved African Americans. It was named for the dark, fertile soil. Elsewhere poor whites were subsistence farmers. According to the 1860 census, enslaved Africans comprised 45% of the state’s population of 964,201. There were only 2,690 free persons of color. In 1861 Alabama declared its secession from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. While few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the Civil War. All the slaves were freed by 1865. Following Reconstruction, Alabama was restored to the Union in 1868. After the Civil War, the state was still chiefly rural and tied to cotton. Planters resisted working with free labor and sought to re-establish controls over African Americans. Whites used paramilitary groups, Jim Crow laws and segregation to reduce freedoms of African Americans and restore their own dominance. In its new constitution of 1901, the legislature effectively disfranchised African Americans through voting restrictions. While the planter class had engaged poor whites in supporting these efforts, the new restrictions resulted in disfranchising poor whites as well. By 1941, a total of more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks. This was due mostly to effects of the cumulative poll tax. The damage to the African-American community was pervasive, as nearly all its citizens lost the ability to vote. In 1900, fourteen Black Belt counties (which were primarily African American) had more than 79,000 voters on the rolls. By June 1, 1903, the number of registered voters had dropped to 1,081. In 1900, Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote. By 1903, only 2,980 had managed to "qualify" to register, although at least 74,000 black voters were literate. The shut out was long-lasting. The disfranchisement was ended only by African Americans leading the Civil Rights Movement and gaining Federal legislation in the mid-1960s to protect their voting and civil rights. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 also protected the suffrage of poor whites.
Among the Native American people once living in the area of present day Alabama were Alabama (Alibamu), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile. Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-700 AD) and continued until European contact. The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers being at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. Artifacts recovered from archaeological excavations at Moundville were a major component in the formulation of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, this development appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerica, but developed independently. This Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples, and is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood. The French founded the first European settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile in 1702. Southern Alabama was French from 1702 to 1763, part of
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The rural-dominated legislature continued to underfund schools and services for African Americans in the segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes. Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek out opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities. The rate of population growth rate in Alabama (see "Historical Populations" table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910–1920, reflecting the effect of outmigration. At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs. It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City". By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U.S. and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy. Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside of Birmingham. One result was that Jefferson County, home of Birmingham’s industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature." Because of the long disfranchisement of African Americans, the state continued as one-party Democratic for decades. It produced a number of national leaders. Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought prosperity. Cotton faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. In the 1960s under Governor George Wallace, many whites in the state opposed integration efforts. During the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a protection of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. De jure segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed. Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to properly redistrict by population both the state legislature House and Senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature implemented the Alabama constitution’s provision for periodic redistricting based on population. This
benefited the many urban areas that had developed, and all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years. After 1972, the state’s white voters shifted much of their support to Republican candidates in presidential elections (as also occurred in neighboring southern states). Since 1990 the majority of whites in the state have also voted increasingly Republican in state elections, although Democrats are still the majority party in both houses of the legislature.
See also: List of Alabama counties and Geology of Alabama
Alabama terrain map: shows lakes, rivers, roads, with Mount Cheaha (right center) east of Birmingham. Alabama is the thirtieth largest state in the United States with 52,423 square miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3.19% of the area is water, making Alabama twenty-third in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest inland waterway system in the United States. About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly
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Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Metropolitan Area Birmingham-Hoover Mobile Huntsville Montgomery Tuscaloosa Decatur Florence-Muscle Shoals Dothan Auburn-Opelika Anniston-Oxford Gadsden total mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes. The states bordering Alabama are Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state. Alabama generally ranges in elevation from sea level at Mobile Bay to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha (see map), at a height of 2,407 ft (733 m). Alabama’s land consists of 22 million acres (89,000 km2) of forest or 67% of total land area. Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area. Areas in Alabama administered by the National Park Service include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee. Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests including Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead. Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. A notable natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville, in Winston County. A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka crater, which is the site of "Alabama’s greatest natural disaster". A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago. The Population (2007 estimates) 1,108,210 404,097 386,632 365,962 205,218 149,279 143,149 139,499 130,516 113,103 103,271 3,249,245
hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface. In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as an internationally recognized impact crater.
Birmingham, largest city and metropolitan area
Mobile, second largest metropolitan area See also: List of cities in Alabama
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Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 City Birmingham, Alabama Montgomery, Alabama Mobile, Alabama Huntsville, Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama Hoover, Alabama Dothan, Alabama Decatur, Alabama Auburn, Alabama Madison, Alabama Population (2007 estimates) 229,800 204,086 191,411 171,327 88,722 69,872 65,447 55,741 54,348 38,275
Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.
Huntsville, third largest metropolitan area
Montgomery, fourth largest metropolitan area
Though winters in the state are usually mild, nightly freezing occurs frequently in the North Alabama region. This is shown in this picture taken at the Old State Bank in Decatur during early January. South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the U.S. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail – the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita. Sometimes tornadoes occur – these are common throughout the state, although the peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of
The climate of Alabama is described as temperate with an average annual temperature of 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler. Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.
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Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities  Month City Birmingham Huntsville Mobile Montgomery high low high low high low high low Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov
temp °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C 53 12 58 14 66 19 74 23 81 27 88 31 91 33 90 32 85 29 75 24 64 18 56 13 32 0 49 9 35 2 42 6 41 5 49 9 45 7 48 9 48 9 58 14 65 18 70 21 69 21 63 17 51 11 42 6 58 14 65 18 70 21 68 20 62 17 50 10 41 5 35 2 34 1 42 6 38 3 55 13 63 17 72 22 80 27 86 30 89 32 89 32 83 28 73 23 62 17 52 11
31 −1 34 1 40 4 36 2 42 6 39 4
61 16 64 18 71 22 77 25 84 29 89 32 91 33 91 33 87 31 79 26 70 21 63 17 55 13 63 17 69 21 72 22 72 22 68 20 56 13 48 9 51 11 60 16 67 19 71 22 70 21 65 18 52 11 44 7 58 14 62 17 70 21 78 26 85 29 91 33 93 34 92 33 88 31 79 26 69 21 60 16
the state. Alabama shares the dubious distinction, with Kansas, of having reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state – according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950 to October 31, 2006. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind. Several long – tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state except for Texas and Mississippi. The Super Outbreak of March, 1974, badly affected Alabama. The northern part of the state – along the Tennessee Valley – is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season (November and December) in addition to the Spring severe weather season. Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Snow is a rare event in much of Alabama. Areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall.
Alabama population density map 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Est. 2008 771,623 30.6% 964,201 25.0% 996,992 3.4% 1,262,505 26.6% 1,513,401 19.9% 1,828,697 20.8% 2,138,093 16.9% 2,348,174 9.8% 2,646,248 12.7% 2,832,961 7.1% 3,061,743 8.1% 3,266,740 6.7% 3,444,165 5.4% 3,893,888 13.1% 4,040,587 3.8% 4,447,100 10.1%  4.8% 4,661,900
Historical populations Census Pop. 1800 1,250 1810 9,046 1820 127,901 1830 309,527 1840 590,756 %± — 623.7% 1,313.9% 142.0% 90.9%
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Demographics of Alabama (csv) By race 2000 (total population) 2000 (Hispanic only) 2005 (total population) 2005 (Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (total population) Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) White 72.56% 1.48% 72.14% 2.08% 1.90% 1.02% 43.85% Black 26.33% 0.18% 26.70% 0.17% 3.95% 3.97% 1.05% AIAN* 1.00% 0.04% 0.98% 0.05% -0.06% -0.55% 11.46% Asian 0.89% 0.02% 1.02% 0.03% 17.43% 17.47% 16.20%
NHPI* 0.07% 0.01% 0.07% 0.01% 4.90% 6.67% -2.17%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2008, estimated Alabama’s population at 4,661,900, which represents an increase of 214,545, or 4.8%, since the last census in 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 121,054 people (that is 502,457 births minus 381,403 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 104,991 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people. The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants (24,000). The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division. In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, 80% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as "Other Christian" (survey’s label), 6% as Catholic, and 11% as having no religion at all.
Race and ancestry
The racial makeup of the state and comparison to the prior census: The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama: African American (26.0%), American (17.0%), English (7.8%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%). ’American’ does not include those reported as Native American.
Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt. In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning. In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state. The Mobile area is notable for its large percentage of Catholics, owing to the area’s unique early history under French and Spanish rule. Today, a huge percentage of Alabamians identify themselves as Protestants. The top two largest denominations in the state are the Baptists (40%) and Methodists (10%).
Alabama’s quarter depicting famous resident Helen Keller along with the longleaf pine branch and Camellia blossoms from the 50 State Quarters program. Released March 19, 2003. According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2006 total gross state product was $160 billion, or $29,697 per capita for a ranking of 44th among states. Alabama’s GDP increased 3.1% from 2005, placing Alabama number 23 in terms of state level GDP growth. The single largest increase came in the area of durable goods manufacturing. In 1999, per capita income for the state was $18,189. Alabama’s agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State",
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Alabama ranks between eight and ten in national cotton production, according to various reports, with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three. Alabama’s industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, which is home of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal. Alabama is also home to the largest industrial growth corridor in the nation, including the surrounding states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Most of this growth is due to Alabama’s rapidly expanding automotive manufacturing industry. In Alabama alone since 1993, it has generated more than 67,800 new jobs. Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation in automobile output. In the 1970s and 1980s, Birmingham’s economy was transformed by investments in bio-technology and medical research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and its adjacent hospital. The UAB Hospital is a Level I trauma center providing health care and breakthrough medical research. UAB is now the area’s largest employer and the largest in Alabama with a workforce of about 20,000. Health care services provider HealthSouth is also headquartered in the city. Birmingham is also a leading banking center, serving as home to two major banks: Regions Financial Corporation and Compass Bancshares. SouthTrust, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004. The city still has major operations as one of the regional headquarters of Wachovia. In November 2006, Regions Financial merged with AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. They formed the 8th Largest U. S. Bank (by total assets). Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Magic City, such as Superior Bank and New South Federal Savings Bank. Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, has a major presence with several large offices in the metropolitan area. Major insurance providers: Protective Life, Infinity Property & Casualty and ProAssurance among others, are headquartered in Birmingham and employ a large number of people in Greater Birmingham. The city is also a powerhouse of construction and engineering companies, including BE&K and B. L. Harbert International which routinely are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design and international construction firms. Huntsville is regarded for its high-technology driven economy and is known as the "Rocket City" due to NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Redstone Arsenal. Huntsville’s main economic influence is derived
from aerospace and military technology. Redstone Arsenal, Cummings Research Park (CRP), The University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center comprise the main hubs for the area’s technology-driven economy. CRP is the second largest research park in the United States and the fourth largest in the world, and is over 38 years old. Huntsville is also home for commercial technology companies such as the network access company ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph and design and manufacturer of IT infrastructure Avocent. Telecommunications provider Deltacom, Inc. and copper tube manufacturer and distributor Wolverine Tube are also based in Huntsville. Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray Discs out of their Huntsville plant. Sanmina-SCI also has a large presence in the area. Fortytwo Fortune 500 companies have operations in Huntsville. In 2005, Forbes Magazine named the HuntsvilleDecatur Combined Statistical Area as 6th best place in the nation for doing business, and number one in terms of the number of engineers per total employment. The city of Mobile, Alabama’s only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on the Gulf of Mexico with inland waterway access to the Midwest via the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The Port of Mobile is the 10th largest by tonnage in the United States. In May 2007, a site north of Mobile was selected by German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp for a $3.7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.
Alabama’s tax structure is one the most regressive in the United States. Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status, though taxpayers can deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama state tax, which favors wealthier Alabamians who typically pay federal taxes. The state’s general sales tax rate is 4%. The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon additional city and county sales taxes. For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 9% and there is an additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means that a diner in Mobile would pay a 10% tax on a meal. Sales and excise taxes in Alabama account for 51 percent of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36 percent nationwide. Alabama is also one of the few remaining states that levies a tax on food and medicine. Alabama’s income tax on poor working families is among the nation’s very highest. Alabama is the only state that levies income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter of the federal poverty line. Alabama’s threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes.
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The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country. Property taxes are the lowest in the United States. The current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes. One of its amendments lowered the percentage of fair-market value at which property was taxed and another declared that timber and farmland would be taxed on the value of its current use instead of what the land is worth. Since Alabama’s tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure. For example, in 2003 Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. It is one of only a few states to accomplish large surpluses, with a budget surplus of nearly $1.2 billion in 2007, and estimated at more than $2.1 billion for 2008. However, the declining national economy in 2008 has eliminated that surplus and the state is again facing shortfall, with the governor declaring "proration," which will result in an immeditate education budget cut and school layoffs.
such as US 11, US 29, US 31, US 43, US 72, US 78, US 80, US 82, US 84, US 98, US 231, and US 280. Major airports in Alabama include BirminghamShuttlesworth International Airport (BHM), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals – Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU). For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa.
Aerial view of the port of Mobile Listed from north to south Port name Port of Florence Port of Decatur Port of Guntersville Location Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick Lake Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Connected to Tennessee River Tennessee River Tennessee River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Alabama state welcome sign Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross it: I-65 runs north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 originates in Montgomery and runs eastnortheast to the Georgia border, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to east through Mobile. Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under construction. When completed around 2012 it will connect Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. Several US Highways also pass through the state,
Port of Birmingham, on Black Birmingham Warrior River Port of Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa, on Black War- Tenn-Tom Waterway rior River
Port of Montgomery, on Woodruff Alabama Montgomery Lake River Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico
Law and government
The foundational document for Alabama’s government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is the
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Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning. • List of Alabama county seats Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. However, counties can declare themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas.
The State Capitol, built in 1850 world’s longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution. There is a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama’s constitution. This movement is based upon the fact that Alabama’s constitution highly centralizes power in Montgomery and leaves practically no power in local hands. Any policy changes proposed around the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length were intentional to codify segregation and racism. Alabama is divided into three equal branches: The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation. The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the Alabama State Auditor. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama.
Alabama Governor Bob Riley in 2004 The current governor of the state is Republican Bob Riley. The lieutenant governor is Jim Folsom Jr. The Democratic Party currently holds a large majority in both houses of the Legislature. Due to the Legislature’s power to override a gubernatorial veto by a mere simple majority (most state Legislatures require a 2/3 majority to override a veto), the relationship between the executive and legislative branches can be easily strained when different parties control the branches. During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the African American vote. After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise black residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Provisions which disfranchised African Americans also disfranchised poor whites, however. By 1941 more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000, although the impact was greater on the African-
Local and county government
Alabama has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the County Commission, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Due to the restraints placed in the Alabama Constitution, all but seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have little to no home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation
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American community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised. From 1901 to the 1960s, the state legislature failed to perform redistricting as population grew and shifted within the state. The result was a rural minority that dominated state politics until a series of court cases required redistricting in 1972. With the disfranchisement of African Americans, the state became part of the "Solid South", a one-party system in which the Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. In the 1986 Democratic primary election, the thenincumbent Lieutenant Governor lost the Democratic nomination for Governor. The state Democratic party invalidated the election and placed the Lieutenant Governor’s name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of the candidate chosen in the primary. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger Guy Hunt as Governor. This was the first Republican Governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction. Since then, Republicans have been increasingly elected to state offices until in 2006 Democrats were barely holding a majority in the state legislature. Since 1986, only one Democrat, Don Siegelman, has managed to win the Governor’s office. A corruption probe and eventual trial, the timing of which coincided with the 2006 state primary, relegated Siegelman to one term. Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when majority whites bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social reform. George Wallace, the state’s governor, remains a notorious and controversial figure. Only with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain suffrage and other civil rights. In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and the Governor signed, a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State Capitol, which housed Congress of the Confederate States of America. Further information: Political party strength in Alabama 2004 2000 1996 1992 1988 1984 1980 1976 1972 62.46% 1,176,394 56.47% 944,409 50.12% 769,044 47.65% 804,283 59.17% 815,576 60.54% 872,849 48.75% 654,192 42.61% 504,070 72.43% 728,701 36.84% 693,933 41.59% 695,602 43.16% 662,165 40.88% 690,080 39.86% 549,506 38.28% 551,899 47.45% 636,730 55.73% 659,170 25.54% 256,923 18.72% 196,579 30.55% 210,732 56.39% 318,303
George W. Bush George W. Bush Bob Dole George Bush George Bush Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan Jimmy Carter Richard Nixon George Wallace (I) Barry Goldwater John F. Kennedy
1968* 13.99% 146,923 1964 1960 69.45% 479,085 42.16% 237,981
*State won by George Wallace of the American Independent Party, at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. 1960 was a curious election. The Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot, but the Democratic electors from Alabama gave 6 of their 11 electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd. In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state, in part because of his opposition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which restored the franchise for African Americans. In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that. Since 1980, conservative Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the Federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates have been elected to many statelevel offices and comprise a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature; see Dixiecrat. In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama’s nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The eleven counties
Presidential elections results Year 2008 Republican 60.32% 1,266,546 Democratic 38.80% 813,479 State winner John McCain
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Club Birmingham Barons Huntsville Stars Mobile BayBears Montgomery Biscuits Huntsville Havoc Alabama Renegades (Huntsville) Tennessee Valley Vipers (Huntsville) Rocket City United (Huntsville) Sport Baseball Baseball Baseball Baseball Ice hockey Football Arena football Soccer League Southern League Southern League Southern League Southern League Southern Professional Hockey League National Women’s Football Association af2 National Premier Soccer League
that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group. The state’s two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans. In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, four of whom are Republicans: (Jo Bonner, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, and Spencer Bachus) and three are Democrats: (Bobby Bright, Parker Griffith and Artur Davis). Further information: United States presidential election in Alabama, 2004
Health, education, and policy
Primary and secondary education
Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the overview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364 elementary and secondary students. Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006–2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year. In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama. In 2004, only 23 percent of schools met AYP. However, while Alabama’s public education system has improved, it still lags behind in achievement compared to other states. According to U.S. Census data, Alabama’s high school graduation rate – 75% – is the second lowest in the United States (after Mississippi). The largest educational gains were among people with some college education but without degrees. Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama in Florence. The school was chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature in 1830. Alabama’s programs of higher education include 14 fouryear public universities, numerous two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from 2-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs. Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges as well as a variety of subject focused national and international accreditation agencies.
Professional sports teams Notable Alabamians
Famous people from Alabama include Hank Aaron, Tallulah Bankhead, Charles Barkley, Hugo L. Black, Paul W. (Bear) Bryant, George Washington Carver, Nat King Cole, Courteney Cox Arquette, Mitch Holleman, Zelda Fitzgerald, Charles Ghigna, William C. Handy, Taylor Hicks, Bo Jackson, Kate Jackson, Jamey Johnson, Helen Keller, Coretta Scott King, Harper Lee, Joe Louis, Willie Mays, Willie
Colleges and universities
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McCovey, John Hunt Morgan, Jim Nabors, Jesse Owens, Satchel Paige, Rosa Parks, Condoleezza Rice, Kenny Stabler, Bart Starr, Ruben Studdard, George Wallace, Booker T. Washington, Billy Williams, and Hank Williams.
• National Peanut Festival • Navistar LPGA Classic, Prattville • Papajohns.com Bowl (formerly the Birmingham Bowl) • Regions Charity Classic (formerly the Bruno’s Memorial Classic) • Senior Bowl, Mobile • Sidewalk Moving Picture Festival • Spirit of America Festival
Notable Alabama animals
• Matilda (chicken)
• Alys Robinson Stephens Performing Arts Center (home of the Alabama Symphony Orchestra), Birmingham • American Village, Montevallo • Birmingham Jefferson Convention Complex, Birmingham • Braly Municipal Stadium (host of the NCAA Division II National Football Championship), Florence • Bryant-Denny Stadium, Tuscaloosa • Celebration Arena, Priceville • Daphne Civic Center, Daphne • Fair Park Arena, Birmingham • Hank Aaron Stadium, Mobile • Joe W. Davis Stadium, Huntsville • Jordan-Hare Stadium, Auburn • Ladd Peebles Stadium, Mobile • Legion Field, Birmingham • McWane Science Center, Birmingham • Mitchell Center, Mobile • Mobile Civic Center, Mobile • Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium, Montgomery • Movie Gallery Veterans Stadium, Troy • Paul Snow Stadium, Jacksonville • Point Mallard Aquatic Center, Decatur • Regions Park, Hoover • Rickwood Field, Birmingham • Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail • Talladega Superspeedway and The International Motorsports Hall of Fame & Museum • Von Braun Center, Huntsville
The Old State Bank in Decatur Alabama Shakespeare Festival Alabama Symphony Orchestra The Alabama Theatre Birmingham Astronomical Society Birmingham Civil Rights Institute Birmingham Museum of Art Old State Bank Old St. Stephens Rhea-McEntire House USS Alabama U.S. Space & Rocket Center/U.S. Space Camp, Huntsville • Vulcan Park, Birmingham • • • • • • • • • • •
 "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. July 8, 2008. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/ SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. in Excel format ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau.
• • • • • • • • • • Alabama Jubilee Hot Air Balloon Classic Alabama Sports Festival Bayfest, Mobile’s Music Festival Big Spring Jam City Stages Music Festival, Birmingham GMAC Bowl Jubilee City Fest, Montgomery Mule Day, Winfield Mardi Gras, Mobile Mobile Bay Jubilee
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http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NSTEST2008-01.csv. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/ isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on November 3 2006. census.gov "Alabama Quick Facts". State and County Quick Facts. U.S. Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/01000.html census.gov. Retrieved on 2007-09-08. ^ George Mason University, United States Election Project: Alabama Redistricting Summary, accessed March 10, 2008 ^ Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. OCLC 10724679. Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; & Montler, Timothy (1993). Dictionary of the Alabama Language. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2. OCLC 26590560. http://www.ling.unt.edu/~montler/Alabama/. ^ Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward, Leah R. Atkins, Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: the History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. OCLC 28634588. ^ "Alabama: The State Name". All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. http://www.archives.alabama.gov/statenam.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. ^ Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. OCLC 32242468. Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. OCLC 17530914. The use of state names derived from Native American languages is common with an estimated 27 states having names of Native American origin. Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. OCLC 222611214. ^ Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North America". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145: 153–174. http://www.hiddenhistory.com/PAGE3/swsts/ alabam-1.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. ^ Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama". American Speech 12 (12): 212–215. doi:10.2307/452431. "Alabama Indian Tribes". Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com. Updated 2006. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/alabama/. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. "Alabama". The New York Times Almanac 2004. The New York Times. 2006-08-11. http://travel2.nytimes.com/ 2004/07/15/travel/NYT_ALMANAC_US_ALABAMA.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. Welch, Paul D. (1991). Moundville’s Economy. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817305122. OCLC 21330955.
 Walthall, John A. (1990). Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast-Archaeology of Alabama and the Middle South. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817305521. OCLC 26656858.  Townsend, Richard F. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300106017. OCLC 56633574.  edited by F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber ; foreword by Vincas P. Steponaitis. (2004). F. Kent Reilly and James Garber. ed. Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292713475. OCLC 70335213.  "Alabama State History". theUS50.com. http://www.theus50.com/alabama/. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  "AL-Alabama". Landscapes and History by state. StateMaster.com. http://www.statemaster.com/graphT/bac_sum. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  ^ "The Black Belt". Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University. 2004-04-19. http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2004/tullos/ 4a.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)". Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com. 2005. http://www.historicaldocuments.com/ 13thAmendment.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  ^ Glenn Feldman. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, p. 136.  ^ Civil Rights Act of 1964  "Voting Rights". Civil Rights: Law and History. US Department of Justice. 2002-01-09. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070221054512/http://www.usdoj.gov/kidspage/crt/ voting.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  "The New South Rises, Again". Civil Rights: Law and History. Southerner.net. Spring 1999. http://www.southerner.net/v1n1_99/coverstory1.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000". Geographic Comparison Table. US Census Bureau. Census Year 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ GCTTable?_bm=n&_lang=en&mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9 PH1-R&ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&geo_id=01000US. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  ^ "The Geography of Alabama". Geography of the States. NetState.com. 2006-08-11. http://www.netstate.com/ states/geography/al_geography.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.  Alabama Forest Owner’s Guide to Information Resources, Introduction, Alabamaforests.org  "Alabama County (geographies ranked by total population)". Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. Census year 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/
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servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-context=gct&ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_ST2S&CONTEXT=gct&-tree_id=4001&-redoLog=true&geo_id=04000US01&-format=ST-2. Retrieved on 2007-05-14. "National Park Guide". Geographic Search. National Park Service - U.S. Department of the Interior. http://home.nps.gov/applications/parksearch/ state.cfm?st=al. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. "National Forests in Alabama". USDA Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/alabama/forests/. Retrieved on 2008-10-05. ^ "Wetumpka Impact Crater" Wetumpka Public Library, accessed August 21, 2007. "The Wetumpka Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42. ^ "Alabama Climate", Encyclopedia Britannica, Retrieved May 7, 2007 Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 1990–2003,  Retrieved May 8, 2007 Fujita scale. Tornadoproject.com. Retrieved September 3, 2007 US Travel Weather ^ U. S. Census Bureau (2008-12-15). "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (NST-EST2008-04)" (CSV). http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NSTEST2008-04.csv. Retrieved on 2009-01-16. "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/ geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved on 2008-12-03. Campbell, Kirsten (2007-03-25). "Alabama rates well in biblical literacy". Mobile Register (Advance Publications, Inc.): p. A1. "Confidence in State and Local Institutions Survey" (PDF). Capital Survey Research Center. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070809021852/http://www.myaea.org/PDFfile/ Confidence+in+State+Institutions07.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. White, David (2007-04-01). "Poll says we feel good about state Trust in government, unlike some institutions, hasn’t fallen". Birmingham News (Birmingham News): p. 13A. Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. 20. http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/ AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/ ARIS_Report_2008.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-08. "Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2006" (HTML). Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic
      
Accounts. http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/ gdp_state/gsp_newsrelease.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. "United States Census Bureau" (HTML). State and County Quick Facts. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/ states/01000.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. "Alabama and CBER: 75 Years of Change" (PDF). Alabama Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama. Q4 2005. http://cber.cba.ua.edu/ pdf/ab2005q4.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. "State Highlights for 2004–2005" (PDF). Alabama Cooperative Extension System. USDA, NASS, Alabama Statistical Office. 2005. http://www.aces.edu/dept/nass/ bulletin/2005/pg05.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. ""Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports in 2006"". "U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Waterborne Commerce Statistics". http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc/wcsc/ portton06.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. "ThyssenKrupp’s Alabama incentive package tops $811 million". Press register. 2007-05-11. http://www.al.com/newsflash/regional/index.ssf?/base/ business-2/ 1178924126194090.xml&storylist=alabamanews. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. Zengerle, Jason (December 14, 2003). "2003: THE 3rd ANNUAL YEAR IN IDEAS; Biblical Taxation". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ fullpage.html?res=9F07E3DB1E3DF937A25751C1A9659C8B63&scp=1&sq=bib Retrieved on 2008-10-01. Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes, July 2004 Retrieved on May 25, 2007 "Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970–2007)" (PDF). Tax Foundation. http://www.taxfoundation.org/files/ sl_burden_alabama-2007-04-04.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. Roig-Franzia, Manuel (2004-11-28). "Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/ A16443-2004Nov27?language=printer. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. "Constitution of Alabama - 1901". The Alabama Legislative Information System. http://www.legislature.state.al.us/CodeOfAlabama/ Constitution/1901/Constitution1901_toc.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. Alabama Citizens for Constitutional Reform Rawls, Phillip (2007-06-01). "Alabama offers an apology for slavery". The Virginian Pilot (Landmark Communications). ^ "Alabama Education Quick Facts 2007" (PDF). http://www.alsde.edu/general/quick_facts.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. "Eighty-Two Percent of Alabama Schools Make AYP While Increasing Annual Measurable Objectives" (PDF).
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Preceded by Illinois List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on December 14, 1819 (22nd) Succeeded by Maine
  
http://www.alsde.edu/Accountability/2007Reports/ Press/2007AYPNewsRelease.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/ c2kbr-24.pdf CensusScope - Education Statistics "Degree titles and abbreviations". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. http://www.ache.state.al.us/ Acadaffr/ProInv/Degreeabbr.htm. "Accreditation". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. http://www.ache.state.al.us/ Colleges&Universities/Accreditation/index.htm. . Willie McCovey, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers/ detail.jsp?playerId=118605, retrieved on 2009-02-09 World Almanac & Book of Facts, Reader’s Digest Publishing, 2008.
• Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979. • WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)
• Alabama.gov – Official website. • Alabama State Guide, from the Library of Congress • Alabama State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Alabama state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. • Alabama Association of Regional Councils • Energy Data & Statistics for Alabama- From the U.S. Department of Energy • TourAlabama.org – Alabama Department of Tourism and Travel • All About Alabama, at the Alabama Department of Archives and History site • AlabamaMosaic, a digital repository of materials on Alabama’s history, culture, places, and people • Code of Alabama 1975 – at the Alabama Legislature site • Alabama at the Open Directory Project • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Alabama • Alabama QuickFacts from the U.S. Census Bureau • Alabama State Fact Sheet from the U.S. Department of Agriculture • Alabama State Parks • National Parks of Alabama • Encyclopedia of Alabama Coordinates: 33°0′N 86°40′W / 33°N 86.667°W / 33; -86.667
• Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994) • Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004) • Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921. • Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004) • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341 • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.