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Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln Service/ branch Years of service Battles/wars 16th President of the United States In office March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865 Vice President Hannibal Hamlin
(1861 – 1865)

Illinois Militia 1832 Black Hawk War

Andrew Johnson
(1865)

Preceded by Succeeded by

James Buchanan Andrew Johnson

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois’s 7th district In office March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849 Preceded by Succeeded by Born John Henry Thomas L. Harris February 12, 1809(1809-02-12) Hardin County, Kentucky April 15, 1865 (aged 56) Washington, D.C. Oak Ridge Cemetery Springfield, Illinois American Whig (1832-1854), Republican (1854-1864), National Union (1864-1865) Mary Todd Lincoln Robert Todd Lincoln, Edward Lincoln, Willie Lincoln, Tad Lincoln Lawyer See: Abraham Lincoln and religion

Died Resting place Nationality Political party

Spouse Children

Occupation Religion Signature Military service

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery. As the war was drawing to a close, Lincoln became the first American president to be assassinated. Before his election in 1860 as the first Republican president, Lincoln had been a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and twice an unsuccessful candidate for election to the U.S. Senate. As an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery in the United States,[1][2] Lincoln won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president later that year. His tenure in office was occupied primarily with the defeat of the secessionist Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. He introduced measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which passed Congress before Lincoln’s death and was ratified by the states later in 1865. Lincoln closely supervised the victorious war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including Ulysses S. Grant. Historians have concluded that he handled the factions of the Republican Party well, bringing leaders of each faction into his cabinet and forcing them to cooperate. Lincoln successfully defused the Trent affair, a war scare with Britain, in 1861. Under his leadership, the Union took control of the border slave states at the start of the war. Additionally, he managed his own reelection in the 1864 presidential election. Copperheads and other opponents of the war criticized Lincoln for refusing to

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compromise on the slavery issue. Conversely, the Radical Republicans, an abolitionist faction of the Republican Party, criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery. Even with these road blocks, Lincoln successfully rallied public opinion through his rhetoric and speeches; his Gettysburg Address is but one example of this. At the close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to speedily reunite the nation through a policy of generous reconciliation. His successor in the White House, Andrew Johnson, also wanted reconciliation among white Americans, but failed to protect the rights of newly freed slaves. Lincoln’s assassination in 1865 was the first presidential assassination in American history. He has since consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.[3]

Abraham Lincoln
his descendants had gradually moved west, from Pennsylvania to Virginia and then westward to the frontier.[5]

Symbolic log cabin at the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site For some time, Thomas Lincoln, Abraham’s father, had been a respected citizen of the Kentucky backcountry. He had purchased the Sinking Spring Farm in December 1808 for $200 cash ($2.69 thousand today)[6] and assumption of a debt. The family belonged to a Hardshell Baptist church, although Abraham himself never joined their church, or any other church for that matter. In 1816 the Lincoln family became impoverished, losing their land through court action, and was forced to make a new start in Perry County, Indiana.[7] Lincoln later noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery," and partly because of difficulties with land deeds in Kentucky.[8] When Lincoln was nine, his mother, then 34 years old, died of milk sickness. Soon afterwards, his father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston. Lincoln and his stepmother were close; he called her "Mother" for the rest of his life, but he was increasingly distant from his father.[9] In 1830, after more economic and landtitle difficulties in Indiana, the family settled on public land[10] in Macon County, Illinois. The following winter was desolate and especially brutal, and the family considered moving back to Indiana. The following year, when his father relocated the family to a new homestead in Coles County, Illinois, 22-yearold Lincoln struck out on his own, canoeing down the Sangamon River to the village of New Salem in Sangamon County.[11] Later that year, hired by New Salem businessman

Personal life
Childhood and education

Samuel Lincoln, first American ancestor of Abraham, worshipped at Old Ship Church, Hingham, Massachusetts Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, two uneducated farmers, in a one-room log cabin on the 348-acre (1.4 km2) Sinking Spring Farm, in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky (now part of LaRue County), making him the first president born west of the Appalachians. Lincoln’s ancestor Samuel Lincoln[4] had arrived in Hingham, Massachusetts from England in the 17th century, but

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Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via flatboat on the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Lincoln’s formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling, but he was largely self-educated and an avid reader. He was also a talented local wrestler and skilled with an axe.[12] Lincoln avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals, even for food.[13] At 6 foot 4 inches (1.93 m), he was unusually tall, as well as strong. Lincoln’s father, Thomas Lincoln, was uneducated and illiterate; however, he was extremely talented in the art of storytelling and entertaining friends. Thomas would regularly host friendly gatherings at his house, which would usually consist of Thomas telling stories all night causing a hilarious uproar from his audience. Stealthily, young Abraham would stay up and listen to his father telling stories, trying to memorize them himself. Occasionally, when Abraham could not understand a certain story or part of one, he would repeat it over and over again in his mind until he finally understood. He then would spend countless hours coming up with a way to put the stories into terms his friends could easily understand. The next day, Abraham would repeat these stories to his friends, mimicking his father. This early practice helped prepare Abraham for the many important speeches he would have to give late in his life.[14]

Abraham Lincoln
President Lincoln’s first term. Thomas "Tad" Lincoln was born on April 4, 1853, and died on July 16, 1871 in Chicago. Lincoln’s last undisputed lineal descendant, Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died December 24, 1985. Lincoln was not lucky when it came to women. Having lost his first love, Ann Rutledge, to what could possibly have been typhoid fever, he courted Mary Owens, the sister of his friend Elizabeth Abell, with the promise of marriage. Lincoln finally proposed to Owens in May 1837, but the proposal was less than appealing to her. Eighteen months after that rejection, however, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd. Finally in November 1842, after an eighteen month break in their engagement, they were married in the parlor of the Edwards’ mansion. Eventually after their marriage, they settled into a quaint house on Eighth and Jackson in Springfield, which was conveniently located within walking distance of his law office. Mary had a hard time adjusting to her new life because she was used to having slaves perform most of the chores all of her life. Also, because Mary was used to having money her entire life, she struggled with the adjustment to relative poverty. Even though Abraham and Mary struggled with the first couple of years of their marriage, the births of two sons within the first forty months of their marriage helped relieve some of that tension. The Lincolns did not believe in rules and boundaries when it came to their children. They were free and able to do anything they pleased.[15]

Marriage and family
Further information: Sexuality of Abraham Lincoln On November 4, 1842 Lincoln married Mary Todd, daughter of a prominent slave-owning family from Kentucky. The couple had four sons. Robert Todd Lincoln was born in Springfield, Illinois on August 1, 1843. Their only child to survive into adulthood, young Robert attended Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College. The other Lincoln children were born in Springfield, Illinois, and died either during childhood or their teen years. Edward Baker Lincoln was born on March 10, 1846, and died on February 1, 1850, also in Springfield. William "Willie" Wallace Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died on February 20, 1862 in Washington, D.C., during

Early political career and military service
Lincoln began his political career in 1832 at age 23 with an unsuccessful campaign for the Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig Party. The centerpiece of his platform was the undertaking of navigational improvements on the Sangamon River. Later that year he served as a captain in a company of the Illinois militia during the Black Hawk War, although he never saw combat. In 1834, he won an election to the state legislature and, after coming across the Commentaries on the Laws of England, began to teach himself law. Admitted to the bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois that same year and began to practice law with John T. Stuart. With a reputation as a

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Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln in 1846 or 1847 but Polk had insisted that Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".[18] Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed, and proof that that spot was on American soil. Congress never enacted the resolution or even debated it, and its introduction resulted in a loss of political support for Lincoln in his district; one Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him "spotty Lincoln."[19] Lincoln was a key early supporter of Zachary Taylor’s candidacy for the 1848 Whig Presidential nomination. When Lincoln’s term ended, the incoming Taylor administration offered him the governorship of remote Oregon Territory. Acceptance would end his career in the fast-growing state of Illinois, so he declined. Returning instead to Springfield, Illinois, he turned most of his energies to making a living at the bar, which involved extensive travel on horseback from county to county. It was during this stage of his life, however, that Lincoln gave one of the most pivotal speeches[20] of his life - speaking not as a politician, but as a private citizen. Opposed to the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, Lincoln spoke to a crowd in Peoria, Illinois, on October 16, 1854, outlining the moral, political and economic arguments against slavery[21] that he would continue to uphold throughout his career. This speech marked his re-entry into public life.

Sketch of a younger Abraham Lincoln formidable adversary during cross-examinations and in his closing arguments, Lincoln became an able and successful lawyer.[16] In 1841 Lincoln entered the law practice with William Herndon, a fellow Whig. He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a representative from Sangamon County, and became a leader of the Illinois Whig party. In 1837 he made his first protest against slavery in the Illinois House, stating that the institution was "founded on both injustice and bad policy."[17]

Illinois politics
In 1846 Lincoln was elected to one term in the U.S. House of Representatives. A staunch Whig, Lincoln often referred to party leader Henry Clay as his political idol. As a freshman House member, Lincoln was not a particularly powerful or influential figure in Congress. He used his office as an opportunity to speak out against the war with Mexico, which he attributed to President Polk’s desire for "military glory — that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood." Lincoln’s most famous stand against Polk was in his Spot Resolutions: The war had begun with a violent confrontation on disputed territory (claimed by both Mexico and Texas),

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Abraham Lincoln
(1820). Illinois Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, the most powerful man in the Senate, proposed popular sovereignty as the solution to the slavery impasse, and incorporated it into the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Douglas argued that in a democracy the people should have the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery in their territory, rather than have such a decision imposed on them by the national Congress.[24] In the October 16, 1854, "Peoria Speech",[25] Lincoln first stood out among the other free soil orators of the day:[26] [The Act has a] declared indifference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world — enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites — causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty — criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.[27] Drawing on remnants of the old Whig party, and on disenchanted Free Soil, Liberty and Democratic party members, he was instrumental in forging the shape of the new Republican Party. In a stirring campaign, the Republicans carried Illinois in 1854 and elected a senator. Lincoln was the obvious choice, but to keep the new party balanced, he allowed the election to go to an ex-Democrat Lyman Trumbull. At the Republican convention in 1856, Lincoln placed second in the contest to become the party’s candidate for Vice-President. In 1857-58, Douglas broke with President Buchanan, leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas in 1858, since he had led the opposition to the Lecompton Constitution, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. Accepting the Republican nomination for Senate in

Prairie lawyer
By the mid-1850s, Lincoln faced competing transportation interests — both the river barges and the railroads. Originally, Lincoln had favored riverboat interests. In 1849, he had received a patent for a "device to buoy vessels over shoals." Lincoln’s goal had been to lessen the draft of a river craft by pushing horizontal floats into the water alongside the hull. The floats would have served as temporary ballast tanks.[22][23] The concept was never commercialized. Lincoln was the only President of the United States to hold a patent. As the 1850s began, Lincoln moved closer towards the railroad industry. In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barret. Barret had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to that corporation on the grounds that it had changed its originally planned route. Lincoln argued that as a matter of law a corporation is not bound by its original charter when that charter can be amended in the public interest, that the newer proposed Alton & Sangamon route was superior and less expensive, and that accordingly the corporation had a right to sue Mr. Barret for his delinquent payment. He won this case, and the decision by the Illinois Supreme Court was eventually cited by several other courts throughout the United States. Lincoln’s most notable criminal trial came in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong, who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker. The case is famous for Lincoln’s use of judicial notice, a rare tactic at that time, to show an eyewitness had lied on the stand. After the witness testified to having seen the crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a Farmer’s Almanac to show that the moon on that date was at such a low angle it could not have produced enough illumination to see anything clearly. Based upon this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.

Republican politics 1854–1860
Lincoln returned to politics in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), which expressly repealed the limits on slavery’s extent as established by the Missouri Compromise

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1858, Lincoln delivered his famous speech: "’A house divided against itself cannot stand.’(Mark 3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other."[28] The speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion caused by the slavery debate, and rallied Republicans across the north.

Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858
The 1858 campaign featured the LincolnDouglas debates, a famous contest on slavery. Lincoln warned that "The Slave Power" was threatening the values of republicanism, while Stephen Douglas emphasized the supremacy of democracy, as set forth in his Freeport Doctrine, which said that local settlers should be free to choose whether to allow slavery or not and could overrule judicial rulings. Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate. Nevertheless, Lincoln’s speeches on the issue transformed him into a national political star. New York party leaders invited him to give a speech at Cooper Union in February 1860 to an elite audience that was startled by the poorly dressed, ugly man from the West. He stunned the audience with the most brilliant political speech they had ever heard. Lincoln was emerging as the intellectual leader of the Republican party, and its best speaker.[29]

"The Rail Candidate" - Lincoln’s 1860 candidacy is held up by the slavery issue (slave on left) and party organization (New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley) on right. on the national government. Throughout the 1850s he denied that there would ever be a civil war, and his supporters repeatedly rejected claims that his election would incite secession.[30] On May 9-10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. At this convention, Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the presidency.

1860 Presidential election
Lincoln was chosen as the Republican candidate for the 1860 election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen as more moderate than those of rivals William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase. His "Western" origins also appealed to the newer states: other contenders, especially those with more governmental experience, had acquired enemies within the party and were weak in the critical western states, while Lincoln was perceived as a moderate who could win the West. Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party as the Slave Power tightened its grasp

1860 presidential election results Lincoln did not campaign on the road. Despite this, he had gained the majority of the popular vote due to the work of the local Republican Party offices throughout the north. They produced tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. There were thousands of Republican speakers who focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln’s life story, making an emphasis on his childhood poverty. The goal was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor," whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts. In the South, Lincoln did not appear on a majority of the ballots come the time of the election.

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On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected as the 16th President of the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. He was the first Republican president, winning entirely on the strength of his support in the North: he was not even on the ballot in nine states in the South, and won only 2 of 996 counties in all of the Southern states. There were fusion tickets in some states, but even if his opponents had combined in every state, Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states in which he won the electoral votes and would still have won the electoral college and the election. Lincoln was the first U. S. President elected from Illinois.

Abraham Lincoln
Confederate States of America. The upper South (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy. Attempts at compromise, such as the Crittenden Compromise which would have extended the Missouri line of 1820, were discussed. Despite support for the Crittenden Compromise among some Republicans, Lincoln denounced it in private letters, saying "either the Missouri line extended, or... Pop. Sov. would lose us everything we gained in the election; that filibustering for all South of us, and making slave states of it, would follow in spite of us, under either plan",[31] while other Republicans publicly stated it "would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and state owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del Fuego."[32] President-elect Lincoln evaded possible assassins in Baltimore, and on February 23, 1861, arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C.

Presidency and the Civil War
With the emergence of the Republicans as the nation’s first major sectional party by the mid-1850s, politics became the stage on which sectional tensions were played out. Although much of the West – the focal point of sectional tensions – was unfit for cotton cultivation, Southern secessionists read the political fallout as a sign that their power in national politics was rapidly weakening. Before, the slave system had been buttressed to an extent by the Democratic Party, which was increasingly seen as representing a more pro-Southern position that unfairly permitted Southerners to prevail in the nation’s territories and to dominate national policy before the Civil War. But they suffered a significant reverse in the electoral realignment of the mid-1850s. 1860 was a critical election that marked a stark change in existing patterns of party loyalties among groups of voters; Abraham Lincoln’s election was a watershed in the balance of power of competing national and parochial interests and affiliations.

Secession winter 1860–1861
As Lincoln’s election became more likely, secessionists made it clear that their states would leave the Union. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead. By February 1, 1861, South Carolina was followed by six other cotton-growing states in the deep South. The seven states soon declared themselves to be a new nation, the

A photograph of the March 4, 1861 inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of United States Capitol At his inauguration on March 4, 1861, the German American Turners formed Lincoln’s bodyguard; and a sizable garrison of federal troops was also present, ready to protect the capital from Confederate invasion and local insurrection. In his First Inaugural Address, Lincoln declared, "I hold that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution

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the Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments," arguing further that the purpose of the United States Constitution was "to form a more perfect union" than the Articles of Confederation which were explicitly perpetual, thus the Constitution too was perpetual. He asked rhetorically that even were the Constitution a simple contract, would it not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it? Also in his inaugural address, in a final attempt to reunite the states and prevent the looming war, Lincoln supported the pending Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had already passed Congress. This amendment, which explicitly protected slavery in those states in which it already existed, had more appeal to the critical border states than to the states that had already declared their separation. By the time Lincoln took office, the Confederacy was an established fact, and no leaders of the insurrection proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. No compromise was found because a compromise was deemed virtually impossible. Buchanan might have allowed the southern states to secede, and some Republicans recommended that. However, conservative Democratic nationalists, such as Jeremiah S. Black, Joseph Holt, and Edwin M. Stanton had taken control of Buchanan’s cabinet around January 1, 1861, and refused to accept secession. Lincoln and nearly every Republican leader adopted this position by March 1861: the Union could not be dismantled. Believing that a peaceful solution was still possible, Lincoln decided to not take any action against the South unless the Unionists themselves were attacked first. This finally happened in April 1861. Historian Allan Nevins argues that Lincoln made three miscalculations in believing that he could preserve the Union, hold government property, and still avoid war. He "temporarily underrated the gravity of the crisis", overestimated the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South and border states, and misunderstood the conditional support of Unionists in the border states.[33] In connection with Nevins’s conclusions, it is interesting to note an incident from this period reported in the memoirs of William Tecumseh Sherman. Then a civilian, Sherman visited Lincoln in the White House during inauguration week, with his brother, Ohio Republican

Abraham Lincoln
John Sherman. This meeting left the future General Sherman "sadly disappointed" at Lincoln’s seeming failure to realize that "the country was sleeping on a volcano" and the South was "preparing for war."[34]

Fighting begins: 1861–1862
In April 1861, after Union troops at Fort Sumter were fired upon and forced to surrender, Lincoln called on the governors of every state to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union," which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. Virginia, which had repeatedly warned Lincoln that it would not allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on another state, responded by seceding, along with North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The slave states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede. Lincoln urgently negotiated with state leaders there, promising not to interfere with slavery. After the fighting started, he had rebel leaders arrested in all the border areas and held in military prisons without trial. Over 18,000 were arrested, though none were executed. One, Clement Vallandigham, was exiled; but all of the remainder were released, usually after two or three months (see: Ex parte Merryman). Lincoln had to protect the nation’s capital city. In May, angry secessionist mobs in Baltimore, a city to the north of Washington, fought with Union troops traveling south. George William Brown, the Mayor of Baltimore, and other suspect Maryland politicians were arrested and imprisoned at Fort McHenry.

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln met with his cabinet on July 22, 1862 for the first reading of a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation.

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Lincoln maintained that the powers of his administration to end slavery were limited by the Constitution. He expected to bring about the eventual extinction of slavery by stopping its further expansion into any U.S. territory, and by convincing states to accept compensated emancipation if the state would outlaw slavery (an offer that took effect only in Washington, D.C.). Guelzo says Lincoln believed that shrinking slavery in this way would make it uneconomical, and place it back on the road to eventual extinction that the Founders had envisioned.[35] In July 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act, which freed the slaves of anyone convicted of aiding the rebellion.[36] The goal was to weaken the rebellion, which was led and controlled by slave owners. While it did not abolish the legal institution of slavery (the Thirteenth Amendment did that), the Act showed that Lincoln had the support of Congress in liberating slaves owned by rebels. In that same month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. In a shrewdly penned August reply to an editorial by Horace Greeley in the influential New York Tribune, with a draft of the Proclamation already on Lincoln’s desk, the president subordinated the goal of ending slavery to the cause of preserving the Union, while, at the same time, preparing the public for emancipation being incomplete at first. Lincoln had decided at this point that he could not win the war without freeing the slaves, and so it was a necessity "to do more to help the cause":[37] I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the nearer the Union will be "the Union as it was." ... My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I

Abraham Lincoln
do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause. I shall try to correct errors when shown to be errors; and I shall adopt new views so fast as they shall appear to be true views. I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.[38] The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22, 1862 and put into effect on January 1, 1863, freed slaves in territories not already under Union control. As Union armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all of them in Confederate territory (over three million) were freed. Lincoln later said: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper." The proclamation made the abolition of slavery in the rebel states an official war goal. Lincoln then threw his energies into passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to permanently abolish slavery throughout the nation.[39] In September 1862, thirteen northern governors met in Altoona, Pennsylvania, at the Loyal War Governors’ Conference to discuss the Proclamation and Union war effort. In the end, the state executives fully supported the president’s Proclamation and also suggested the removal of General George B. McClellan as commander of the Union’s Army of the Potomac.[40] For some time, Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed. As Frederick Douglass observed, Lincoln was, "The first great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and myself, of the difference of color."[41]

Gettysburg Address
Although the Battle of Gettysburg was a Union victory, it was also the bloodiest battle

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of the war and dealt a blow to Lincoln’s war effort. As the Union Army decreased in numbers due to casualties, more soldiers were needed to replace the ranks. Lincoln’s 1863 military drafts were considered "odious" among many in the north, particularly immigrants. The New York Draft Riots of July, 1863 were the most notable manifestation of this discontent. Writing to Lincoln in September 1863, the Governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew Curtin, warned that political sentiments were turning against Lincoln and the war effort: If the election were to occur now, the result would be extremely doubtful, and although most of our discreet friends are sanguine of the result, my impression is, the chances would be against us. The draft is very odious in the State... the Democratic leaders have succeeded in exciting prejudice and passion, and have infused their poison into the minds of the people to a very large extent, and the changes are against us.[42] The Gettysburg Address is one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.[43][44][45] It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln’s carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, and that would also create a unified nation in which states’ rights were no longer dominant. Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago...", Lincoln referred to the events of the Civil War and described the ceremony at Gettysburg as an opportunity not only to consecrate the

Abraham Lincoln
grounds of a cemetery, but also to dedicate the living to the struggle to ensure that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth". Despite the speech’s prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.

1864 election and second inauguration

Currier and Ives print of the National Union Party presidential candidates, 1864. Lithograph and watercolor. After Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg and Chattanooga in 1863, overall victory seemed at hand, and Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Grant General-in-Chief on March 12, 1864. When the spring campaigns turned into bloody stalemates, Lincoln supported Grant’s strategy of wearing down Lee’s Confederate army at the cost of heavy Union casualties. With an election looming, he easily defeated efforts to deny his renomination. At the Convention, the Republican Party selected Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat from

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the Southern state of Tennessee, as his running mate in order to form a broader coalition. They ran on the new Union Party ticket uniting Republicans and War Democrats.

Abraham Lincoln

1864 Presidential election results party was united and energized, and Lincoln was easily reelected in a landslide. He won all but three states.[48] On March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address, his favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future. Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.[49]

The only known photographs of Lincoln giving a speech were taken as he delivered his second inaugural address. Here, he stands in the center, with papers in his hand. Nevertheless, Republicans across the country feared that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging this fear, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would still defeat the Confederacy before turning over the White House:[46] “ This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be reelected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards.[47] ”

Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope. While the Democratic platform followed the Peace wing of the party and called the war a "failure," their candidate, General George B. McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform. Lincoln provided Grant with new replacements and mobilized his party to support Grant and win local support for the war effort. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta in September ended defeatist jitters; the Democratic Party was deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln; the Union

Conducting the war effort
The war was a source of constant frustration for the president, and occupied nearly all of his time. He had a contentious relationship with General McClellan, who became general-in-chief of all the Union armies in the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and after the

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Abraham Lincoln
Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington for a second time. In response to his failure, Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight the Sioux.[50]

"Running the ’Machine’": An 1864 political cartoon featuring Lincoln; William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward and Gideon Welles take a swing at the Lincoln administration retirement of Winfield Scott in late 1861. Despite his inexperience in military affairs, Lincoln wanted to take an active part in determining war strategy. His priorities were twofold: to ensure that Washington, D.C. was well defended; and to conduct an aggressive war effort in the hope of ending the war quickly and appeasing the Northern public and press. McClellan, a youthful West Point graduate and railroad executive called back to active military service, took a more cautious approach. He took several months to plan and execute his Peninsula Campaign, with the objective of capturing Richmond by moving the Army of the Potomac by boat to the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. McClellan’s delay irritated Lincoln, as did his insistence that no troops were needed to defend Washington, D.C. Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan’s troops to defend the capital, a decision McClellan blamed for the ultimate failure of the Peninsula Campaign. McClellan, a lifelong Democrat who was temperamentally conservative, was relieved as general-in-chief after releasing his Harrison’s Landing Letter, where he offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln urging caution in the war effort. McClellan’s letter incensed Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint John Pope, a Republican, as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln’s strategic desire to move toward Richmond from the north, thus protecting the capital from attack. But Pope was soundly defeated at the

An 1864 Mathew Brady photo depicts President Lincoln reading a book with his youngest son, Tad Panicked by Lee’s invasion of Maryland, Lincoln restored McClellan to command of all forces around Washington in time for the Battle of Antietam (September 1862). The ensuing Union victory enabled Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation, but he relieved McClellan of his command shortly after the 1862 midterm elections and appointed Republican Ambrose Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac. Burnside had promised to follow through on Lincoln’s strategic vision for a strong offensive against Lee and Richmond. After Burnside was stunningly defeated at Fredericksburg, Joseph Hooker was given the command, despite his idle talk about the necessity for a military dictator to win the war and a past history of criticizing his commanders.[51] Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1863), and relieved of command early in the subsequent Gettysburg Campaign replaced by George Meade. After the Union victory at Gettysburg, Meade’s failure to pursue Lee and months of inactivity for the Army of the Potomac persuaded Lincoln to bring in a western general,

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Ulysses S. Grant. Grant already had a solid string of victories in the Western Theater, including the battles of Vicksburg and Chattanooga. Responding to criticism of Grant, Lincoln replied, "I can’t spare this man. He fights."[52] Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864 with a strategy of a war of attrition, characterized by high Union losses at battles such as the Wilderness and Cold Harbor, but by proportionately higher Confederate losses. The high casualty figures alarmed the nation and after Grant lost a third of his army Lincoln asked what Grant’s plans were. "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer," replied Grant. Lincoln and the Republican party mobilized support throughout the North, backed Grant to the hilt, and replaced his losses.[53] The Confederacy was out of replacements so Lee’s army shrank with every battle, forcing it back to trenches outside Petersburg. In April 1865 Lee’s army finally crumbled under Grant’s pounding, and Richmond fell.

Abraham Lincoln
destroy the South’s morale and weaken its economic ability to continue fighting. This allowed Generals Sherman and Sheridan to destroy plantations and towns in the Shenandoah Valley, Georgia, and South Carolina. The damage caused by Sherman’s March to the Sea through Georgia totaled in excess of $100 million by Sherman’s own estimate.[54] Lincoln possessed a keen understanding of strategic points (such as the Mississippi River and the fortress city of Vicksburg) and understood the importance of defeating the enemy’s army, rather than simply capturing cities. He had, however, limited success in motivating his commanders to adopt his strategies until late 1863, when he found a man who shared his vision of the war in Ulysses S. Grant. Only then could he insist on using African American troops and relentlessly pursue a series of coordinated offensives in multiple theaters. Throughout the war, Lincoln showed a keen curiosity with the military campaigns. He spent hours at the War Department telegraph office, reading dispatches from his generals. He visited battle sites frequently, and seemed fascinated by scenes of war. During Jubal Anderson Early’s raid on Washington, D.C. in 1864, Lincoln was watching the combat from an exposed position; a captain shouted at him, "Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!"[55]

Reconstruction
Reconstruction began during the war as Lincoln and his associates pondered questions of how to reintegrate the Southern states and what to do with Confederate leaders and the freed slaves. Lincoln led the "moderates" regarding Reconstruction policy, and was usually opposed by the Radical Republicans, under Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate (though he cooperated with these men on most other issues). Determined to find a course that would reunite the nation and not alienate the South, Lincoln urged that speedy elections under generous terms be held throughout the war in areas behind Union lines. His Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, 1863, offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office, had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance.[56] Critical decisions had to be made as state after state

Lincoln, in a top hat, with Allan Pinkerton and Major General John Alexander McClernand at Antietam Lincoln authorized Grant to target the Confederate infrastructure — such as plantations, railroads, and bridges — hoping to

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was reconquered. Of special importance were Tennessee, where Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson as governor, and Louisiana, where Lincoln attempted a plan that would restore statehood when 10% of the voters agreed to it. The Radicals thought this policy too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill, in 1864. When Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill, the Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.[57] Near the end of the war, Lincoln made an extended visit to Grant’s headquarters at City Point, Virginia. This allowed the president to confer in person with Grant and Sherman about ending hostilities (as Sherman managed a hasty visit to Grant from his forces in North Carolina at the same time);[58] Lincoln also was able to visit Richmond after it was taken by the Union forces and to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis’s own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer’s quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him." When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let ’em up easy."[59] Lincoln arrived back in Washington on the evening of April 9, 1865, the day Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. The war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered soon after, and there was no subsequent guerrilla warfare.[60]

Abraham Lincoln

The last known high-quality photograph of Lincoln, taken March 1865 foundation of American political values — what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.[61] The Declaration’s emphasis on freedom and equality for all, rather than the Constitution’s tolerance of slavers, shifted the debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself."[62] His position gained strength because he highlighted the moral basis of republicanism, rather than its legalisms.[63][64] Nevertheless, in 1861 Lincoln justified the war in terms of legalisms (the Constitution was a contract, and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then in terms of the national duty to guarantee a "republican form of government" in every state.[65] That duty was also the principle underlying federal intervention in Reconstruction. In his Gettysburg Address Lincoln redefined the American nation, arguing that it was born not in 1789 but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He declared that the sacrifices of battle had rededicated the nation to the propositions of democracy

Home front
Redefining Republicanism
Lincoln’s rhetoric defined the issues of the war for the nation, the world, and posterity. The Gettysburg Address defied Lincoln’s own prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." His second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often quoted. In recent years, historians have stressed Lincoln’s use of and redefinition of republican values. As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln shifted emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the

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and equality, "that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." By emphasizing the centrality of the nation, he rebuffed the claims of state sovereignty. While some critics say Lincoln moved too far and too fast, they agree that he dedicated the nation to values that marked "a new founding of the nation."[66]

Abraham Lincoln
Banking Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865, which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system. Congress created and Lincoln approved the Department of Agriculture in 1862, although that institution would not become a Cabinet-level department until 1889. The Legal Tender Act of 1862 established the United States Note, the first paper currency in United States history since the Continentals that were issued during the Revolution. This was done to increase the money supply to pay for fighting the war. During the war, Lincoln’s Treasury Department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the occupied South — the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy. In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, John Pope, to put down the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota. Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing innocent farmers; Lincoln affirmed 39 of these for execution (one was later reprieved). Abraham Lincoln is largely responsible for the institution of the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States. Prior to Lincoln’s presidency, Thanksgiving, while a regional holiday in New England since the 17th century, had only been proclaimed by the federal government sporadically, and on irregular dates. The last such proclamation was during James Madison’s presidency fifty years before. In 1863, Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November to be a day of Thanksgiving, and the holiday has been celebrated annually at that time ever since.[68]

Civil liberties suspended
During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, spent money before Congress appropriated it, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial.[67]

Domestic measures
Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left Congress to write the laws while he signed them, vetoing only those bills that threatened his war powers. Thus, he signed the Homestead Act in 1862, making millions of acres of government-held land in the West available for purchase at very low cost. The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state. The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United States’ First Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869. Other important legislation involved two measures to raise revenues for the Federal government: tariffs (a policy with long precedent), and a Federal income tax (which was new). In 1861, Lincoln signed the second and third Morrill Tariff (the first had become law under James Buchanan). In 1862, Lincoln signed legislation creating the first U.S. income tax. Marginal rates were 3% on incomes between $600 and $10,000 and 5% on income above $10,000. (Adjusted for inflation, $600 was the equivalent of $12,325 in 2007 US dollars). In 1864, income-tax rates were raised to 5% on incomes between $600 and $5,000, 7.5% on income between $5,000 and $10,000, and 10% tax on income above that. Lincoln also presided over the creation of the system of national banks by the National

Assassination
Further information: Abraham Lincoln’s burial and exhumation Originally, John Wilkes Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, had formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. After attending an April 11 speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks, an incensed Booth changed his plans and determined to assassinate the president.[69] Learning that the President and First Lady would be attending Ford’s Theatre, he laid his plans, assigning his co-conspirators to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward.

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Abraham Lincoln

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream regarding his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin on April 14, 1865. As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President and waited for what he thought would be the funniest line of the play ("You sock-dologizing old man-trap"), hoping the laughter would muffle the noise of the gunshot. When the laughter began, Booth jumped into the box and aimed a single-shot, round-slug 0.44 caliber Derringer at his head, firing at point-blank range. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth’s knife. Booth then leaped to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: Thus always to tyrants) and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap.[70] A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton). He was eventually cornered in a Virginia barn house and shot, dying of his wounds soon after. An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, initially assessed Lincoln’s wound as mortal. The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before dying. Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln’s skull and the ball lodged 6 inches (15 cm) inside his brain. Lincoln never regained consciousness and was

Lincoln’s funeral train carried his remains, as well as 300 mourners and the casket of his son, William, 1,654 miles (2,662 km) to Illinois pronounced dead at 7:22:10 a.m. April 15, 1865. He was the first president to be assassinated or to lie in state. Lincoln’s body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its way back to Illinois.[70] While much of the nation mourned him as the savior of the United States, Copperheads celebrated the death of a man they considered a tyrant. The Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, is 177 feet (54 m) tall and, by 1874, was surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln. To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln’s body and hold it for ransom, Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick in 1901.

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments 1861-1865
The Lincoln Cabinet OFFICE NAME TERM 1861–1865 1861–1865 1865 Lincoln appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: • Noah Haynes

President Abraham Lincoln Vice Hannibal President Hamlin Andrew Johnson

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Abraham Lincoln

Navy Interior

Gideon Welles Caleb B. Smith John P. Usher

1861–1865 1861–1862 1864–1865

Religious and philosophical beliefs
Further information: Abraham Lincoln and religion In March 1860 in a speech in New Haven, Connecticut, Lincoln said, with respect to slavery, “Whenever this question shall be settled, it must be settled on some philosophical basis. No policy that does not rest upon some philosophical public opinion can be permanently maintained." The philosophical basis for Lincoln’s beliefs regarding slavery and other issues of the day require that Lincoln be examined "seriously as a man of ideas." Lincoln was a strong supporter of the American Whig version of liberal capitalism who, more than most politicians of the time, was able to express his ideas within the context of Nineteenth Century religious beOfficial White House portrait of Abraham Linliefs.[71] coln by George Peter Alexander Healy There were few people who strongly or directly influenced Lincoln’s moral and intelSwayne lectual development and perspectives. There State 1861–1865 William H. – 1862 no teacher, mentor, church leader, comwas Seward • Samuel munity leader, or peer that Lincoln would War 1861–1862 Simon Freeman in later years as a strong influence on credit Cameron Miller –intellectual development. Lacking a formhis 1862 education, Lincoln’s personal philosophy al 1862–1865 Edwin M. • David was shaped by "an amazingly retentive Stanton Davis – memory and a passion for reading and learnTreasury Salmon P. 1861–1864 1862 ing." It was Lincoln’s reading, rather than his Chase • Stephen relationships, that were most influential in 1864–1865 William P. Johnson shaping his personal beliefs.[72][73] Fessenden Field –Lincoln did, even as a boy, largely reject 1863 organized religion, but the Calvinistic "doc1865 Hugh • Salmon of necessity" would remain a factor trine McCulloch P. Chase throughout his life. In 1846 Lincoln described Justice 1861–1864 Edward – Chief effect of this doctrine as "that the human the Bates Justice – is impelled to action, or held in rest by mind 1864 some power, over which the mind itself has James Speed 1864–1865 no control."[74] In April 1864, in justifying his Post Montgomery 1861–1864 actions in regard to Emancipation, Lincoln Blair wrote, "I claim not to have controlled events, 1864–1865 William but confess plainly that events have conDennison trolled me. Now, at the end of three years

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struggle the nation’s condition is not what either party, or any man devised, or expected. God alone can claim it."[75] As Lincoln matured, and especially during his term as president, the idea of a divine will somehow interacting with human affairs more and more influenced his public expressions. On a personal level, the death of his son Willie in February 1862 may have caused Lincoln to look towards religion for answers and solace.[76] After Willie’s death, in the summer or early fall of 1862, Lincoln attempted to put on paper his private musings on why, from a divine standpoint, the severity of the war was necessary: The will of God prevails. In great contests each party claims to act in accordance with the will of God. Both may be, and one must be, wrong. God cannot be for and against the same thing at the same time. In the present civil war it is quite possible that God’s purpose is something different from the purpose of either party—and yet the human instrumentalities, working just as they do, are of the best adaptation to effect his purpose. I am almost ready to say this is probably true—that God wills this contest, and wills that it shall not end yet. By his mere quiet power, on the minds of the now contestants, He could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began. And having begun He could give the final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds.[77] Lincoln’s religious skepticism was fueled by his exposure to the ideas of the Lockean Enlightenment and classical liberalism, especially economic liberalism.[72] Consistent with the common practice of the Whig party, Lincoln would often use the Declaration of Independence as the philosophical and moral expression of these two philosophies.[78] In a February 22, 1861 speech at Independence Hall in Philadelphia Lincoln said, I have never had a feeling politically that did not spring from the sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence. ... It was not the

Abraham Lincoln
mere matter of the separation of the Colonies from the motherland; but that sentiment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty, not alone to the people of this country, but, I hope, to the world, for all future time. It was that which gave promise that in due time the weight would be lifted from the shoulders of all men. This is a sentiment embodied in the Declaration of Independence.[79] He found in the Declaration justification for Whig economic policy and opposition to territorial expansion and the nativist platform of the Know Nothings. In claiming that all men were created free, Lincoln and the Whigs argued that this freedom required economic advancement, expanded education, territory to grow, and the ability of the nation to absorb the growing immigrant population.[80] It was the Declaration of Independence, rather than the Bible, that Lincoln most relied on in order to oppose any further territorial expansion of slavery. He saw the Declaration as more than a political document. To him, as well as to many abolitionists and other antislavery leaders, it was, foremost, a moral document that had forever determined valuable criteria in shaping the future of the nation.[81]

Medical history and "Melancholy"
Illnesses included: frostbitten feet, malaria, physical trauma and smallpox.[82] Claims that Lincoln had syphilis about 1835 have been controversial, but a recent analysis finds them credible.[83] Despite having multiple illnesses in his life, his health up until middle age was not particularly poor for his day.[84] As a child, Lincoln was tall for his age. He reached his adult height of 6 feet 4 inches (1.93 m) no later than age 21. Friends noticed his arms, legs, hands, and feet were long. Although well muscled as a young adult, he was always thin. Fragmentary evidence says he weighed over 200 pounds in his mid-20s, but his official weight upon his taking office as president was 180 pounds and he is believed to have weighed even less further along in his presidency. Based on Lincoln’s unusual physical appearance, Dr.

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Abraham Gordon proposed in 1962 that Lincoln had Marfan syndrome.[85] Lincoln’s unremarkable cardiovascular history and his normal visual acuity have been the chief objections to the theory, and today the diagnosis is considered unlikely.[86] Testing Lincoln’s DNA for Marfan syndrome was contemplated in the 1990s, but such a test was not performed. In 2007, Dr. John Sotos proposed that Lincoln had multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2B (MEN2B).[87] This theory suggests Lincoln had all the major features of the disease: a marfan-like body shape, large, bumpy lips, constipation, hypotonia, a history compatible with cancer and a family history of the disorder - his sons Eddie, Willie, and Tad, and probably his mother. The "mole" on Lincoln’s right cheek, the asymmetry of his face, his large jaw, his drooping eyelid, and "pseudodepression" are also suggested as manifestations of MEN2B. Lincoln’s longevity is the principal challenge to the MEN2B theory, which could be proven by DNA testing. Sotos and medical historian Jacob Appel have recently campaigned to have such testing conducted on a pillowcase stained with Lincoln’s blood that is owned by the Grand Army of the Republic Civil War Museum and Library in Philadelphia, an effort that has generated considerable debate among privacy advocates.[88] Lincoln was regularly reported to suffer from "melancholy". Some biographers have controversially diagnosed him with clinical depression and bipolar disorder, but these theories have generally been dismissed.[89] Mainly, his reported "melancholy" affected at times of great political stress or warfare and after losing a loved one, neither of which are unusual. He lost the two women (his mother and his sister) he loved very much when he was extremely young. This "melancholy" was also reinforced later in his life by the losses of his stepmother and his very first love, Ann Rutledge. Mary Lincoln felt her husband to be too trusting and his "melancholy" also struck at times he was betrayed or unsupported by those he put faith in.[90] Other people have suggested that he was simply a private person who took solace in solitude. They argue that this can be seen in some of his actions as both a young boy and adult. Some of these actions included withdrawing himself from a crowd to read when he was a little boy, and even retreating to his privacy to find

Abraham Lincoln
a solution to a problem. As an adult, Lincoln would often slip into depression, and emerge a short time later full of humor and happiness. Some people suggest that Lincoln’s humor was actually a healthy way to cope with his depression.[91] Unlike the quiet, deep voice later used by impersonators and actors, Lincoln reportedly had a strikingly high-pitched speaking voice which aided him at times when he needed to be heard by crowds of thousands before the existence of microphones. Despite his legendary talent as orator, he was said to have been shy and awkward in intimate social situations, especially in his youth.

Legacy and memorials
Further information: Cultural depictions of Abraham Lincoln

The Apotheosis of Abraham Lincoln, greeted by George Washington in heaven (an 1860s work) Lincoln’s death made the President a martyr to many. Repeated polls of historians have ranked Lincoln as among the greatest presidents in U.S. history, often appearing in the first position. Among contemporary admirers, Lincoln is usually seen as personifying

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classical values of honesty and integrity, as well as respect for individual and minority rights, and human freedom in general. Many American organizations of all purposes and agendas continue to cite his name and image, with interests ranging from the gay rights-supporting Log Cabin Republicans to the insurance corporation Lincoln National Corporation. The Lincoln automobile brand is also named after him.[92] The ballistic missile submarine Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602) and the aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) were named in his honor. Also, the Liberty ship SS Nancy Hanks was named for his mother. During the Spanish Civil War, the American faction of the International Brigades named themselves the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names, notably the capital of Nebraska. Lincoln, Illinois, is the only city to be named for Abraham Lincoln before he became President. Lincoln’s name and image appear in numerous places. These include the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the U.S. Lincoln $5 bill and the Lincoln cent, Lincoln’s sculpture on the Mount Rushmore, and the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. In addition, New Salem, Illinois (a reconstruction of Lincoln’s early adult hometown), Ford’s Theatre, and Petersen House (where he died) are all preserved as museums. The Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California, is located behind the A.K. Smiley Public Library. The state nickname for Illinois is Land of Lincoln; the slogan has appeared continuously on nearly all Illinois license plates issued since 1954. Counties in 18 U.S. states (Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, West Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) are named after Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln’s birthday, February 12, was formerly a national holiday, now commemorated as Presidents Day. However, it is still observed in Illinois and many other states as a separate legal holiday, Lincoln’s Birthday. A dozen states have legal holidays celebrating the third Monday in February as Presidents Day as a combination WashingtonLincoln Day. To commemorate his upcoming 200th birthday in February 2009, Congress established the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial

Abraham Lincoln
Commission (ALBC) in 2000. Dedicated to renewing American appreciation of Lincoln’s legacy, the 15-member commission is made up of lawmakers and scholars and also features an advisory board of over 130 various Lincoln historians and enthusiasts. Located at Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., the ALBC is the organizing force behind numerous tributes, programs and cultural events highlighting a two-year celebration scheduled to begin in February 2008 at Lincoln’s birthplace: Hodgenville, Kentucky. Lincoln’s birthplace and family home are national historic memorials: the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, and the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum opened in Springfield in 2005; it is a major tourist attraction, with state-of-the-art exhibits. The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery is located in Elwood, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum is located in Harrogate, Tennessee. On Wednesday 11 March 2009 the National Museum of American History found a message engraved inside Lincoln’s watch by a watchmaker named Jonathan Dillon who was repairing it at the outbreak of the American Civil War. The engraving reads (in part): "Fort Sumpter was attacked by the rebels" and "thank God we have a government."[93]

Images of Lincoln

The Lincoln Lincoln’s Memorial in Portrait portrait Washington, of Abraon the D.C. ham American Lincoln five dollar bill Daniel Chester French’s sculpture inside the Lincoln Memorial Lincoln’s Lincoln likeness stamp, ison Mount sued Rushmore

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Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln on the Bust of Illinois Abraham design of Lincoln, the 50 St. State Andrew’s Quarters, Church, issued in Hingham, 2003 England

Stone carving of Lincoln at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial.

Statue of Abraham Lincoln, Hingham, Massachusetts

See also
• American School, Lincoln’s economic views. • Abraham Lincoln’s burial and exhumation • Electoral history of Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial • Lincoln Memorial University

References
[1] Goodwin 2005, p. 91 [2] Holzer 2004, p. 232 [3] Note especially Lincoln’s ranking in the Scholar survey results section. [4] In 1848 attorney and historian Solomon Lincoln of Hingham, Massachusetts, began a correspondence with Abraham Lincoln to determine whether the future President’s ancestors originated in Massachusetts. Fortunately, Solomon Lincoln saved his correspondence with distant relation Abraham, which the Hingham lawyer published in 1865 in his book Notes on the Lincoln Families of Massachusetts with Some Account of the Family of Abraham Lincoln, Late President of the United States. [1] [5] Tracy Bouvé, Thomas (1893). History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts. Harvard University. [6] "Consumer Price Index (Estimate) The Lincoln 1800-2008". Federal Reserve Bank of Tomb in Minneapolis. 2009. Springfield http://www.minneapolisfed.org/ community_education/teacher/calc/ hist1800.cfm. Retrieved on Feb. 25, 2009.. [7] It is now in Spencer County), Indiana.

Proof coinage Lincoln penny with cameo effect, obverse

November 19, 1965

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Abraham Lincoln

[8] Unlike land in the Northwest Territory, [25] "Speech at Peoria, October 16,". Kentucky never had a proper U.S. Abraham Lincoln and Freedom. survey, and farmers often had difficulties http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/ proving title to their property in lawsuits inside.asp?ID=11&subjectID=2. such as the one Thomas Lincoln lost. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [9] Donald 1995, pp. 28, 152 [26] "Lincoln at Peoria". Abraham Lincoln at [10] "Lincoln Trail Homestead State Park". Peoria. http://www.lincolnatpeoria.com/. Abraham Lincoln Online. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/ [27] Basler 1955, p. 255 lincoln/sites/decaturock.htm. Retrieved [28] Lincoln, Abraham (June 1858). "A House on 2008-05-21. Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand". [11] Fehrenbacher, Don (1989). Speeches and National Center for Public Policy Writings 1859-1865. Library of America. Research. http://www.nationalcenter.org/ p. 163. http://books.google.co.uk/ HouseDivided.html. Retrieved on books?id=UWJStTs8-A4C&dq=lincoln+canoe+sangamon+river&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0. 2008-05-21. [12] "Abraham Lincoln, The Physical Man". [29] Journalist Noah Brooks reported, "No Lincoln Portrait. man ever before made such an http://www.lincolnportrait.com/ impression" on a New York audience; physical_man.asp. Retrieved on Richard Carwardine, Lincoln (2003), p. 2008-05-21. 98; Harold Holzer, Lincoln at Cooper [13] Sandburg 1974, p. 10 Union: The Speech That Made Abraham [14] Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. Lincoln President (2006) New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. [30] Boritt, Gabor S. (1997-05-29). Why the 2005 Civil War Came. Oxford University Press. [15] Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. pp. 3–30. ISBN 0195113764. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. [31] Fehrenbacher, Don E. (1989). Speeches 2005 and Writings by Abraham Lincoln, [16] Frank, John (1991). Lincoln as a Lawyer. 1859-1865. Library of America. ISBN Americana House. ISBN 0962529028. 0940450631. http://books.google.ca/ [17] "Protest in Illinois Legislature on books?id=UWJStTs8-A4C&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&d Slavery". University of Michigan Library. "either the Missouri line extended, or 1937-03-03. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/ Douglas’ and Eli Thayer’s Pop. Sov. cgi/t/text/textwould lose us everything we gained in idx?c=lincoln;cc=lincoln;type=simple;rgn=div1;q1=founded%20on%20both%20injustice%20and%20 the election; that filibustering for all Retrieved on 2008-05-21. South of us, and making slave states of [18] http://www.sewanee.edu/faculty/Willis/ it, would follow in spite of us, under Civil_War/documents/LincolnSpot.html either plan." - from private letter to Abraham Lincoln, "Spot Resolutions" Thurlow Weed, 1860-12-17 [19] http://www.archives.gov/education/ [32] James M. McPherson (1988). Battle cry lessons/lincoln-resolutions/ National of freedom: the Civil War era. US: Oxford Archives: Lincoln’s Spot Resolutions University Press. p. 115. ISBN [20] http://www.lincolnatpeoria.com/ 019516895X. http://books.google.ca/ [21] http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/ books?id=inside.asp?ID=11&subjectID=2 uuEA7xIUHUC&pg=PA115&lpg=PA115&dq=%22tie [22] "Abraham Lincoln’s Patent Model: j0liWI_TzRhzxPQ9uksLVMRg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=boo Improvement for Buoying Vessels Over [33] Nevins, Allan (1971-09-01) (txt). The War Shoals". National Museum of American for the Union Volume I.....The Improvised History, Smithsonian Institution. War 1861-1862. Konecky & Konecky. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/ p. 29. ISBN 1568522967. object.cfm?key=35&objkey=19. http://www.archive.org/stream/ Retrieved on 2008-06-17. warfortheunionvo010749mbp/ [23] Emerson, Jason (Winter 2009), "A Man of warfortheunionvo010749mbp_djvu.txt. Considerable Mechanical Genius", [34] WTS Memoirs 185-86 (Lib. of America ed., 1990). Invention and Technology 23 (4): 10–13 [35] Mackubin Thomas Owens, "The [24] Donald 1995, §7 Liberator," National Review (March 8,

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2004) reviewing Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, (2004) online [36] It said that anyone aiding the rebellion would lose his slaves if convicted. "That if any person shall hereafter incite, set on foot, assist, or engage in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States, or the laws thereof, or shall give aid or comfort thereto, or shall engage in, or give aid and comfort to, any such existing rebellion or insurrection, and be convicted thereof, such person shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years, or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by the liberation of all his slaves...." "text of the Second Confiscation Act". http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/ conact2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-08. [37] For analysis of the letter see Carwardine, Lincoln p 209 [38] "Letter to Horace Greeley". Abraham Lincoln Online. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/ lincoln/speeches/greeley.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [39] "Letter to Albert G. Hodges". Abraham Lincoln Online. 1864-04-04. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/ lincoln/speeches/hodges.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [40] Pulling, Anne Frances (2001-06-11). Altoona. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 0738505161. [41] Douglass, Frederick (April 2001). The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Digital Scanning. ISBN 1582183678. [42] Curtin, Andrew G. (1863-09-03). "Andrew G. Curtin to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, September 4, 1863 (Politics in Pennsylvania)". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/ r?ammem/ mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d2604300)). Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [43] "Introduction to Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address". InfoUSA. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070813234249/http://usinfo.state.gov/ usa/infousa/facts/democrac/25.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. "Few

Abraham Lincoln
documents in the growth of American democracy are as well known or as beloved as the prose poem Abraham Lincoln delivered at the dedication of the military cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania." [44] "Gettysburg Address". Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. Columbia University Press via Bartleby.com. May 2001. http://www.bartleby.com/65/ge/ GettysbuAd.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. "It is one of the most famous and most quoted of modern speeches." [45] Historian James McPherson has called it "The most eloquent expression of the new birth of freedom brought forth by reform liberalism.", in McPherson, James M. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 185. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007. [46] Grimsley, Mark (2001-03-01). The Collapse of the Confederacy. University of Nebraska Press. p. 80. ISBN 0803221703. [47] Basler 1955, p. 514 [48] There is a good discussion of Lincoln’s 1864 election anxieties and the effect of Sherman’s victory at Atlanta in James M. McPherson, Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), 231-50. [49] Basler 1955, p. 333 [50] Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) pp 335-8, 346. [51] "Joseph Hooker". Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/ hookbio.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [52] Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) p. 315. [53] Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) pp 422-24. [54] Davidson, James West (April 1990). The United States: A History of the Republic. Prentice Hall. p. 446. ISBN 0139436979. [55] The Captain was Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.; Thomas, "Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) p. 434. [56] "Proclamation of Amnesty". Bartleby.com. 1863. http://www.bartleby.com/43/37.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. [57] Donald 1995, §20

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Abraham Lincoln

[58] This meeting was memorialized in G.P.A. [85] "Gordon AM. Abraham Lincoln". Healy’s famous painting "The Kentucky Medical Association (60): Peacemakers." 249–53. March 1962. PMID 13900423. [59] Donald 1995, pp. 576, 580;"President [86] Marion, Robert (February 1994). Was Lincoln Enters Richmond, 1865". George Washington Really the Father of Eyewitness to History. Our Country?: A Clinical Geneticist http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ Looks at World History. Perseus Books. richmond.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. pp. 88–124. ISBN 0201622556. See also: [60] "The Lincoln Log, April 9, 1865.". Ready, Tinker (1999). "Access to http://www.thelincolnlog.org/view/ presidential DNA denied". Nature show_date?day=09&month=04&year=1865. Medicine 5 (859). [61] Jaffa 2000, p. 399 [87] Sotos, JG (2008). The Physical Lincoln: [62] Diggins, John P. (1986-08-15). The Lost Finding the Genetic Cause of Abraham Soul of American Politics: Virtue, SelfLincoln’s Height, Homeliness, PseudoInterest, and the Foundations of Depression, and Imminent Cancer Death. Liberalism. University of Chicago Press. Mount Vernon, VA: Mt. Vernon Book p. 307. ISBN 0226148777. Systems. http://www.physical[63] Foner 1970, p. 215 lincoln.com/. [64] McPherson 1992, pp. 61–64 [88] Abe’s DNA: Public or Private? Orlando [65] Jaffa 2000, p. 263 Sentinel, May 4, 2009; Scientist Wants to [66] Wills 1993, p. 39 Test Abraham Lincoln’s Bloodstained [67] Neely (1992) Pillow for Cancer Discover Magazine [68] 1863 Thanksgiving proclamation from April 20, 2009; Lincoln’d Shroud of National Park Service Turin, Philadelphila Inquirer, April 13, [69] Harrison, Lowell Hayes (2000). Lincoln 2009. of Kentucky. University Press of [89] http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/ Kentucky. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0813121566. g16.htm#15 [70] ^ Townsend, George Alfred (1865). The [90] http://books.google.com/ Life, Crime and Capture of John Wilkes books?id=Ja16KVw5CqEC&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154& Booth. New York: Dick and Fitzgerald. [71] Guelzo 1999, pp. 18–19 ZO5nVpk&hl=en&ei=NwawSYyUEuH8tgf_[72] ^ Guelzo 1999, p. 20 ZCBBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=resul [73] Miller 2002, pp. 57–59 [91] Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals. [74] Donald 1995, p. 15 New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, Inc. [75] Donald 1995, p. 514 2005 [76] Wilson 1999, pp. 251–254 [92] detnews.com | Michigan History [77] Wilson 1999, p. 254 [93] "Museum finds ’secret’ message in [78] Guelzo 1999, p. 194 Lincoln’s watch". Reuters. [79] Jaffa 2000, p. 258 http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/ [80] Guelzo 1999, pp. 194–195 idUSTRE52A0FG20090311. Retrieved on [81] Miller 2002, p. 297 2009-03-11. [82] "Maladies and Conditions". Doctor Books referenced Zebra. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/ • Basler, Roy P. (1946), Abraham Lincoln: g16.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. His Speeches and Writings [83] Vidal, Gore (February 1991). • Basler, Roy P. (1955), Collected Works of "Communications". American Historical Abraham Lincoln, New Brunswick, NJ: Review: 324–326. See also: Rutgers University Press Fehrenbacher, Don E. (February 1991). • Donald, David Herbert (1995), Lincoln, "Communications". American Historical New York: Simon and Schuster Review: 326–328. and Sotos, JG (2008). • Foner, Eric (1970), Free Soil, Free Labor, The Physical Lincoln Sourcebook. Mount Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Vernon, VA: Mt. Vernon Book Systems. Party before the Civil War pp. 318–326. http://www.physical• Jaffa, Harry V. (2000), A New Birth of lincoln.com/contents-pls.html. Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the [84] http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/ Coming of the Civil War, Lanham, Md.: g16.htm

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-8476-9952-8 Goodwin, Doris Kearns (2005), Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-82490-6 Guelzo, Allen C. (1999), Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President, Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, ISBN 0-8028-3872-3, http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=99466893 Holzer, Harold (2004), Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President McPherson, James M. (1992), Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution Miller, William Lee (2002), Lincoln’s Virtues: An Ethical Biography, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 0-375-40158-X Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner. online version Sandburg, Carl (1974), Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and The War Years, Harvest Books, ISBN 0156026112 Thomas, Benjamin P. (1952), Abraham Lincoln: A Biography, http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=25051697 Wills, Garry (1993), Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-86742-3 Wilson, Douglas L. (1999), Honor’s Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln
• William E. Gienapp. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by ISBN 0-19-515099-6 (2002), short online edition • John Hay & John George Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); Vol 1 and Vol 2 10 vols in all; detailed narrative of era by Lincoln’s aides • Reinhard H Luthin The Real Abraham Lincoln (1960), emphasis on politics • Mark E. Neely. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL • Mark E. Neely. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer prize winning author • Stephen B. Oates. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1994) • James G. Randall. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize winning scholar. Mr. Lincoln excerpts ed. by Richard N. Current (1957) • Ingri and Edgar Parin d’Aulaire, Abraham Lincoln (1939), for children • Carl Sandburg. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (two volumes) and The War Years (four volumes) (1926 and many editions), beautifully written tribue by famous poet • Benjamin P. Thomas. Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952); online edition • John C. Waugh. One Man Great Enough: Abraham Lincoln’s Road to Civil War ISBN 978-0-15-101071-4 (2007), Harcourt • John C. Waugh. Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency ISBN 0-517-59766-7 (1997), Crown Publishers Specialty topics • Angle, Paul M., Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln’s Springfield, 1821-1865, (1935) online edition • Baker, Jean H. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (1987) online edition • Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era (1998) • Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994). Lincoln’s economic theory and policies • Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994) • Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian’s Lincoln U. of Illinois Press, 1988, historiography

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Further reading
• Isaac N. Arnold, The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1885), written by Lincoln’s friend and political ally • William H Herndon, Lincoln • Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928). 2 vol. to 1858; notable for strong, unbiased political coverage online edition • Richard Carwardine. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power ISBN 1400044561 (2003), winner of the 2004 Lincoln Prize from Gettysburg College • David Herbert Donald. Lincoln (1995), major scholarly biography by winner of two Pulitzer prizes

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abraham Lincoln

• Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of War (1956) on weapons development Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988). during the war online edition Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects • Bush, Bryan S. Lincoln and the Speeds: of the war The Untold Story of a Devoted and • Morgenthau, Hans J., and David Hein. Enduring Friendship (2008) ISBN Essays on Lincoln’s Faith and Politics. 978-0-9798802-6-1 White Burkett Miller Center of Public • Chittenden, Lucius E., Recollections of Affairs at the U of Virginia, 1983. President Lincoln and His Administration, • Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: (1891). – Google Books Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties • Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner. online Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era version (1960) • Oakes, James. The Radical and the • Donald, David Herbert. We Are Lincoln Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Simon & Schuster, (2003). Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & • Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln’s Emancipation Company, Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-39306194-9 Proclamation: The End of Slavery in • Ostendorf, Lloyd, and Hamilton, Charles, America, Simon & Schuster (2004). ISBN Lincoln in Photographs: An Album of 0743221826 Every Known Pose, Morningside House • Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln and Douglas: The Inc., 1963, ISBN 089029-087-3. Debates that Defined America, Simon & • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Schuster (2008). ISBN 978-0743273206 Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough • Hall, Roger Lee (2009). Lincoln and treatment of Lincoln’s administration Liberty: Music from Abraham Lincoln’s • Peterson, Merrill D. Lincoln in American Era. PineTree Press. Memory (1994). how Lincoln was http://www.americanmusicpreservation.com/ remembered after 1865 LincolnandLiberty.htm. • Polsky, Andrew J. "’Mr. Lincoln’s Army’ • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Revisited: Partisanship, Institutional Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union Position, and Union Army Command, (1997). AL’s plans for Reconstruction 1861–1865." Studies in American Political • Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln’s War Cabinet Development (2002), 16: 176-207 (1946) online edition • Randall, James G. Lincoln the Liberal • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Statesman (1947) Political Tradition: And the Men Who • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Made It (1948) ch 5: "Abraham Lincoln Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic and the Self-Made Myth" Policies during the Civil War (1997) • Howe, Daniel Walker, Why Abraham • Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Lincoln’s Melancholy: Lincoln Was a Whig. Journal of the How Depression Challenged a President Abraham Lincoln Association 16.1 (1995) and Fueled His Greatness (2005) • Lea, James Henry (1909). The Ancestry of • Kenneth P. Williams. Lincoln Finds a Abraham Lincoln. Houghton Mifflin. General: A Military Study of the Civil War http://books.google.com/ (1959) 5 volumes on Lincoln’s control of books?id=5jlOsSwW85cC&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160&dq=%22swanton+morley%22+lincoln+norfolk&so the war • Kunhardt Jr., Phillip B., Kunhardt III, • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Phillip, and Kunhardt, Peter W. Lincoln: Generals (1967). An Illustrated Biography. Gramercy • Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln’s Sword: The Books, New York, 1992. ISBN Presidency and the Power of Words(2006) 0-517-20715-X ISBN 1-4000-4039-6. • Marshall, John A., " American Bastille" Lincoln in art and popular culture (1870) Fifth edition: A History of the • DiLorenzo, Thomas (2002). The Real Illegal Arrests and Imprisonment of Lincoln. New York: Three Rivers Press. American Citizens in the Northern and ISBN 0-7615-2646-3. Border States on Account of Their political • Lauriston, Bullard. F. (1952). Lincoln in opinions during the late Civil War. Part 1 Marble and Bronze. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

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• Mead, Franklin B. (1932). Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln: Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul Manship. The Lincoln National Life Foundation. • Moffatt, Frederick C. (1998). Errant Bronzes: George Grey Barnard’s Statues of Abraham Lincoln. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press. • Murry, Freeman Henry Morris (1972) [1916]. Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture. Books For Libraries Press. • Petz, Weldon (1987). Michigan’s Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln. Historical Society of Michigan. • Redway, Maurine Whorton; Bracken, Dorothy Kendall (1957). Marks of Lincoln on Our Land. New York: Hastings House, Publishers. • Savage, Kirk (1997). Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race War and Monument in Nineteenth Century America. Princeton University Press. • Tice, George (1984). Lincoln. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. Primary sources • Lincoln, Abraham (2000). ed by Philip Van Doren Stern. ed. The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Modern Library Classics. • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1832-1858 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045043-1 • Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1859-1865 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-94045063-9 • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (2005). Team of Rivals. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc..

Abraham Lincoln
• Abraham Lincoln at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress • The Lincoln Institute • Mr. Lincoln’s Virtual Library • Poetry written by Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln quotes collected by Roger Norton • The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum Springfield, Illinois • The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln • President Lincoln’s Cottage • US PATNo. 6,469 — Manner of Buoying Vessels — A. Lincoln — 1849 • Lincoln’s Patent • National Park Service Abraham Lincoln birthplace (includes good early history) • National Endowment for the Humanities Spotlight – Abraham Lincoln • Research Center provides finding aid to article subject from the Special Collections, Washington State Historical Society (WSHS) • The Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission • Lincoln Memorial Washington, DC • Digitized books about Abraham Lincoln from the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Library • Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries • Lincoln Home National Historic Site:A Place of Growth and Memory, lesson plan • Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial: Forging Greatness during Lincoln’s Youth, lesson plan • Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress • Essay on Abraham Lincoln and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs Project Gutenberg eTexts • List of Works by Abraham Lincoln at Project Gutenberg • Richardson, James D. (compiler). A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents and more: Volume 6, part 1: Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12462. includes major (and minor) state papers, but not speeches or letters • Lincoln’s Yarns and Stories. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2517. • Hay, John; John George Nicolay (1890). Abraham Lincoln: a History. "Volume 1". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6812. to

External links
• Abraham Lincoln at the Open Directory Project • Abraham Lincoln at the Open Directory Project – Speeches and writings • The Life of Lincoln by Henry Ketcham — Free full-length recording • Lincoln and the Moral Imagination, City Journal online, 2-11-09 • Lincoln Studies Center at Knox College • Photographs of Abraham Lincoln

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
United States House of Representatives Preceded by John Henry Political offices Preceded by James Buchanan Party political offices Preceded by John C. Frémont Honorary titles Preceded by Henry Clay Republican Party presidential candidate 1860, 1864 President of the United States March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865 Member from Illinois’s 7th congressional district March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849

Abraham Lincoln

Succeeded by Thomas L. Harris

Succeeded by Andrew Johnson Succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant

Persons who have lain in state or Succeeded by Thaddeus Stevens honor in the United States Capitol rotunda April 19, 1865 – April 21, 1865 • Benson (Lorn Charnwood), Godfrey Rathbone (1917). Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18379. Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT 16th President of the UnDESCRIPTION ited States of America DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH February 12, 1809 Hardin County, Kentucky April 15, 1865 Washington, D.C. Lincoln, Abraham

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1856; coverage of national politics. "Volume 2". http://www.gutenberg.org/ etext/11708. (1832 to 1901) ; covers 1856 to early 1861; coverage of national politics; part of 10 volume "life and times" by Lincoln’s aides Nicolay, Helen (1907). The Boys’ Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1815. (1866 to 1954) Ketcham, Henry (1901). The Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6811. ; popular Morse, John T. (1899). Abraham Lincoln. ; a solid scholarly biography "Volume 1". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/ 12800. "Volume 2". http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12801. Francis Fisher Browne (1913). The Everyday Life of Abraham Lincoln. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14004. ; popular George Haven Putnam, Litt. D. (1909). Abraham Lincoln: The People’s Leader in the Struggle for National Existence. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11728. Stephenson, Nathaniel W. (1922). Lincoln’s Personal Life. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1713. ; popular

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln"

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abraham Lincoln

Categories: Abraham Lincoln, Assassinated United States Presidents, Deaths by firearm in Washington, D.C., Illinois lawyers, Illinois Republicans, Lincoln family, Members of the Illinois House of Representatives, Members of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois, People from Coles County, Illinois, People from LaRue County, Kentucky, People from Macon County, Illinois, People from Spencer County, Indiana, People from Springfield, Illinois, People murdered in Washington, D.C., People of Illinois in the American Civil War, People of the Black Hawk War, Postmasters, Presidents of the United States, Republican Party (United States) presidential nominees, Smallpox survivors, Union political leaders, United States presidential candidates, 1860, United States presidential candidates, 1864, United States Whig Party, 1809 births, 1865 deaths This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 14:33 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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