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                                               Commerce, Law and Management                 Faculty
                                       School of Economic and Business Sciences
Academic Culture: Individual and Institutional Contextual Effects in South African
   University Research Productivity: The Role of Human Resources Management            AbstractTitle

                                                     Abbey                                                         Hugo
                                                    Chikane                                                     Canham



                                                                                                    Wits Business School

                               Commerce, Law and Management                            Commerce, Law and Management

                                                              Employment Equity and Professional Identity Development in
A FRAMEWORK FOR OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AFRICA                           the South African Banking Industry


                  073 9068525

           Wits Business School

Commerce, Law and Management

        Business Adminstration

             Nathalie Beatrice

Commerce, Law and Management

                                      Commerce, Law and Management






                                                Commerce, Law and Management

Does Mathematics Paper 3 matter for first year economic students at the University
                                                           of the Witwatersrand?

                     Blessing                           Eleni
                   Gorogodo                     Flack-Davison




Commerce, Law and Management    Commerce, Law and Management


                                            Environmental Law
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                                                              WBS                                          Wits Business School

                               Commerce, Law and Management                                  Commerce, Law and Management

The Influence of Cultural Diversity on the Effectiveness of Virtual   Transnational Supply Chains in Developing Countries: India
                                       Teams – Literature Review                                               and South Africa

                                Gregory                                   Mhlahlandlela Mbobo
                            Mac Master                                                 Mabena

              0836782105; 0832750710


      Commerce, Law and Management                            Commerce, Law and Management

    Public & Development Management
                                           institutional arrangements for implementing the older
Strategic Public Policy Management in SA                         persons policy in KZN Province.
'473 Mr
                                               Tinyiko                                                   Maemo P
                                            Makondo                                                      Machethe




                        Commerce, Law and Management                             Commerce, Law and Management

                                          Public Policy
   THE OVERSIGHT ROLE OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS COMMITTEES       Reasons for non-implementation of Retention Policy in the
WITH REFERENCE TO THE GAUTENG PROVINCIAL LEGISLATURE.                                 Department of Home Affairs

                                         Marriam M                                                   Glory Lethabo
                                           Mangochi                                                        Maleka

                                     +27 78 681 0758


                                Public & Development

                     Commerce, Law and Management                                  Commerce, Law and Management

   Voluntery HIV testing among Pregnant women attnding AN ANALYSIS OF RELEVANCE OF POLICY MODELS IN POLICY-MAKING
         Antenatal care services at Moses Kotane District, PROCCESS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CITY OF JOHANNESBURG

                               Commerce, Law and Management

State capacity in the provision of services: case study in Sedibeng
                                              District Municipality

                                       Commerce, Law and Management

Challenges on Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in the Alexandra Renewal
         Project (ARP) on Low-cost housing Delivery in Alexandra Township

                                               Commerce, Law and Management

An abstract on challenges facing women entrepreneurs in the Gauteng construction
                                                  Ben Thayi                                                                   Zanelle
                                                   Molekwa                                                                    Mngadi

                          Commerce, Law and Management                                              Commerce, Law and Management

             School of Public and Development Management                     WITS Graduate School of Public and Development Management

Black Economic Empowerment, Preferential Procurement and Social Entrepreneurship for Social Work Professional’s Management Competence
                 Small Business Development in Ekurhuleni
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                                                         Mulutsi                    Mphokanme

                                   Commerce, Law and Management    Commerce, Law and Management

                                        PRACTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

                                                   Marumbo                                                        Mthunzi
                                                      Ngwira                                                   NGWENYA



                                                                                                     Wits Business School

                           Commerce, Law and Management                                Commerce, Law and Management

The effect of HIV and AIDs on Elderly (Grandparents): the role   The order of customer acquisition of financial services in
                                of social protection in Malawi                                               South Africa

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                  Ramokhele                             rabin

                                                 011 7178045



Commerce, Law and Management   Commerce, Law and Management

                                          Financial accounting

                                    Earnings management in SA

                                               Tabisile Yvonne                         Jabusile M
                                                      Skosana                            Shumba




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   Learning Experiences of the Gauteng medical students on the   Public Policy Making in Zimbabwe
              South African Cuban medical training programme
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                  Engineering and the Built Environment     Commerce, Law and Management

        Telecommunication and Information Engineering                 Finance & Investment
Demand-Side Energy Management Performed Using Direct
                         Feedback via Mobile Systems         SME Development and Financing




                                           Electrical and Information Engineering

                                          Engineering and the Built Environment

Design and development of a control system for a Reluctance Synchronous Machine

                                              Engineering and the Built Environment

Continuous production of Carbon Nanotubes by means of a Swirled-Fluid Chemical Vapour Deposition Re
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                 Engineering and the Built Environment                         Engineering and the Built Environment

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Enzymatic Production of Bioethanol from Bitter Sorghum                                           Fuzzy Logic System
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                    Engineering and the Built Environment                       Engineering and the Built Environment

                                   Carbon and Coal Group                                             Vehicle Dynamics
     Consideration of criteria required for the selection of A South African Performance Based Standards (PBS) Vehicle
potential underground coal gasification sites in south africa                                  to Transport Steel Pipes
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               Engineering and the Built Environment                          Engineering and the Built Environment

                                   Water Treatment                                            Chemical Engineering
Removal of Ni2+ ions from aqueous solution by natural APPLICATION OF THE DISTRIBUTED ACTIVATION ENERGY MODEL TO
                  and pretreated clinoptilolite zeolites THE KINETIC MODELLING OF PYROLYSIS OF SOUTH AFRICAN FUELS




               School of Electrical and Information Engineering

                         Engineering and the Built Environment

Southern African lightning - statistical parameters and temporal




                      MEchanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering

                                   Engineering and the Built Environment

                                                   Industrial Engineering

Making Time: Operating Theatre Improvement through improved Scheduling

                                                 Engineering and the Built Environment

Formation of carbon nanotube films on stainless steel wires though in situ reaction in a vertical CVD rea
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                                                Kagoda                                            Janse van Rensburg
                                             0500674D                                                         303719

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                     Civil and Environmental Engineering                          School of Architecture and Planning

                  Engineering and the Built Environment                        Engineering and the Built Environment

                                     Water Engineering                                                   Architecture
Framework for accounting for Hydrological Uncertainty in   Reading windows - Relating visual meaning to socio-religio-
                                      Flood Forecasting            political context, Witbank Dutch Reformed Church
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              Engineering and the Built Environment                    Engineering and the Built Environment

                                 COMPS Distillation                                            Biotechnology
Minimum energy determination for Multicomponent        Effects of Nitrogen Ions Concentration On South African
     Distillation mixtures using Column Profile Maps        Fresh Water High CO2 Tolerant Microalgae Growth
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                                  Engineering and the Built Environment           Engineering and the Built Environment

                                                   Chemical Engineering                                   Biotechnology
                                                                            Optimization of bioprocesses: challenges and
Yeast cell immobilisation on carbon nanotubes for fermentation processes                                   opportunities
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                      Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering                                           Chemical and Metallurgical

                       Engineering and the Built Environment                                Engineering and the Built Environment

                                        Chemical Engineering                                 Nanotechnology/Membrane filtration
Study of formation of water-in-oil emulsions in T-junction and   Synthesis of modified polyvinyl alcohol\carbon nanoballs\nanotube
                         flow focussing microfluidic channels     composite membrane and its module for the purification of water

                             Mahluli                                                                       Anne Myriam
                               Moyo                                                                  Megne Motchelaho



                                                                                  Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

Engineering and the Built Environment                                             Engineering and the Built Environment

                                        Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: The influence of various iron precursors and promoters
                                            on the performance of multiwalled carbon nanotubes supported Iron catalysts
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   Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering                                       Civil and Environmental Engineering

                Engineering and the Built Environment                                     Engineering and the Built Environment

                               Mechanical Engineering                                                      Municipal Solid Waste
A preliminary vehicle suspension design with a focus on        Generation of leachate from landfills with climatic classifications
             bump\roll steer and roll centre movement     between B+ and B- and decomposition of MSW under these conditions

                                                       Masiala                                                 Yolisa
                                                          Ngoy                                              Ngcizela



                                                                               Electrical and Information Engineering

                          Engineering and the Built Environment               Engineering and the Built Environment

NONCOVALENT FUNCTIONALIZATION FOR CARBON NANOTUBE BOUND           The Role of Combine Heat and Power generation in
   FOLIC ACID AND METHOTREXATE CONJUGATE IN CANCER THERAPY             meeting the electrical demand in South Africa.

                        Engineering and the Built Environment


                                            Engineering and the Built Environment

 School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand,
Reinforcement of synthetic rubber with carbon nanoballs to produce nanocomposite
                                                          ion exchange membrane
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           Engineering and the Built Environment                      Engineering and the Built Environment

                                      Structures                                 Environmental Engineering
Modelling plate bending using Yield-Line type finite QUANTIFICATION OF THE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF GREYWATER
                                         elements. REUSE IN UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
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                 Engineering and the Built Environment                      Engineering and the Built Environment

               Reinforced Plastics / Composites Facility                                      Telecommunications
Effect of Resin System on the Mechanical Properties and    Automatic Recognition of Analog Communication Signals
  Water Absorption of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Laminates                              using Artificial Neural Network
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                                       Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering            Architecture and Planning and Political Studies

                                        Engineering and the Built Environment                    Engineering and the Built Environment

                                                             Process Synthesis                                            Urban Politics
Efficient Combustion: A process synthesis approach to improve the efficiency of   “The Role of the Constitutional in South Africa and the
                                                      coal fired power stations           Supreme Court in India in Urban Governance:

                                                    Eric                               Geoffrey
                                                 Sithole                                 Simate



    Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering

                 Engineering and the Built Environment     Engineering and the Built Environment

Examination of the JSE Warrants' Pricing Using the Black
          Scholes Model Over the Period 2003 to 2006
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                                    Chemical                                    Waste water treatment
Coal constituents that lead to abrasion during Adsorption of heavy metals on modified natural zeolite in
                                 comminution                               industrial effluent treatment




                                                        Clinical Medicine

                                                         Health Sciences

                                               HVDRP (Internal Medicine)
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                                                      0002068v                                                                  0408743N

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                                                 Health Sciences                                                           Health Sciences

                   Hepatitis Virus Diversity Research Programme                                                                   Virology
Construction of Replication Competent Clones of Southern African         Autologous neutralizing antibody specificities in HIV-1 subtype C:
                                  Genotypes of Hepatitis B Virus    Characterizing the C3V4-region and defining the mechanisms of escape
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                                    Paediatric Surgery                                  Molecular Medicine, AGTRU
Intussusception in the 21st Centuary: The Johannesburg The design and application of a real time PCR assay to assess
                                             Experience       rcDNA and cccDNA produced by HBV during infection
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                                     Health Sciences                                                    Health Sciences

                                       Public Health Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology
Linkages between PMTCT, ART and Wellness Service: An
                       Assessment of Service Uptake    In vitro antiplasmodial activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives

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                             Therapeutic Sciences

                                  Health Sciences

Novel polymeric approaches in the enhancement of
                              nanobubble lifetime




                                                                      Health Sciences

                         Department of Clinical Microbiology and infectious diseases
Antimicrobial effect of slow release chlorine dioxide disinfectant, in comparison with
                                                          sodium dichloroisocyanurate
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                                  Therapeutic Sciences                                                     Pathology

                                        Health Sciences                                              Health Sciences

                         Pharmaceutics (Drug Delivery)            Genetic Counselling, Department of Human Genetics
A membrane-fixated nano-liposhell device for specialized Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy: Implications for at-
                  central nervous system drug delivery                                               risk individuals





                                                                     Health Sciences

                                          Antiretrovial Gene Therapy Research Unit
Persistent suppression of HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells using lentivirus-delivered
         short hairpin RNAs targeted to the host HIV-1 dependency factor HTATSF1
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                                              Clinical Medicine                                                          Clinical Medicine

                                               Health Sciences                                                             Health Sciences

                    Birth-to-Twenty(Paediatrics & Child Health)                    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences
 Association between birth weight and body composition at age      Qualitative methods across disciplines for an inquiry into the role of
9/10 years in Urban south African children born in Soweto 1990.   spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training
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                                          Health Sciences                                                        Health Sciences

                                         Human Genetics
The use of Genetic Tests by the Life Insurance Industry of    Relationship between discomfort, pain and motor activity associated
                                             South Africa    with Restless Legs Syndrome during the suggested immobilization test
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             Virology and Communicable Disease Surveillance             Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit
      Molecular serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae from        The Physiological Implications of Drug Resistance
isolates and culture-negative clinical specimens in South Africa                         Mutations in Mycobacteria
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                                         Health Sciences                                             Health Sciences
                                                                    Division of Virology and Communicable Diseases
           Hepatits Virus Diversity Research Programme                                                    Surveillance
The basic core promoter/precore region of the hepatitis       Characterization of bacterial causes of diarrhoea in an
   B virus from human immunodeficiency virus-positive       under-five population in South Africa: April 2009 to April
                                           rural patients                                                        2010
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                            296170                                                        0314110N

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                    Health Sciences                                                  Health Sciences

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                                         TOOTH DEVELOPMENT INDUCED BY MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM
The metabolic cost of fever in birds                         CELLS AND ORAL ECTOMESENCHYME
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                                            Human Genrtics                                              Haematology
DNA methylation profiles of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control    “Mutational assessment in AML: experience from a South
  region (ICR) in subjects with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)                                          African Centre”
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                                                    Oupa                                                    Andrew
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                                          Health Sciences                                           Health Sciences

                                            Public Health                                           Human Genetics
Clinical practices and outcomes in the maternity unit of a   Investigating genetic factors influencing bone health in
                                         district hospital                       the black South African population
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                                 0500922M                                               0102104v

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                            Health Sciences                                       Health Sciences

                              Pharmacology        Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit (MMRU)
The Antimalarial Properties of Metronidazole   THE METABOLISM OF VITAMIN B12 IN MYCOBACTERIUM
            Thiosemicarbazone Analogues II       TUBERCULOSIS: ROLE OF ALTERNATE B12 COFACTORS
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                                                    Public Health                                    Therapeutic Sciences

                                                  Health Sciences                                         Health Sciences

                                          Centre for Health Policy                                          Pharmacology
Proposed title: an analysis of nursing leadership and management     The chemotherapeutic action of synthetic dyes against
   in primary health care settings in two South African provinces.                                Plasmodium falciparum
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                                                      Health Sciences                                                       Health Sciences

                                                         Public Health                                       Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Child spatial trends of HIV/TB related mortality for rural South African Association between HIV/AIDS related adult deaths and migration
       children in 2004: A Bayesian geo-additive modelling approach .               of household members in rural Rufiji District, Tanzania.
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                                              9900003W                                                   0608116r

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                                               Pathology                                                Pathology

                                         Health Sciences                                           Health Sciences

                      Malaria Entomology Research Unit                Clinical Microbiology and Infectious diseases
Microarray analysis of DDT resistant Anopheles arabiensis   Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia an indigenous South
                         from different geographic areas               African medicinal plant and oral pathogens





                                      Health Sciences

           Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit
Functional characterization of molybdopterin synthase-
                       encoding genes in mycobacteria





                                                                 Health Sciences

                                          Molecular Medicine and Haematology
Associations between coagulation factors, clinical phenotypes, cytokine profiles,
        polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter region and inhibitor development.
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                                                              Ryan                                              Duduzile
                                                            Norton                                           Ndwandwe
                                                         0501493d                                             0719813H

                                                     011 386 6486                                          011 489 9376


                                                         Pathology                                            Pathology

                                                   Health Sciences                                       Health Sciences

                                         Malaria Entomology Unit MRC/NHLS/WITS Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit
The Effect of Dieldrin Exposure on Anopheles gambiae (Diptera:
                       Culicidae), Fitness, Fecundity and Fertility.      A novel mutasome in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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                                                                   Pathology                                        Anatomical Sciences

                                                              Health Sciences                                            Health Sciences

                                                             Human Genetics                                                Neuroscience
 Investigating global and locus specific DNA methylation in sperm samples of     Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in the Common mole rat (
alcoholic individuals-implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)                                    Cryptomys hottentotus)
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                                               0505951m                                                                336039

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                                          Health Sciences                                                      Health Sciences

                                               Physiology                                                        Dermatology
The incidence of neuropathy in HIV-positive individuals on   Progressive Nodular Histiocytosis - an exceedingly rare variant of
              highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)                             the Non- Langerhans cell Histiocytosis


                                           083 238 2222



                                         Health Sciences

                                        Human Genetics
Can paternal pre-conception alcohol consumption have an
                                 impact on the offspring?




                                                         School of Anatomical Sciences

                                                                        Health Sciences

A Morphological Study of the Lung of the Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus niloticus,
   using 3 Dimensional Serial Section Computer Reconstruction and Scanning Electron
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                                                       0503296K                                                       0718883E

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                                                       Physiology                                           Wits Medical School

                                                  Health Sciences                                                Health Sciences

                                                                                                MPH:HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT
        The description of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in Evaluation of quality of care and management of maternity
individuals of African ancestry whose first language is not English services of National District Hospital of Free State province





                                     Health Sciences

large discs with large cups -A diagnostic challenge in
                                     African patients





                                                                     Health Sciences

Genetic and biochemical characterisation of the cytochrome P450, CYP6P9, associated
          with pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

                                                            Tanya                                                        Andrew
                                                       Swanepoel                                                      Swanepoel

                                                         717 2563



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                                   Brain Function Research Grouop                                                   Public Health
Dissociation of learning and memory from other sickness behaviours Quartz exposure on farms in South Africa representing various
             following simulated acute Mycoplasma infection in rats.                                                  soil types.

                                           Geraldine                                                 Maphefo
                                             Timothy                                                   Thekiso

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                                      Health Sciences                                          Health Sciences

                                   Community Health                                 Public Oral Health Division
PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A/H1N1 2009 IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE     Caries status among children in the West Rand District,
                                     FIRST 100 CASES                                                 Gauteng
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                                                   Samuel Bumuh                                                      Fiona
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                                                         0402327v                                                0212790J

                                                       734220580                                             084-505-8671


                                                         Pathology                                               Pathology

                                                   Health Sciences                                          Health Sciences

                               Malaria Enthomology Research Unit               AGTRU (Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit)
Development of multiplex real-time PCR assays for identification of   The Development of Effective Pri-miRNA Mimics against
               members of the Anopheles funestus species group                                                         HIV.
                                                   '338                                                              '443
                                                     Ms                                                                Ms

                                                Antonia                                                          Ameena
                                                Wadley                                                             Wadee
                                                350871                                                          0405626y

                                           011 7172562                                                         725489870


                                              Physiology                                             Therapeutic Sciences

                                         Health Sciences                                                  Health Sciences

                           Brain Function Research Group                                     Pharmacy and Pharmacology
 THE ROLE OF GCH1 POLYMORPHISMS ON PAIN PERCEPTION IN      The development of an in situ forming implant for the treatment
BLACK AFRICANS WITH HIV-ASSOCIATED SENSORY NEUROPATHY               of osteosarcoma: Autoclaving as a sterilization method
                                                          '335                                                                        '382
                                                           Ms                                                                           Mr

                                                      Lee-Ann                                                            Constantinos Kurt
                                                         Wood                                                                     Wibmer
                                                       330086                                                                    0403095E

                                                 076 189 3272                                                                072 232 3496


                                                     Pathology                                                                   Pathology

                                               Health Sciences                                                             Health Sciences

                              Bioinformatics in Human Gentics                                                                         AIDS
Computational identification of synonymous SNPs in the human      Neutralisation epitopes in the C3V4 region of HIV-1 envelope proteins are
                     genome and their potential role in disease                                             apparent on monomeric gp120

                                             Jeanine        Jessica
                                          Blumenau       Anderson



                human and community development

                                         Humanities     Humanities

Emotion Processing, Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and
                       Quality of Life after a Stroke
                                                  '267                                                                   '255
                                                   Ms                                                                      Ms

                                                  Lara                                                                Janeske
                                             Buxbaum                                                                    Botes
                                               399720                                                               0703926P

                                           827808447                                                               117174161


                       Language and Literature Studies                               School of Literature and Language Studies

                                           Humanities                                                             Humanities

                                               English                                                          Media Studies
                                                       “The Hopeless Continent?” A critical comparative analysis of 2007/2008
Subversive Cartography in Marlene van Niekerk’s Agaat.    representations of Africa in Time, The Economist and Financial Mail.
                                                 '439                                                                                 '332
                                                 Mrs                                                                                   Ms

                                               Maria                                                                               Anthea
                                             Carvalho                                                                                 Buys
                                           0714610D                                                                             0317988G

                                          829074433                                                                         082 460 3427


       School of Human and Comunity Development                                                                              WSOA / SLLS

                                          Humanities                                                                           Humanities

                                          Psychology                                                              History of Art/Literature
The influence of anguish on creative processes in the    Line, word or thought: Constant’s New Babylon as a model for a plural ontology of
                                work of three artists.                                                                         the artwork
                                                  '465                                                       '279
                                                   Ms                                                         Ms

                                              Candice                                                     Glenda
                                             de Canha                                                     Daniels
                                            0507333V                                                   8710695f

                                        074 321 1012                                                 832299708


                      Language and Literature Studies                                             Social Sciences

                                           Humanities                                                Humanities

                                     English Literature                                          Political Studies
Sense over Sensibility: Rationalism and Irrationalism in A Fight for Democracy, Internal to Democracy Itself: The
                         selected works of Ian McEwan                        ANC and the Media in South Africa
                                                                    '294                                                      '386
                                                                      Ms                                                       Ms

                                                                    Carla                                                  Veerle
                                                                 Douglas                                                 Dieltiens
                                                               0504735J                                                9110014A

                                                             824119916                                                825599205


                                                Languages and Literature                                           Social Sciences

                                                             Humanities                                               Humanities

                                                       English Literature                                         Political Studies
Image and Poetry in William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience:   Tilling new ground: Finding educational space for farm
                                                   Producing a Third Text                                          school learners
                                                 '436                                                          '406
                                                  Ms                                                            Ms

                                                Sonia                                                         Sheri
                                            Fanucchi                                                      Errington
                                            0203641f                                                     0201375x

                                          731517837                                                     832809613


                                              English                          Human & Community development

                                          Humanities                                                    Humanities

                                                        Mind in Matter: The efficacy of alternative therapies in the
Miss Havisham and the reduction ad absurdum of Hamlet                            diversion of child sexual offenders

                                         Sarah                                                 Helen
                                       Godsell                                                  Frost

                                                                                       072 337 0423


                                                                        Literature & Language Studies

                                   Humanities                                             Humanities

                              School of History                                     English Literature
                                                  Uncanny Photography in Austerlitz: Trauma, Memory
Re-hearing the homelands: Hammanskraal stories                                    and Spectral Return
                                                 '355                    '444
                                                  Ms                      Ms

                                                Kerry                  Vossie
                                              Gordon                  Goosen
                                           0500313N                9713510K

                                          845848000               117843186


               Human and Community Development                 Social sciences

                                          Humanities              Humanities

                                          Psychology              Psychology
 The spiritual, existential and emotional meanings of
death and dying: A palliative care nursing perspective

                                                  Yael                                                Andrew
                                                Kadish                                               Haycock




                                           Humanities                                              Humanities

                                    Clinical psychology
Psychic retreats and pathological organisations in eating
                                              disorders. South African stop-motion animation from 1980 to 2005
                                                   '450                                               '336
                                                    Ms                                                  Ms

                                                    Ella                                             Alison
                                                  Kotze                                            Kearney
                                                479742                                           9910933f

                                            827217863                                        084 828 3772


                Human and Community Development                                              School of Arts

                                            Humanities                                          Humanities

            Community-Based Councelling Psychology                                              Visual Arts
Lesbians’ coming-out stories as confessional practices:
         liberatory politics or incitement to discourse?   Materiality and Meaning in Contemporary S.A. Art
                                             '319                                                             '376
                                               Mr                                                              Ms

                                            Adam                                                         Londiwe
                                            Levin                                                           Langa
                                        0509378F                                                        0410943y

                                    083-650-6454                                                      766179633


                  Literature and Language Studies                                              Wits School of Arts

                                      Humanities                                                      Humanities

                                           English                                                     Digital Arts
“It Wasn’t Hamlet, It Was That Polonius Guy”: ‘Low
                Culture’ Gets Academic in Clueless   Eating Ladies’ Fingers: Remixing Global Cultures through Okra
                                        '374                                                         '435
                                         Ms                                                            Mr

                                    Lorraine                                                         Don
                                    Malatjie                                                      Lindsay
                                   0504408f                                                     8806824j

                                 731152581                                                    828171971


                         Wits School of Arts                                               Social Sciences

                                 Humanities                                                   Humanities

                               History of Art                                                   Sociology
                                                The Case For An Institutional Approach to The Challenge of
Growth: Reintroducing the Beauty of the Afro                                Black Economic Empowerment
                                                       '298                                                                      '413
                                                        Mr                                                                         Ms

                                                 Mazembo                                                                  Nomalanga
                                                 Mavungu                                                                      Masina
                                                 0506739P                                                                     331316

                                               788120189                                                                  735907697


                                            Social Sciences                                  School of Language and Literature Studies

                                               Humanities                                                                 Humanities

                                           Political Studies                                                            Media Studies
"Khutsong is just a drop in the ocean": provincial boundary    Black Like Me: Representations of Black women in advertisements placed
                                        dispute in Khutsong                                                in South African magazines

                                                 Jacqueline     Nomusa
                                                   Mendes     Mdladlose



             School of Human and Community Development

                                                Humanities    Humanities


Exploring Race Talk and HIV among White South African youth
                                                                   '257                                                     '302
                                                                    Mr                                                       Ms

                                                            Khangelani                                                  Selvarani
                                                                  Moyo                                                  Moodley
                                                                375002                                                9604057A

                                                            791076274                                                832349826


                                                        Social Sciences                                                Education

                                                            Humanities                                               Humanities

                                 Forced Migration Studies Programme                                       Centre for Deaf Studies
 Street Level Interface: The Interaction between Health Personnel and      Audiological Services in South Africa – How Far Are We
Migrant Patients at an Inner City Public Health Facility in Johannesburg              From Universal Newborn Hearing Screening






                                               Urban Geography
Contested Spaces: Mega-events and the production of Urban Space
     in a post-Apartheid city: The case of Newtown, Johannesburg.
                                '282                                                                            '268
                                Mrs                                                                               Mr

                      Dorothy Ngozi                                                                          Fredrick
                       Ononokpono                                                                            Ogenga
                             441885                                                                        0501760v

                         780106897                                                                       760153549


                     Social sciences                                  Language and literature studies (media studies)

                         Humanities                                                                      Humanities

Demography and Population studies
                                        Changing Zimbabwe: Representation of the Zimbabwean Elections by the South
     An investigation into the social    African Press, ZANU-PF Counter-hegemonic Discourse and Conflict Resolution.
                                                                  '264                                                    '423
                                                                    Mr                                                     Ms

                                                                 Peter                                                Bhavisha
                                                             Pausigere                                                 Panchia
                                                               331885                                               0401862p

                                                         083 958 0700                                              723908391


                                                             Education                                      Wits School of Arts

                                                            Humanities                                             Humanities

                                                     Curriculum Studies                                          History of Art
Education and Training Initiatives at the Central Methodist Church Refugee Mimicry and Mockery: The case of Anton Kannemeyer’s
                                                                    House                                Alphabet of Democracy


                                          079 928 3215


                         Literature and Language Studies



The Representation of women on Botswana Television news




                                                                        Social Sciences


                                                                      Health Sociology
Exploring the Role of nurses as 'intermediaries' in bridging the gap between biomedical
             knowledge and lay conceptions of Malaria and HIV/ AIDS in Kisumu, Kenya


Facebook as implied author: an investigation into the characterization techniques
employed by users of the social networking site, Facebook, through a comparative
                                                  study with Jane Austen’s Emma.
                                                           '290                                               '378
                                                             Ms                                                Ms

                                                       Bronwyn                                            Patience
                                                        Sherriff                                            Sekete
                                                      0312060H                                          9212783E

                                                     824011049                                         829061971


                             Human & Community Development                                          Social Sciences

                                                     Humanities                                        Humanities

                                                     Psychology                                          Sociology

Exploring Everyday Musical Imagery: An Experience-sampling Study   Beyond Passion - A development research journey




                                 School of Human & Community Development


“Race and class”: competing multiple voices of masculinity amongst adolescent
             boys in a private multi-racial school in Johannesburg, South Africa
                                                  '467                                                                       '348
                                                    Mr                                                                        Ms

                                              Douglas                                                                       Sarah
                                                Taylor                                                                    Stadler
                                               369242                                                                   0504145T

                                           824553577                                                                  726369118


                                           Humanities                                       Human and Community Development

                                           Humanities                                                                 Humanities

                                           Philosophy                                                                 Psychology
Ubuntu as the basis for a normative ethical framework     How much has changed since apartheid? Exploring WITS student’s social
                                    for business ethics      representations of the self and other in relation to the HIV epidemic
                                                     '361                                                                  '399
                                                      Mrs                                                                   Ms

                                                   Carien                                                               Athena
                                                  Vorster                                                       Tudoric-Ghemo
                                                  333694                                                             9707515V

                                              832291983                                                     +27 (0)83 250 4535


                          Education Leadership and Policy                                Human and Community Development

                                              Humanities                                                            Humanities

                                          Education Policy                                                          Psychology
The special needs of Gauteng children affected by HIV/AIDS   An evaluation of the ‘Model of Care’ programme offered to street
  and the responses of secondary schools to this challenge               girls at a child and youth care centre in the East Rand

                                               Nicholas        Karen
                                                 Welch        Walstra



                       Literature and Language Studies

                                            Humanities     Humanities

The Fractal Battle: Language Ideologies in South African




                                                Social Science


                        Forced Migration Studies Programme
(Un)Rest in Peace: The Agents of Human Remains Repatriation
                           Systems and the Lives of the Living






                                                Diamond and Related Materials
Formation of Cubic Boron Nitride Nanoparticles by Ion Implantation of Hexagonal
                                                                  Boron Nitride






                                    Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Characterization of cyanide in the effluent of an active slims dam of the






Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam in Botswana and correlation with southern
                                                        African coal-bearing strata
                                                       '354                                                   '367
                                                        Mr                                                      Ms

                                                    George                                                     Silje
                                                    Bepete                                                 Bentsen
                                                    463161                                                 397912

                                                731820756                                               762416005


                                        School of Chemistry     Geaography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies

                                                    Science                                                Science

                                            Nanochemistry                                              Archaeology
                                                            Fire to ashes: An experimental approach to Middle Stone
Polymer Attached N-doped CNT Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell                                     Age pyrotechnology.
                                                          '432                                                     '261
                                                            Ms                                                      Ms

                                                         Hazel                                                    Elvire
                                                        Bomba                                                      BIYE
                                                     0509599x                                                 0618801j

                                                   847743842                                                738724748


                                                     chemistry                                                    APES

                                                       Science                                                  Science

                                          solid state chemistry                                       Plant systematics
What’s in a double bond? Structural changes induced in organic-
  Inorganic hybrid material by the use of simple amino alkenes    Species delimitation in the genus Gnetum L. in Africa.
                                                     '276                                                  '440
                                                       Mr                                                   Ms

                                                    Justin                                                  Lisa
                                                 Bradfield                                              Bonney
                                               0400876D                                              0612029R

                                            072 659 8874                                            829232500


                                                    GAES     School of Computational and Applied Mathematics

                                                  Science                                               Science

                                                      IHE                    Advanced Mathematics of Finance
A Macro-fracture study on bone points in the South African      Modelling the Top40 volatility skew: A principal
                                                Stone Age                       component analysis approach






The controls on zonation of mineralisation of rare-metal and abyssal pegmatites in the
 Central Zone of the Damara Belt, Namibia, as determined from fluid inclusion studies
                                                 '358                                                              '325
                                                   Mr                                                                Ms

                                           Philasande                                                          Deborah
                                                 Cele                                                        Carmichael
                                            0316873Y                                                          0606588F

                                        011 717 6342                                                        824673188


                            Molecular and cell biology                                       Molecular and Cell Biology

                                              Science                                                           Science

                                                                                        Microbiology and Biotechnology
Genetic Transformation of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Developing a sensitive, high-throughput tool for rapid detection of
  Crantz) for resistance to Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV)     agronomically important seed-borne pathogens of tomato.






Synthesis and Characterisation of nanodiamond films






   Chemical Analysis of the Nutritive Value of the Transvaal Red Milkwood (Mimusops
zeyheri) and Large Sourplum (Ximenia caffra) Seed as Potential Non-conventional Feed

                 Natalie                                                        Hugo
                  Deseta                                                   De Lemos



                 Science                                                      Science

        MSc Geochemistry                                                        GAES

                           GIS mapping and classification of solifluction lobes in the
                                    Bushman’s Nek region, southern Drakensberg
                                                 '363                                                                   '433
                                                   Mr                                                                    Ms

                                      Mbongiseni W.                                                                    Katia
                                              Dlamini                                                                   Dias
                                              325971                                                               0718213f

                                        078 823 2478                                                             722193403


                                           Chemistry                                                                    MCB

                                              Science                                                                Science

                                             Catalysis                                                  Plant Biotechnology
Using microwave radiation to modify Fischer-Tropsch               A study of the genetics of the cultivated tomato (Solanum
                          catalysts in the solid state   lycopersicon) resistance to Tomato curly stunt virus in South Africa
                                                  '410                                                      '253
                                                    Ms                                                        Mr

                                                 Anita                                                      Ariel
                                                  Etale                                                   Eliasov
                                               511076                                                 0300038R

                                         083 335 0648                                                834682603


                                                  APES        School of Computational and Applied Mathematics

                                               Science                                                   Science

                                Environmental Science                         Advanced Mathematics of Finance
Risks of Urban Agriculture: Lead and Cadmium Intake by    Financial Option Pricing and Hedging in the Presence of
            Kigali Residents from Locally Grown Produce                                                    Jumps
                                                        '346                                                     '442
                                                         Ms                                                       Ms

                                                     Chantal                                                    Kathy
                                                       Helm                                           Hadje Georgiou
                                                  9911064k                                                 0503329H

                                              082 847 4080                                                827837209


                 Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences                                                   Chemistry

                                                     Science                                                  Science

                                                     Ecology                                       Organic Chemistry
Mortality and utilisation of marula between 2001 and 2008       Progress towards the Enantioselective Synthesis of the
                    in the Kruger National Park, South Africa                            Natural Pesticide, Rotenone
                                                        '343                                                            '395
                                                         Mrs                                                              Ms

                                                       Fidan                                                          Megan
                                                     Karatas                                                           Jones
                                                     407099                                                       9804489w

                                                 718699693                                                        834427616


                                  Molecular and Cell Biology                        Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences

                                                     Science                                                         Science

                                                      PSFRU                                                 Animal Behaviour
      The role of the N-capping box of helix1 in the putative   When we were very young: early social and physical complexity
transmembrane region on the structure and stability of CLIC1     protects striped mice from developing stereotypic behaviour
                                                       '460                                                            '466
                                                       Mrs                                                              Mr

                                                      Anna                                                          Joshua
                                               Kozakiewicz                                                        Kassongo
                                                    300332                                                       0615306y

                                                741719278                                                       729295635


                                                    Physics                                     Molecular and Cell Biology

                                                    Science                                                         Science

Ion irradiation effects on the formation of nanoparticles in   A comparison of electricity generation in microbial fuel cell
                                       crystalline materials                                   using novel carbon sources







Seismic Damage Mechanisms at Impala Platinum Mine


                                                                      011 717 6845




Computational Investigation into Elastic Properties of bulk and defective Ultra Hard

                                              Julien                                                   Ella
                                    Lusilao-Makiese                                              Linganiso

                                      011 717 6713



                                            Science                                                Science

                 Environmental Analytical Chemistry                                             Chemistry
Characterisation of Mercury Speciation in Some South   Synthesis and characterization of iron filled carbon
African Environmental Areas Impacted by Gold Mining                                              nanotubes
                                                  '447                                                               '459
                                                    Mr                                                                 Mr

                                                 Thuto                                                              Obeid
                                              Makgato                                                          Mahomed
                                             0216622P                                                           0417991J

                                            117176801                                                         836696731


                                                Physics                School of Computational and Applied Mathematics

                                               Science                                                            Science

                Condensed Matter and Materials Physics                                        Advanced Maths of Finance

Nanostructuring Diamond Surfaces Using Accelerated Ions   Application of Information-Based Asset Pricing to Equity Markets
                                                            '458                                                         '403
                                                              Mr                                                          Mrs

                                                           Musa                                                     Hlompho
                                                          Manzi                                                   Malephane
                                                       0209753f                                                       521836

                                                     789570932                                                    721403211


                                                    Geosciences                                                   Geoscience

                                                         Science                                                      Science

                                                     Geophysics                                                   Geophysics
Interpretation of 3D Reflection Seismic Data from the West Rand          Seismicity and Seismic Hazard Assessment of the arid
               and Carletonville Goldfields. Witwatersrand Basin.   western regions of South Africa: a Neotectonic Perspective
                                                     '455                                                  '371
                                                       Ms                                                    Ms

                                                 Xolisiwe                                               Lusanda
                                                Maputsoe                                                Mapela
                                               0305698M                                               0303612x

                                              837377806                                           011-489-9351


                               Molecular and Cell Biology                                             Pathology

                                                  Science                                               Science

                 Protein Structure-Function Research Unit            Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit
Impact of L38_NL insertion mutation on structure, function   The Characterization of the Resuscitation Promoting
   and stability of HIV-1 South African subtype C protease                               Factors in M. smegmatis
                                                      '453                                                               '334
                                                        Ms                                                                 Mr

                                                 Charlotte                                                           Audacity
                                                  Mashaba                                                            Maringa
                                                   331484                                                             432359

                                                720633272                                                         710202427


                                 Cell and molecular biology                                                        Chemistry

                                                   Science                                                            Science

                                         Molecular biology                                                           catalysis
Carotenoids screening in potato, tomato and wheat cultivars   The effect of the addition of Ceria on to the Platinum supported
     produced in South African to help combat malnutrition            on Carbon nanofibers for the hydrogenation of Ethylene
                                          '407                                               '452
                                            Mr                                                 Mr

                                     Phumlani                                             Tshepo
                                      Masilela                                          Mashapa
                                     0504527r                                          0416645w

                                     83742576                                       011 980 1469

                     Molecular and Cell Biology                         Molecular and cell biology

                                       Science                                            Science

               Microbiology and Biotechnology                                              PSFRU
Thermophilic (65 ºC) biohydrogen production in a STABILITY AND FOLDING OF THE MONOMERIC CLASS MU
                fluidized granular bed bioreactor                                         GST M1
                                                               '400                                                       '461
                                                                Mr                                                          Ms

                                                            Taimos                                                   Wadzanai
                                                     Mavunganidze                                                Matowanyika
                                                            321962                                                     396113

                                                             76713                                                  711144625,                      

                                                         Chemistry                    Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences

                                                            Science                                                    Science

 Characterization of Fulvic acids from some of the wetlands within     Impact of Alexandra Township on the water quality of the
                                        the Wits Basin, South Africa                                              Jukskei River
                                                           '456                                                            '385
                                                             Mr                                                              Mr

                                                     Kudzanayi                                                             Amr
                                                         Mgodi                                                        Metwally
                                                      0303552j                                                          451123

                                                    827243034                                                       721854148


                                                   Geosciences                                                      Geoscience

                                                        Science                                                         Science

                                                       Geology                                                   Palaeontology
                                                                   Pollen Analysis of a Holocene Section of a Core from Tswaing
The Tectonic setting of Phanerozoic sedimentary basins in Africa                           Meteorite Impact Crater, South Africa






Can biltong kill you? : Evaluating the presence of bacterial toxins
           associated with South African biltong at point of sale.
                                          '414                         '352
                                            Mr                           Ms

                                      Ebrahim                         Laura
                                    Mohiuddin                        Millroy
                                     0512195f                    0509343H

                                    825837789                   829413425   

                                     Chemistry    Molecular and Cell Biology

                                       Science                      Science

                                      Catalysis              Biotechnology
The effects of microwave heating on Manganese
 promoted Iron based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts.          iGEM Competition
                                           '310                                                                   '370
                                            Mr                                                                     Ms

                                        Shahed                                                                  Lisebo
                                          Nalla                                                               Motjotji
                                     8700148H                                                                  384675

                                     83334169                                                              781494920


                                   Geosciences                               Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences

                                        Science                                                                Science

                                 Palaeontology                                              Plant ecology/SMR000 (FT)
                                                   Towards sustainability of harvesting the medicinal plant Pelargonium
The First Rib – a key to Hominin identification?                                            sidoides DC. (GERANIACEAE)




                                          Molecular and Cell Biology


          MRC/NHLS/WITS Molecular Mycobacteriology Research Unit
A Pseudomonas-Derived extract that inhibits growth of Mycobacterium

                                   Unnel-Teddy                                                                           Lubanza
                              NGOUMANDJOKA                                                                                Ngoma


                              Computer Science

                                        Science                                                                           Science

                       Computers and Education                                                                               MCB
Correlation Between Internet Usage and Academic   Biydrogen producing by facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial consortia in
          Performance Among University Students                                                         fluidized bed bioreactors
                                     '357                                                               '451
                                      Ms                                                                 Ms

                                Obakeng                                                            Nomxolisi
                             Ntshudisane                                                            Ngubane
                               0312502v                                                            0418799h

                           011 717 6382                                                          720545106                    

               Molecular and Cell Biology                                         Molecular and Cell Biology

                                 Science                                                             Science

 Protein Structure Function Research Unit                                         Protein Structure-Function

  Role of the linker region in GST proteins The structure and Stability of the transmembrane region of CLIC1.






                                                         Organic Chemistry
The development of novel pterin chemistry leading to potential dihydrofolate
                                                        reductase inhibitors




                                      Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences


                                                              Plant Systematics
Determination of morphological gaps and/ or continuities within the five related
     species of Barleria (Sect. Barleria Group 1) using morphological characters

                             Theresa                                                                     Franklin Ochuko
                             Offwood                                                                               Obazu



Computational and Applied Mathematics

                              Science                                                                             Science

     Advanced Mathematics of Finance                                                                                MCB

                       Risk Measures The development of a anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor for the production of biohydrogen
                                                       '315                                                     '275
                                                         Mr                                                       Ms

                                                   Vusumzi                                                    Trishya
                                                    Pakade                                              Owen-Smith
                                                    361640                                                 0510825K

                                                782200441                                                761772884


                                                  Chemistry                                             Geosciences

                                                    Science                                                  Science

                                   Environmental Chemistry                                             Geochemistry
Selective removal of chromium (VI) from sulphates and other A Deccan-related origin for the K-T boundary magmatism
               metal anions using an ion imprinted polymer                 of Silhouette and North Island, Seychelles
                                                    '380                                               '252
                                                      Mr                                                 Mr

                                                 Thabiso                                              Justin
                                                   Phadi                                           Pargeter
                                               0103799g                                           0315149p

                                             738345711                                           828736123


                                              Chemistry                                           GAES/IHE

                                                 Science                                            Science

                                                Catalysis                                      Archaeology
                                                            Assessing Macrofracture analysis as a method for
A new catalyst for the production of fuel for automobiles             identifying Stone Age hunting weapons
                                                  '425                                                               '339
                                                   Mr                                                                 Ms

                                             Adushan                                                                 Erica
                                                 Pillay                                                            Pierce
                                              402039                                                           9610284H

                                         8.50304E+12                                                          833361943


                                            Chemistry                                School of Molecular and Cell Biology

                                              Science                                                             Science

                                    Organic Chemistry                                    Microbiology and Biotechnology
                                                            Assessing global transcriptomic changes in response to South
The Synthesis of Potential Anti-tumour Naphthoquinones    African cassava mosaic virus in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana
                                                    '368                                                               '271
                                                     Ms                                                                  Mr

                                                  Ashira                                                          Adewumi
                                             Roopnarain                                                            Popoola
                                               0510100t                                                             407059

                                             848165633                                                          713094480


                              Molecular and Cell Biology                                                            Physics

                                                 Science                                                            Science

                               Microbiology - phycology                                              Computational Physics
      Effect of Nitrate on Lipid Production by Isochrysis   Computational Study of the Structural and Stability of the Noble
Galbana, a promising candidate for biodiesel production              Metal Alloys, X3Al where X = Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Rh and Ru.
                                                              '449                                        '372
                                                               Ms                                           Mr

                                                            Palesa                                         Piet
                                                             Seele                                      Sebola
                                                         0401475x                                      466061

                                                       824306141                                 073 717 3021


                                        Molecular and cell biology                                 Geoscience

                                                           Science                                     Science

                                                            PSFRU                                     Geology
     Probing interactions at the dimer interface required for HIV-1
subtype C protease structure, function and conformational stability   Uranium Characterisation in the Vaal Reef
                                                                '344                                                '366
                                                                  Mr                                                  Mr

                                                            Youtaro                                              Ahmed
                                                         Shibayama                                              Shaikjee
                                                           0111430x                                           0202918E

                                                      011-717-6365                                           828141870


                                          Molecular and Cell Biology                                          Chemistry

                                                             Science                                             Science

                                                  Microbial Genetics                                           Materials
Analyses of replicative and transfer functions of a broad-host-range,
                           rolling-circle-type nocardial plasmid pYS1   Insight into controlling the nano-world of carbon

                                                         Precious    Wisdom
                                                            Sibiya   Sibanda

                                                    078 776 7527



                                                          Science    Science

                               Analytical Environmentsl Chemistry
  Optimisation of the liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) for the
extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples
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                                          Physics                                                                Geosciences

                                          Science                                                                     Science

                                   Rocket Physics                                                              Palaeontology
modeling of the corona ionization space propulsion   Taxonomic identification of fossil hairs in Parahyaena brunnea coprolites
                                           system         from Middle Pleistocene deposits at Gladysvale Cave, South Africa
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                                         Anatomical Sciences                                                           chemistry

                                                      Science                                                            Science

                                                  Cell Biology                                              Materials chemistry
Effect of clomiphene citrate on the gene expression profile in   The synthesis of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes
   hormonally stimulated rat uteri receptive to implantation.            over Fe-Co/CaCO3 via catalytic pyrolysis of acetonitrile
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                  Molecular and Cell Biology                                                Chemistry

                                    Science                                                    Science

Protein Structure and Function Research Unit                     Electrochemistry and Crystallography
                                               Is there a correlation between species found in solution
 Unfolding and folding mechanisms of CLIC1                                          and in solid state?






The corrole ring: The synthesis and functionalisation of a
                                  biomimetic macrocycle



                                                                                                                     Oral Presentation PresentationTypeChoice1


Within the context of the university as a higher education institution,
differences in research productivity have been found to be associated
with a range of different factors associated with the individual (Rachal,
Shelley and David, 2008; Ramsden, 1994; Rothausen-Vange, Marler and
Wright, 2005); other factors within the institutional context (Dundar and
Lewis, 1998; Erdogan and Bauer, 2005; Hales, Shahrokh and Servis, 2005;
Hara, Solomon, Kim and Sonnenwald, 2003; Lucas, 2006; Rachal et al.,
2008; Rynes, Bartunek and Daft, 2001; Morton and Beard, 2005); Human
Resources Management practices (Laursen and Foss, 2003); and also
culture (Becher, 1989; Bland and Ruffin, 1992). According to Schein
(1996) the influence of culture in the complex interplay of factors
contributing to organisational productivity is typically under-appreciated.
This research seeks to extend theory relating to culture, as developed by
the Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness
(GLOBE) research studies (House, Javidan, Hanges and Dorfman, 2002),
further, into the South African university research context, whereby the
focus of this research is the investigation of the contribution of culture to
research productivity. Theory is developed through a grounded theory
research application, and thereafter theoretical relationships offered by
this process and the extant literature are tested in a quantitative
application, whereby direct, moderating and mediating relationships are
investigated and a typology of optimum research productivity in this
context is developed. Findings are related to Human Resources
Management theory, and recommendations for practice and further
research are made.

                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster
Beyond the statistics and polarized debates about employment equity lie                   ###
the lived experiences of real people. This study explores these
experiences through the construct of psychological empowerment. In this
regard it assesses individual perceptions of how much meaning,
competence, self determination, and impact they have in their jobs
(Conger and Kanungo, 1988). It explores possibilities of feelings of
marginalization in both black and white employees. The study proposes
the framing of employment equity in a constructive manner by fostering
shared organizational cultures and inclusiveness. It argues for the self
reflexivity and self conscious ‘depowerment’ (Huygens, 1997) of white
males in positions of power. The research posits that these experiences
are critical to the development of a ‘third space’ professional identity
(Brickson, 2000). The sample consists of sixty professional level
employees and management staff from two bank head offices. These will
be interviewed by the researcher and at least two focus groups will be
conducted. The banks Employment Equity (EE) reports and plans will also
be examined. The researcher will conduct scheduled observations of
employee interactions in common working spaces and cafeterias.
Participants will submit experiential journals. Following van Dijk (1998,
p.1) and Thompson (1990) critical discourse analytical methods will be

                                                                                                Oral / presented paper
According to UNCTAD World Investment Report (2009), global foreign
direct investment flows have been severely affected worldwide by the
economic and financial crisis. Inflows are expected to fall from US$1.7
trillion to below US$1.2 trillion in 2009, with a slow recovery in 2010 (to a
level up to US$1.4 trillion) and gaining momentum in 2011 (approaching
US$1.8 trillion).
In Africa, foreign direct investment inflows rose to a record level of
US$88 billion in 2008, despite the global financial crisis, resulting in an
increase of foreign direct investment stock in the region to US$511
billion. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions were an important
contributory factor in the increased inflows, more than doubled their
level of 2007 (UNCTAD, 2009). The transnational corporations, mainly
from Europe and to a lesser extent, Asia, stepped up mergers and
acquisitions of firms in the region in early 2008. The report further states
that, Inflows as a share of Africa’s gross fixed capital formation grew to
29% in 2008, from 27% in 2007.
In contrast, divestment by some African firms abroad reduced foreign
direct investment outflows from the region. A number of policy measures
adopted by several African countries continued to make the business
environment more conducive to foreign direct investment, both inward
and outward.
According to UNCTAD World Investment Report (2009), global foreign
direct investment flows have been severely affected worldwide by the
                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
Chikombe Courage Graduate School of Business Administration First                                                           ###
preference: Presented poster Second preference: Free standing poster An
analysis of the impacts of holistic diversity management on
organisational effectiveness. A correlation between an independent
variable holistic diversity management and depend variable
organisational effectiveness was looked at .The question how diverse is
the diversity in this organisation was measured using four main methods
the co-efficient of Variation ,Gini Index, Standard deviation and Blau’s.
These methods gave a holistic outlook of the composition of the
organisation which ranges from team level demographic composition to
operational definitions of other categorical diversity management
variables helping to critically see how diversity the organisation look like.
After this has been done the leadership/management style and strategies
this organisation uses to manage its diversity was looked at mainly
categorising the strategies in Rijamampiania(2010) process model of
interaction process, motivational process, visioning process and learning
process. In some cases as seen in the research some strategies will fall in
more than one category. The impact of these strategies on organisational
                                                                           free standing poster
Chinje, Nathalie Beatrice
Bick, Geoff
Wits Business School, Faculty of Law, Management and Commerce
First Preference : Free Standing Poster
Second Preference : Presented Poster/ Oral Presentation
The contextualization of Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Over the past decade, leading CRM scholars have emphasized the
importance of customer equity and
the benefits that companies can generate by becoming customer-centric
(e.g., Gupta & Lehmann, 2005;
Rust, Zeithmal, and Lemon, 2000; Sharp, 2003). Moreover, companies are
now advocating that to create
shareholders value, they have to ensure that they meet and exceed
customers’ expectations. Gupta and
Lehmann (2005, p. 2) point out that “without a customer, a firm has no
revenues, no profits and thus no
market value”.
This article reviews the literature on customer relationship management.
It emphasizes the shift of power
from the seller to the buyer whilst highlighting the main drivers behind
the buyer power influence.
Furthermore, it provides clarity on what has caused the popularity of
CRM in organisations.
The research methodology consisted of gleaning various papers that have
been published on the subject
The findings of this research show that by meeting and exceeding
customer needs, companies will not
                                                                             Oral/Presented Paper
The implementation of the Bus Rapid Transit Network system in the City
of Johannesburg of South Africa has once again raised some serious
public debates regarding the issue of public participation in government
policy making processes. Some members of the public especially some
sectors of the taxi industry have submitted that they were not part of the
conceptualization of the Bus Rapid Transit Network system stages. Some
sections of the taxi industry have voiced their concerns to consider
rejecting the implementation of the Bus Rapid Transit Network system.
The paper explains how transport policy design and implementation is
executed in government from conceptualization to conclusion and the
extent of public participation. The main departure point would be from
the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa in which government
departments are given a guide on how to orchestrate the issue of public
Section 195 (e) – in terms of the Basic values and principles governing
public administration – people’s needs must be responded to, and the
public must be encouraged to participate in policy-making”

The paper would approach the subject matter by firstly introducing
public participation in government policy making, and this would be
preceded by definition of various concepts and theoretical frameworks.
Various models of policy making processes and public participation would
be interrogated and critiqued. The design and implementation of
transport policy would further be discussed and this lastly be followed
by the recommendations and conclusion of the paper.
                                                                                                                               Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster
                                                                             Masters by coursework and research report
In 2008 with the restructuring of the South African school-leaving                                                       ###
curriculum, a number of sections of the Mathematics curriculum were
moved into an optional paper – Mathematics Paper 3. These sections
included Euclidean geometry, proofs, probability and statistics and were
removed owing to a shortage of skilled teachers. A consistent finding in
existing literature is that school mathematics is a robust and significant
determinant of success in Economics 1. This paper exploits the natural
experiment of the curriculum restructuring to investigate whether the
content of Mathematics Paper 3 is a significant determinant of success in
Economics 1. Ordinary least squares’ estimates suggest that those who
took Mathematics Paper 3 scored in the region of 7.6% better than other
students. Controlling for unobservable school characteristics (through
school fixed-effects) increases this to 10.3%. However, both of these
estimation techniques do not control for individual selection into
Mathematics Paper 3. Once this is done, through propensity score
matching, the difference falls to 3.7%.
                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                             Masters by coursework and research report
Kimberley’s natural phenomenon which could be the natural equivalent                                                     ###
of the ‘Big Hole’ as a tourist attraction and economical benefit are the
Lesser Flamingos of Kamfers Dam. This permanent population of Lesser
Flamingos is the largest in Southern Africa and needs to be protected and
conserved. An artificial breeding island was constructed by Ekapa Mining
in 2006, which is the first in Africa and third such island in the world.
There has been national and international interest in this contribution to
conservation. Kamfers Dam is registered as a Natural Heritage Site by the
South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Trade, an
important Bird area by Birdlife International and it may possibly become
a Ramsar site. There are threats of economic and social needs, and the
flamingo phenomenon is no different. The threats here are two tier,
more specifically, the first, the needs of housing, employment etc. of the
Roodepan Community which has resulted in the Northgate Development,
worth R2 billion, being proposed to be built near such an environmentally
sensitive dam will exacerbate the critical water quality problem that
exists as well as impact the environment negatively i.e. the flamingos and
other species in the short and long term. But the proposed development

                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster
Zimbabwe is currently facing socio-economic and political problems. This
has led people to migrate to neighbouring countries and to the West in
search of greener pastures. South Africa is one of the countries where
Zimbabweans are migrating to. With the increase in the number of
Zimbabweans coming to South Africa the South African government faces
challenges in managing, formulating and implementing its immigration
policies. This research aimed to examine the challenges faced by the
Methodist church in Central Johannesburg in dealing with the
Zimbabwean immigrants. A Case study research design was used to
accomplish the aims and objectives of the research. Primary and
secondary data collection was used to gather the information for the
research. This study intended to fill the gap regarding the challenges
faced by Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in dealing with
Zimbabwean immigrants in South Africa. The research findings show that
overcrowding, raiding by police and lack of resources are some of the
challenges faced by the Methodist church in assisting Zimbabwean
immigrants. In line with South Africa international and domestic
obligations in relation to human rights it is important for the government
to work with the church in dealing with the Zimbabwean immigrants. The
                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
The use of transnational supply chains has been perceived as the “mantra                              ###
for success” in the era of globalisation, changing customer demographics
and demand. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry has also
joined this bandwagon in order to gain competitive advantage. However,
the trade regimes of developing (emerging) economies have played a
significant role in establishing the context for the supply chains
originating in a particular country, and therefore in containing the
foreseen benefits accruing from supply chains becoming a transnational
process. The thesis is focused on identifying issues within selected
transnational FMCG supply chains originating in India and South Africa. It
also identifies the steps that supply chain managers are taking to address
these issues. The researcher has used a combination of analytical models
to investigate the different aspects of the various transnational supply
chains. The collective case study approach is used as the research
methodology. A total of four cases spanning two countries – India and
South Africa – and dealing with two product segments (packaged food
and personal care products) are studied. The most significant conclusion
is that there is considerable potential for achieving competitive
advantage by setting up transnational supply chains, provided that the

                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper
Virtual Team (VT) is a group of 2 or more people working on a common                                  ###
project/problem, collaborating remotely with the use of information
communication technology. VT face-to-face contacts are seldom required
in order for these teams to fulfil their tasks. VTs are growing in popularity
due to increased availability of technology and expected business
benefits. Their growing popularity attracts more and more research
interest, despite the fact that many aspects of this new phenomenon are
still under-researched. One of these aspects is the influence of cultural
diversity on team effectiveness. Existing literature on cultural diversity of
proximate teams indicates that cultural diversity plays an important role
in team productivity and requires understanding and appropriate
management. Different models exist for describing cultural diversity of a
work environment. Several authors have indicated that cultural diversity
questions are relevant for virtual teams as they often comprise of
members from different countries and/or people from different cultural
backgrounds. Existing cultural diversity theories for co-located
collaboration can be used as the basis for developing a theory of cultural
diversity for VT. I propose the application and evaluation of the existing
cultural diversity factors of language, attitudes towards time, power
distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance,
masculinity/femininity, short-term or long-term orientation, high and low
                                                                                           Presented poster
Robust, efficient and well coordinated institutional configurations are
crucial in the implementation of public policies. Policy implementation
requires collaborative and inter-sectoral support from different role
players. Empirical evidence from policy implementation research
suggests that policies supported by effective and efficient institutional
players are likely to yield intended results. Social and economic indicators
from studies that have been conducted on the status of older persons
post 2006 indicate that older persons feel insecure, neglected,
overburdened and impoverished. The effects of HIV/AIDS related
mortality has resulted in older persons being care givers to orphaned
children as well as becoming household heads. High rates of
unemployment and dependence on the old age grant further coin the
problem for older persons. The socio-economic indicators highlighted
above can be understood, somewhat, by studying the institutional
arrangements available to implement the older persons policy. Key in this
study was the roles, coordination and power configurations of different
institutional players in the implementation of the Older Persons Policy.
The study used a case study approach and was conducted in KwaZulu

                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                    Presented poster
has had definite policy successes and failures in the last sixteen years,
which will be interrogated with a view of making sense of such
contradictions and their implications for the role of the state as the key
producer of public policies and the challenges and pitfalls for policy
management. The study will explore and contrast the mainstream
Cartesian-Newtonian or close systems paradigm and the living systems
paradigm within this context. A new transdisciplinary) and
interconnected or universalist approach is postulated on the basis of the
latest scientific discoveries rather than the current mechanistic
fragmented paradigm.
                                                                                                                                       Freestanding poster
The Department of Home Affairs suffers from severe personnel shortage
and delivers poor service, which is aggravated by high personnel turnover
which came as a result of non-implementation of Retention Policy and
failure to fill critical vacant positions. Government, through departments
can deliver on its mandate provided basic values and principles in
governing public administration, good human resource management and
career development practices are maintained and promoted in order to
maximize and cultivate human potential. The research seeks to
understand the reasons for non-implementation of retention policy. The
development and implementation of retention policy needs proper
context and requires a clear understanding of influential factors
contributing towards a decision to remain or leave an organization. An
understanding of these factors guides the implementation framework of
the policy.This is an analysis of literature review complimented by
interview responses conducted with a convenient sample. Literature
review on retention, staff turnover, labour turnover, talent and
manpower was conducted. Relevant Journals were searched, followed by
interviews with Senior and Middle Managers of the Department
responsible for policy development and implementation.Authors argue
that high labour turnover is detrimental for any organization and needs to
Parliamentary oversight is fundamental to executive accountability in

                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                Presented poster
                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report

the utilisation of public resources. Public Accounts Committees (PAC)
within parliament play a crucial role in ensuring effective accountability in
this regard. This study sought to examine the oversight role of the Public
Accounts Committee of the Gauteng Provincial Legislature. In order to
achieve this purpose, primary and secondary data was collected through
structured interviews and review of relevant literature. The study found
that relations with other committees; time; and skilled support staff were
among factors which affected the committee’s oversight work. In
addition, it was evident that the PAC should employ mechanisms beyond
conventional ones in order to augment its oversight. This study is
significant in that it provides opportunities for further research on
parliamentary oversight and, in particular, the role of PACs. Furthermore,
the study contributes to broadening knowledge within the parliamentary
sector on alternative oversight mechanisms which are useful for
enhanced oversight. The study thus proposes that the PAC should be
adequately resourced (including time and skilled staff); should consider
the remainder of the annual report and not only financial statements;
improve its relationship with other committees of the House; and Auditor-
General in order to augment its oversight.
This study analyses the relevance of policy models in policy-making

                                                                                                                                                         Oral/Presented Paper
process for the demystification of a notion that a particular policy model
is relevant or irrelevant for a particular political system. The study is
premised on the research problem that, the elite/mass models are not
relevant to the new dispensation as they do not satisfy the participatory
process in post-apartheid South African policy-making process as the
majority are still excluded from participation. To authenticate the
foregoing assumption in a systematic manner, this study will commences
with the analysis of the problems that relate to the complexity nature of
policy-making process and the fact that it is interrelated with other
systems in the environment. The complex character of the nature of
policy-making within local government becomes even more daunting in a
fluid political system such as the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan
Municipality where there is pursuant of policy development and change.
An analysis of the relevance of the relevance of policy models in policy-
making process is important for understanding the originating of policy
models. Hence, it is deemed important for this study to consider the
epistemological conceptualisation of the specific key concepts relevant to
the study, namely; “public policy ”, “policy models” “policy-making
process”. Key variables relevant to analysis of policy models in policy-
making process are also considered. They are: “ the role of participants”,
“ the role of participation”, “the role of democracy”, and “the role of

                                                                               Dr H. Zandamela

                                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
                                                                                                 Masters by coursework and research report

South Africa is one of the countries in the world with a prevalence rate of
around 29 percent over the past three years. Statistics reflect that
Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) ranks second as a mode of
transmission for HIV. HIV testing is vital to the efforts to prevent MTCT as
it serves as an entry point into the available interventions. for HIV-
positive pregnant women. The purpose of the study was to understand
the reasons why pregnant women were not accepting voluntary HIV
testing The study explored how issues of informed
consent,confidentiality and choice affected testing decisions of pregnant
women. An interpretive qualitative study was undertaken. In-depth
interviews and document analysis were conducted at Mogwase Health
Centre in Moses Kotane Sub District. Nine participants participated in the
indepth interviews. Document analysis was conducted using clinic
documents relevant to the study in order to determine the HIV testing
trends for a six months period., with a focus on data elements that feed
into the indicator for HIV testing rate. The study revealed that almost all
participants expressed willingness to test and had already been tested.All
pregnant women felt it was important to test to protect the unborn baby.
                                                                               Freestanding poster
The South African government and citizens from all over the country are
occupied in various forms of public service delivery challenges. These
challenges promise to have far reaching implications for a wide range of
national, provincial and local concerns.The research explores the
advances in the human resource development legislative environment
emanating from the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
(Act 108 of 1996) The Constitution, 1996, calls for a public service that is
development-orientated, one that is characterised by good human
resource and career management practices. The purpose of the research
is to provide an indication of the impact that the human resource
development policies have had on the provision of service
delivery.However, despite clear constitutional and legislative provisions
for the functioning and development of local government in South Africa,
the rendering of essential services, particularly to the disadvantaged
communities after the establishment of democracy in South Africa since
1994, the development of local government is still problematic for some
municipalities. In fact, the recent wave of unrest at the local sphere of
government in South Africa questions the ability of municipalities to
provide basic services such as housing, sanitation, electricity and water to
local communities. This research focuses on the past and present
dilemmas in municipal service delivery as well as the possible underlying
                                                                           Oral/Presented Paper
South Africa is faced with housing problems as a result of a legacy of
poverty and inequality. This paper examines what has arguably become a
salient features on the monitoring and evaluation systems in the
Alexandra Renewal Project (ARP) on low-cost housing delivery in
Alexandra Township. The qualitative approach has been chosen in order
to collect in-depth information from the informants. The purpose of this
research is to examine the underlying challenges which affect the
monitoring and evaluation systems in the ARP and find out how these
challenges could be overcome in the delivery process.
                                                                             Presenter poster
Although major socio-economic reforms have been introduced in South
Africa over the last decade, women entrepreneurs continue to
experience challenges relating to skills development. Apparently, the lack
of business skills undermines growth of women‟s business ventures in
the construction sector. This industry may contribute to economic
growth and employment creation. The purpose of this research was to
identify and analyse the reasons for the shortage of skills among women
entrepreneurs in the Gauteng construction sector. The study was based
on the qualitative approach and interviews were utilised. The study
revealed four main reasons for the shortage of skills namely: social
background, inaccessibility of training information, nature of
entrepreneurship training programme, and inability to form business
networks. These reasons varied between the respondents. While the first
category of respondents had a better skills background and well managed
business ventures, the second group lacked the basic skills required to
run a business.
                                                                             Oral/Presented Paper

                                                                                                    Oral/Presented Paper
Social Work Professionals (SWP’s) in South Africa are struggling in
practice and disillusioned as they are not coping with the vocation since
they neither have sufficient proficiency nor resources to fully facilitate
their mandate. The prevailing socioeconomic environment and the
restrictions imposed by the social welfare policy enforce various
demands on their profession and the non profit sector. SWP’s who are
entrusted with the responsibility of humanizing the lives of the ailing
community are incapacitated, their role has grown far beyond its original
skill-base of rehabilitation and now incorporates entrepreneurial and
management responsibilities that they are not outfitted to accomplish,
(Earle, 2008; Briar, 1977, pp. 1529-1530; Legae, 2003; Wolf, (1999). Two
studies were conducted, a preliminary exploration to diagnose the extent
of the problem and investigate the best concepts to accurately tackle the
SWP’s skills incongruity. The pilot study’s unanimous outcome irrefutably
recommended Social Entrepreneurship as a comprehensive model to
intergrate social value creation with business imperatives to phrase the
competence needed to address this need, (Steyaert and Hjorth, 2006;
Dees, Emerson and Economy, 2001, 2002; Defourney, 2000; Drayton,
2002). Subsequently, a main study was conducted to hone in on the
proposed unit of analysis with scholars specialising in Social
Entrepreneurship, to methodically interrogate the concept and customise
relevant aspects to the South African socioeconomic and political
environ. The main study has accentuated social entrepreneurship
incorporating in general anddevelopment as comprehensive concepts to
Procurement management tender criteria – selective purchasing – in

                                                                             Oral/Presented Paper
particular, is an instrument that is used to achieve non-economic goals.
South Africa introduced affirmative action policies under the auspices of
the Employment Equity Act No. 55 of 1998 to redress the imbalances
created by apartheid. The goals of affirmative action, black economic
empowerment and preferential procurement included wealth
redistribution through the promotion of SMMEs that are owned by
previously disadvantaged communities. Small black contractors that grow
and expand their businesses may create wealth for previously
disadvantaged communities such that redistribution of wealth is achieved
and more employment opportunities are created.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether preferential
procurement through its evaluation criteria is promoting black economic
empowerment in housing procurement or not. The researcher examined
the relevant legislation and policies, and interviewed builders of RDP
houses in Ekurhuleni. The findings revealed conflict in BBBEE Act and
preferential procurement. While the former aims at promoting
participation of previously disadvantaged black contractors, the latter
discourages this through its evaluation criteria. The evaluation criteria
place too much emphasis upon price and do not include business skills.
                                                                                Freestanding poster
Barberton district in South Africa has an abundance of gold deposits.
Illegal mining has over the years been a cause for concern with too many
deaths resulting in the cause of making business. The syndicates and
gangsters due to their monopoly as providers of such services and
products have contributed to the downfall of the quality of production, in
Barberton gold mines.
This study will focus on the review of related literature. The factors that
impact negatively on poor productivity, of the state organs, entrusted to
deal or charged with responsibilities, of attending to the effects of illegal
gold mining, are to be identified. The study will primarily be centered, on
assessing the impact, of factors affecting organisational productivity of
the gold mines. It will explain causes of illegal mining, how illegal mining
impacts on organisational productivity and employee perception towards
productivity.The research will use a qualitative method focusing primarily
on the effort to understand situations in their uniqueness as part of a
particular context and the interactions. This is also because it attempts to
understand and make sense of the phenomenon from the participant’s
perception.It is in this context that the research will use explanatory
design because the purpose is to explain why events occur and to build,
elaborate and extend or test theory. As the data collection advances, the

                                                                                Freestanding poster
South Africa has seen introduction of various policies and laws aimed at
redressing the injustices of the past after 1994. In 2004, a human-rights-
oriented Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 was promulgated, which
introduced transformation of procedures and processes in mental health
care in South Africa. The Act aims to restore the lost plight of mental
health care users. Yet mental health in South Africa remains a stepchild of
the health services. Not much progress has been realized regarding
implementation of the Act.
The objective of the study is to bridge the gap between the mental health
legislation and practice in South Africa and develop an evaluation and
monitoring tool on the implementation of the Act for the Department of
This study will be divided into three phases. In phase 1, the content and
the processes in drafting and implementing the legislation will be
analyzed against the criteria set by the World Health Organization (WHO)
in order to identify deviations. The poor implementation of the Act may
be attributed to the deviations in the Act.
Both qualitative and quantitative research designs will be used to analyze
the gap. The study will identify barriers to the implementation of the Act.
Specific focus will be on the content regarding the human rights of the
mental health care users and the processes followed during the drafting
and implementation of the Act.
Progress regarding the implementation of the Act in terms of
governance, infrastructure, access and patient care will be analyzed in
                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
                                                                             Prof. kalu OJAH (Superviser)

                                                                                                            Masters by coursework and research report
Background: Acquisition pattern analysis (APA) of financial services is a                                                                               ###
new field with no academic research in SA. Most studies are from
developed countries. These also looked at effects of demographic factors
on acquisition. Method: Using data from the 2008 All Media and Products
Survey, we applied multi-linear regression in investigating the effects of
demographic factors on customer acquisition of financial services in SA,
and applied Mokken scaling to investigate the extent to which there is a
discernible acquisition patter+L2n. Demographic findings showed that
income, education, and age were highly significant factors in the
acquisition of financial services. Marriage and presence of children were
key determinants in home ownership and presence of a mortgage facility.
Vehicle financing decreased with age and was negatively correlated with
home ownership. However, home ownership was significant in the
acquisition of a garage card. The findings showed that income was a
necessary but not a sufficient variable in enhancing ownership of
investment products. Also necessary is education. Age showed
significance as well, suggesting that disadvantages of lack of formal
education wear out as practical experience in financially taking care of
oneself increases. APA findings supported existence of a pattern in

                                                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster
Generally, much work has been done on the subject of HIV/AIDS and its
impact on communities. There is however little attention given to the
epidemic’s impact on the elderly who usually bear the burden of taking
care of HIV/AIDS orphans. This study will therefore explore the impact of
HIV and AIDS on elderly (grandparents) caregivers. The study will further
investigate the role of social protection as a support mechanism for
elderly caregivers of HIV/AIDS orphans. Using Malawi as a case study, the
study will be exploratory in nature and will rely on qualitative data
collection methodologies such as focus group discussion and interviews
with the elderly caregivers of HIV/AIDS orphans. It is hoped that through
this study, the findings will inform policy options with the aim of
supporting the need of the grandparents. In documenting this study, it is
also hoped that others will find a stepping-stone for conducting further
verifications of international policies that would support the survival of
grandparents in the HIV and AIDs crisis.
                                                                                          Oral / presented paper
Abstract maximum length 250 wordsEarnings Management Preliminary                    ###
Evidence from South Africa Elaine Rabin and Minga Negash ABSTRACT
This paper investigates the distribution of South African earnings and the
methods used for the identification of earnings management in previous
studies. The earnings of firms listed on the Johannesburg Securities
Exchange (JSE) between 1988 and 2009 are examined, and we find that a
discontinuity in the distribution of earnings around zero exists
irrespective of the deflators used or the definition of earnings.
Furthermore, a discontinuity in the data exists when the kernel density
estimation suggested by Lahr (2010) is applied to the data. Hence, like
their international counter parts South African firms manage their
earnings usually upwards. Thereafter, the Modified Jones Model
(Dechow, Sloan and Sweeney, 1995;) and the piecewise linear regression
models of Ball and Shivakumar (2006) were used to identify discretionary
accruals which were combined with the Phillips, Pincus and Rego(2003)
model to explore whether deferred tax expense, total accruals or
discretionary accruals is incrementally useful in detecting earnings
management. We find that in a setting of earnings management to avoid

                                                                                          Freestanding poster
Policies to control irregular migration continue to be implemented by
various governments despite criticism that these policy measures are
Most researchers caution that these policies are costly and do not
discourage unauthorised migration. Much research on irregular
movements between the United States and Mexico has been done.
Lessons from these studies show us that US restrictions to curb
undocumented migration have not yielded any success instead these
measures were counteracted through other illegal means.
South Africa pursues various immigration policy controls, such as
screening at ports of entry, internal law enforcement, deportations and
regularisations. The immigration policy requires that immigrants must
enter the country at designated borders and produce legal documents
such as passports, visas and permits at these ports of entry. These control
measures are often violated and success of regularisation in reducing
migration flows is also difficult to prove.
These control measures need to be investigated against competing
economic and sociological theories. Most researchers have relied on the
statistics of deportations of undocumented migrants. Thus research on
undocumented migration is challenged by providing credible statistics on
undocumented migrants
It becomes questionable whether policy on immigration controls is able
                                                                                                                                      Oral/Presented Paper
My first proposed paper seeks to analyze the historical context of the
public policy making in Zimbabwe so as to shade light on what must be
avoided going into the future. The paper will seek to draw key lessons
towards achieving Zimbabwe’s developmental aspirations. Treading on
the historical path, the paper will look at the state and the economy in
four epochs; firstly looking at the colonial regime state and economy
from 1965 ‘Isolation Period’ till 1980, secondly the ‘Zimbabwe’s
Independence Decade’ (1980 – 1990) whereby the new leaders seemed
(initially) unable to reorient the inherited colonial structures towards
developmental ends, thirdly the 90s ‘Adjustment Decade’, and finally the
‘Crisis Decade’ which sees Zimbabwe as an extreme case of post-colonial
institutional decay, this officially ended in 2008 upon the consummation
of the GPA. In brief the paper will look into the descendant ‘Power
Sharing/ Transition Phase’ as the basis for an introspection into the
future. The paper will analyze the policRego(2003) model to explore
whether deferred tax expense, total accruals or discretionary accruals is
incrementally useful in detecting earnings management. We find that in a
setting of earnings management to avoid a loss, deferred tax is
Abstract maximum length 250 words ABSTRACT When the new

                                                                                                                                      Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper
                                                                              Masters by coursework and research report

government took over in 1994, it had to transform health services in line
with Primary Health Care (PHC) approach, ensuring the provision of
equitable health services. In order to address the shortage of doctors, the
governments of Republics of South Africa and Cuba signed a Declaration
of Intent (DOI) in 1996 on cooperation in the field of Health. One
component of this cooperation was to train previously disadvantaged
South Africans from rural areas in Cuba. Ten years ago, thirty South
Africans from Gauteng with others from other provinces, were sent to
Cuba to study medicine. For six years these medical students were
groomed in the Cuban health care system which focuses on prevention
and wellness. In the seventh year of their training they returned to South
Africa to complete the course in an environment that emphasizes
curative services and strong clinical competency. They had to learn, catch
up with and master clinical skills that their South African counterparts
have been honing for years. Because they were trained in one system and
expected to practice in another, they had re-adapt to local universities
and health care system. The research question was to what extent, if any,
have these students been able to integrate their learning into the South
African health care system? The purpose of this research was to
                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
The paper will explore the methodlogical choices of a qualitative                                                                     ###
approach. When shoudl action learning, case studies, grounded theory be
used ? How does one determine which approach would be best? What
are the advantages and disadvantages of one approach over the other?

                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
                                                                             Aylit Romm

                                                                                          Masters by coursework and research report
Wolny, Martha Romm, Aylit School of Economic and Business Sciences                                                                    ###
First preference: Oral / presented paper Second preference: Presented
poster The Impact of Later Retirement Ages on Aggregate Saving Rates:
An Analysis of OECD Countries As a result of population aging,
governments of many developing countries are beginning to implement
policies to increase average retirement ages in an attempt to alleviate
some of the financial strain in supporting retirees. One such policy is to
increase the normal retirement age. This paper explores the effect that
later retirement ages have on aggregate savings. Using a two-wave panel
of OECD countries, the results show that later retirement ages have the
effect of decreasing aggregate savings. In addition, increases in female
retirement ages contribute more significantly to declines in aggregate
savings than increases in male retirement ages.
                                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
                                                                                                   Masters by coursework and research report
The development of small and medium-sized enterprises is of great                                                                              ###
national importance for South Africa. Not only do SMEs constantly create
new job opportunities, but they play an tremendously important social-
economic role. Small and mid-sized companies require adequate
financing in order to remain com-petitive, to seize growth-opportunities
and, most importantly, to survive economically. In order to promote
economic growth and fight unemployment, fostering domestic
entrepreneurship has become an essential goal of governments all
around the world. Entrepreneurship and the creation of small and mid-
sized companies are widely recognized by both, policy makers and
economists as means of achieving economic growth (Stel 2006, page 1).
These are therefore areas of great importance for countries with
extraordinarily high rates of unemployment, such as South Africa with an
official unemployment rate of 24% in 2009 and several Latin American
countries whose official unemployment rates in the year 2009 vary from
5.6% in Mexico, 9.5% in Argentina to 10% in Chile (CIA 2010, The World
Factbook). The scope of this thesis is restricted to the examination of
financing of SMEs in the economic regions of South America and South
Africa. The overall goal of this study is to identify solutions to the

                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                                                                            Presented poster
                                                                                Dwolatzky, Barry

Electricity demand in developing countries is expected to rise significantly
by the year 2020. The century-old power grids were not designed to
meet modern requirements. The current need to use electricity more
efficiently and to introduce “green” sources of energy is not well
supported by existing grid technology. A particular problem is that
detailed information about consumption of electricity is not provided to
electricity users and network operators. This is one of the prime reasons
for electricity wastage. Research has shown that significant benefits were
achieved when consumers were provided with their electrical energy
consumption details. The “Smart Grid” concept is a solution to this
problem. Smart Grid solutions at this moment in time are expensive to
deploy. For developing countries it is particularly difficult to benefit from
Smart Grid solutions. This research proposes a system that can be used in
developing economies as a way of reducing the consumption and
wastage of electricity. The solution uses cell phones as an instrument to
both display information and allow consumers to control appliances in
their homes.
                                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
                                                                              Prof W A Cronje
Electric Motors and Machines play a dominant role in modern societies.                                                ###
Electric motors are present in many items, from cell phones to space
shuttles. While electric motors are ubiquitous, some disadvantages are
still present in the manufacture and efficiencies of motors. The
Reluctance Synchronous Machines (RSM) presents a solution to these
disadvantages. The theory for RSMs has been available for quite some
time however, the development of an actual machine for mass
production has not been possible until quite recently. The advent of
power electronic components and variable speed drives (VSD) for the
induction machine has made it possible to design an RSM for commercial
purposes. These technological advancements have allowed an RSM to be
designed at the University of the Witwatersrand specifically for use in
mine shuttle vehicles. A motor prototype has been built with help from
an industrial partner. This prototype requires a control system in order to
operate in an industrial environment such as a mine. The research in
RSMs is to design a control system for the RSM that can be used in mine
vehicles. The control systems to be researched include Maximum Torque
Control (MTC), Maximum Rate of Change of Torque Control (MRCTC),
Maximum Power Factor Control (MPFC) and sensor-less control.
                                                                               Presented Poster

                                                                                                  Oral/Presented Paper
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon which can be
conceptualized as graphite sheets which have been rolled into a cylinder.
Since their discovery, progressively more research has gone into their
production and applications in a wide variety of fields.

Of the three main methods of producing carbon nanotubes, namely,
carbon arc discharge, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and laser
ablation, CVD gives the best means to modify the process for continuous
production. For this modified process, a ferrocene catalyst, xylene carbon
source and Argon carrier gas were chosen. This work also utilizes a
vertical Swirled-Fluid CVD reactor as opposed to the more common
horizontal reactor.

After finding the most promising temperatures to be used to be in the
region of 900-950oC from initial experiments, hydrogen was added to the
feed and the experiments repeated. The most promising results were
found at 900oC where samples showed the presence of reasonably large
amounts of nanotubes present in the reactor and combinations of helical
and straight nanotubes of larger diameter were found in the reactor
product. This is assumed to be due to the larger lateral surface area
provided by the helix structure giving a larger probability of being lifted
out the reactor by the carrier gas. Although this work gives promising
means for advancement of a completely continuous synthesis process,
further work is required to produce a continuous process producing
higher quality product as these results still contain a much larger fraction
of nanoballs.
                                                                                                                      Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
                                                                              Prof. W.A. Cronje, Prof. M.A. van Wyk
The existing power distribution system is currently experiencing shortfalls                                                                 ###
that necessitate a rapid refurbishment. This can be achieved by
implementing a Smart Grid system. One of the requirements of a Smart
Grid system is the more efficient distribution of available power and
reduction of peak power demand (which can be considered energy
management). Load forecasting was used to fulfil this requirement. In
order to perform the desired load forecasting a short-term load
forecasting algorithm needed to be implemented. It was required that
the algorithm was capable of predicting the load for the following day,
using power data acquired from Schneider power meters installed in the
Chamber of Mines building at the University of the Witwatersrand. The
initial algorithm developed used a Fuzzy Logic system with three input
sets for fuzzification, sixteen ‘Mamdani’-type inference rules and the
Mean of Maximum defuzzification technique. This algorithm achieved a
total power error of 4.19% and an average peak energy error of 5.23%.
Further work is being conducted to enhance the algorithm to reduce the
errors in prediction. This includes incorporating weather data obtained
from the South African Weather Service (since there is a strong
correlation between power demand and weather phenomena), as well as
introducing a training algorithm into the Fuzzy Logic system to allow it to
become adaptive and effectively ‘learn’ from historic data.


                                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
                                                                              S.E.Iyuke & D.Lindsay
The production of bioethanol derived from biomass and fermentation is                                                                       ###
becoming increasingly popular due to the application in the motor-fuel
industries. The present work, therefore aimed to investigate level of
bioethanol produced from bitter sorghum grains by the use of
commercial exogenous enzymes and to evaluate the microbial quality of
sorghum processing. A temperature-programmed mashing regime was
carried out using a dual-enzyme combination of Cerezyme Sorghum and
Fungamyl 800L for the hydrolysis of sorghum starch. Subsequently,
bioethanol was produced by fermenting the hydrolysate with either
S.cerevisiae or Issatchenkia orientalis. HPLC analyses showed the
presence of fructose, glucose and maltose. This indicated that bitter
sorghum grains can be converted to fermentable sugars using these
particular enzymes. At Day 5, maximum ethanol was obtained during
fermentation using S. cerevisiae and at Day 12, maximum ethanol was
obtained during fermentation by I. orientalis. Both yeast species are
capable of fermenting the available sugars, producing a maximum
ethanol yield of 7%(v/v). At the post-mashing stage, no microbial
contaminants were found to be associated with the process. At the post-
fermentation stage, plate counts showed microbial counts between 5.00-
                                                                                                                 Masters by research
                                                                             Kienhöfer, Frank; Nordengen, Paul

                                                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
South African heavy vehicle legislation, like much of the world, uses                                                                                        ###
prescriptive limits on the maximum dimensions and overall mass of road
freight vehicles. Research has shown that the Performance Based
Standards (PBS) approach allows greater scope for innovative design of
vehicles that are safer, more productive and have a reduced negative
impact on the environment and road infrastructure. This is illustrated
through the preliminary design of a South African PBS vehicle to
transport large-bore welded steel pipes. The design approach has drawn
extensively from the PBS measures developed in Australia. Nevertheless,
the design conforms to South African axle load and bridge formula
legislation. Simple analytical equations, based on geometry and previous
empirical research, were used to optimise the payload and PBS
performance measures: an efficient and novel design approach. Using the
optimisation model, an A-double design was shown to exceed all of the
PBS safety requirements with a 50% increase in payload and 35%
reduction in fuel consumption over the baseline vehicle. This optimised
solution was verified using TruckSim 8.0. The predictions from the
optimisation model were highly accurate with the exception of SRT and
upper limit for RA, which were reasonably accurate. Once verified, the

                                                                             Prof Nicola Wagner

                                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
                                                                                                                 Masters by coursework and research report
Abstract Underground coal gasification (UCG) is assessed as a new                                                                                            ###
technology for unlocking coal seams that are deeply buried underground
and those which are covered by complex geological settings making it
impossible to be exploited by use of conventional mining method. The
assessment of this technique is based on the literature analysis from
previous UCG trials all over the world. The objective of the assessment is
mainly focused on considering factors which can be useful in the
selection of potential UCG sites in South Africa. The preferred coal
geological factors for UCG purpose include coal seam thickness of more
than 2m and seam depth of greater 100m, and the high angle seam
inclination. Also coal properties play role in UCG development. These
include low rank coal, high volatile matter and non-swelling coals which
were analysed using Petrography and XRD, TGA, Ultimate analysis and
BET. The geological and hydrological condition of the area under
consideration is very important. If these conditions are not carefully
analysed before implementation of UCG process, this can result in
groundwater contamination and land subsidence. It is to these reasons
that wireline logging was assessed for its feasibility to evaluate the
subsurface condition of UCG site, and have proved to be feasible. From
the literature analysis it has been noted that major factors which are
                                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper
                                                                            Prof. Nicola Wagner, Dr. Shehzaad Kauchali
The kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis of South African Coal, Biomass,                                                                        ###
and blends thereof are determined using the Distributed Activation
Energy Model. Experiments were conducted at different constant heating
rates in a Thermo-gravimetric analyzer, with the information obtained
being supplied to the algorithm. The model is capable of computing the
activation energy, E, and pre-exponential factor, A, for each parallel
reaction during the thermal decomposition of the fuel, as well as
determining the mass of volatiles released. By running the algorithm with
the data obtained from TGA experiments at very low heating rates, high-
resolution images and near-isothermal conditions can be obtained. The
model is also capable of determining the amount of biomass or coal in a
biomass-coal/coal-coal blend sample. The model is tested on (i)
imaginary data from simulated TGA experiments with one or more first-
order reactions, and (ii) real data from thermo-gravimetric experiments
conducted on a typical South African Coal, Biomass, and different mass-
composition blends of coal-coal, and coal-biomass. For the two scenarios,
the model gives outstanding predictions of the kinetic parameters, as
well as the behaviour of the fuel at extremely high heating rates. It was
also found that the relationship between increasing biomass composition
and area under the derivative TGA curve is linear. The model is thus a
useful tool to determine pyrolysis kinetics and for determining the
concentration of biomass or coal in a mixed sample.

                                                                                                                         Masters by research
                                                                            Dr L. Jewell

                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
The sorptive removal of nickel ions from solutions containing 1-100mg/L                                                                        ###
using natural and pretreated clinoptilolite (Na+, K+ , and Ca2+ homoionic
forms) was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function of
solute concentration and different zeolite masses. The equilibrium
distribution was determined by contacting tared amounts of clinoptilolite
(2g batches to 100mL of solution) with a known concentration of Ni2+
until equilibrium was reached. The equilibrium concentration of the
solution was analysed for Ni2+ using atomic absorption spectroscopy and
results conveniently presented by plotting ion exchange isotherms. The
cation exchange capacity of this zeolite was determined to be 2.45×10-3
eq/g from XRF major elemental analysis. A comparison of the isotherms
for the Na+-Ni2+, K+-Ni2+, Ca2+-Ni2+ and natural-Ni2+ systems gives us
insight into how the displaced ion affects the selectivity of the
clinoptilolite for Ni2+. The Na+-Ni2+ isotherm indicates a strong
selectivity for Ni2+ through the entire range of zeolite composition.
Keywords: Clinoptilolite; lon exchange; Nickel removal
                                                                               Ken Nixon, Ian Jandrell

                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
Lightning activity over southern Africa is measured by a network of                                            ###
sensors owned and operated by the South African Weather Service. The
statistical distribution of lightning current parameters over southern
Africa is quantified. A self-consistent method for the analysis of lightning
stroke data sets is presented, including results from the South African
Lightning Detection Network. This novel method is valid over the diurnal
cycle and the separate development of intracloud lightning and cloud-to-
ground lightning for southern Africa is computed. From this diurnal cycle
a model for the distribution of charge in lightning producing clouds is
derived and applied to day and storm time scales.
                                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
                                                                              Masters by coursework and research report
Income from operating theatres is a major source of revenue for private                                                   ###
hospitals. Efficiency and utilisation of theatres directly influences
revenues, as income is only generated whilst a theatre is in use. A
perception exists in the minds of surgeons, that they lack “theatre time”.
It was the objective of this study to determine the feasibility of finding
more operating time for surgeons, which would also increase billable
minutes for the hospital. The hospital database yielded extensive
relevant data from August 2007 to the present. This was processed using
data mining techniques which found that theatre utilisation was 46.7%
and that 19.6% of procedures accounted for 79.4% of theatre time.
Furthermore it found that on average doctors use only 105.3 minutes of
their allocated six hours (360 minutes). Based on the results, operational
improvements were recommended using Industrial Engineering
techniques, such as lean and scheduling techniques to improve resource
utilisation and to “find time”. The results show that major improvements
are possible by optimising any of the following areas: theatre utilisation,
loading balance, scheduling (surgeon, resource and procedure), discipline
in adhering to schedules, targeted instrument preparation and packing,
and targeting the most common procedures. A computer simulation
evaluated the outcomes of the study and it is believed that an
improvement of 28% in utilisation and turnover is achievable.
                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                       freestanding poster
Carbon nanotube films can be produced on stainless steel wires though in
situ CVD reaction in two ways. Firstly; deposition of nanotubes formed
using an external catalyst and secondly; though direct synthesis using the
stainless steel surface as the catalyst for nanotube growth. Carbon
nanotube films were produced on type 304 stainless steel wire using in
situ deposition in a vertical chemical vapour deposition reactor at 8500C.
The nanotubes were produced using acetylene as the carbon source,
ferrocene catalyst and argon as a carrier gas. SEM examination of the
nanotube films showed that the arrangement of nanotubes at the surface
of the film is horizontal and random, however the nanotubes are formed
perpendicular to the surface of the film. The thickness of the films ranged
from 50 to 100 microns thick and the diameter of the tubular carbon
structures ranged from 50 nanometers (nanotubes) to a few microns
(microfibers). Electron microscopy also showed that the use of argon as a
carrier gas decreased the amount of non-tubular carbon structures
formed on the surface of the film. The films were found to be stable in
distilled water, however the films were highly susceptible to mechanical
wear through handling. Direct synthesis of carbon nanotubes on stainless
steel requires the oxide layer to be broken down to expose the surface of
the steel to the carbon source. This research found that in addition to
minimal nanotube formation, this process can leave the stainless steel
surface vulnerable to corrosion.

                                                                                                                                    Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
Mainline Afrikaans Protestant churches descend from the strictly                                     ###
Calvinistic Dutch Reformed Church of Amsterdam which eschewed
figurative or symbolic decoration. The Witbank Dutch Reformed Church,
Mpumalanga, was founded in 1919. WB Anderson designed the building,
built by Vos (1923). The plain, arched windows were an alteration from
Anderson’s leaded lancet design. In 1960-63 architect DP Kesting did
major refurbishments and introduced window designs depicting the
church calendar theme, painted on pla+L27te glass with impermanent
Glassparence paints. During the restoration starting in 2004, A Janse van
Rensburg was commissioned to remake certain windows using durable
stained glass techniques, redesigning symbols that could be associated
with Freemasonry. In tracking changes made to the Witbank Dutch
Reformed Church building between 1923 and 2009, one finds
correlations with shifts in theological approaches to symbolism and with
changes in the socio-political and religious climate. This case study
describes and analyses the visual meaning of the stained glass windows in
the overall architectural context at each point of change, concluding that
perceptions of meaning changed over time. Changing socio-religio-
political circumstances largely prompted design changes. Laity
increasingly engaged with the meaning expressed in their church building.

                                                                                John Ndiritu

                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
With increased demand for food, residential and commercial space                                     ###
associated with growing population sizes, inevitably the requirement for
land has increased. This is increasingly leading to the use of floodplains to
meet these requirements. The use of floodplains by people for social or
economic purposes such as settlements and farmlands has, regrettably,
associated with it the risk of loss of human and animal lives as well as
damage to property in the event of a flood. This necessitates the
implementation of appropriate flood mitigation measures when a flood
event is anticipated. For these measures to be undertaken effectively, it
is critical to develop tools that produce reliable and timeous flood
forecasts. However, as a consequence of the reliance on hydrological
models by most flood forecasting systems to represent the rainfall-runoff
transformation process, uncertainties arise since these mathematical
models are imperfect and simplistic representations of complex physical
systems based on our current limited understanding of hydrology. It is
therefore imperative that any flood forecasting approach incorporates
and accounts for the uncertainties so as to improve reliability of flood
forecasts. In this study, a framework for explicitly incorporating and
accounting for the uncertainties inherent in the flood forecasting process
                                                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                               T Matambo, D Hildebrandt, D Glasser and K Rumbold
South Africa and the world at large are in a dire need to abate                                                                                          ###
unprecedented CO2 levels that are believed to be causing unstable
environment, phenomena generally called climate change. Microalgae
are photosynthetic aquatic microorganism. They are promising to be a
sustainable means of mitigating green house gas emissions and their
biomass has valuable uses ranging from biofuels, organic fertilizers, stock
feeds and nutriceuticals. They are several factors affecting microalgae
growth which includes nitrogen, phosphate, carbon, light, temperature
and micronutrients. A thorough understanding of the microalgae growth
limiting factors is important to give information to engineers to design
efficient green house gas emission abatement strategies. The amount of
nitrogen ions required to achieve optimal growth rate and maximum
biomass yields need to be investigated and quantified. In this study an
unknown green microalgae was collected and isolated from
Johannesburg Zoo Lake, South Africa. Batch experiments to determine
the effect of nitrogen ions species and concentration were carried in
Phytotron growth chambers with fixed light intensity and temperature at
6000 lux and 25°C respectively for 12 hours photoperiod. Microalgae
growth was assessed by measuring the optical density at 680nm. The

                                                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster
                                                                               Abbas, Ronald; Hildebrandt, Diane
The Column Profile Map Eigenvectors (CPM-E) technique is utilised to                                                                                     ###
determine the minimum energy demand for multicomponent distillation
systems. The Column Profile techniques employed allow for a graphical
approach. The minimum flow regime calculated for any conventional
distillation column is calculated is applicable to any product distribution,
from sharp to non-sharp splits and hence pertains to any class of
separation. The CPM-E technique can be applied to all operating
conditions and is suitable for complex thermally coupled column
arrangements such as Petlyuk and Kaibel Columns. The technique
provides an accurate and efficient short-cut method for minimum reflux
ratio determination without the need for rigorous column simulations.
Reflux ratios calculated using the CPM-E technique are identical to those
found with Underwood’s equations for ideal thermodynamics. Further
development can extend the technique to non-ideal thermodynamics.
                                                                              Iyuke Sunny, Cluett John

                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
Latest trends in the chemical engineering industry and academia has                                                                                    ###
been focused on the desire for a cleaner production processes coupled
with an increased yield of the desired product. The past decades has seen
significant efforts devoted to the development of processes and
methodologies that aim to reduce emissions and waste, and also reduce
operating capital cost for a variety of chemical process industries (e.g.
biochemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries,
etc). Biochemical processes presents an opportunity for cleaner
production. Although they present this opportunity, the issue of
sustainable development worldwide has stimulated researchers and
engineers to make greater effort to reduce the cost/benefit-ratio for
development and manufacturing of bio-industrial processes both
economically and environmentally. One of the problems with
biochemical process feeds is their intrinsic characteristic to compete with
food industry for resources like arable land and water. Poor performance
of bioprocesses during scale-up production is what has been hampering
development in the field as well. Process optimization presents a good
opportunity in dealing with the mentioned challenges. Although

                                                                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster
                                                                              Iyuke Sunny E; Yah, Clarence S; Sibanda Vusumuzi
Mamvura Tirivaviri Augustine Iyuke Sunny E; Yah, Clarence S; Sibanda                                                                                   ###
Vusumuzi School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Free standing
poster Presented poster Oral presentation Yeast cell immobilisation on
carbon nanotubes for fermentation processes Flocculation of yeast is
usually observed at the end of fermentation and is of great importance in
brewing and ethanol production. It can occur naturally or induced
artificially by different agents. The focus of the study was to investigate
the immobilisation of yeast cells onto Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using
flocculation method. CNTs can be used as artificial agents to induce
flocculation of yeast cells because they are increasingly being recognised
as promising materials for catalysis, either as catalysts themselves, as
catalyst additives or as a catalyst support. The CNTs were synthesised by
Chemical Vapour Deposition method at 800oC, 844ml/min acetylene
flowrate, 20minutes reaction time, and characterised by Transmission
Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman Spectroscopy. Yeast cells were
immobilised onto CNTs by flocculation method to produce biocatalysts at

concentration with free cells as the control. Presence of calcium ions
gave good flocculation but glucose delayed onset of flocculation by
between 4 and 5 days. The flocculated cells were characterised by
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fermentation was conducted using
biocatalysts and free cells and free cells produced more ethanol than
biocatalysts at both 15 and 30oC: 2.49% (v/v) against 1.56% (v/v) at 15oC
but these values were less than those in literature 5.50% (v/v) for free
                                                                               S.E. Iyuke

                                                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
Water is one of the most important resources on our planet and it is                                                                                        ###
needed by everybody for the most basic means of survival. And yet many
people do not have access to clean water in some parts of the world.
Membrane filtration has been a widely used method for water
purification. During membrane filtration there are two problems that
stand out, membrane fouling and concentration polarisation. Fouling is
when undesirable materials are deposited on the membrane surface
because the rejected particles are not transported back into the bulk
stream. Concentration polarisation is the formation of a gel layer on the
membrane immediately when the solution comes into contact with the
membrane. This research is focussed on the formulation, casting,
characterization, testing and modelling of a carbon nanotube (CNT)
modified membrane used for water purification and the design of a
cylindrical cross-flow membrane module with high speed rotating flow
which will decrease the effects of concentration polarisation and fouling.
CNTs will be synthesized by using the catalytic vapour deposition (CVD)
process at the temperatures range: 800oC – 900oC. The phase inversion
method is used to prepare the membranes. A polysulfone membrane will
be prepared first and a thinner polyvinylalcohol membrane will be
crosslinked on top. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) will be used
to verify the production of carbon nanotubes and the existence of these
materials in the membrane blends. The scanning electron microscope

                                                                                                                                      Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
                                                                               Ivry Gledhill, Linda Jewell, Kevin Land, Edward Moss
Microfluidic methods offer capabilities for precise manipulation and                                                                                        ###
control of fluids interfaces for various applications such as the production
of emulsions. The production of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in flow
focussing and T-junction was studied through experiments and
computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Microfluidic channels of various
widths and depths ranging between 50 µm and 500 µm were developed
in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a soft lithography method. w/o
emulsion were produced in the channels using deionised water and
mineral oil. The interfacial tension of the system was controlled to ~ 0
003 N/m using oil-soluble surface active agents (Span80® and Span20®).
The frequency and size of the droplets formed showed a direct
dependence on the relative flow rates of water and oil for both the T-
junction and flow focussing microchannel configurations. A 2-dimensional
(2D) CFD model was setup to simulate the generation of w/o emulsion in
a 200µm wide T-junction microchannel. COMSOL Multiphysics program,
which is based on the finite element method (FEM), was used. The fluid-
fluid interface model was solved using the conservative level set method
(LSM), where the oil-water interface was, implicitly, represented by level
set function , which equals to 0 on the oil phase, 1 on water phase and
0.5 at the interface. A contact angle of 135o at the wall boundary
condition was used. The simulated droplets differed is size from the
                                                                                                                                Freestanding poster
                                                                              Neil J. Coville and Linda L. Jewell

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a key step for the transformation of non-                                               ###
petroleum feedstocks, such as natural gas, coal and biomass, into
hydrocarbon fuels. A challenging element in the FT synthesis has been
the development of novel catalysts which can selectively produce
hydrocarbons in the desired product spectrum. To date, much attention
has been paid to cobalt- and iron-based catalysts supported on oxides.
However carbons can also be used as supports. In this study home-made
multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as support for Fe-based
catalysts. Variation of the precursor salts, support materials and
promoters were studied as a means to improve catalyst performance.
The dependence of the activity of Fe-based FT catalysts on the type of
the Fe precursors and promoters used was observed. All catalysts were
prepared by deposition precipitation method using urea as a precipitating
agent. The catalysts were characterized using Electron Microscopy,
Thermal Analysis, Temperature Programmed Reduction, BET surface
area, and H2 Chemisorption. The catalytic performance of these catalysts
was examined using a fixed-bed micro-reactor at a total pressure of 8
bar, a temperature of 275oC, a space velocity of 2400h-1 and using a
syngas having a H2 to CO ratio equal to 2. The results will be presented.

                                                                                                                                Oral/Presented Paper
                                                                              Linda L. Jewell, Neil J. Coville

                                                             Chemical and
Metallurgical Engineering
School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
First preference: Oral presentation
Second preference: Presented poster
Third preference: Free standing poster
Cobalt supported Carbon spheres catalysts for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis
This work examines the effect of functionalising agents (KMnO4 and
HNO3) on the surface properties of carbon spheres (CSs). These CSs,
functionalised in different ways, were investigated as supports for 5 %
cobalt Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts. The HNO3 functionalised CSs were
also used as supports for 5 % cobalt catalysts promoted with either 0.05
% potassium or manganese to probe the effects of these promoters. CSs
of average size 480 nm were produced from acetylene by a chemical
vapour deposition method. It was found that the CSs are thermally stable
to 560 oC and are purely carbonaceous materials (C > 95%). Functional
groups (-OH, -COOH, etc) introduced on CSs were characterised by FTIR
spectroscopy, alkalimetry and TGA. The presence of manganese species
                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                      Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                               Presented poster
                                                                                Prof. G. E Blight
Mudau, Avhasei Blight, Geoffrey Eustace School of Civil and                                                                                     ###
Environmental Engineering First preference: Oral/Presented paper
Second preference: Presented poster Generation of leachate from
landfills with climatic classifications between B+ and B- and
decomposition of MSW under these conditions Leachate emitted by
landfilled municipal solid may cause many and cumulative adverse effects
ranging from health and safety problems to environmental impacts.
However, the latter remains of paramount importance and cannot be
underrated. South Africa is one of the few countries in the developing
w+L48orld to have a sound regulatory framework for waste disposal by
landfill. The regulatory framework is presented as a set of the Minimum
Requirements. The current study probes part of the Minimum
Requirements classification system, namely the climatic water balance.
The climatic water balance is used as a guiding tool to assess the
potential for a landfill to generate leachate or not. The end result of this
classification is to define whether the proposed site falls under B+ (water
surplus) or B- (water deficient) class. The minimum requirements ensure
that all sites which fall under the B+ class must equipped with an
underliner owing to the potential for leachate generation, while B- sites
do not require any underliner since leachate will be only generated
sporadically. So far, there has been no attempt to gain knowledge on
landfill sites classified on the boundary between B+ and B-. The present
study will investigate the generation of leachate from landfills situated on
                                                                                Kienhöfer, Frank

                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster
                                                                                                    Masters by coursework and research report
Suspension design is critical to the handling and stability of a vehicle. The                                                                   ###
objective was to design an optimal double wishbone suspension system
with minimal bump\roll steer and roll centre movement. Bump\roll steer
is when the wheels are steered during wheel travel with a zero steer
input. The roll centre is defined as a point at which a lateral force may be
applied to the vehicle without resulting in body roll. Minimising
bump\roll steer and roll centre movement improves the stability of the
vehicle. This will result in vehicle behaviour which may be confidently
predicted by the driver. An iterative method which reduces kinematic roll
centre movement was used to design the suspension geometry. A
suspension model with the designed geometry was then developed using
ADAMS, a commercial multi-body dynamics and motion analysis software
package. The model was verified using first principles to estimate the
camber angle, i.e. vertical inclination of the wheel, and roll centre
position. The camber angle was evaluated to ensure a gain of negative
camber in bump and positive camber in rebound. This will result in lateral
tyre forces being generated, which aid the vehicle during cornering. The
geometry of the steering arms was optimised using ADAMS, to achieve
minimal bump\roll steer. This was necessary because the first principle
                                                                                                       Masters by research

                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
                                                                                 Prof. Willie Cronje
It is estimated that South Africa needs approximately an addition 50GW                                                       ###
of new electricity by 2028. This paper analyses the potential role of
Combine Heat and Power (CHP) generation technologies in addressing
energy supply and developmental challenges facing South Africa. The
paper will successively discuss issues related to energy policy, quality,
access and use. Combined heat and power (CHP) systems also known as
Cogeneration, generates electricity and thermal energy in a single,
integrated system. This contrasts with common practice in this country
where electric-only or thermal-only generation is vastly implemented;
this practice leads to inefficient use of energy, increase fuel consumption
and pollution of environment. CHP captures the waste heat that is
rejected in traditional separate generation of electric or mechanical
energy, the total efficiency of these integrated systems is much greater
than separate systems. Recent technology developments have "enabled"
new CHP system configurations that make a wider range of applications
cost-effective. The significant increase in efficiency with CHP results in
lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions compared with separate
generation of heat and power. As part of its strategy for reducing

                                                                                                                                   presented poster

                                                                                                                                                         freestanding poster
Folic acid (FA) is an amino acid that helps in the replication of normal cells
and it deficiency leads to oncogenic cells development. Methotrexate
(MTX) on the other hand as a highly potent drug against leukemia and
other neoplasias, is inefficient due to toxic side effects and drug
resistance to target cells. The objective of this work was to develop a
bioconjugate to enhance therapeutic effectiveness of these agents (FA
and MTX). This was possible through bioreversible binding to a water-
soluble and biocompatible carbon nanotubes as an advanced technology
designed to circumvent critical pharmacological and efficacious biological
                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
Conventional delivery of riluzole in the treatment of Amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS) is compromised by protective barriers in the central
nervous system and multisystemic nature of the disease. Furthermore
riluzole has a low bioavailability at targeted sites due to its poor solubility
in physiological solutions and hepatic degradation which results in
inactive metabolites. The functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
for transporting therapeutic molecules has been an active area of
research recently. The interesting properties of CNTs when used in
biomedical applications may bring new opportunities to therapy with
high performance and efficacy. Functionalised CNTs promise a non-
invasive access to cells and the blood-brain barrier, reduced
immunogenic toxicity of drugs and alteration to the solubility profile of
riluzole. Herein we present a study of the double functionalization of
CNTs with dimethylpropylamine (DMP) as a solubilizing agent and the
drug riluzole. Acid oxidation was used to functionalise the CNTs surface
by creating carboxylic groups that provide the platform for the
introduction of amides linkages between the CNTs and the drug. CNT-
DMP-riluzole conjugates were analyzed by Transmission electron
microscopy to visualize information on tube dimensions and level of
aggregation. The Fourier Transforms infrared spectrophotoscopy
characterization of the CNT-DMP-riluzole conjugate revealed the
presence of amide bonds between the amine groups on the DMP and
                                                                            Iyuke S. E, Kavishe F

                                                                                                    Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                          Presented poster
The reinforcement of synthetic rubber ion exchange membrane with
carbon nanoballs is motivated by the new benefits of nanoparticles which
include improved proton conductivity, thermal stability, low methanol
permeability, and promise for improved mechanical properties at
reduced cost. Carbon nanoballs of different diametric sizes were
synthesised using the Chemical Vapour Deposition Method by varying the
synthesis parameters (temperature and flow rates). Functionalisation of
styrene butadiene rubber solution (40g/L) was performed via
sulphonation using chlorosulphonic acid (0.05M to 1.6M) in 1,2
dichloroethane for 24 hrs at room temperature in a four neck round
bottom flask on a magnetic stirrer (1250rpm). Blending of the
functionalized rubber and the carbon nanoballs was be performed by
ultrasonication at carefully selected settings. Different blends were
produced by varying nanofiller concentrations (0.25% - 4% w/v) at
constant diameter (60nm) and cast by the evaporation technique to
produce thin membranes (100-300µm). TEM, TGA, BET and Raman
analysis showed that pure, electron insulating and uniform carbon
nanoballs of Td 400ºC and 15m2/ g were formed. Optimal Volume
Fraction of carbon source lying between 0.6 and 0.8 were critical for the
production of carbon nanoballs. A Chlorosulphonic acid concentration of
0.09M, molar ratio of 1.2 and sulphonation time of 24 hours resulted in
optimal sulphonation. Titration Methods, FTIR and HNMR showed that a
25% DS was achieved. Mechanical properties tests using the Hysitron
NanoTensile 5000 showed that the yield strength and Young’s Modulus
decreased with increasing filler concentration whilst the fracture
toughness, strain and ultimate strength increased (>100%) with
increasing nanofiller concentration.
                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper
                                                                               Dr. A. A. Ilemobade

                                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster
Several pilot projects have been implemented in South Africa to                                                          ###
determine the potential for grey water reuse. This paper reports on an
investigation carried out to determine the spectrum of savings (i.e.
potable water supply, life cycle costs, pollution costs, etc) that can be
achieved through grey water reuse in two user categories – an academic
building at University of the Witwatersrand and a residential building in
University of Johannesburg. In this article, we estimated the potable
water savings through continuous logging of bulk water consumption and
toilet flushing consumption. The toilet flushing demands were analysed
based on the frequency of flushes and the average volume of cisterns in
the residences. Cost-benefit analysis was performed in order to evaluate
the benefits of using greywater in both buildings. The Environmental
benefit was quantified against the cost of water treatment and water
sampling. Results show a higher water savings and economic benefit in
the residential building. The study concluded that where the price of
potable water is low, the benefit to greywater reuse cannot only be
justified on financial savings alone but also on environmental benefit.

                                                                               Gohnert Mitchel, Wanjalla Ramadan


                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                                                                               Oral/Presented Paper
Plates and shells are structures used extensively in civil engineering                                                   ###
today. The theory of their analysis and design has developed since the
first attempts by Lagrange, Cauchy and Poisson *Thin Plates & Shells –
Edward Ventsel et al -2001]. However, the analysis of shell structures still
presents challenges due to its complex behavior [Insight into finite
element shell discretizations by use of the ‘‘basic shell mathematical
model’’, Phill-Seung Lee, Klaus-Ju¨rgen Bathe, 2004+. Various types of
finite elements have been developed over the years that address these
challenges. [Mathematical and historical reflections on the lowest-order
finite element models for thin structures, Juhani Pitkaranta, 2003]. The
potential of applying a collapse-load theory in modeling these elements,
namely “Yield Line Theory”, is relatively unexplored. The concept of
“yield line finite elements” was first developed by Gohnert and Kemp for
the analysis of plates in bending using a four node rectangular element.
[Collapse Load Analysis of Yield Line Elements, Mitchel Gohnert, 2000].A
three-node triangular yield-line element, now being developed, would
increase the range of applications of this type of element. The key
advantages of using yield-line elements so far identified are that they can
                                                                                                                          Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster
                                                                               Rex Van Olst

In radio communications system, signal modulation format recognition is                                             ###
one of the significant characteristics used in radio signal monitoring and
identification. With the current development of technology in
communications system over the past few decades, modulation formats
have become increasingly complex, which has led to the problem of how
to both accurately and promptly recognize the modulation formats. In
addressing these challenges, development of automatic modulation
classifier (AMC) that can classify radio signal’s modulation format has
received worldwide attention. Decision-theoretic (DT) methods and
pattern recognition (PR) solutions are the two typical AMC approaches.
While DT approaches uses probabilistic or likelihood functions, PR uses
feature-based methods. This study applies PR based on statistical
parameters using artificial neural network to classify four different analog
modulation formats. The simulated results show that accurate and
prompt modulation recognition is possible beyond lower bound of 5dB
commonly acclaimed in literature. When the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is
as low as -5dB, the probability of detection of our proposed AMC system
is more than 0.97 (97%). The performance of our AMC system when also
compared with existing systems was found to be able to identify all the

                                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical and water                                                  ###
absorption properties of kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) fibre reinforced
laminates made of three different resin systems. The use of different
resin systems is considered so that potentially complex and expensive
fibre treatments are avoided. The resin systems used include a polyester,
a vinyl ester and an epoxy. Laminates of 15%, 22.5% and 30% fibre
volume fraction were manufactured by resin transfer moulding. The
laminates were tested for strength and modulus under tensile and
flexural loading. Additionally, tests were carried out on laminates to
determine the impact energy, impact strength and water absorption. The
results revealed that properties were affected in markedly different ways
by the resin system and the fibre volume fraction. Polyester laminates
showed good modulus and impact properties, epoxy laminates displayed
good strength values and vinyl ester laminates exhibited good water
absorption characteristics. Scanning electron microscope studies show
that epoxy laminates fail by fibre fracture, polyester laminates by fibre
pull-out and vinyl ester laminates by a combination of the two. A
comparison between kenaf and glass laminates revealed that the specific
tensile and flexural moduli of both laminates are comparable at a fibre
                                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
Courts, particularly those dealing with Constitutional matters and socio-                                                            ###
economic rights, are playing an increasingly important role in the lives of
urban dwellers and urban governments. This study sets out to explore
exactly what that role is and how the Courts’ judgements affect the lives
of urban residents, elected representatives and government officials who
are obliged to carry out these orders. The study will also try and
understand the impact that Court decisions have on decision-making
practises, urban policy and the distribution and re-distribution of urban
goods such as housing, secure tenure, space from which to trade or work
and access to key services. The study will utilise two main approaches, an
analysis of court documentation in order to unpack the general trends of
court decisions and their impacts as well as two fine-grained case studies:
one in Delhi, India and another in Johannesburg, South Africa. The case
studies will look at seminal court decisions in both countries that have
been seen as turning points in law, state-resident relationships, urban
governance and municipal practise. The presentation will thus be of the
relevant literature, contextual issues facing the court and the two urban
environments and the preliminary findings from the Johannesburg case

                                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                    Freestanding poster
                                                                               Diane Hildebrandt, Bilal Patel, David Glasser
Much of our energy reserves are locked in the chemical potential of                                                                  ###
chemicals such as fossil fuels. The majority of CO2 emissions caused by
human activities come from the combustion of these fuels. Typically the
fuel is burnt with oxygen (air) and heat is released. This heat is then used
to drive power cycles to produce, for example, electricity in a power
plant or motion in the motor car engine. Very often we look at the
efficiency of these process in terms of how much of the heat that is
released in the combustion process can be turn into work. This however
is not a very good representation of how efficient the process is, as an
idealised Carnot engine is reversible and thus takes all the work potential
(exergy) of the heat and converts this to work. Thus the Carnot engine
might only have efficiency in term of converting heat to work of 40%, but
it is fully reversible and thus generates no entropy. Thus in effect the
Carnot engine is 100% efficient. However there is a much more
fundamental efficiency that we should consider; namely how much of the
chemical potential that was in the fuel are we able to turn into work.
When we look at combustion processes in this way we see that some of
the major inefficiencies are in the chemical transformations that produce
the heat rather than in the power cycles that convert heat to work. A
very important question is can we do these transformations more
efficiently and thereby conserve the work potential or chemical potential
in fuel. We will show from a very fundamental thermodynamic analysis
that it is not possible to combust carbon based materials efficiently, that
is that the process of combustion of coal based materials is irreversibly,
and that a considerable amount of the chemical potential of the fuel is
lost during the combustion process. However we will explore other
Simate Geoffrey S.
Iyuke Sunny E., Cluett John, Sehliselo Ndlovu
School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
Freestanding poster
The removal of COD from brewery wastewater using carbon nanotubes
In the brewery industry water is used in production and washing activities
and, the resulting wastewater is treated before being discharged to the
environment. Water reuse is not common in this type of the industry due
to public perception and the possible product quality deterioration
problems. However, the future reuse of water seems to be unavoidable,
as the issue of water shortage has become a serious global and
environmental problem, particularly in South Africa. Currently, common
wastewater treatment systems are designed mostly for removing
particulate and colloid portions; therefore, a considerable amount of
dissolved organic matter (DOM) remains in the treated wastewater. This
residual DOM is of particular concern as it could potentially react with
chlorine during the disinfection process in a typical water treatment
facility and form halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) which are
classified as carcinogenic substances. DOM also enhances bacterial
regrowth and biofilm formation in the drinking water distribution system.
Furthermore, some breweries discharge untreated wastewater into the
public drainage system or nearby streams. This disposal practice
constitutes severe pollution problems to the water bodies since the
effluents contain organic compounds that require oxygen for                  Mr. Ian Campbell

                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
The price of a warrant is calculated using a variety of models. The choice                                                                  ###
of the model used is made by the market maker. The Black-Scholes-
Merton model is popular for its simplicity to use. More complicated
models require the estimation of parameters that are not well defined.
Studies conducted by Rubinstein (1985), found that, more complex
option pricing models gave prices that were not substantially different to
the Black-Schole-Merton model (Gemill, 1993, p. 118). The final warrant
price takes into account the factors considered by the particular model,
financing costs and mark up margins to ensure that the market maker's
business of selling warrants is profitable. There is a school of thought
which suggests that, neither the quants (mathematical modelers) nor
traders are particularly concerned with the actual mathematics or
calculations, behind option pricing (Satyajit, 2006, p. 185). This implies
that, actual warrants' prices on the JSE could be incorrect; the Black-
Scholes-Merton model can give a wrong price if some of the underlying
assumptions are violated (Gemill, 1993, p. 118). The aim of the study was
to prove the hypothesis that the closing prices of warrants on the
Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) have more than 80% correlation with
                                                                               Jewell Linda

                                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
                                                                                                                   Masters by coursework and research report
The perfomance of modified zeolite, clinoptilolite from two different                                                                                          ###
sources (South African and the USA) on the adsorption of Pb2+, Ni2+ and
Cd2+ from synthetic industrial waste effluent contaminated with metal
concentration levels at 50, 150 and 500mg/L was assessed. The
selectivity of the zeolite for the adsorption of Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ was
investigated at mixed feed concentrations containing all three ions in
equal concentrations and single component concentrations containing
only one of the ions. The homoionic forms of the zeolite investigated
were Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Batch experiments were then conducted to
measure the equilibrium adsorption isotherms of the adsorbents. The
zeolites were characterised using XRD and BET. The South Africa
clinoptilolite has a higher surface area and pore volume (17.52m2/g and
0.047cm3/g) than the USA (12.26m2/g and 0.028cm3/g) zeolite for the
Na+ homoionic. According to the equilibrium studies, the selectivity
sequence can be given as Pb2+ >Cd2 >Ni2+, with good fits being obtained
using Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption isotherms on low metal
concentrations as compared to higher concentrations. The adsorptions
were found to depend on the homoionic form of the zeolite and to a

                                                                               Nicola Wagner and Rosemary Falcon

                                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
                                                                                                                   Masters by coursework and research report
This study was of three fold, viz, to reveal the coal constituents that lead                                                                                   ###
to abrasion during comminution, to test if the mathematical formula
relating abrasion index and Hardgrove grindability index can do so
experimentally as is empirically, and to see if excluded minerals and
included minerals are equally abrasive. To add on the study saw it fit that
the type of abrasive wear be established. To arrive at the first aim coal
samples were chemically characterised using XRD, SEM-EDS, XRF,
Petrography, and TGA. Physical analyses included the used of the
abrasion index tester pot (for abrasiveness of coal samples) and
Hardgrove grindability index machine (for HGI) following YGP and ASTM
methods respectively. Total moisture contents, excluded minerals,
virtinite macerals, vitrite and carbominerite microlithotypes, clays and
quartz minerals are chemical constituents of coal samples found to be
influencing the abrasiveness of coals, but, ash contents. Physical
properties of coal samples that greatly contributed to the overall
reported coal abrasiveness were abrasion intensity and atomic factor. It
was established, following the mathematical model relating AI and HGI
that, the two coal properties are independent. This was done by
                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
                                                                              Euphodia Makondo, Anna Kramvis

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)                                                       ###
represent the two most important blood borne pathogens in terms of
prevalence, morbidity and mortality in South Africa, where both viruses
are endemic. There is a paucity of data on HBV-HIV co-infection from
rural South Africa. Therefore the aim of the present study was to
determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of HBV infection
among antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients from
Shongwe Hospital, Mpumalanga. Data collected included the
demographics, sexual behaviour, medical history as well as the results of
the following laboratory tests: HBV serology and viral loads, CD4 counts,
ALT and apoptosense levels. Polymerase chain reaction of both the basic
core promoter/precore and S regions were used to detect HBV DNA in
300 study participants. HBV DNA was detected in 72 of 300 (24%) of the
study participants, of which 28 (9.3%) had overt HBV infection indicated
by the presence of HBsAg and 44 (14.7%) had occult HBV infection (OBI)
indicated by the absence of HBsAg. Three types of OBI could be
discerned: serologically positive and negative OBI and “false” OBI. The
occult and overt HBV infected individuals did not differ in age and gender
distribution. Moreover, except for ALT levels, there was no significant
difference in the CD4 counts, HBV viral load and apoptosense levels
between HIV-infected individuals with overt and occult HBV infection. It
can be concluded that using only conventional serological tests for HBV
would fail to diagnose at least 60% of individuals dually infected with HBV
and HIV.
                                                                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
                                                                               Nthabaleng Ranchobe, Elin Gray, Lynn Morris, Penelope Moore
The majority of new HIV-1 infections world-wide and especially in Sub-                                                                                             ###
Saharan Africa, belong to subtype C. Characterization of the HIV-1
subtype C envelope is important because it differs from subtype B in
certain regions, like the alpha2-helix in the C3V4-region. The
alpha2–helix, which interacts with the V4-loop, may have greater
immunogenic potential due to a larger degree of exposure in subtype C.
We identified seven C3V4-responders and two C3V4 non-responders
using chimeric viruses containing the C3V4-region from a sensitive virus
in a neutralization-resistant backbone. Single genome amplification
produced envelope clones from C3V4-responders at 6- and 12-months
post-infection. Sequence analysis of 4 C3V4-responders identified
putative escape mutations in the alpha2-helix of the 6- or 12-month
clones, which were back mutated to match the enrolment sequence.
Neutralization sensitivity was investigated using env-pseudotyped viruses
in TZMBL cells. In CAP228, reversion of two charged residues in the
alpha2-helix completely restored neutralization sensitivity, while partial
restoration of neutralization sensitivity was observed in CAP244. In
contrast, in CAP206 and CAP255 neutralization was unaffected by alpha2-
helix back mutations. Computational predictions based on the subtype C
envelope crystal structure identified other regions interacting with the
C3V4, like the C2-region. Mutations within these regions have been
identified. Although the alpha2-helix was confirmed as a subtype C
neutralization target, overall these results suggest that the interaction of

                                                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) cannot infect cells in tissue culture and this has     Reumann Kerstin2, Will Hans2, Kramvis Anna1                                         ###
hindered the study of viral replication in vitro. As an alternative,
transfection of hepatoma cell lines with replication competent clones of
HBV has been used to compare replication of different HBV strains. There
are at least eight genotypes of HBV differentiated by a minimum of 7.5%
nucleotide divergence across the complete HBV genome. The aim of the
present study was to construct replication competent clones of the
various genotype/subgenotypes predominating in southern Africa and to
compare their replication capacity in vitro. The strategy involved the
construction of 1.3x over-length HBV genomes from the full-length clones
of subgenotypes A1 and A2, and genotype D. These were individually
ligated into a promoter-less expression vector. The orientation of the full-
length HBV DNA was changed so that the basic core promoter (BCP) was
on the 5’ end of the genome and a polyA tail on the 3’ end. The addition
of the 0.3x over-length allowed the synthesis of the complete
pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and replication in vitro to be driven by the
authentic BCP promoter. Transfection of Huh7 hepatoma cells resulted in
the extracellular expression of HBsAg and HBeAg, with HBsAg persisting
for 13 days post-transfection. Western blot analysis of lysed Huh7 cells
demonstrated the intracellular expression of large S protein and HBcAg.
In order to confirm the replication competence of the clones we are
carrying out Southern hybridization to detect replicative intermediates of
                                                                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Presented poster
                                                                                Abdullah Ely, Marc Weinberg, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa                                                                                                   ###
and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. There are two major
forms of HBV DNA formed during infection: relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA)
and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The rcDNA is found within
virions and contains a gap region. After infection of hepatocytes, rcDNA is
repaired in the nucleus to form the stable cccDNA. An important
objective of HBV therapy is the elimination of cccDNA and a reliable assay
for this replication intermediate is crucial. The objective of our study was
to develop a method based on real-time PCR to quantify HBV cccDNA.
PCR primers that flank the rcDNA gap were designed to amplify cccDNA
whilst primers flanking the pre-S1 region quantify total HBV DNA. This
allows differentiation between the rcDNA and cccDNA. HBV was
extracted from HepG2.2.15 cells and the serum and livers of HBV
transgenic mice. According to this assay, cccDNA was readily detectable
in transgenic mouse livers and at low concentrations in serum samples. In
HepG2.2.15 cells a cccDNA to rcDNA ratio of 1:49 was observed, which
was expected as these cells constitutively produce HBV. All results were
validated using Southern blot hybridisation. In conclusion, this HBV qPCR
assay should enable improved monitoring of patients’ responses to
antiviral therapy. The test is currently being assessed for this application.

                                                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
                                                                                                                                 Masters by coursework and research report
                                                                                Jerome A Loveland, Peter G Beale
Aim : To describe the population of intussusception in Johannesburg, and                                                                                                     ###
to assess clinical and epidemiological factors which are associated with
severity of illness. Methods : Retrospective chart review of 106 cases of
intussusception at the Chris Hani Baragwanath and Charlotte Maxeke
Johannesburg Academic Hospitals was undertaken from January 2007 to
April 2010. An assessment was made whether distance from referral
centre, duration of symptoms, palpable intussusceptum per rectum,
admission C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and weight for age correlate with
severity of illness. Results : Fifty three percent of all cases were male.
Mean and standard deviation (SD) for age of 11.3+/-20.9months. 71 of
106 cases were from CHB. Total mortality rate of 9%, ileostomy rate of all
operative cases was 8 %, a relook procedure was necessary in 15% of all
operative cases , total postoperative ICU admissions were 29%. Only
31/59 cases had a successful pneumatic reduction, with 7 cases of
pneumoperitoneum noted during attempted pneumatic reduction. 21%
of all cases were below the 3rd age for weight centile. Mean/SD of CRP
levels for those undergoing successful vs unsuccessful pneumatic
reduction were (19.9+/- 28.7mg/l vs 53.1+/- 59.1mg/l) p= 0.004. Mean
                                                                                                 Masters by research
                                                                              Dr Robyn van Zyl

                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
8-Hydroxyquinoline is a derivative of heterocycle quinoline with reported                                                                    ###
antiseptic, disinfectant, antifungal, antiprotozoal, metal chelating and
anticancer properties. It is structurally related to antimalarial compounds
such as quinine and chloroquine and derivatives could inhibit the in vitro
growth of the malaria parasite. The antimalarial properties of the 8-
hydroxyquinoline and 12 derivatives were screened using the
radiolabelled hypoxanthine uptake method over a period of 48 hours.
Toxicity of the compounds was screened against human kidney epithelial
(Graham) cells using the MTT–cell viability assay. The decolouration of
the stable free radical, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to
determine the free radical scavenging activity of the derivatives. 8-
Hydroxyquinoline, the parent compound was found to be the most
effective antimalarial of all the compounds screened (0.31 μM) as
compared to quinine (0.01 μM). At 1 μM, 8-hydroxquinoline exhibited
25% haemolysis compared to 1% for quinine and 8-hydroxyquinoline was
75 times more cytotoxic than quinine against the human kidney epithelial
cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that a dimethyl-
substitution was more active than dichloro-, dibromo- and diiodo-
substitutions (IC50 value: 2.13 > 2.73 > 3.55 > 5.99 μM, respectively).
While a 2-amino substitution increased the antimalarial activity
compared to a nitro substitute (0.82 and 4.78 μM, respectively). Only two
compounds, the who test positive for HIV are offered prophylaxis to
Pregnant womendimethyl- and the 2-amino-substitution (IC50 value:

                                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                            Presented poster
                                                                                                 Masters by coursework and research report
help prevent mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Women
whose CD4 count or clinical presentation indicates initiation of treatment
are referred for ante-retro viral therapy (ART). Those who do not need
treatment are encouraged to access Wellness services to maintain their
health such as nutrition counselling, CD4 count monitoring and support
groups. There are limited studies on the linkages between PMTCT, ART
and Wellness services which demonstrate referral systems and service
utilisation by pregnant women. A cross sectional record review of PMTCT
and ART registers showed that for the time period reviewed (January –
August 2008)1349 pregnant women tested for HIV at sampled clinics, 388
(29%) tested HIV positive 20% (77) of whom had CD4 counts at or below
200 and were thus eligible for ART. Review of records at the ART clinic
showed that only 23% (18) of these eligible women had accessed ART
services. Referrals to Wellness services were not captured in the PMTCT
registers and thus could not be traced. The majority of women (77%) who
required ART did not access it indicating missed opportunities for them to
obtain life saving treatment. This has negative on their health, their
children’s health, family finances, and health care services. There is a
                                                                                                                                                    Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                                      Tetsuya Kodama

                                                                                                                                                                             Presented poster
                                                                             Thirumala Govender, Viness Pillay, Yahya Essop Choonara,
Nanobubbles, which encompasses lipobubbles and polymeric                                                                                      ###
nanobubbles, hold numerous advantages for in vivo imaging and
bioactive delivery but are challenged with inadequate circulation time in
the targeted organ to enable enhanced organ visualization and bioactive
delivery. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the potential
of two specific preparation approaches i.e. polymeric surface
modification to lipobubbles by self-deposition of polyelectrolytes and an
alternative innovative one step approach for the preparation of
ionotropically originated polymeric hydrogel nanobubbles for the
production of biocompatible, biodegradable, and sufficiently echogenic
bubbles, preferably within the nanometer range, that possess an
enhanced in vivo lifetime compared to an unmodified lipobubble to allow
visualization of the lymph node vasculature. Bubble lifetime was
marginally, but not significantly, enhanced by self-deposition of
polyelectrolytes onto the normal lipobubble (p = 0.0634). In general,
formulations possessing a higher ratio of anionic: cationic coats, and
therefore a highly anionic overall surface charge (-20.62 to -17.54mV)
possessed an enhanced lifetime. Bubble lifetime was significantly
improved when a purely polymeric polyionic hydrogel bubble shell was
                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                               Presented poster
                                                                              Patel Mrudula, Cutler Ewalde
Disinfectants form an integral part of infection control. Chlorinated                                              ###
compounds are frequently used in healthcare settings however, chlorine
dioxide has
only been used in industries on a large scale. Aseptrol® is a newly
developed slow
release noncorrosive chlorine dioxide disinfectant which is recommended
for use as a
surface disinfectant on a small scale. This study compared the
properties of Aseptrol® (48 and 24 ppm) and the chlorine releasing
Presept® (10000 ppm). Both disinfectants killed S. aureus, P. aeruginosa,
S. mutans,
C. albicans, mycobacteria and Hepatitis B virus within 30 seconds in the
presence of organic
material. B. subtilis spores were killed in 2 and 2.5 minutes by Aseptrol®
and Presept®
respectively. When prepared solutions of these disinfectants where
stored in screw
cap bottles, they retained their activity for at least 27 days. The results
indicate that
noncorrosive chlorine dioxide disinfectants can be used as surface
disinfectants and
sterilants in medical and dental surgeries.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                              Tina-Marie Wessels & Merlyn Glass

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster
                                                                                                                                                  Masters by coursework and research report
Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are severe X-                                                                                                                              ###
linked, degenerative neuromuscular diseases. The risk of being a carrier
for DMD/BMD has a psychosocial impact on individuals and affects their
requests for DNA testing and their choices regarding reproduction. Very
few articles have been published to date and this study is the first South
African study to investigate the behaviours of individuals in DMD/BMD
families. The study aimed to investigate why individuals attended genetic
counselling and who referred them. It also aimed to identify factors that
influence at-risk individuals’ decisions regarding genetic counselling,
carrier testing and reproduction. The study was retrospective and data
were obtained by reviewing genetic counselling files at the Division of
Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service and the University
of the Witwatersrand. The sample consisted of 79 DMD/BMD genetic
counselling files from 1995 to 2008. Subjects included the maternal
female relatives of affected individuals, who were all of reproductive age
(15-49 years); the total number of at-risk individuals identified was 237.
Subjects were divided into three groups according to their assigned
reproductive risks. The influence of reproductive risk and other identified
variables on decisions to attend genetic counselling, have carrier testing
and having children were analysed using chi-squared and logistic

                                                                                                                                                  Masters by research
                                                                                                                        Naidoo Dinesh

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster
                                                                              Pillay Viness, Choonara Yahya, du Toit Lisa, Modi Girish,
The limitations of central nervous system drug delivery have proved to be                                                                                                                     ###
significant impediments to the long-term management of psychiatric
conditions such as psychosis. Furthermore, lack of innovation in product
development to counteract these challenges is also a major contributing
factor to a poor therapeutic outcome. The aim of this study was to
develop a novel implantable nano-enabled polymeric membranous
device for the chronic treatment of psychosis. Composite, biodegradable
polyamide 6,10-ethylcellulose (PA6,10-EC) membranes were prepared by
a modified immersion precipitation reaction followed by desiccation.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence
and integrity of polyamide and ethylcellulose functional groups in the
membranes. This proved the formation of a novel co-blended PA6,10-EC
membrane for nano-liposhell fixation. Surface morphology was
characterized by scanning electron microscopy and revealed
asymmetrical, highly porous matrices. Chlorpromazine-loaded,
polycaprolactone-based nano-liposhells were prepared by a specialized
melt-dispersion technique and comprised encapsulated essential fatty
acids in the form of cod-liver oil. FTIR and differential scanning
calorimetry revealed no evidence of thermal degradation of the drug and
                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper
                                                                                Arbuthnot Patrick, Weinberg Marc S

                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
Given the high mutability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-                                                     ###
1), an appealing antiviral strategy is to minimise the emergence of escape
mutants by silencing cellular factors required for viral replication. A
powerful silencing tool, RNA interference (RNAi), was used to validate the
therapeutic potential of targeting HIV-1 dependency factor (HDF)
HTATSF1 when compared to the established HDF LEDGF/p75. Of seven
initial constructs, three Pol III-expressed short hairpin (sh) RNAs targeting
HTATSF1 decreased endogenous mRNA and protein levels by ~50% in
transient transfection assays, as determined by qRT-PCR and Western
blot, respectively. Silencing was via an RNAi mechanism, which was
confirmed by small RNA Northern blot. HIV-1-permissive reporter cells
(TZM-bl) were used to determine the efficacy of anti-HTATSF1 shRNAs in
cells infected with various HIV-1 strains: luciferase activity and infectious
virion production were significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent
manner. Toward a physiological context of HIV infection, SupT1 cells, a
CD4+ T cell line, were stably transduced with recombinant lentiviruses
carrying anti-HTATSF1 or -LEDGF shRNA expression cassettes and
subsequently challenged with the HIV-1 molecular clone p81A-4. p24
antigen levels were measured up to 18 days post-infection. Cells with
stable anti-HTATSF1 shRNA expression exhibited decreased p24
production throughout the time course (
                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
In South Africa, an increased role for spirituality was noticed in secular                                                         ###
areas such as health, in particular in how “Western scientific” health care
has increasingly been regarded as only one approach to be adopted next
to other, such as African traditional health practices. This was also
evident in mental health and psychiatry. In an apparently changing health
environment, it was deemed important for local psychiatrists to consider
from within the discipline, as to what they would judge the role of
spirituality to be in specialist psychiatric practice and teaching. This
research question called for a qualitative inquiry and appropriate
methodology. Established principles described for nursing theory
development was adopted for this descriptive, phenomenological and
theory-generating qualitative investigation. In-depth, semi-structured
interviews were conducted with individual academic specialist
psychiatrists, while subject literature was considered as secondary data.
Layered grounded analyses were made of the interview and literature
content, which were integrated into final categories of concepts. A
practice-orientated model was constructed based on one identified and
defined single core concept. The local interviews and the international
literature revealed a strong consensus that the role of spirituality should
be incorporated into the current approach to local specialist psychiatry.
But this should be considered only within the parameters of the
professional and ethical scope of the discipline, and if all faith traditions
and belief systems are accommodated equally.preference:will discuss the
Kagura Juliana Norris Shane Feeley Alison First This paper Free standing
                                                                                Norris Shane,Feeley Alison

                                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
poster Second preference: Presented poster Association between birth
weight and body composition at age 9/10 years in Urban south African
children born in Soweto 1990. The long term effect of prenatal life on
later body composition has gained global attention since the fetal
‘origins’ hypothesis by Barker in the 1990s because of its implication on
later chronic disease risk. Birth weight is often used as a proxy for fetal
growth and nutrition. 140 Black children who had DEXA at age 9/10 years
and birth weight were selected from the Birth-Twenty cohort study of
3273 singletons born in Soweto, Johannesburg to investigate the
associations between birth weight and subsequent body composition by
linear regressions. In the bivariate analysis, increase in birth weight
predicted an increase in lean mass and bone mineral content at the
whole body, radius, femoral neck and lumbar spine but not fat mass. The
associations only remained for lean mass (β=0.20, CI=0.01-0.03, p=0.007),
radius (β=0.02, CI=0.00-0.04, p=0.039) and lumbar spine (β=0.03, CI=0.01-
0.05, p=0.018) in the multivariate model. In conclusion, birth weight is
predictor of bone and lean mass but not fat mass at age 9/10 years.
These finding suggests that low birth weight children tend to have lower
lean and bone mass leading to later chronic disease risk. We suggest that
optimising prenatal growth will have a long-term benefit of promoting
                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                Freestanding poster
                                                                              W McKinon, A Bentley
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is characterised by an urge to move in                                                                              ###
response to uncomfortable sensations in the legs, exacerbated during
evening inactivity/sleep. Involuntary movements, known as periodic limb
movements (PLM), are commonly associated with RLS. There is no clinical
test for the diagnosis of RLS, only four diagnostic questions. The
suggested immobilization test (SIT) was developed as an objective
criterion to quantify motor restlessness (PLM) related to RLS. This study
explored the relationship between discomfort, pain and motor activity
associated with RLS during the SIT. The 60 minute SIT involved each
patient sitting upright with their legs outstretched (n=11). The SIT PLM
index was calculated from bi-lateral electromyography recordings of the
tibialis anterior muscles. Sensory symptoms were assessed using two
Visual Analogue Scales (pain and discomfort) rated every five minutes.
Spearman’s rank correlation was used for analysis. During the SIT, three
patients had PLM (index 42±16) and eight did not. Discomfort scores
were 26±16mm (mean) and 51±32mm (maximum); and pain scores were
5±6mm (mean) and 16±18mm (maximum). There were significant
correlations between the SIT PLM index and maximum pain
(r=0.77,P=0.007) and mean pain (r=0.73,P=0.01). The SIT PLM index did
not correlate with either discomfort score. There were significant
correlations between pain and discomfort (maximum: r=0.65,P=0.03;
mean r=0.74,P=0.01). Most patients had no PLM during the SIT despite
rating some level of RLS discomfort. Despite the relationship between

                                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                Freestanding poster
                                                                                                     Masters by coursework and research report
Kinsley, Noelene School of Pathology, Division of Human Genetics First                                                                           ###
preference: Presented paper Second preference: Poster The use of
Genetic Tests by the Life Insurance Industry of South Africa The life
insurance industry’s access to genetic test information has raised public
concern relating to privacy and the risk of discrimination. Insurance
companies require this information, to reduce the impact of an
unexpected risk resulting from insurance being purchased based on a
predictive genetic test result unknown to them (anti-selection). The
South African insurance industry has guidelines for the use of genetic test
results established to reduce the risk of genetic discrimination and anti-
selection. This study was the first to investigate the use of genetic tests
by the life insurance industry of South Africa and to determine whether
their behaviour increases the risk of discrimination or anti-selection. A
structured interview+L87 was conducted with 13 companies (8 insurance
companies and 5 reinsurance companies), representative of the
individual life insurance industry. The companies’ protocols for the use of
genetic information (family history and genetic test results) to define the
terms of a life insurance contract were defined. The impact of these was
assessed by using hypothetical cases. This study found that the
                                                                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                                                                   Mizrahi Valerie, Warner Digby
The fitness cost of mutations is a major determinant of the spread of                                                                                                    ###
drug-resistant organisms. Resistance to the key frontline anti-tuberculosis
(TB) drug, rifampicin (RIF), maps primarily to mutations in rpoB that
might be expected to impact transcription and so the ability of the
organism to cause disease. Numerous studies have assessed the impact
of RIFR-associated mutations on selected fitness indicators in
Mycobacteriu+L147m tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB. In contrast,
the specific consequences of RIFR for mycobacterial physiology remain
poorly understood. In antibiotic-producing Streptomyces sp., rpoB
mutations induce production of previously uncharacterised compounds,
while in Bacillus subtilis these mutations give the organism the ability to
utilise a variety of unusual metabolites. These observations suggest the
potential for rpoB mutations to impact multiple functions independent of
their potential RIFR-conferring properties. We have generated a panel of
mutants containing clinically-relevant RIFR-associated rpoB genotypes in
the non-pathogenic mycobacterium, M. smegmatis (Msm). These
mutants were constructed without RIF selection to enable an assessment
of the impact of single rpoB mutations on mycobacterial fitness in the

                                                                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                               Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster
                                                                                                                Keith P; and von Gottberg, Anne
                                                                                Wolter, Nicole; du Plessis, Mignon; de Gouveia, Linda; Klugman,
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of childhood                                                                                                            ###
morbidity worldwide. Ninety-three serotypes have been described, and
the phenotypic Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping. PCR-
based serotyping assays are less expensive, less time-consuming and
enable serotyping to be performed on culture-negative clinical specimens
with sufficient DNA. In this study PCR-based serotyping was evaluated.
The serotyping PCR (sPCR) assay consists of six sequential multiplex
reactions detecting 33 of the most prevalent serotypes (96% (3180/3329)
coverage of invasive pneumococcal disease serotypes in South Africa,
2007). Serotypes were assigned based on size-specific PCR products
detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. sPCR was performed on 12%
(406/3327) of randomly selected surveillance isolates from 2008 of
known serotypes. Pneumococcal DNA was confirmed by lytA real-time
PCR from culture-negative storage vials (5%; 22/406). sPCR was also
evaluated on pneumococcal DNA detected by lytA real-time PCR directly
from 20 clinical specimens: whole blood (n=3), cerebrospinal fluid (n=3)
and pleural fluid (n=14). Serotypes were confirmed genotypically for 96%
(370/384) of viable isolates. Discrepant results were detected for 1% of
isolates (4/384) and 3% (10/384) were serotypes excluded by sPCR. All
(22/22) nonviable isolates (mean lytA Ct=22, range 16-26) correlated with
the Quellung reaction results. All clinical specimens with a lytA Ct value of

                                                                                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Freestanding poster
                                                                            Smith Anthony Marius, Keddy Karen Helena, Madhi
                                                                         Shabir Ahmed, Groome Michelle, Cohen Cheryl, Moyes
Makhari Zwiitavhathu Smith Anthony Marius, Keddy Karen Helena, Madhi                                                                                              ###
Shabir Ahmed, Groome Michelle, Cohen Cheryl, Moyes Jocelyn School of
Pathology First preference: Presented poster Second preference:
Freestanding poster Characterization of bacterial causes of diarrhoea in
an under-five population in South Africa: April 2009 to April 2010
Diarrhoea is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity among
children under five years of age worldwide. We aimed to describe the
bacterial causes of diarrhoea in South African children under five years of
age hospitalized at five surveillance sites which included urban, peri-
urban and rural areas. Children aged < 5 years hospitalized with acute
diarrhoea were enrolled from Chris Hani Baragwanath (Gauteng
Province), Dr George Mukhari (North-West Province), Mapulaneng
(Mpumalanga Province), Matikwana (Mpumalanga Province) and
Edendale (Kwazulu-Natal) Hospitals. Standard microbiological methods
(culture, biochemical tests, serotyping) and molecular methods (PCR,
nucleotide sequencing) were used for identification and characterization
of bacterial pathogens from stool, targeting the following bacterial
pathogens: six categories of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC)which

                                                                                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
                                                                                                             Trevor Bell and Anna Kramvis
Three hundred human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients                                                                                                ###
from a rural hospital were recruited prior to initiation of antiretroviral
treatment (ART). Seventy two were co-infected with hepatitis B virus
(HBV), of which 28 were serologically overt and 44 occult. There are no
data on the HBV genotypes in South African HIV-infected individuals. The
aim of this study was to characterize the basic core promoter
(BCP)/precore region of HBV isolated from HIV-positive patients prior to
ART treatment. The BCP/precore region of HBV isolates from 18 patients
with overt HBV infection and from 21 with occult infection were
amplified and sequenced. All 39 patients were infected with subgenotype
A1. Of the 18 patients with overt infection, 13 were HBeAg-negative of
which 5 had wild-type sequence. The HBeAg-negativity of the remaining 8
patients was caused by mutations A1762T/G1764A reducing precore
mRNA transcription; mutations in the Kozak sequence (1809-1812)
preceding the precore start codon; precore start codon mutations and
1896 stop codon mutation with C1858T. In HBV isolated from patients
with occult HBV infection A1762T G1764A occurred together with
T1753C, whereas in the overt infections the double mutation occurred
                                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                                         Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster
                                                                             Barry Fabian, Beverley Kramer
Introduction: Mouse embryonic stem cells are known to differentiate into                                                           ###
odontoblasts when combined with 10-day embryonic oral epithelium.
This study aimed to determine whether mouse embryonic stem cells
could contribute to tooth formation when induced by jaw
ectomesenchyme from mouse embryos. Methods: The epithelium and
ectomesenchyme of 10,5-day and 12,5-day mouse embryonic lower jaws
were separated from each other. The 10,5-day lower jaw epithelium and
12,5-day lower jaw ectomesenchyme were respectively combined with
either mouse embryonic stem cells or STO cells as control and cultured in
vitro for three days. Some of the grafts were then grown as renal
subcapsular grafts for an additional 21 days. Histological and
immunocytochemical analyses were performed on all the grafts
retrieved. Results: Combinations of stem cell and jaw epithelium, STO cell
and jaw epithelium, or STO cell and jaw ectomesenchyme renal
subcapsular grafts showed no tooth formation. However, four out of ten
stem cell and jaw ectomesenchyme renal subcapsular grafts developed
teeth. Conclusion: While the stem cells could not be identified following
differentiation, it appears that they had contributed to the formation of
morphologically distinct teeth.

                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
                                                                             DA Gray, SK Maloney
Fever is an energetically expensive component of the mammalian                                                                     ###
immune system’s acute phase response. Like mammals, birds also
develop fever when exposed to pathogens, but, as yet, the metabolic
energy requirements of febrile mediation in birds are not known. We
measured the metabolic heat production (MHP) in Pekin ducks (Anas
Platyrhynchos) made febrile with an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS),
and compared it with the MHP in ducks given a control injection of saline.
We injected ducks (n = 8) with 100 LPS or sterile isotonic
saline and then recorded their core body temperatures using a bio-
telemetry system at the same time as measuring their O2 consumption
and CO2 production in an open-flow respirometric circuit.
Lipopolysaccharide elicited robust changes in the core body
temperatures of our birds. The ducks started to increase their MHP about
80 min after treatment with LPS relative to their MHP after a control
treatment. Metabolic heat production in febrile ducks peaked 180 min
post LPS when the highest body temperatures were recorded. Our ducks
increased their MHP by about 33% for about three hours to mount a
febrile response that, on average, increased their body temperature
1.3°C. The increase in MHP reported here is almost double that reported
                                                                               Sergio Carmona

                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster
The molecular pathogenesis of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is                                                              ###
heterogeneous and has not been completely elucidated. Central to the
leukaemogenesis are the presence of mutations described in a number of
genes, including, Nucleophosmin protein-1 (NPM1) and FMS-like tyrosine
kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). The primary aim of this
study was to assess for the presence of these two mutations in adult
patients diagnosed with de-novo AML at a single centre in South Africa
and to correlate this with immunophenotypic and other routine
parameters. Methods: We optimised a reliable method for the detection
of both NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations, using genomic DNA, extracted
from stored samples. The fluoro-labelled products generated by PCR
amplification are then analyzed by means of capillary electrophoresis.
Results: 165 AML samples were analysed. The NPM1 mutation rate was
found to be 27%, while FLT3-ITD was present in 26%. 40% of the patients
with an NPM1 mutation were found to also harbour an FLT3-ITD
mutation. Routine parameter assessment revealed interesting variations
from the literature. An example of this is age, with a much younger age at
diagnosis, particularly for those who are NPM1 mutation positive. Further
assessment for cytoplasmic NPM is being investigated. Conclusion: The


                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                               Prof Michele Ramsay, Dr Zane Lombard
FAS is a devastating developmental disorder resulting from alcohol                                                          ###
exposure during fetal development. It is a considerable public health
problem in several communities in South Africa, specifically in the
Western and Northern Cape, where a prevalence of 68.0 – 89.2 per 1000
children of school going age has been reported. Twin concordance
studies and animal models suggest that there are genetic and epigenetic
susceptibility factors for developing FAS. The IGF2/H19 ICR plays a critical
role in fetal development. DNA methylation is important in regulating
gene expression during embryogenesis, and it is proposed that ethanol
associated alterations in fetal epigenetic programming may contribute to
developmental abnormalities seen in FAS.The aim of the study is to
examine the methylation status of the IGF2/H19 ICR. Since both blood
and buccal samples are used, it was important to establish that they
reflect similar imprinted patterns. Therefore a pilot study on 50
individuals was performed and it confirmed that they do. The IGF2/H19
ICR methylation assay was optimised to asses 6 CpG sites within the 6th
CTCF binding site, by designing primers that avoided regions with known
SNPs that could confound the results. All control samples reflected the
epigenetic imprinted status of roughly 50% methylation, with the
exception of site 4 which varies depending on the allelic status and
                                                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                      Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Presented poster
                                                                              Zané Lombard, Michèle Ramsay, John Pettifor, Shane
Effectively managing bone health is a key strategy in combating the                                                                                                             ###
threat imposed by osteoporosis. A significant aspect of bone health,
namely bone mineral density (BMD), has a strong genetic component
which can potentially be exploited in therapeutic approaches. Although
several studies have been performed to identify the genetic factors that
influence BMD, these focused mainly on European populations and little
is known about the genetic aetiology in African populations. It is known
that populations of African ancestry have a higher BMD than other ethnic
groups, and, therefore, this study aims to investigate the genetic patterns
of bone health in black South African individuals forming part of the Birth
to Twenty cohort. The main objective is to test for an association
between the genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and
the relevant BMD measurements per individual. The Illumina BeadXpress
platform will be used to type 384 SNPs, across nine candidate genes, in
379 individuals. Statistically significant associations will be deduced
through an analysis of variance test. Results may not only help to
elucidate why individuals of African ancestry have higher than average
BMD, but also help to better manage bone health within this population

                                                                                                          Dr Ruxana Jina

                                                                                                                                                                                      Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Presented poster
                                                                                                                                    Masters by coursework and research report
Moalusi,Oupa Jina,Ruxana School of Public Health, Faculty of Health                                                                                                             ###
Sciences First preference:Presented paper Second preference: Presented
poster Clinical practices and outcomes in the maternity unit of a district
hospital. Improving maternal and perinatal health outcomes are a focus
of two of the Millennium Development Goals, yet the clinical practices
and outcomes in the maternity unit of Schweizer-Reneke Hospital have
not been clearly described. The aim of this study is to identify clinical
outcomes and the associated clinical practices in the hospital in 2009. A
retrospective review of delivery records was done. Simple random
sampling was used to select 120 partograms which were reviewed, as
well as all 176 records of assisted deliveries and perinatal deaths. In
addition, minutes of Maternal Mortality and Morbidity meetings were
also reviewed. Data was collected on excel spreadsheets and descriptive
statistics was used for analysis. Associations between record keeping and
poor outcomes were tested with chi square tests using a significance
value of 0.05. Of the 699 deliveries, 80% were normal deliveries, 16%
caesarean sections and 3% vacuum-assisted deliveries. Perinatal deaths
occurred in 5% of the cases and there were no maternal deaths. All the
                                                                                Valerie Mizrahi and Digby F. Warner

                                                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                            Presented poster
Vitamin B12 is synthesized by prokaryotes only and serves as co-factor in                                                                                    ###
key metabolic pathways. Structurally, vitamin B12 comprises a central
corrin ring co-ordinated by α- and β- axial ligands. In the active form, the
β ligand consists of 5’-deoxyadenosine or a methyl group, with 5,6-
dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) at α; substituting DMB with adenine yields
pseudovitamin B12. The obligate human pathogen Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (MTB) encodes three enzymes dependent on vitamin B12-
derived co-factors for activity. Through the construction of a strict
vitamin B12 auxotroph, we demonstrated previously that MTB does not
synthesise vitamin B12 in vitro, but is able to transport corrinoids, These
observations raised important questions regarding the ability of the
organism to access vitamin B12 during host infection, as well as the
role(s) of B12-dependent pathways in MTB pathogenesis. Here, we
evaluate the capacity of mycobacteria to synthesise pseudovitamin B12
and utilise this cofactor to support B12-dependent metabolism. Through
the construction of a panel of mutant strains, we demonstrate that MTB
is able to transport B12 precursors to synthesize both pseudo- and
‘orthodox” B12 forms in vitro. We also show that pseudovitamin B12 acts
as functional equivalent of vitamin B12 in key B12 dependent pathways

                                                                                                                                       Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
                                                                                Robyn van Zyl, Mohammad Abid, Ivan Havlik, Amir Azam
Ninety percent of malaria cases reported in sub-Saharan Africa are due to                                                                                    ###
the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. For decades malaria chemotherapy
has hinged on a limited range of drugs, with the parasite developing
resistance to some. This has initiated an urgent search for novel
compounds with unique mechanisms of action against plasmodia species.
Thiosemicarbazones are a small class of compounds with reported
antifungal and antimalarial effects; while metronidazole is a commonly
used broad spectrum antiprotozoal agent. The properties of these two
groups of compounds were combined by synthesizing metronidazole-
thiosemicarbazone analogues, wherein the thioamide moiety of the
thiosemicarbazone backbone was substituted by different cyclic and
aromatic amines. The sensitivity of the chloroquine-sensitive P.
falciparum strain (3D7) to the compounds was assessed using the
tritiated hypoxanthine incorporation assay. The compounds were
evaluated for their ability to inhibit β-haematin formation, as well as their
haemolytic properties. All but one of the compounds inhibited parasite
growth, with IC50 values below 10µM. Results from the β-haematin assay
indicated that, with the exception of two compounds, all compounds
inhibited β-haematin formation as effectively as quinine. Red blood cell
                                                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
                                                                                Van Zyl Robyn L., Harmse Leonie
Malaria affects more than 50% of the global population with sub-Saharan                                                                 ###
Africa carrying 90% of the disease burden. With increasing resistance of
Plasmodium falciparum to classic antimalarial drugs and lack of a vaccine,
there is a critical need for new cost-effective chemotherapeutic agents.
Methylene blue, the first synthetic antimalarial drug, formed the basis for
synthesis of other antimalarial drugs. The in vitro effects of select azo and
thiazine dyes were investigated on the growth of erythrocytic stages of a
chloroquine-sensitive strain (3D7) of P. falciparum. The antimalarial
activity of test compounds was screened using the [3H]-hypoxanthine
incorporation assay and the concentration yielding 50% inhibition of
growth (IC50) determined. Possible drug interactions with quinine were
determined. The haemolytic activity of the test compounds was
determined spectrophotometrically by measuring free haemoglobin. The
inhibition of haemozoin formation was tested by measuring in vitro β-
haematin crystallization. Of the 32 compounds tested, methylene blue,
safranine-O and mercury orange were most active with IC50 values of
4.19±0.163, 86.5±2.61 and 664±8.51nM, respectively. Methylene blue
was significantly more active (p

                                                                                Rispel Laetitia

                                                                                                                                              Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                 Freestanding poster
Primary Health Care services in South Africa make up a significant                                                                      ###
percentage of the overall health care system; hence its important role
cannot be overlooked. The problems of an underperforming health
system cannot be addressed fully without putting the spotlight on PHC
nursing leadership and management. Nurses form the backbone of the
health system in South Africa and are prominent in managerial and
leadership roles. The objective is to analyse nursing leadership and
management in PHC settings in two Gauteng and Free State provinces
thereby making recommendations for management and service
improvement. The methods will be qualitative and quantitative with a
mix of various components: key informant interviews with policy makers;
management narratives of nurse managers - purposive sampling will be
used. Observations of nursing managers employing an ethnographic
approach. A motivation and job satisfaction survey of nursing managers.
Focus group discussions and a survey of front line workers to perceptions
about nursing leadership and management in PHC settings. The sampling
frame based on ownership or authority e.g. local and provincial authority
clinics will be drawn and sampled according to proportion and size,
thereafter clinics from each Province will be selected. Final details will be
determined once a list of all clinics has been gathered. This research is at
concept stage The instruments will be piloted in Gauteng at none
participating PHCs and adjustments done accordingly. Ethics will be
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper
                                                                             Dr. Phil;ippe Bocquier

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
The dramatic increase in adult mortality attributable to HIV/AIDS in                                                                                                                        ###
households in these communities may increase the number of
households that do not survive as a functional and cohesive social group
in the years to come. The migration of household members and possible
dissolution of these households are the challenges stemming from the
epidemic. This report describes the extent at which these impacts are felt
by a rural community using data from the Rufiji HDSS in rural Tanzania.
Objectives: The description of the adult mortality patterns in the area
with an emphasis on the HIV/AIDS related adult deaths and the
estimation of the proportion of household members migrating following
the deaths of adult members. Methods: Migrating individuals from
households experiencing at least one adult death were compared with
migrating individuals from other households experiencing Non-HIV/AIDS
deaths and those from households without deaths. Results: Adult deaths
increase by about 9% the chance of a child, male or female, to migrate
within or without the DSA while HIV/AIDS adult deaths increase by a
further 19 percentage point the risk of the child to migrate out of the
DSA. The results also show that HIV/AIDS adult deaths enhance the risk of
adult female internal migration by 6% (adj. HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.91-1.23, p-
value 0.01) but is not significantly associated with adult male migration.
Additionally, HIV/AIDS adult death is strongly associated with out-

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper
migration of adults, whatever the gender. They predispose female out-

                                                                             Kathleen Kahn, Penelope Vounatsou, Mark Collinson, Steve Tollman
Background: The sub-Saharan African region which constitutes about 10%                                                                                                                      ###
of the world's population accounted for over 75% of AIDS related deaths.
More than a fifth (5.5 million) of these people are from South Africa.
South Africa as a nation has the highest absolute number of HIV-infected
persons in the world and a prevalence of 30.2%. Methods: The study
design was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 51 out of 6,527
children from 4,211 households died in 2004. Modelling continuous child
survival data was done using a geo-additive Bayesian model with non-
constant baseline hazard. Results: Multivariable analysis showed four
categories of predictors of child mortality in Agincourt 2004. These were
gender, maternal, household and mortality patterns related. Maternal
death had an over threefold impact on child mortality (3.334,
95%CI[1.004 - 12.283]). Household related predictors showed that more
populated households were at lesser risk of child death (HR=0.759,
95%CI[0.656 - 0.907]). Socio-economically richer households had a 59.1%
lower child mortality than very poor (HR=0.409, 95%CI[0.175 - 0.979]).
Conclusion: In this study we showed that HIV/TB child mortality has more
to do with other factors beyond the child's control these are: household
related, deaths in household, father's ability to work and most
importantly mother’s survival. We therefore recommend that efforts
should be channelled to ensure that HIV affected households have a
proper functional family structure. Target to reduce mother to child
infections by use of PMTCT, bottle feeding, ARVs at village and household
                                                                                                                     Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                 Freestanding poster
                                                                              Roxanne Naidoo and Mrudula Patel

                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
Introduction: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most                                                                          ###
common infections of oral cavity. Dental caries is the disease of the
mineralized tissue such as tooth caused mainly by acid produced by
Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Periodontal diseases are caused
by many anaerobic gram negative bacteria. Medicinal plants are often
used as antimicrobial agents in the prevention and control of both the
diseases. An indigenous South African plant Dodonaea viscosa var.
angustifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of oral thrush and the
efficacy has been scientifically proven. No previous studies have been
conducted to investigate the effect of this plant on the cariogenic
bacteria, their by products and periodontal pathogens. Therefore, this
study investigated the effect of D. viscosa var. angustifolia on the oral
pathogens. Methods: D. viscosa var. angustifolia leaves were collected,
dried, milled and extracted with acetone, methanol and ethanol. The
minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts was determined
by a microtitre serial dilution technique using S. mutans NCTC 10919, L.
casei, P. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sp., P. intermedia ATCC 25611, and 4
clinical isolates of each S. mutans and Lactobacilli. Each experiment was

                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                          Freestanding poster
                                                                              Koekemoer, Lizette L. and Coetzee, M
Anopheles arabiensis is one of the three major malaria vectors in Africa.                                                                  ###
Currently, An. arabiensis is controlled in South Africa using indoor
residual spraying with insecticides. Insecticide resistance in this species
has been reported in a number of countries and, given that insecticide
use has been the most successful way of controlling mosquitoes, the
development of resistance in target populations has a significant impact
on vector control, and ultimately on the prevalence of malaria. The
overall aims and objectives of this study were to investigate what
detoxification enzymes are involved in An. arabiensis resistance to DDT
using the An. gambiae detoxification chip. In addition, we investigated
the different detoxification profiles between two DDT resistant strains,
one from South Africa and one from Sudan. Microarray data suggest that
numerous genes are up-regulated in the South African strain, while in the
Sudanese population, only one gene, CYPPL1, was found to be up-
regulated. These data suggest that insecticide resistance data should not
be extrapolated for use on different vector populations. Furthermore, we
hope that such information might allow scientists to better monitor
resistance trends in different populations and to predict resistance
development in vector populations of different regions, where similar
                                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                             Prof Valerie Mizrahi, Dr Bavesh Kana
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the ability to adapt to the harsh                                                                    ###
environments experienced in granulomas during infection which
contributes to its success as a devastating pathogen. Several enzymes
implicated in Mtb pathogenesis, particularly under conditions during in
vivo infection, require the molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo) to function.
The MoCo biosynthesis pathway is a highly conserved multistep pathway
and certain genes involved have been implicated in Mtb virulence. The
Mtb pathway is unique in that it displays a multiplicity of certain genes,
particularly those involved in the second step including moaD1, moaD2,
moaE1, moaE2 and moaX. The moaD and moaE genes encode the small
and large subunits of the molybdopterin (MPT) synthase enzyme
respectively, whereas moaX, which functions as both moaD and moaE,
encodes a novel fused MPT synthase. This study aimed to gain insight
into the function of the multiple homologues of these genes. The
ΔmoaD2 ΔmoaE2 double mutant of the fast growing non-pathogenic
relative of Mtb, Mycobacterium smegmatis with its simpler pathway, was
complemented with different combinations of the Mtb moaD and moaE
homologues and grown on nitrate containing minimal media, using MoCo-
dependent nitrate reductase (NR) activity as readout for MoCo
                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                    Freestanding poster
                                                                            Prof. N Chetty and Prof. J Mahlangu

Ndlovu Nontobeko Prof. N Chetty and Prof. J Mahlangu School of                                                          ###
Pathology First preference – Free standing poster. Associations between
coagulation factors, clinical phenotypes, cytokine profiles,
polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter region and inhibitor development.
Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by a
deficiency of clotting factors. Theoretically there should be a negative
correlation between the clotting factor level and bleeding severity. In
clinical practice a discrepancy in this correlation has been observed.
Although this has been observed in other settings, very limited data is
available on identifying patient’s bleeding risks. The development of
antibodies against infused clotting factors is the most significant
therapeutic complication in haemophilia.The underlying determinants of
inhibitor formation are not fully understood. Cytokines are more or less
directly involved in antibody mediated immune responses. Scientific
studies investigating cytokines in haemophilia are fragmentary. Cytokines
were analyzed in this study, to determine if the presence of inflammatory
states has any relation to the inhibitor development and clinical
phenotypes in haemophilia. The study also investigated whether
polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene are associated with inhibitor
development. Forty haemophilia patients were randomly selected. 18
were black and 22 white. Amongst the 10 patients with inhibitors 8 were
black and 2 were white. All the black patients showed high inhibitor
titres. 29% of the biochemically severe patients were infrequent bleeders
and 50% of the mild patients were frequent bleeders. IL-6 and TNF-α
were found to be significantly higher in patients with inhibitors. Large
phenotypic heterogeneity exists in haemophilia. Cytokines may be
                                                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                            Presented poster
                                                                             Česlovas Venclovas, Valerie Mizrahi and Digby F. Warner
All drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is associated                                                                                        ###
with chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations, an observation
which places enormous importance on the need to understand
mutagenic mechanisms in this major human pathogen. Our laboratory
showed previously that induced mutagenesis in MTB is dependent on
DnaE2, a C-family DNA polymerase. Recently, we extended those
observations with the demonstration that DnaE2 functions as part of a
split imuA’-imuB/dnaE2 cassette that is essential for damage-induced
mutagenesis. Here, we present evidence that ImuB plays an essential role
as hub protein, interacting with both ImuA’ and DnaE2, as well as the β-
clamp which regulates access of repair proteins to the DNA replication
machinery. Utilizing a combination of site-directed mutagenesis (SDM)
and gene deletion techniques, we generated comprehensive panels of
mutant substrates for application in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction
assays, and for damage tolerance and induced mutagenesis experiments.
Our results confirm the identity of the β-binding motif in ImuB, and
demonstrate the essentiality of the ImuB-β interaction in damage
tolerance and induced mutagenesis in mycobacteria. In addition, we
demonstrate an essential role of the extended C-terminal region of ImuB
in its interaction with other cassetteone of the most persistent andour
Introduction: Anopheles gambiae is components. In combination,

                                                                                                                                       Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
                                                                             Prof. Lizette Koekemoer, Prof. Maureen Coetzee
efficient malaria vectors in Africa, spreading the Plasmodium parasite
quickly and efficiently throughout the human population. A colony of An.
gambiae known as GAH was colonised in 2007 from a number of wild
females caught in Ghana and is currently maintained by the Vector
Control Reference Unit. Resistance to the organochlorine dieldrin was
found in wild individuals from Ghana but has also been maintained,
without selection pressure, in the laboratory colony. Exposure to dieldrin
has been observed to adversely affect the feeding behaviour and
fecundity of An. gambiae. This study aimed to determine the effect of
dieldrin exposure on An. gambiae fitness, fecundity and fertility.
Methods: Female mosquitoes from the GAH colony were blood-fed and
allowed to oviposit. Reference photographs of ovarian dissections were
taken and used to determine the stage of development in following
experiments. The utilization of haemoglobin by each female was
measured by determining the concentration of haematin excreted in
faecal matter. Fecundity, fertility and fitness of exposed adults were
determined. Results: Exposure to dieldrin was observed to increase the
duration of development of the primary oocytes, however the eggs were
still viable and hatched. Mating success after exposure was 87% in the
unexposed females and 73% in the exposed females. The exposure of the
                                                                                                                         Masters by research
                                                                             Ajao, M.S., Ihunwo, A.O. and Manger, P.
Adult neurogenesis is a trend that has only been recently discovered and                                                                       ###
mostly tested on laboratory animal models. Hence, the focus of this study
revolves around the use of non captive (wild) animal models to provides
evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the brain of the common
molerat (Cryptomys hottentotus). Eight male adult rodents were grouped
into three; the control (n=2), 2 hours post BrdU injection (n=3) and 4
weeks post BrdU injection (n=3), respectively. The animals were
anaesthetized and transcardially perfused with saline followed by fixative
(4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB), pH 7.4. Brains
were removed and post fixed in the same fixative overnight. Following
equilibration in 30% sucrose in PB, 50 μm frozen sections were cut in the
sagittal and coronal planes followed by BrdU immunohistochemistry. Ki-
67 and DCX staining was undertaken as an additional confirmatory
staining for cell proliferation. BrdU, Ki-67 and DCX immunostaining
confirmed that some element of adult neurogenesis occurs in active
neurogenic sites such as the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus
(DG) of the hippocampus. The existence of adult neurogenesis in other
reported potential sites such as the septum and striatum, substantia
nigra, ependymal wall of the third ventricle and the amygdala were.

                                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                             Professor Michèle Ramsay, Dr Zané Lombard
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term that                                                                               ###
describes a range of symptoms associated with prenatal alcohol
exposure. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the most severe disorder in the
spectrum and is a major health problem in South Africa, with a
prevalence rate of 68.0-89.2 per 1000 children of school going age. The
primary cause of FAS is in utero alcohol exposure, with secondary factors
including various genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The
proposal that paternal preconception alcohol exposure has adverse
effects on offspring development is supported by children born with FAS
characteristics whose mothers did not drink but whose fathers were
alcoholics. Mouse studies have further supported these findings, showing
that offspring sired by alcoholic males manifest FAS characteristics. One
of the main epigenetic factors that have been shown to be affected by
alcohol is DNA methylation. This chemical modification of DNA is
associated with developmentally important genes known as imprinted
genes. Methylation occurs at specific regions in these genes known as
differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Alcohol’s ability to alter
methylation marks at imprinted genes raises the possibility that
disruption of these marks at imprinted loci could contribute to clinical
features seen in FASD. This research aimed to quantify global and region
specific (H19 DMR) DNA methylation in sperm from alcoholic males using
the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA) and bisulfite based
quantitative pyrosequencing, respectively. Preliminary results using
LUMA show no significant difference in global DNA methylation between
alcoholic and non-alcoholic sperm samples (P = 0.650).
                                                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                                                          Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster
A 50 yr old male from Johannesburg presented with a 25 yr history of                                                                ###
extensive skin lesions consisting of skin coloured, and hyperpigmented
nodules, papules and plaques involving the face, trunk and the limbs.
Clinically there was no obvious systemic involvement Basic bloods were
normal, and the HIV and syphilis serology were negative. Histology H & E
showed a diffuse and largely monomorphic infiltrate of spindle cell
histiocytes. S 100 was negative, CD 1a was negative, and CD 68 was
positive. On Electron miscroscopy dense cytoplasmic inclusions, but no
Birbeck granules were seen Chest X- Ray & High resolution CT Chest were
normal PET scan showed increase uptake in the Axillary and Inguinal
Lymph nodes , and biopsy of these nodes revealed them to be reactive
The appearance after childhood , progressive nature without
spontaneous resolution,no predilection for the flexural folds and joints,
and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of Progressive nodular
histiocytosis Other special stains which are specifically positive are HAM-
56 and Factor XIII a A trial of Radiotherapy was given, with no clinical
improvement. Discussion It is an exceedingly rare variant of the non –
Langerhans cell Histiocytosis with only few documented cases worldwide,
and none reported in SA Males and females are equally affected With
maturation of the dermal dendrocytes in these conditions, the cells
become less responsive to treatment with both radiotherapy and

                                                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
                                                                              Peter Kamerman, Natalya Dinat
Peripheral sensory neuropathy is the most common neuropathy                                                                         ###
associated with HIV infection. Antiretroviral (ARV) drug induced toxic
neuropathy (ATN) typically occurs within 6-months of starting treatment.
A few incidence studies on ATN have been performed; however none of
these studies were based on a South African population. The aim of the
present study was to determine the 6-month incidence of neuropathy in
patients free of neuropathy and beginning HAART for the first time and to
determine the effect of HAART in a subgroup of HIV-infected individuals
presenting with neuropathy and beginning HAART for the first time.
Seventy five (58 female, 17 male) HIV-positive patients were recruited at
the Chris-Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Patients were screened using the
AIDS Clinical Trails Group neurological screening tool. Eighteen (24%)
patients presented with neuropathy whilst fifty seven (76%) of patients
presented without neuropathy on their initial visit. After 3-months follow-
up of thirty six (48%) patients, eleven (30%) patients developed
neuropathy and after 6-months follow-up of eleven (14%) patients, four
(36%) patients developed neuropathy. Patients who developed
neuropathy were predominantly on HAART regimen 1a which includes
the ARVs Stavudine (d4t), Lamivudine (3TC) and Efavirenz (EFV). Of the
                                                                                                            Masters by research
                                                                             Michele Ramsay; Zane Lombard

                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster
An understanding of the harmful biological effects of alcohol dates back                                                          ###
many centuries to ancient Roman and Greek mythology. However, it was
only during England’s ‘Gin Epidemic’ (1720 – 1751) that the ill effects of
alcohol consumption on reproduction were first observed. Today, Fetal
Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the recognized syndrome associated with risky
maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The first link between
paternal alcohol consumption and the resulting deleterious outcomes in
subsequent generations was noted in 1913. Since then a number of
studies have been found associating paternal alcohol consumption to
gross abnormalities in offspring. Dysregulation of epigenetic factors may
provide a plausible mechanism by which paternal alcohol consumption
could also result in offspring affected with FAS. DNA methylation is a
primary DNA modification that occurs at sites known as differentially
methylated regions (DMRs) which are vital regulators of gene expression.
DMRs are associated with imprinted genes which are essential for normal
embryonic development. A pilot study, focusing on sperm DNA from
alcoholic men, has shown that alcohol intake can lead to a decrease in
DNA methylation at DMRs which are normally found to be highly
methylated. IG-DMR is a vital regulator of embryonic development and
                                                                                                            Masters by research
                                                                              M. J. Hosie and J. N. Maina

                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
The anatomy of the crocodilian lung was studied to document their                                                                 ###
morphology by means of higher resolution techniques, namely 3D
reconstruction using serial sections. It was found that the lungs of the
crocodile display immense heterogeneity due to the high degree of
regional internal subdivision of its parenchyma. The cranial regions of the
lung display the greatest levels of internal subdivision. The middle and
caudal regions of the lung display lower levels of internal subdivision
respectively. The ventral region of the lungs; cranial, middle and caudal;
were found to be more internally subdivided than the dorsal regions of
the lung; cranial, middle and caudal. Interfaveolar pores were found to be
a prominent feature in the cranial regions of the lung and decreased
caudally while smooth muscle was found to be prominent in the caudal
regions of the lung and decreased cranially. These two factors reinforce a
recent study (Farmer and Sanders, 2010) that proves that air flow in the
alligator lung, a close relative of the crocodile, is unidirectional.
                                                                              Dr R JINA

                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                                                               Masters by coursework and research report
Evaluation of quality and management of maternity services in the                                                                                          ###
National District Hospital in the Free State province Maternity services
are a priority for all health care services but in most cases there have
been serious challenges experienced in service performance. The
National District hospital’s key performance indicator is bed occupancy
rate which showed an underutilization of this facility but the service
statistics do not give a clear picture of the performance. Hence cross
sectional study was done to evaluate the quality and management of
maternity services in the National District Hospital in the Free State with
a focus on the problems and factors that hinders performance of
maternity services at this hospital. Data was collected through a record
review of the admission books, labour records, adverse events registers
and, monitoring and evaluation reports. The data was entered into excel
spreadsheets and imported into EpiInfo for analysis. Descriptive statistics
were done, including calculating means and ranges for continuous
variables and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. The
data analysis revealed that the factors contributing to the poor
performance of the maternity services were: 1) poor record keeping like
incomplete recording of a partograms, 2) non-adherence to guidelines

                                                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                              Bentley Alison, Kamerman Peter
Neuropathic pain is the most common neurological disorder in HIV                                                                                           ###
patients. In South Africa, terms commonly used to describe neuropathic
pain by first-language English speakers, (“burning, stabbing, electric-
shocks, pins-and-needles, tingling” etc) are used to diagnose painful
peripheral neuropathy in HIV patients. The aim of the present study was
to determine if pain-assessment questionnaires, which were developed
overseas but are commonly used in South Africa, are appropriate as the
majority of the South African population do not speak English as a first
language. Fifty-five individuals with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy
were recruited to participate in the study. Participants were asked to
describe any pain and/or abnormal sensations in their lower legs and feet
in their home language of isiZulu. Thereafter, a list of common English
neuropathic pain descriptors was read to participants and they were
asked to identify which word/s and phrases described the pain and
sensations in their lower legs and feet. An isiZulu equivalent was
requested from the participants for any of the words and phrases
selected. Eighty-nine percent selected “cramping” to describe their pain
(only 2% did not understand what “cramping” meant). Other commonly
used terms were “hot” and “burning”, which were chosen by 86% and
58% of participants respectively. “Throbbing” was the least selected word
to describe neuropathic pain, possibly because 96% of participants did
                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                             McLaren GM and Carmichael T

                                                                                                           Masters by coursework and research report
Soma. Darshana McLaren G.M. and Carmichael T.R. School of medicine                                                                                     ###
First preference : Oral/presented paper Second preference : Presented
poster Third preference : Free standing poster Large discs with large cups
– A diagnostic challenge in African patients Glaucoma is an eye condition
influenced by intraocular pressure (IOP) that results in optic nerve
damage. This manifests as increased cupping of the disc. Large cups
(vertical cup-disc ratio ≥0.6) is a typical feature of glaucomatous optic
nerve damage but it can also be a normal variant in large discs (vertical
disc height measuring ≥1.8mm). Retinal nerve fiber atrophy occurs with
glaucoma and this can be objectively measured with a retinal nerve fiber
layer analyzer (GDx VCC) and subjectively measured with a visual field
test. Central corneal thickness influences IOP measurement. Thin corneas
(544µm or less) underestimate IOP measurements and thick corneas
(564µm or more) overestimate IOP measurements. Patients were
recruited from the glaucoma clinic at St John Eye Hospital. Sixty-nine
African patients (138 eyes) with large discs and large cups were
evaluated. From the 69 patients, 51 (74%) patients have normal eyes and
18 (26%) patients have glaucomatous eyes. 9 (18%) patients of the 51
                                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
                                                                            prof L.L Koekemoer
INTRODUCTION Anopheles funestus Giles is a major vector of malaria in                                                  ###
Africa and can be responsible for more disease transmission than An.
gambiae s.s. Pyrethroid resistance in a population of An. funestus from
South Africa has previously been associated with a seven-fold increase in
malaria transmission during 1996-2000. Metabolic detoxification, based
on the overproduction of monooxygenases (P450), and specifically
CYP6P9, was identified as the principal resistance mechanism.
Understanding how An.funestus detoxifies pyrethroids using CYP6P9 will
provide essential information needed for the development of novel
vector control tools. METHODS Oxidative metabolism and comparisons of
P450 activity levels between resistant (FUMOZ-R), baseline (FUMOZ) and
susceptible (FANG) An.funestus strains were carried out using the
cytochrome P450 assay, using 7-ethoxycoumarin as a substrate.
Pyrethroid metabolism analysis was carried out by HPLC analysis and
Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRTPCR) was used to determine gene
regulation activity of three genes (CYP6P9, CYP6P13 and COI) associated
with resistance. RESULTS Substantial rates of metabolism of permethrin
(pyrethroid) were observed by the heterologously expressed CYP6P9
from the pyrethroid resistant strain (FUMOZ-R). Substrate turnover
values (kcat values) were in the range of 11.4 – 14 min -1, which were
relatively rapid compared to rates observed for the in-vitro P450
metabolism of pyrethroids reported from other species. The CYP6P9
recombinant protein from FUMOZ-R showed a substantially higher rate
of enzyme activity (7-fold) than the orthologous protein CYP6P3 in An.
gambiae. Oxidative metabolism verified that FUMOZ-R (particularly
females) shows the highest level of P450 activity compared to the
pyrethroid susceptible strains. Following exposure to deltamethrin for 1
hour and allowing a recovery time of 2 hours allowed CYP6P9, CYP6P13
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
                                                                                  David Rees, Kevin Renton, Hans Kromhout
Silica is well
Although silica exposure is well established in many industries as a cause
of serious illnesses such as silicosis, agriculture is not widely recognized as
a significant risk for silica associated diseases. The objectives are to
quantify personal respirable dust and quartz exposure on farms with
three soil types (sandy, sandy loam and a clay soil) in the Free State and
North West provinces of South Africa, and to determine whether soil
type is a determinant or positive predictor of “over exposure” to
respirable quartz. A total of 300 respirable dust and respirable quartz
measurements were collected between July 2006 – November 2009
during major farming operations. Results for the clay soil are no available
yet, but 18 out of the 138 (13%) and 11 out of the 76 respirable quartz
measurements (14%) collected on the sandy and sandy loam soil farm
exceeded the commonly used Occupational Exposure Limits of 100
µg/m3, respectively. The highest time weighted average respirable quartz
concentration measured was 630 µg/m3 on the sandy soil farm during
wheat planting activities. Fifty seven percent (57%) and thirty three
percent (33%) of the respirable quartz measurements on the sandy and
sandy loam soil farm exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of
25 µg/m3 respectively. Quartz percentages of the respirable dust on the

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                                            Lois M. Harden, Helen P. Laburn, Brian H. Harvey, Duncan Mitchell


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
Fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), which simulates the acute-                                                                                                                              ###
phase effects of Mycoplasma infection, induces sickness responses in
rats, but it is not known whether FSL-1, like other bacterial moieties,
affects the learning and memory component of sickness behaviour. We
investigated the effects of FSL-1 on learning, memory, body temperature,
cage activity, body mass and food intake in rats. Rats were housed
individually in cages and received one of two intraperitoneal doses of FSL-
1 (500 or 1000 µg/kg in 1 ml/kg PBS), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS;
1 ml/kg) at 16:00. Sixteen hours after injections, and for 4 days
thereafter, learning was assessed in a Morris water maze and memory
was assessed on the fifth day. Latency, distance travelled and swim speed
were measured in the maze. Body mass and food intake were measured
daily. Radiotransponders, implanted intra-abdominally, measured body
temperature and cage activity. Administration of FSL-1 induced a dose-
dependent increase in abdominal temperature and decrease in cage
activity, body mass and food intake. Neither doses of FSL-1 affected
learning or memory. Our results confirm that FSL-1 induces fever,
lethargy, anorexia and body mass stunting in rats, with the higher dose
exacerbating the sickness responses. Surprisingly, learning and memory
were not impaired at any of the doses of FSL-1, despite such doses
causing the rats to be inactive in their cages. The dissociation of learning
and memory, from other sickness behaviours, could be explained by
                                                                                                              Yengopal V, Bhayat A, Rudolph M.

                                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Freestanding poster
Dental caries remains a public health problem in Gauteng. There is
anecdotal evidence that specific areas of the province have extremely
high rates of untreated decay. This information is important for planning
of oral health services to address this burden of disease. The aim of this
cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and clinical
consequences of dental caries among school children in the West Rand
district of Gauteng. Methods: The study sample comprised of 611
preschool and primary school children (4-5 & 6-8 years old). Cluster
sampling was used to randomly select the participating schools. Of the 81
primary schools in the district, 8 (10%) were selected and all pupils (4-5 &
6-8 years old) within these schools received an oral examination using
World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. These were conducted in
classrooms using disposable instruments. Oral Health status was
determined by computing the DMFT /dmft index [caries status] and the
PUFA/ pufa index [severity of caries]. Results: Of the 611 children, 93
were in the 4-5 year olds age group and 518 were 6-8 year olds. For 4-5
year olds, dmft score was 2.24, prevalence of caries was 47%; severity of
caries was scored with pufa index as 0.33, and the percentage of

                                                                                                                                                 Masters by research
                                                                                                                  Tempia, L Blumberg

                                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                                GA Timothy, C Cohen, B Archer, Dhamari Naidoo;Stefano
PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A/H1N1 2009 IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE FIRST 100                                                                                                          ###
CASES GA Timothy(1), C Cohen(2), B Archer(2),Dhamari Naidoo (2);
Stefano Tempia (3), L Blumberg(2) 1.School of Public Health, Department
of Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of
Witwatersrand; 2.National Institute of Communicable Diseases(NICD),
South Africa; 3Centre for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC),
Johannesburg BACKGROUND On 17 June 2009 South Africa reported its
first laboratory confirmed case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. The
number of cases rose steadily and 100 cases were confirmed by 14 July
2009. To effectively direct response measures, an epidemiological and
clinical description of the confirmed cases was important in the early
phase of the outbreak. METHODS Data collected via telephonic
interviews by the NICD during the initial stages of the A/H1N1 influenza
pandemic in South Africa was analysed to ascertain demographics, source
of infection, risk factors, clinical features and complications. Transmission
dynamics, which included the mean serial interval, a household
secondary attack rate (SAR) and a reproduction number (R0) were
estimated from time-dependent characteristics. RESULTS Of the first 100
laboratory confirmed cases, international travel was documented in 42%
                                                                                                                                                                                                Presented poster
                                                                                                                  Arbuthnot, Patrick & Weinberg, Marc S.


                                                                                                                                                                       Oral/Presented Paper
A staggering 70 % of all new HIV cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa and                                                                                           ###
the development of new therapeutic strategies is crucial. RNA
interference (RNAi)-based approaches have proved promising, where
primary microRNA hairpins (pri-miRNAs) can be used to produce anti-HIV
guide sequences. The structural determinants for optimal pri-miRNA
recognition and processing, however, are not yet fully understood. The
relationship between predicted pri-miRNA length and silencing and
processing capabilities was examined with the aim of characterising the
rational design of anti-HIV pri-miRNA mimics. Initially, six endogenous pri-
miRNAs with a range of hairpin lengths were selected using predictive
structural software (mfold). Pri-miRNA and corresponding target
sequences were cloned into appropriate expression and reporter vectors,
respectively. Silencing ability of guide sequences was tested through dual
luciferase assays, while processing was confirmed through PAGE northern
blots. Thereafter, anti-HIV sequences were introduced into each pri-
miRNA backbone to create mimics against tat and int regions of the HIV
genome and experiments for guide function were repeated. Effective
silencing and processing was observed for “short’, “average” and “long”
endogenous pri-miRNAs. This indicated that no obvious trend between

                                                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                Presented poster
                                                                               Bass Chris, Puinean Mirel, Williamson S Martin, Field M Linda,
                                                                                                   Coetzee Maureen and Koekemoer Lizette
Vezenegho Samuel Bumuh Bass Chris, Puinean Mirel, Williamson S                                                                                                   ###
Martin, Field M Linda, Coetzee Maureen and Koekemoer Lizette Malaria
Entomology Research Unit, School of Pathology, University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa First preference:
Oral/Present paper Second preference: Present poster Third preference:
Freestanding poster Development of multiplex real-time PCR assays for
identification of members of the Anopheles funestus species group The
malaria vector and non-vector species of the Anopheles funestus group
are morphologically very similar and accurate identification is required as
part of effective control strategies. In the past this has relied on
cytogenetic methods but these have been largely superseded by a robust
allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay. One disadvantage of AS-PCR is the
requirement for post-PCR processing by gel electrophoresis in order to
visualize the PCR products. In this study three new high-throughput
‘closed-tube’ assays were developed and compared with the previously
described AS-PCR technique. Protocols for three fluorescence-based
assays based on Melt Curve Analysis (MCA), High Resolution Melt (HRM)
and TaqMan SNP genotyping were developed to detect and discriminate
An. parensis, An. leesoni, An. vaneedeni, An. rivulorum and An. funestus
s.s. The sensitivity and specificity of these assays were compared with the
widely used AS-PCR method in a blind trial using DNA extracted from wild-
caught mosquitoes. The TaqMan assay proved to be the most sensitive
                                                                                                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
                                                                                                                                  Clem Penny
                                                                               Ameena Wadee, Viness Pillay, Yahya E. Choonara, Lisa C. du Toit,
Poly(methyl vinyl ether) (PMVE) is a thermoresponsive polymer which at                                                                                                                  ###
increased temperatures converts from a solution to a gel. This can be
exploited in the development of an injectable, in situ forming implant for
the treatment of osteosarcomas and other solid tumors. A sterilization
method which does not alter the gelation properties was sought.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1) Preparation of solutions: PMVE solutions
were diluted to 35%w/v solutions and CaCl2 (0.5M) was added. Solutions
were autoclaved at 121˚C for 15mins and compared with unsterilized
solutions. 2) Rheology: A Haake Modular Advanced Rheometer System
(ThermoFisher Scientific, Germany) was used to expose samples to fixed
strain and oscillation (18Pa, 10Hz) while the temperature of the sample
was increased. 3) FTIR: A Fourier Transformed Infrared
Spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer, USA) was used to determine the effect
of autoclaving on the chemical structure of the polymer. 4) Drug release:
Model drug, folic acid, was added to polymer solutions in the
concentration of 5mg/mL. Drug release studies were carried out and
samples were drawn every 3days for 30days. Drug content was assayed
by UV spectroscopy. RESULTS: The gelation temperature of the
autoclaved formulations remained the same at 33.6˚C. FTIR revealed no
change in the spectra. However, release of folic acid from the autoclaved
formulation was slightly faster as 32% of the drug was released after 32

                                                                                                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
                                                                                                                   Z. Lombard, P. Price, C. Cherry, P, Kamerman
We investigated if polymorphisms and haplotypes of the GTP                                                                                                                              ###
cyclohydrolase gene (GCH1) were associated with pain from HIV-
associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) in African patients. GCH1
polymorphisms have been implicated in the perception of neuropathic
pain in Caucasians. The study was approved by the Human Research
Ethics Committee of the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
(protocol M080220). HIV-positive black Africans were recruited from the
Virology Clinic at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. HIV-
SN was defined using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Brief Peripheral
Neuropathy Screen. 230 patients had both symptoms and signs of
neuropathy. Participants reporting pain were asked about their pain
intensity. 176 participants had a painful neuropathy. 22 individuals had a
non-painful neuropathy and served as controls. 32 patients previously
had pain and were excluded. 75% (132/176) of participants with a painful
neuropathy reported moderate to severe pain. Blood samples were taken
for genotyping. SNPs were selected on the basis of a reported association
with the perception of pain. Six SNPs within GCH1 were genotyped using
the Goldengate® assay on the Illumina BeadXpress™ genotyping
platform. All had a minor allele frequency >5%. No SNPs were
significantly associated with the intensity of pain, but alleles of rs752688
associated with the presence of pain (Chi2, p=0.03). In conclusion; alleles
                                                                                                                                                     Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                              Elin Gray, Penny Moore, Koleka Mlisana, Abdool Salim Karim, and Lynn
Introduction: An HIV-1 vaccine capable of inducing neutralising antibodies                                                                                                 ###
remains an important scientific milestone. Using pseudoviruses with
chimeric envelope glycoproteins, the C3-V4 region of gp120 was recently
identified as a common target for the early autologous neutralising
antibody response. This study investigated whether C3-V4 epitopes are
located in their entirety on monomeric gp120. Methods: Plasmids
encoding chimeric glycoproteins for pseudovirus production were
engineered using overlapping PCR and confirmed via DNA sequencing.
Amplicons encoding autologous, heterologous, mutant, and chimeric
gp120s were sub-cloned for transfection of 293T cells. Purified gp120 was
qualitatively evaluated by SDS-PAGE and ELISA, then covalently coupled
to magnetic beads and used to adsorb gp120 specific antibodies from
various serum samples. Antibody depletion was assessed via ELISA and a
cell-based neutralisation assay. Results: Monomeric gp120 displayed
varied success at depleting neutralising antibodies in the four participant
serum samples analysed. Wild-type and chimeric gp120 adsorbed
antibodies responsible for neutralising chimeric viruses. Using participant
CAP88 wild-type and C3-chimeric gp120 depleted all neutralising
antibodies. In another (CAP45) the epitope was redefined as β14(C3)-V5
(CD4 binding site). Both wild-type and C3-V5-chimeric gp120 significantly
removed this activity. Introduction of escape mutations into CAP45 and
CAP88 gp120 substantially reversed this effect. Conclusion: Our results
suggest that C3 related epitopes are apparent on monomeric gp120.
However single epitopes seldom account for the total neutralising activity

                                                                                                                                                     Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                                                                    Prof. Michѐle Ramsay
The potential phenotypic effects of synonymous SNPs (sSNPs) have long                                                                                                      ###
been overlooked. Although several sSNPs are no longer thought to be
silent no one has identified which sSNPs may contribute to disease
phenotypes on a genome-wide scale, nor has a tool been developed that
may identify a functional role for sSNPs in disease. sSNPs that cause a
change in codon-usage frequency or mRNA secondary structure may alter
translational-kinetics and protein folding. In addition, sSNPs that disrupt
splice-site consensus sequences may cause aberrant splicing, changing
the protein product. Thus, a sSNP that contributes to any of these
molecular mechanisms may cause a change in protein structure and
function. To identify the potential phenotypic effects of sSNPs within
genes associated with disease, all sSNPs within the human genome were
identified computationally. Python scripts and established bioinformatics
tools were used to determine which of the sSNPs may result in a
molecular effect, and these were assessed to determine whether they
occurred within genes associated with disease. An on-line database and
analysis tool will be created. Of the 72,504 sSNPs identified 42,693 had
no predicted change in function. The remaining sSNPs were predicted to
have a potential functional impact by one or more of the molecular
mechanisms and many were within genes associated with disease. The
analysis tool will aid the discovery of the phenotypic effects of sSNPs
                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
South African civil society is often supported by international funding and
trained to use international toolkits, methods, and approaches to
peacebuilding. Domestic actors apply these approaches to issues such as
anti-xenophobia interventions even though the toolkits are not
necessarily relevant in light of the realities of displacement in South
Africa: they are not designed with urban spaces in mind or for civil society
actors working within their own country. In particular, significant
obstacles to the utilization of these toolkits, methods, and approaches
pertain to mobility: Displaced men and women are often highly mobile
and difficult to access, with a limited sense of “community” or desire to
participate in mainstream livelihood opportunities and daily life.

This paper questions the assumptions embedded in the international
peacebuilding toolkits’ conceptions of community, participation, and
ownership. In light of South Africa’s recent experiences with xenophobic
violence, and the subsequent civil society response of peacebuilding
interventions, it represents a unique case study to explore how current
peacebuilding literature and tools address “localness” and domestic
actors. In this vein, the paper will first describe how concepts of
“localness”, community, and participation and ownership manifest

                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among                                  ###
persons aged 50 and above and when a stroke does not result in death, it
can cause residual cognitive, motor and behavioural disabilities. This
study explored the relationship between emotion processing,
neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life specifically, how they
operate following a cerebrovascular accident. In order to achieve this, an
adult population of high functioning stroke survivors completed the
emotion processing scale (EPS), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI-2) and comprehensive quality of life inventory
(ComQOL-A5) and a factor analysis provided statistical evidence
suggestive of intercorrelations among the variables. The results lent
support to this theoretical relationship and determined the structure of
this relationship as follows. Quality of life after a stroke was associated
with traditional masculine or feminine roles, and/ or when not fulfilled,
related to neuropsychiatric symptoms of general maladjustment
including schizophrenia and psychopathic deviate. The second factor
encompassed symptoms of general anxiety that were either internally or
externally directed: Internally directed anxiety included symptoms of
hypochondriasis and hysterical conversion, while externally directed
                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
This study investigates the representations of Africa in three magazines;                             ###
Time, The Economist and Financial Mail. Time and The Economist are
American and European publications, whereas Financial Mail is South
African, enabling a comparison of their coverage to be undertaken. The
study focuses on representations of politics, economics and HIV/AIDS. A
multi-faceted, complementary theoretical framework of critical political
economy of the media, theories of news production and cultural studies
is utilised. This study triangulates quantitative and qualitative content
analysis as a methodological approach. The findings of this study reveal
that representations of Africa fall within three typologies: negative,
positive and mixed. Negative and stereotypical representations
dominate, with very few positive representations detected. Many mixed
representations of Africa are presented, which offer both a negative and
positive view of the continent and its countries. Overall, local media
perpetuate a majority of negative frames of meaning around Africa and
so support traditional and current foreign representations of the
continent. As much of the language and images used in African stories
focus on negative issues, Africa is consequently presented as a largely
hopeless continent.

                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper
This paper will explore the close relationship established between                                    ###
spatiality and corporeality in Marlene van Niekerk’s critically acclaimed
novel, Agaat (2004 / 2006). In order to illuminate this generally occluded
aspect of the novel, I will provide a close reading of the ‘map motif’, with
particular focus on the climactic unveiling of the protagonist’s farm maps.
With reference to Graham Huggan's (1989)cartographic theory I will
analyse the meaning conventionally accorded to maps and demonstrate
how Van Niekerk exposes and disproves this. In the process she
challenges the narrative of land ownership which the conventional
plaasroman underwrites. I suggest that the map is the medium through
which the characters disrupt existing power relations and Apartheid
spatial discourse. I focus on the role played by the physical body in this
disruption and in revealing the possibilities for an alternative cartographic
discourse. Maps thus provide a means of re-imagining and rewriting both
personal and political narratives. The map, as well as the body, can be
read as a locus of meaning and a site of conflict; both are inscribed by
history. I explore the relevance of the fact that the eponymous Agaat’s
parodic geography lesson is accompanied by the revelation and
                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
In 1956 the Dutch artist Constant Nieuwenhuys (Constant) began work on                              ###
a hybrid art and architectural project titled New Babylon, in which a
series of models, texts, maps and installation or exhibition-based
productions were envisaged as preparatory work for an idealistic, and
unrealisable, city of the future. Although Constant’s sense of the precise
nature and aims of New Babylon shifted through the duration of the
project, he ultimately maintained that the various parts of New Babylon
were, collectively, a “total work of art”. This paper contends that New
Babylon, as an artwork extending across media and even into the
intangible, subverts a commonsensical assumption that an artwork
subsists in a particular object, image or contained series of events (as is
the case in performance art, for instance). New Babylon demands a
thinking of the artwork along what Maurice Merleau-Ponty calls
“matrices of ideas”, which connect the visual and material qualities of the
work inextricably to textual, fictional, spatial and relational
considerations. In considering Constant’s pluralistic vision of the work of
art through two theoretical veils, Jacques Derrida’s motifs of the trace
and the limit-border, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of
speech in relation to indirect language, this paper concludes that New
Babylon represents a mode of interstitial subsistence in which the various
material, linguistic and ideal facets of the work are necessarily

                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
The study on which this presentation is based investigates the link                                 ###
between anguish and artistic creativity by interviewing and examining the
work of three South African artists, namely Norman Catherine, Albert
Munyai and Azwimpheleli Gerson Magoro. The data collected for this
study includes interviews and artworks. A mix of discourse analysis and
iconography is employed to analyse the data. Anguish is an affect that is
not readily apparent or detectable but is more likely to be recognized as
something displaced, inverted or adrift. Therefore, anguish in the data
will be approached from diverse angles. Discourse analysis helps to find
patterns in the language that link to signs of anguish as described through
a psychoanalytical framework. Iconography allows for the translation of
the works of art into texts. Anguish as an affect related with the absence
of an absolute meaning for existence may also be present in the
motivation to create something from nothingness. There is an indication
that through creating art one may be trying to symbolize the real (in the
sense introduced by Jacques Lacan) that affects the subject. The study to
be presented is part of a doctorate thesis in progress at the moment.
                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
This paper elucidates the ANC’s democratic project through the prism of                              ###
its relationship to the media. Several theorists have been referred to in
order to put together a theoretical framework with which to clarify and
account for the emergent pattern of interpellation against those in the
media who highlight the short comings of the ruling party. The case of
the subjectivisation and ideological interpellation of South Africa’s award
winning and irreverent cartoonist, Zapiro, shows how through
experience, a participant in democracy, discovers that democracy does
not exist without freedom of expression. The question is: what do
“freedom of expression” and “democracy” mean in the new South Africa
when a cartoonist is sued for defamation by the country’s president,
Jacob Zuma, over a cartoon, referred to as Lady Justice? The paper
scrutinises the changing meanings of democracy and freedom L131of
expression especially when the former anti-apartheid activist, cartoonist
is hailed as a “racist”, “enemy of the people” and a “right-winger” by
Zuma supporters. The argument here is: the ANC makes a mockery of
democracy when it attempts to create unity in the social by foreclosing
open spaces through interpellation and lawsuits, thus hindering the

                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                           Presented poster

                                                                                                                                    Freestanding poster
Critics have stated that Ian McEwan, being a New-Humanist, promotes                                  ###
rationalism in his novels and I examine this idea with McEwan’s
treatment of the interplay between “sense” and “sensibility” in his
novels. My dissertation takes the form of a comparative textual analysis
of McEwan’s texts. I analyse the themes, language use, point of view,
structures and symbolism in McEwan’s novels, in order to explicate what
they say about sense and sensibility. Drawing on Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory
of “Self-deception”, in order to illuminate characters that have existential
moments, it is shown how McEwan favours “sense over sensibility,” by
conveying that when characters base their beliefs on their “sensibility”
they are “deceiving” themselves. The fact that the characters that
represent rationalism are always male brings into question the role of
gender within McEwan’s novels. Whether McEwan is a realist, modernist
or postmodern writer, is another debate brought up, when studying
rationalism in his works. My project therefore addresses the conundrum
of whether an author can be both a humanist-existentialist and a
postmodern writer, despite these ideologies seeming irreconcilable. It
has been concluded that McEwan passes through these contradictory
                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper
One of the strategies to ensure educational access for children living on                             ###
farms has been to hostel them in neighbouring towns. Hostelling learners
appears to comply with two fundamental principles - it guarantees access
to basic education and it does so through redress mechanisms, in that the
state spends more on learners from disadvantaged backgrounds. But
there are a number of ethical considerations involved in hostelling
learners who are not orphans. In this paper, I begin by detailing the
theoretical justifications for a policy on hostelling farm school children. I
then raise three possible objections to the hostel programme – first, that
it hinders the development of family relations and so is not in the best
interest of the child; second, that the hostelling solution comes at a cost
to "parental liberty" and finally, a communitarian objection that raising
children in institutions prevents cultural reproduction. I argue that these
objections can be answered, but that they do require a re-evaluation of
how hostels are organised and managed. When the state acts in loco
parentis then particular conditions must be met – such as clear
democratic procedures to involve parents in decision making.

                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
This paper will explore the challenging critical problem of developing the                            ###
theoretical strategies necessary for addressing the relationship between
images and words. Traditionally accepted accounts suggest that the
interaction of words and images is static and hierarchical, with one
modality dominating the other. However, words and images should be
understood as differing but interlinked modes of production, neither of
which takes precedence over the other. This can be demonstrated by
examining selected pages from William Blake’s illuminated book, Songs of
Innocence and of Experience. Each of these pages contains images and
poetry, but the images are not simple illustrations of the poems, nor are
the poems mere verbal translations of the images. Rather, the two assert
aesthetic independence from each other whilst continuing to work in
shifting associations. Blake's particular material processes, and the often
carefully constructed interaction between images and words in Songs,
function structurally to produce a multiplicity of variable meanings which
traverse images and poetry. Hence, their interaction is fundamentally
interstitial, operating in a time-space that is simultaneously occupied by
image and word and also generated by their relationships. This dynamic
structuration operates between the poems and images on individual
pages, across pages, and across multiple, differing copies of Songs. I will
suggest that this phenomenon can be usefully theorised through the
notion of a ‘Third-Text’, that is constituted by both verbal and visual
texts, yet is neither the sum of, nor identical with, either of these texts.
                                                                            Adilia Silva, Kristy Errington

                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster
                                                                                                             Masters by coursework and research report
The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of The Teddy Bear                                                                                      ###
Clinic’s extended diversion programme on child sexual offenders. A quasi-
experimental pretest-posttest design has been used to gather self-report
data from 73 boys between 7 and 18 years old, who received diversion
services from The Teddy Bear Clinic between 2009 and 2010. 63 of these
boys’ attended either a dance, music, art or boxing intervention in
addition to the conventional therapeutic intervention (experimental
group), while 11 only participated in the conventional therapeutic
intervention (control group). A demographic questionnaire, including 7
psychological scales was administered before and after the interventions.
The data is still to be scored and analysed using the two independent
sample t-test to determine whether there are significant differences
between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and
control groups. The group of boys who attended the alternative therapy
programmes in addition to the conventional therapeutic intervention are
expected to show greater improvements on each of the seven
psychological scales administered, and to have a significantly higher
mean posttest score, than the boys in the control group. In the wake of
the roll out of the new Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, these findings will

                                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
This article foregrounds Dickens’s attitude to death and vengeance in the                                                                                ###
figure of Miss Havisham. It explores the parallels suggested in Great
Expectations between Miss Havisham and the King’s Ghost in Hamlet.
Shakespeare examines the ramifications of Hamlet’s revenge realistically,
exposing the brutal psychological effects of death and murder. Like
Hamlet, Miss Havisham is an artist-avenger who attempts to gain control
over death through a theatrical manipulation of events. I argue that
whereas Shakespeare humanises the Revenge Tragedy motif in Hamlet,
Dickens emphasises the sensational aspects of Miss Havisham’s
vengeance. Miss Havisham blurs the boundaries between life and art by
creating a dramatic allegory of her suffering. In this way she takes on a
significance beyond herself in Pip’s consciousness.
                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
Photographs have numerous accusations and roles in W. E. Sebald’s                                      ###
Austerlitz. They represent the text’s intersecting concerns of memory and
trauma. Photographs are a particularly elusive feature of Sebald’s writing
and have been subject to much debate. The photographs included in the
text initially seem to maintain the ‘referential illusion’ or ‘reality effect’
associated with photography, yet it becomes evident that their role as
illustrations that seemingly reinforce the texts veracity is highly
provisional. The photographs are also linked to trauma and the spectral
temporality of return, and as a result disrupt the linear trajectory of the
text. In this paper I assess whether these photographs come to signify
that which cannot be recuperated or assimilated; memory’s absence
rather than its presence. I argue that the photographs come to archive
and catalogue that which cannot be represented by narrative or
language, and come to act as a ghostly supplement to the body of the
text. It becomes clear that the photographs disrupt the text’s novelistic
structure and are heterogeneous in their potential signification.

                                                                                                             Oral/presented paper
The homelands were sites of deprivation and struggle. Of these
Bophuthatswana had a particularly violent demise. New research in
Hammanskraal, a semi-urbanised area which fell half in and half out of
the homelands is uncovering a strand of memory which remembers
Bophuthatswana not only as good, but as peaceful. But these memories
are by no means the same throughout the area. They are also not easily
grouped – by language, class, gender or previous work experience. Some
interviews also display an interesting sense of abdication to ‘politicians’:
‘we thought it was good, but we weren’t informed, we didn’t know what
was going on.’ This paper will explore these ‘new’ memories of this
specific area in the homelands, with a view as to how oral history can ‘re-
hear’ stories of life in the homelands. This will have a focus on individual
experience and agency – central elements which oral history is uniquely
positioned to observe. These alternative memories contest the
homogeneity of how the homelands have been understood. The choice
of what is spoken and what is avoided displays a conscious or
unconscious choice to display the homeland, or the interviewee’s
experience of the homeland. Using five individual interviews (including
                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper
                                                                              no co-author

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
Remedying our racis past remains a focus in public and civil life two                                                                    ###
decades after Madiba's release. It is commonly understood the legacy of
racism will live on if not stopped. At the same time denial of racism is
rampant. Many deny its damage and say it is behind us. Whilst
psychoanalysis gives us the tools to understand racism as an expression
of the death drive, a result of splitting and repetition compulsion, as
occurring in the paranoid-schizoid position and as an identification with
the aggressor there is not yet a strong enough L87body of knowledge to
help us deal in the therapeutic contex with racist attitudes and suffering
as a result of racism. Addressing racism is essential to change its legacy.
Our country can only heal when racism is treated in every walk of life and
every therapy room. We need to borrow from other fields to enrich our
knowledge base, such a trauma literature and, especially, the genre of
biography which, like therapy, concerns itself with a reconstruction of the
facts, the truth. The effects victims and perpetrators have on their
biographers give us clues about what to expect in the therapy space,
much like the case study, which underpins psychoanalytic theorising.

                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                                             Masters by coursework and research report
This study aimed to explore the ways palliative care nurses                                                                              ###
conceptualised the death and dying experiences of their patients.
Spiritual and existential meaning-making was a particular focus, as well as
the ways in which these intersected with Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’s (1969)
five stages of dying. Ten palliative care nurses at a hospice facility in
Johannesburg participated in the study. They were interviewed from 1
July to 20 August 2009. A semi-structured interview format was used. A
thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data, with two broad
themes emerging: experiences of death and dying, and meaning-making.
Within the first theme, it was found that the five stages of dying,
although identifiable, seemed to vacillate, and often occurred
simultaneously. The patients’ experiences themselves were perceived by
nurses to be more complex and nuanced than the theory suggested, and
some experiences did not conform to the stage model at all. Meaning-
making was witnessed to occur regardless of patients’ level and type of
religiosity. Existential meaning could be found through religion or without
it. However, religion also served as a way to explain death, and when this
failed, it could result in distress. The ways in which patients made
                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper
                                                                                          Presented Poster
A critical history of South African animation that focuses on the use of
three-dimensional (3D) stop-motion techniques in South Africa between
the years 1980 and 2005, by three stop-motion studios: Klaybow Films,
XYZoo, and Triggerfish. The history of these studios, as well as the
technical and stylistic elements of the stop-motion they produced, will be
discussed in terms of the social, political, economic and technological
conditions that existed in South Africa during these years. Through this
understanding of context, history, technique and style an attempt will be
made to suggest a uniquely South African 3D stop-motion aesthetic

                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper
A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward           ###
diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically there is a
wide variety of underlying pathology, stretching from the neurotic to the
borderline, narcissistic, even conditions approaching psychosis. This
paper will argue that the commonalities can be ascribed to pathological
organisations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the
spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular,
sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are
based on the specific ways that food and the body are used i.e. symptom
manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be
related to Steiner’s (1982; 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological
organisations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either
sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures
operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique
psychodynamics of each patient becomes rearranged and thereby
                                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
Throughout the 20th century artists have assimilated found objects from                                                   ###
everyday life in to their artworks. Appadurai [1986: 10] argues that
objects do not inherently have meaning; rather they have a metonymic
relationship with the societies who exchange them. Since objects are
culturally embedded, the incorporation of found objects from the
everyday world into artworks is inflected with a variety of possible
meanings, related but not limited, to the contexts in which the objects
were located and their changed significance by their incorporation in the
artworks. For example, contemporary S.A. artist, Usha Seejarim’s
artwork, Fifty Stories [1997], is a display of objects she collected while
commuting through the city of Johannesburg. Discarded fragments of
daily life, these objects are imbued with renewed value being
incorporated into the artwork. They can be read as indexes to the people
and place where they were found, thereby telling a story of the citizens
of Johannesburg. Through a critical analysis of the use of found objects in
selected contemporary South African artworks, I will interrogate how the
meaning of the artwork is affected by the materiality of those objects
used in relation to the contexts of production and display of the artworks.

                                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster
                                                                              Masters by coursework and research report
Coming-out is regarded as a liberating and necessary step in the identity                                                 ###
development of lesbians, and the coming-out story is often worn as a
badge of honour by those who have come out, with little thought given
to the power relations and social structures that instituted and maintains
the apparent necessity of the coming-out story. While literature, both
academic and popular, on the coming-out process and coming-out stories
abound, a critical interrogation of the power relations and social
structures that influence the production of coming-out stories of lesbians
in South Africa is scarce. When conceptualised within Foucauldian theory
in which institutions exercise power through the acquisition of
knowledge, the coming-out story shows itself to have a confessional
nature. Strongly committed to a Foucauldian understanding of the the
constitution of the modern subject, this project to critically interrogates
lesbians’ coming-out stories as instantiations of “confession”, or the
production of “truth”, by subjecting data collected from interviews with
seven lesbians at the University of the Witwatersrand to critical discourse
analysis. In so doing, it hopes to fundamentally challenge a number of
popular and academic assumptions underpinning coming-out as a
                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                               Masters by coursework and research report
Africa has contributed significantly in the growth of oriental and                                                         ###
occidental national identities. The travel of African food has, however,
been neglected. Occidental countries are often seen as influencing Africa,
while the reverse goes unnoticed. Okra is eaten in numerous countries
and forms a concealed global culture. The different ways that countries
prepare and name okra signifies the remixing of culture through food.
Looking at the history of okra will determine the ways in which it also
contributes to an African identity. Okra is hardly associated with the
South African diet and is not available in typical urban stores. It is often
found in spaces such as the Yeoville vegetable market, attracting
foreigners from across Africa. The vegetable, which is often prepared by
women, bears sexual connotations in some cultures because of its slimy
texture and phallic shape; it is perceived as an aphrodisiac. It is eaten by
hand in Africa and bears the nickname ‘ladies’ fingers’. By examining the
many ways that different countries prepare okra, which originates from
West Africa, the poster will discern that there are similarities between
African countries that many refuse to acknowledge. This in turn will
determine a unified African identity, not through spectacles such as the
World Cup, but through a common food.

                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
In "Discourse in the Novel", Mikhael Bakhtin observes there are two                                                        ###
cultures of writing that inform novelistic discourse. The first of these is
‘high culture’ which refers to academic and prose texts or, more
specifically, texts that are considered ‘good writing’. ‘Low culture’ refers
to texts that are considered to be ‘non-literature’, particularly those
classified as popular culture. Though these cultures may appear to be
opposed to one another, within certain literary texts, they can form an
intertextual dialogue that allows us to reassess our initial readings of
‘high’ and ‘low’ literature. This dialogue can extend to filmic discourse
where junctures between ‘high culture’ and ‘low culture’ operate at both
a visual and verbal level. With this assessment of ‘high culture’ and ‘low
culture’ in mind, I will examine director Amy Heckerling’s "Clueless", a
1995 youth film adaptation of Jane Austen’s "Emma", which employs a
high school setting to subtly explore the tension between academia and
popular culture. The teenage characters in this film are intensely verbal
and consistently shape their speech in a manner that merges together
forms of prose, slang and imitated popular culture discourse. In this
regard, I will consider specific scenes in "Clueless" which comment on the
                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

Access to economic activity in South Africa is skewed in favour of a small                                                        ###
portion of the population. In order to address this situation, government
has implemented an array of policies and programmes that are
commonly grouped under the banner of black economic empowerment
(BEE). None of the programmes operating within the framework of BEE
have achieved their intended results. This despite the fact that business,
government, organised labour and civil society organisations have voiced
their support for the ideals that BEE encompasses and have collectively
invested huge resources in attempts to make it work. Reasons for this
paradoxical situation are unclear. The BEE field is characterised by a
dearth of empirical research and that which exists is of limited
generalisability. This lacuna has been filled by a huge body of
commentary and opinion that has generally been critical and partisan,
thus often serving only to polarise opinion and entrench unhelpful
beliefs. This paper adopts the view that much of the problem with BEE is
related to the strategic framing of the phenomenon. It presents a case for
BEE to be recognised as having evolved into an independent institution in
South African society. It demonstrates how such a framework can provide
plausible answers to the paradox of manageability and serve to elevate

                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
                                                                                      Masters by coursework and research report
There is a big market for black hair straightening products in South Africa.                                                      ###
There is, however, hardly a market for natural hair products. Television
and radio adverts target black women who straighten their hair while
natural hair products are never advertised. Since colonisation, straighter-
haired and lighter-skinned black women were indoctrinated as more
beautiful. These attributes are seen as being closer to whiteness, which
has for centuries been promoted as the ultimate beauty. As a result,
black women relax their hair with detrimental chemicals in order to be
accepted in a society that shuns upon blackness. Having an afro in a
country where the majority of the popula+L140tion is black has become
rare. Natural haired or dreadlocked women do not fit in the corporate
environment on the basis of their ‘unkempt hair’. Local television shows
watched by the average black woman portray dark skinned, non-weaved
characters as lower class, unsuccessful and unattractive. This poster aims
to show that retaining natural black attributes can also be advertised as
beautiful. To have ‘kempt hair’ does not only mean utilising chemicals, or
bringing in a foreign element such as ‘fake’ hair. There are numerous
beautiful ways in which to style an afro. This project is not aimed at
                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
Media analysis is used to investigate repetitive occurrences of dominant                            ###
discourses circulating in the world. The recurring nature of periodicals
such as magazines, allows research that tracks ideologies over time. The
aim of this study was to uncover how black women’s representations in
two women’s magazines indicated what normative roles the ideal
readers were expected to play in their lives. I analysed representations of
black women appearing in two South African magazines – True Love and
Destiny. This analysis was situated within African feminist discourses, and
utilised quantitative and qualitative research methods to unpack the
types of representations present, and the frequency with which they
occurred. The advertisements used appeared in the issues published
between May 2009 and October 2009. From these I extracted 486
advertisements, 165 from Destiny and 321 in True Love. Critical Discourse
Analysis informed the coding system that was used to analyse the
meanings within the advertisements during the qualitative section of the
research. Quantitative content analysis was then used to put a numerical
description to the appearance of the codes, tracking the trends through
time. I argue that the majority of images depicting black women in these
advertisements privilege dominant heteronormative subjectivities.
Interestingly, Destiny showed a wider variety of options available to the
readership than True Love. My conclusion is that the representations
with the highest rate of occurrence presented the subjugation of black
women as the norm.

                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                   Oral / presented paper
Clashes between the Post apartheid government and local communities                                 ###
over provincial boundary have been recurrent and highly disruptive. In
certain localities, these conflicts have threatened the legitimacy of the
local state and have broadly challenged the nature and working of the
South African democratic system. Khutsong stands as one of the most
notorious instances of these “border wars” for its aggressive resistance to
being moved from Gauteng to North West. Yet, scholarly research has
not gone beyond Media’s sensational depiction of the “Khutsong
debacle” as just another violent service delivery protest. To be sure,
there has been little scholarly focus on the reasons and strategies
underpinning the protracted conflict between government and the
community of Khutsong. Drawing from interviews with major
protagonists, observation of some key moments of the crisis and analysis
of second materials, especially court papers of the Merafong
Constitutional court challenge, this paper discusses some of the most
important episodes of the border dispute in an effort to provide an
explanatory framework. Two questions underpin the discussion: what are
the key reasons polarizing the dispute? What are the strategies used by
disputants to advance their respective cause? What are the broader
Since 1994, the South African government has embarked on a mission to
unite and integrate its society that was largely fragmented by the
Apartheid system. The system viewed and treated citizens according to
their racial lines. In order to achieve its goal the government established
avenues that could bring about the remote the idea of a multi-racial
nation that has generated the coinage that best captures her antecedents
“rainbow nation”. To achieve the efforts of unifying the diversity of
cultures in South Africa, the government has sought various ways by
which the multiplicity of racial divides in the country can be
accommodated as an integral whole. The study therefore focuses on the
role of storytelling as a tool for promoting cultural knowledge among
people of various backgrounds, and thereby forges cohesion within South
African modern society.


                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                Presented poster
                                                                                     Masters by coursework and research report
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious problem worldwide and                                                            ###
has continued to be the focus of many scholarly articles. The epidemic
has entrenched itself in social, cultural and political areas of life. While
studies have researched race talk most of these studies are performed in
Europe and America as a way of investigating socio-political issues.
Although other studies have explored race in relation to health and
illness, most studies have focused on groups at greater risk of HIV and
have thus neglected to explore the discursive strategies used by white
South African youth in their talk about race in the context of HIV and
AIDS. This study will therefore focus on race talk among white youth in
South Africa. This study is particularly interested in the different
discourses drawn on by the participants in different situations. These
include one-to-one interviews with the researcher (a white female) which
will make up the condition of private talk, and focus group discussions
(where racial comments are possibly more regulated), which will make up
the public talk condition. A focus on discursive aspects of talk about HIV
and race provides an opportunity to explore how white youth construct
their knowledge of HIV and thus how they are positioned in these
constructs of vulnerability for example. Furthermore, through the
exploration of these discursive aspects we are able to see how these may
                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
It is estimated that 179,500 children with permanent bilateral hearing                               ###
loss are born in South Africa annually (Swanepoel, 2008). Undetected
hearing loss affects children’s linguistic, social, communicative and
cognitive development (Moeller, 2000; Yoshinago-Itano, Sedey, Coulter,
& Mehl,1998; Morton & Nance, 2006) and delays in the ECD phase
impact greatly on future development. The importance of including early
hearing detection and intervention into ECD programs thus becomes
pertinent. It is only recently that a position statement on pediatric
hearing screening (HPCSA, 2007) has been put into place and South Africa
is clearly lagging behind countries that are already implementing
newborn hearing screening programmes. The average age of
identification of hearing loss in South Africa is 3 years, with appropriate
intervention services not an automatic consequence. With attempts to
improve this figure through the development of an Early Hearing
Detection and Intervention (EHDI) workgroup in South Africa, a project
was initiated to determine the status of paediatric audiologic services in
South Africa. Questionnaires were sent out to all state and government
hospitals within the Gauteng province of South Africa. Returned

                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
South Africa is home to a wide range of cross border migrants and the                                ###
provision of health care to this segment of the South African population
has been a topical issue in different forums. There are reports that some
cross border migrants are denied access to health care despite the
existence of legislation that allows them certain rights to public health
care in South Africa and it is against this backdrop that this research is
premised. The research focused on understanding the dynamics of the
interaction between front-line health care personnel and migrant
patients at an inner city public health facility in Johannesburg and used
the concepts of street level bureaucracy, access to health care and
interface analysis in guiding the research and conceptualising the data.
Participant and non participant observation, interviews, focus group
discussions and conversations were employed to gain insight into the
nature of interaction between front-line staff and cross border migrants.
The findings suggest that documents are not a requisite for cross border
migrants to access health care and the decisions made by front-line
health care personnel are influenced by working conditions, frustrations,
attitudes of staff and language and cultural differences between the front-
line staff and cross border migrants. The study concluded that while the
different behaviour patterns of the front-line staff impact on the degree
of fit between cross border migrants and the public health system
outright denial of access to health care for cross border migrants by front-
line staff is not common.

                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                              Presented poster
After the historic democratic elections of 1994, the social and political                               ###
landscape of South Africa transformed fundamentally. Research and
Policy on the new South Africa emerged as instrumental in the
development of new policies that aimed to undo the social and spatial
injustices embedded on the country’s physical and social landscapes by
the apartheid regime. Indeed, 1994 brought with it the end of an era
where a country, previously determined by segregation along racial lines,
became unified. However, the end of apartheid and the beginning of a
democratic era saw, amongst other things, an increase in crime as well as
an emerging trend towards privatization of space through road
enclosures and the proliferation of gated communities in Johannesburg.
Looking at the spatial dynamics in the city of Johannesburg, trends
toward privatization of public space prove to have adverse effects
towards nation-building and social cohesion in a city whose reputation
was built from unequal social and political relations. The space of
Newtown is one such a space where historically, diversity, inclusion and
social interaction went unmediated. Mary Fitzgerald Square in Newtown
illustrates the significance of spatial knowledge and thus provides insight
into the nature and future of public space in the city of Johannesburg.
Using the 2010 FIFA World Cup as a backdrop, the research shows how
such an event alters the meaning and identity of public space and how
this impact in turn affects the manner by which this space becomes
                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
This paper is a chapter in a broader doctoral thesis on the representation           ###
of the Zimbabwean socio-economic and political situation by the South
African press. The paper argues, using critical political-economy theories
of the media cultural studies and theories of news production, that the
representation of the Zimbabwean elections by the Sunday Times,
Sunday Independent and the Mail & Guardian is characterized by
negativity manifested through the absence of conditions that can
guarantee that they are free and fair. Elections were represented through
‘othering’ where strategies of personalization and simplification,
ethnicisation, marginalization and re-appropriation were employed. The
paper further argues that in representing the elections, the South African
press portrays the economic downturn and social upheaval in Zimbabwe
as direct consequences of political disorder characterized through flawed
electoral system. The semiotic and ideological analysis of the South
African press representation of elections in Zimbabwe suggests that the
South African press was pushing for regime change through its
representation. It can be argued that the selected South African press
considered change as critical if the state politics of disorder in Zimbabwe,
characterized by electoral conflict, is to be reversed for the achievement
of social and economic order and the restoration of democracy.

Abstract maximum length 250 words                                              PhD   ###

                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper
                                                                                      Masters by coursework and research report
Humour is slippery, ambivalent and dualistic in nature. Speaking with a                                                           ###
tongue that is forked, it can be used to defuse cultural conflicts and
contradictorily serve as a mechanism of distancing and marking
identities. Parody, a common form of humour in the visual arts is
ambivalent as it is critical and sympathetic towards its target. As such, the
parodied image has a partial presence; it is at once resemblance and
menace. Mimicry is never far from mockery since it can appear to parody
whatever it mimics. To mimic someone's individual manner in a
humorous or satirical way is one method to critique, comment on and
destabilise the status quo. Homi K. Bhabha discusses colonialist mimicry
as it relates to cultural stereotypes and their periphery, noting that acts
of imitation occur in the form of the impulse to follow the centre. Such
acts of imitation possess a certain ambivalence as mimicry that is almost
the same, but not quite . Bhabha’s notion of ambivalence is crucial to the
understanding of mimicry as a form of parody as it reflects on the shifting
relationship between mimicry and mockery. Contemporary South African
artist Anton Kannemeyer uses cultural stereotypes and political
cartooning to sharply comment on conformist white society and more

                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper
                                                                                      Masters by coursework and research report
Abstract maximum length 250 words Pausigere, Peter Wits School of                                                                 ###
Education, Curriculum Studies First Preference: Oral presentation Second
Preference: Oral presentation Education and Training initiatives at the
Central Methodist Church Refugee House in Johannesburg. Half of
Zimbabwe’s adult population has migrated to South Africa because of the
country’s economic crisis and deteriorating social and political situation.
Zimbabwean economic migrants and political refugees have been given
refuge and provided with shelter at the Central Methodist Church
Refugee House, in central Johannesburg. The refugees have initiated
education and training programmes both for the children and adults
living at the centre. The refugee community has established St Albert
Street Refugee School, an adult education programme, an infancy day
care centre, an Adult Basic Education Training centre, a pre-school and
vocational training centres for sewing, computer studies and waitering
courses. The research carried over a period of five months used the
ethnographic study and employed three primary strategies for gathering
data that is non-participant observation, interviewing and document
collection. Using the theoretical lenses of the Community Based
Approach to refugee education development the study investigated how
the refugees initiated and decided on effective and successful education
and training programmes in weekly refugee and School Council meeting
forums. On the forms and types of emergency-refugee education the
vocational skills centres adopted the ‘Adjusted education for integration’
which prepares adult refugees to integrate into the host country’s
economic communities whilst the Refugee School’s adoption of a
                                                                                             Masters by research
                                                                            Not applicable

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Pone, Khumo School of Literature and Language Studies First Preference:                                            ###
Oral/Presented paper Second Preference: 0ral/Presented paper The
Representation of Women on Botswana Television News There is
underrepresentation and stereotypical representation of women on
Botswana Television news, although there were some aspects of non-
stereotypical representations as well. Stereotypical representations were
most prevalent in political coverage. In so doing, the portrayal of women
protagonists were limited to the coverage two female politicians. The
coverage of these female political leaders was masculine in nature as
they hardly commented on the efforts made by their departments
towards gender equity issues. There was downplaying of women’s issues
in sports coverage through the selection of camera angles. In so doing,
body shots were predominantly used to film female athletes, while
medium-close up shots were used to film male athletes. Therefore,
women athletes were represented according to physical appearance
while male athletes were represented with emphasis on their vocal
comments. Non stereotypical representations of women on Botswana
Television news were identified in the common usage of female voice
over’s in the coverage of the athletics sports code. This use of female
                                                                                N/ A

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                                                                                       Masters by coursework and research report
“Health”, “Illness” and “Disease” are multifaceted concepts and are                                                                ###
understood differently by contrasting health care professionals. This
study, using qualitative research, aims to understand nurses pre-existing
and current perceptions of malaria and HIV/ AIDS, two of Kenya’s most
challenging public health problems. Disease categories, beliefs attached
to disease and explanations behind methods of help seeking behaviour as
understood by nurses, in this study are products of specific socio-
historical, cultural and professional experiences. These experiences help
nurse’s traverse between meanings attached to the allopathic
(biomedical), popular and traditional health care models and create a
unique space in which a myriad of meanings can be used in line with each
other, an outcome that can further inform local health policies. Though
malaria and HIV/ AIDS were described within a biomedical framework by
nurses, they understood that patients attached multiple meanings to the
aetiologies and treatments of both diseases. Nurses stood as key
informers for medical doctors and encouraged them to take cognisance
of their patients’ views and in doing so, showed their ability to sensitively
integrate non-biomedical and biomedical meanings of disease in their
every day clinical encounters. Speaking in local dialects and reflecting on
their views of disease before and after their professional training showed
nurses as engaging in processes of “cultural mediation” and “cultural
brokering”, two aspects of their professional role that depict how
multiple interpretations of disease can serve to better adapt health
messages to the local context. This study indicates the importance of
nurse’s knowledge in representing local realities adequately.
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                                                                                                     Presented poster
This research investigates how Facebook guides its users to characterize
themselves. By using Jane Austen, and specifically her characterization
techniques in Emma as a framework, Facebook is shown to use many of
the same techniques to guide its co-authors into certain characters. The
unusual comparison between a 19th century novel and a 21st century
social networking site is used to show how in many ways Facebook is
similar to an implied author. The comparison is also used to show that,
contrary to previous research into online social networking which
focussed on profiles being used as an expresson of a users identity,
Facebook profiles are more a fictionalised version of the users and their
lives. A case study, a young female studying at a private university in
Johannesburg, South Africa, is used to illustrate this. She is shown to have
created a fictionalised and idealized Facebook character for herself,
mostly through the use of photographs. Using her photos as examples,
the importance of photographic representation as a Facebook
characterization technique, including accompanying skills such posing for
photographs and editing photographs, is explored, as are the implications
of this visually based representation, for example the difficulty in
portraying depth of character or a believable inner life. The research
employs Barthes’ writings on photography to guide these explorations.
                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper

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Sekete, Patience School of Social Sciences, Sociology First preference:                                                          ###
presented paper Second preference: free standing poster Beyond passion
– a development research journey In pursuit of the alternative
frameworks to mainstream development that respond appropriately to
country-specific challenges, the tenets of public sociology have had
relevance to analysis of a study based on five local community-based
development organisations. These organisations have been established
as response by local development actors in the province of Mpumalanga
to deal with specific development challenges that include housing,
education, youth development, HIV/AIDS and food security. The vibrant
social agency found in the area was extra-ordinary as a result of the
strong local community activism and the funding and founding interest of
the petro-chemical industry located in the town of Secunda. However,
the findings of the study which go beyond the passion demonstrated by
the local development actors, revealed the outsider-insider tensions that
undermine the intended outcomes of the development initiatives but
provided the space to interrogate the development agendas from below
and from above within civil society organisations. These agendas, I relate
to my own ideological struggles within the field of sociology but found a


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                                                                                     Masters by coursework and research report
Psychological research regarding mental imagery is heterogeneous in                                                              ###
nature owing to its seemingly clandestine and internal character. Musical
imagery (MI), most simplistically defined as hearing music in the mind’s
ear, is an understudied phenomenon particularly by means of non-
experimental methods. This study explored four MI characteristics;
namely it’s content, nature, constancy and associated corporeal
manifestations (for instance, foot-tapping, humming and so forth) via
descriptive experience-sampling. Stage one of data collection involved a
cross-sectional survey (n = 87) whereby participants provided
retrospective self-reports concerning MI, pertinent demographic
information, and their musical history. Stage two – implemented
subsequent to piloting – utilised iterative sampling to illuminate the
characteristics and qualitative facets of MI in naturalistic settings. Each
participant (n = 16; 8 musicians; 8 non-musicians) was selected based on
inclusion criteria, following stage one participation, and were invited to
complete 21 questionnaires over seven days, receiving three SMS
prompts per day. The prevalence of MI was consistently experienced by
participants, regardless of their musical background; although musicians
demonstrated higher propensities for MI occurrences. There was a
statistically significant association between MI and musical
training/experience (p = 0.012, χ² = 6.35, d.f. = 1). Furthermore, musicians
had an 85% likelihood of experiencing MI than non-musicians (OR 1.848,
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                                                                               Smith, Robyn-Leigh and Langa, Malose

                                                                                                                      Masters by coursework and research report
In this article, the authors explore how adolescent boys of different races                                                                                       ###
negotiate multiple voices of masculinity in a private-multi racial school in
Johannesburg, South Africa. Both individual and group interviews were
conducted with adolescent boys between 15 and 18 years old, and
analysed through thematic content analysis. The findings show how black
adolescent boys rejected the notion of ‘inferiority complex’ associated
with ‘blackness’, while, white adolescent boys on the other hand,
constructed ‘whiteness’ as a burden, and as a result, became highly
defended in the interviews when the issues of race and racism were
raised. It seems that this resistance was due to the fear of being seen as a
‘racist’. However, at the same time, black adolescent boys also spoke
about the difficulties that they faced such as ‘subtle’ racism in sport
(especially with regards to being excluded from the first rugby team), and
being called derogatory names such as ‘cheese boys’ or ‘coconuts’ by
their township counterparts due to attending a private school. Overall,
the study reveals some of the tensions and complexities of how race and
class intersect with adolescent boys’ social constructions of masculinity in
contemporary South African society. Keywords: adolescent boys;
masculinity; hegemonic masculinity, race; class
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                                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
Stadler, Sarah School of Human and Community Development First                                                                              ###
Preference: Oral Presentation Second Preference: Presented Poster Third
Preference: Freestanding Poster How much has changed since apartheid?
Exploring WITS student’s social representations of the self and other in
relation to the HIV epidemic This paper presentation aims to explore the
social representations of a ‘risky identity’ with regard to contracting HIV.
Individual interviews were conducted with twelve Wits University
students drawn from different racial groups. As part of collecting data,
the participants were given disposable cameras to take photographs of
what constitutes a ‘risky identity’. The photos taken most frequently
related to substance use, with alcohol and drug use being represented as
the most prominent marker of the ‘at-risk’ individual. Additionally,
pictures depicting intimacy between men and women were taken, as well
as photos of women dressed provocatively and of impoverished
communities. Discursive analysis based on the work of Wetherell and
Potter (1987) was used to analyse the data and how the participants tend
to position the ‘other’ as more at risk of HIV infection than the self. The
findings of the study revealed that the participants were reluctant to
associate risk with individual factors such as race and gender; instead, the
participants attributed such risk perceptions to environmental and
behavioural factors. The risk of justifying social representations in such a
manner is that prejudiced racial and gendered attitudes remain, just in a
seemingly more socially acceptable form. Thus, it is recommended that
The prevention programs need to go South Africa, and in fact throughout
HIV term “ubuntu” has been used in beyond education to critical                Douglas Taylor

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                                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
sub-Saharan Africa, as defining how people and communities should
behave in their interactions, based on the aphorism that “a person is a
person through other people”. It has gained currency thanks to its use by
Desmond Tutu as well as a number of business leaders, academics and
the Constitutional Court. The King Report on Governance for South Africa
2009 (King III) states that the philosophy of the report revolves around
leadership, sustainability and corporate citizenship and that such
leadership is characterised by the ethical values of responsibility,
accountability, fairness and transparency and based on moral duties that
find expression in the concept of ubuntu. Various aspects of ubuntu are
examined and compared with concepts such as Kantian dignity and “The
Golden Rule”, finally establishing that ubuntu is an independent
normative ethical theory, giving rise to the maxim that: “An action is right
insofar as it promotes cohesion and reciprocal value amongst people. An
action is wrong insofar as it damages relationships and devalues any
individual or group.” Various business ethical theories are considered,
especially Stakeholder Theory, and I show that ubuntu provides a
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster
                                                                              Potter, Charles (Prof.)

This study is an evaluation of the ‘Model of Care’ programme offered to                                                                             ###
teenage girls who have been exposed to a lifestyle on the streets in the
Ekhuruleni District, by a child and youth care centre in the East Rand. The
evaluation design is multi-method and will be conducted in three stages.
Each stage has its own design, addressing its own research question. Data
will be collected from various sources, and analysis will be based on
different forms of triangulation. The first stage of the evaluation
contextualises the study by examining the social and policy context
within which the centre conducts its work. The second stage is an
assessment of the needs of two samples of girls living at the centre. The
third stage is a contextually-based evaluation of the ‘Model of Care’
programme offered at the centre. The final stage of the evaluation
integrates the data across all three stages of the design in order to yield
the study’s conclusions. Overall the evaluation aims to establish whether
the type of social support currently provided is meeting the needs of this
particular sample of girls. The evaluation will determine whether the
programme is useful, effective and achieving its intended objectives. The
evaluation will also investigate what aspects in the centre can be
addressed more effectively, so that existing organisational processes can
be improved and deemed sustainable.


                                                                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

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                                                                                                        Masters by coursework and research report
HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on education. Schools are in an                                                                                   ###
excellent position to support affected children and a number of policies
refer to such a role for schools. However, there is no clear understanding
in the literature of how schools are responding to this challenge. Hardly
any previous studies have explicitly asked children what their needs for
support are. This research project aims to address the gap in literature on
what the educational needs are of South African children affected by
HIV/AIDS and on how schools are addressing these needs. Case studies
will be conducted in two schools, making use of a triangulation of data
collection strategies, including interviews with teachers and learners, the
analysis of school policies and documents and classroom observations.
From a methodological perspective this study will be groundbreaking in
privileging the voices of children through a narrative interviewing
technique. It is expected that this data would provide new insights into
the impact of the epidemic on the lives of South African children. The
research also represents the beginning of an appropriateness study of
support strategies through comparing the needs expressed by children to
the support strategies that are in place at schools. This study
acknowledges the debate on the appropriateness of targeted support vir
vulnerable children who are affected by HIV/AIDS. However, the scale
                                                                                                                                      Oral/presented paper
Walstra Karen Ann
School of Education
First preference: Oral Presentation
Developing Critical Thinking and Collaborative Learning Using Interactive
Response Technology in Classrooms
Encouraging all learners to be involved in every lesson is of importance to
all teachers, this integration of information technology in the classroom
encourages active involvement. The individual learner benefits by using
the interactive response technology as a learning tool, even though it was
designed as a diagnostic and formative assessment tool. Teachers are
continually looking for ways to assist in the classroom to improve our
teaching and the children’s learning, this interactive technology provides
a solution, and would benefit anyone looking for an alternative ICT
solution, as every learner has to get involved and has to participate in
every lesson, as the computer records the results to the pre-decided
questions the teacher has loaded into the MSpowerpoint presentation
according to each individual learner’s response. The type of questions
asked by the teacher, even with the limited response options of the
interactive response system, could encourage critical thinking. Teachers
could encourage collaborative learning among learners as they engage in
discussion about a knowledge issue being taught, and when they need to
respond to the answers individually using the interactive response


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                                                                                    Masters by coursework and research report
Judith Irvine and Susan Gal (2000) offer three semiotic processes through                                                       ###
which languages are imbued with social meaning, i.e., they are
ideologized. Drawing upon Irvine and Gal’s insights, the present paper
will investigate a discussion around a rap battle between two well-known
South African hip-hop performers – Pro Kid and tha Hymphatic thabs.
More specifically, through an analysis of an online debate on an internet
forum (, the paper will illustrate
that the participants in the debate construct a series of oppositions
between different languages and their values in the specific context of
South African hip hop. Keywords: discourse analysis, internet discourse,
language ideologies, hip hop, sociolinguistics
                                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

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                                                                               Masters by coursework and research report
This study aims firstly to identify, compare, and analyse the relationship                                                 ###
between the agents involved in two distinct human remains repatriation
systems. The first system will be that of black African migrants utilising
burial societies and funeral parlours in Johannesburg, South Africa to
repatriate their dead, and the second will concern Native American
repatriation of remains from museums in the United States. I will begin
with the premise that these agents can be largely grouped into three
categories: nation-states (the governments of South Africa, the United
States), semi-independent institutions (the museum, the funeral parlour)
and relatives (of the deceased). This thesis will attempt to decipher to
what degree these categories hold, and in what ways they overlap during
the repatriation process (or the lack of a process), through the
presentation of the findings of semi-structured interviews with these
agents of repatriation. With this assessment of “inanimate” systems, the
paper will speak to the ways in which the composition, motivation and
power of the agents reflects upon the place that the living relatives of the
deceased hold in society in the country of repatriation.
                                                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
                                                                               Trevor Derry, Rudolph Erasmus
Cubic boron nitride(c-BN) is a very interesting material due to its                                                                  ###
excellent electrical, chemical, optical and physical properties. These
properties include; it is one of the hardest known materials, second after
diamond, it has high thermal conductivity and high melting temperatures.
It also exhibits superior properties than those of diamond in that it is not
oxidized at high temperatures while diamond transforms to graphite at
high temperatures. Cubic boron nitride is completely inert (non-reactive)
with iron based materials, while diamond reacts to form carbides (FeC)
with them. It also exhibits better semiconducting properties as compared
to diamond. These excellent properties make it useful in many industrial
applications such as cutting and grinding, high temperature high
frequency microelectronic device fabrication among others. This has led
researchers to develop great interest in finding ways to synthesize c-BN.
In this study we investigate synthesis of c-BN using the ion implantation
process. Boron and Lithium ions were implanted on hexagonal boron
nitride at the energy of 150keV with ion doses ranging from 1x10^14 -
1x10^15ions\cm^2. To analyze the results from ion implantation, Raman
spectroscopy was used. Raman analyses showed that indeed ion
implantation led to the transformation of hexagonal boron nitride to
cubic boron nitride. The phonon confinement model was used to explain
Raman peak shifting of the c-BN obtained.
                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

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                                                                             Tutu Hlanganani, Ewa Cukrowska, Isabel Weiersbye
The effluent from the reprocessing of gold tailings generally contains                                                                ###
various pollutants including cyanide and heavy metals with serious
consequences for the environment. This study was an assessment of the
potential release of cyanide as well as related by-products from an active
slimes dam and the determination of the potential amount of cyanide
that is discharged into streams from such a facility. The natural
attenuation processes that take place along the length of the stream
were also studied. Drainage water from the active slimes dams was acidic
(pH 2 – 7) with high conductivity and redox potential. The pH at the
source was much lower than at a wetland, far from the source. The low
pH allows complexes to dissociate and to release CNfree which may form
other complexes or be deposited onto the sediments or volatilize.
Besides, metals are also released which can leach and contaminate the
groundwater or adsorb onto sediment. The study revealed that CNfree
constitute the major portion of the CNtot in the stream. High
concentrations of metal were also obtained in the crusts, for instance
61950 mg kg-1,150 mg kg-1 and 120 mg kg-1 for Fe, Zn and Cu
respectively. Elevated concentrations of sulphate were found in the
crusts and algal biomass in the vicinity of drainage pipes. Keywords:
Cyanide, Slime dams, Stream, Cyanide complexes, Witwatersrand
                                                                               Marion K. Bamford

                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
Fossilized palynomorphs (pollen grains and spores) are useful in                                         ###
palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and biostratigraphic correlation.
Much palynological work has been done on southern African coal seams
in the Ecca Group, but there is little consensus on how these areas
correlate. A total of 124 samples were taken from a coal seam in
Mmamantswe, Botswana and subjected to acid preparation, oxidation
and acetolysis. Palynomorph diversity was high (64 genera, 90 species),
and dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of
lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Mmamantswe was sub-divided into
five microfloral assemblage zones, showing a transition from
monosaccate dominance in the lowermost zone, to equal numbers of
monosaccates and non-taeniate bisaccates in the upper zones. The
palynoflora is thought to represent a cross-over assemblage dating to
soon after the Permo-Carboniferous boundary (Sakmarian and Early
Artinskian). It can be correlated with Assemblage Zones II and III of Falcon
(1975), Biozones B and C of MacRae (1988), and Zones 1, 2 and 3 of
Anderson (1977), and is most similar to that of Milorgfjella, Antarctica
(Larrson et al., 1990) and the No. 2 Seam, Witbank, South Africa (Falcon,
1989). Taphonomic controls on palynomorph preservation suggest that
future studies should also attempt to focus on Permian sediments not
containing coal, as microfloral assemblages from coal seams tend to be
autochthonous, and subject to local climatic influences. Accordingly they
are not as useful for inter-basinal correlation across Gondwana.
                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

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Experiments are crucial to the understanding of fire-related behaviour                                                                      ###
and the technological aspects of fire use in the African Middle Stone Age.
Firstly, fire experiments can help identify the many variables involved in
fire use. This study shows for example how different types of firewood
can influence temperature and the use of fire as a tool. Secondly, this
approach can help identify properties of different fire-related features.
These experiments have focused on the properties of ash dumps as
compared to hearths, and examine how ash dumps lack distinct layering
and how the items in the ash dump can be found at an angle. Thirdly,
possible explanations to fire-related behaviour can be studied using this
method. This study shows that scraping out ashes from a hearth before
lightening the next fire may have some effect on the temperatures of the
fire, but there might be other explanations for the scraping out of ashes.
Lastly, these experiments are compared to archaeological features at
Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu Natal. While it is possible to visually recognize
some of the properties of fire-related features defined during the
experiments, ethnographic examples also show that various types of fire-
related behaviour can lead to visually similar archaeological features.

                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
                                                                              Messai A. Mamo, Neil J. Coville, and Zivayi Chiguvare
The use of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) in bulk-                                                                                ###
heterojunction polymer solar cells has the potential to improve their
efficiency significantly since N-CNTs can not only efficiently transport
electrons, but can also provide a high electric field at the
polymer/nanotube interfaces, which favors exciton dissociation. A novel
photovoltaic device employing poly-3-hexylthiophene attached N-CNTs
as active layer, giving Voc > 0.3V and Jsc~ 1mA/cm2, at 100 mW/cm2
white light illumination is presented. We synthesized N-CNTs by
decomposing a precursor solution containing a catalyst, carbon source,
nitrogen source and ethanol under a carrier gas flow of 5% H2 in Ar V/V
at atmospheric pressure, in a horizontal quartz tube placed in a horizontal
CVD furnace at 900 oC. The black powder produced was purified and
functionalized. The polymer attached N-CNTs were produced by
polymerizing 3-hexythiophene using FeCl3 catalyst in the presence of
functionalized N-CNTs. TEM characterization showed bamboo structures
showing nitrogen incorporation in carbon nanotubes and polymer
wrapped around the N-CNTs. PV device fabrication consisted of etching
and patterning an ITO lower electrode, substrate cleaning, spin coating of
a PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer, spin coating of the P3HT-(N-CNT) layer
from a chloroform solution, and deposition of Al top electrode by
thermal evaporation in vacuum. Current voltage characteristics were
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                                                                               Balkwill, Kevin & Cron, Glynis

Gnetum L., a non-timber forest product, is distributed in the humid                                                                   ###
tropical forests of Africa. It is an economic gymnosperm with over-
exploited species used as vegetables and thus it contributes greatly to
poverty alleviation for local women and children who collect and sell it all
year round. In Africa, species of Gnetum are dioecious climbers. Only two
species have been recognized previously, moreover, the species of this
genus are threatened because of the disappearance of their habitat.
From the present investigations, it emerges that different names have
been variously applied on specimens that apparently represent different
forms of Gnetum in Africa and the application of these names
interchangeably on herbarium specimens has resulted in a taxonomic
confusion in this genus. Further, that little research attention has focused
on the delimitation of species of Gnetum, the number of species to
recognize in this genus has been uncertain for over fifty years now. To
address the delimitation and identification of the species in this genus,
morphological characterization using Cluster Analysis, Principal
Component Analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis has been
explored to clarify the taxonomic treatment of Gnetum species in Africa.

                                                                                                                Masters by research
                                                                               Billing Dave

                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
Layered organic inorganic hybrid materials continue to provide structural                                                             ###
chemists with interesting properties to investigate. Hybrid material
containing simple aliphatic chains have been investigated rather
extensively with carbon chains of up to 18 atoms long. Here, we
synthesized hybrid materials using simple unsaturated amines with a
single terminal double bond. Essentially we aim to investigate how the
additional electron density at the double bond will influence the changes
in structure and other properties of the hybrid material in comparison
with the analogous simple aliphatic derivatives. The metals under
investigation include Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Hg. Also, the presence and
orientation of the alkene moiety within the hybrid structure may provide
us with the opportunity to potentially induce a [2 + 2] photodimerization
reaction within the crystal structure. This could provide us with more
insight into the relatively under investigated field of solid state
photochemistry within layered perovskite materials.
                                                                                                          Masters by research

                                                                                                                                      Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster
                                                                               Grant Shannon, Nadia Uys
Hedge funds, asset managers and traders that participate in option                                                              ###
markets are all exposed to changes in implied volatility, as these changes
directly affect the value of an option. In general, implied volatility is a
forecast of the uncertainty of an asset’s return over a specified future
time period, implied from the price of an option (with strike price K and
market level S). Principal component analysis is applied by Alexander
(2001) to approximate the option volatility for the S&P 500 Index. Skew
modelling using this factor model approach has important implications
for option risk management and trading. Decomposing volatility risk in
this way benefits both option traders and risk managers. The intention is
to explore these benefits in an emerging market setting by applying the
implied volatility model of Alexander (2001) to the less liquid South
African Top40 Index option market. Thus, principal component analysis is
applied to approximate the option volatility for the South African Top40
Index. This implied volatility model (using a principal component analysis
approach), for the Top40 Index, is shown to explain volatility change
(particularly volatility skew) as a result of three dominant effects: trend,
slope and convexity. Furthermore, Alexander (2001) introduces

                                                                                                          Masters by research

                                                                                                                                      Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster
Macro-fracture analysis is a body of research on fracture mechanics that                                                        ###
has been used to determine what type of fractures are likely to develop
on tools as a result of longitudinal impact. Macro-fracture studies have
been conducted on prehistoric stone tools thought to have been used as
hunting weapons. These studies have defined a number of fracture-types
that could signify hunting activities. My study is the first to apply the
principles of macro-fracture mechanics to bone points. The aims of my
study were to test whether similar macro-fractures develop on bone
points as on stone points, and whether Middle Stone Age (250 000 – 30
000 years ago) bone points were used as components in hunting
weapons, particularly arrows. Through replication experiments, which
involved a simulated hunting scenario whereby replica bone tipped
arrows were shot into an impala carcass using a bow, my study has
confirmed that the same macro-fracture types occur in similar
frequencies on both bone and stone tipped hunting weapons. I then
conducted a macro-fracture analysis on 246 bone points from nine sites,
ranging in age from c. 77 thousand years ago – 100 years ago. The results
indicate that the bone points from Middle Stone Age levels were used in
similar activities to my experimental bone points. The study showed that
                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
Namibia is host to a variety of economic mineral deposits, among these                            ###
rare-metal pegmatite-hosted lithium, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, tin,
and gemstones, and pegmatitic leucogranite-hosted uranium. These
magmatic deposits represent the late- to post-orogenic stages of the Pan-
African Damara Belt, the northeast-trending arm of the Neoproterozoic
Damara Orogen. Mineralised pegmatites occur in the Central Zone of the
Damara Belt, where temperatures reached ~ 750°C at ~ 5.0-6.0 kbar
pressure. Lithium-bearing pegmatites occur in the central parts of the
Belt, while tin-bearing bodies occur to the northwest and uranium-
bearing bodies to the southwest, where the deepest crustal levels have
been exposed. Quartz, tourmaline and beryl from these deposits contain
abundant fluid inclusions, some as large as 50 μm. Preliminary
observations show that some inclusions contain both water and carbon
dioxide at approximately 25 °C. Using microthermometry, the pressures
and temperatures of consolidation of individual mineralised pegmatites
can be constrained. These temperatures can be compared to those
obtained from TitaniQ, a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer. Trace
element composition of fluid inclusions can be measured using
destructive ICP-MS or LA-ICP-MS or the non-destructive elemental
mapping of inclusions using PIXE. The combination of the parameters
obtained, i.e. pressure, temperature, and fluid geochemistry, may give
insight into the mobility and subsequent deposition of certain economic
elements in different types of pegmatites, which may account for the
geographic zonation of pegmatites in the Damara Belt.
                                                                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
                                                                               Naidoo Sanushka, van Heerden Schalk and Rey MEC
Increasing international trade of tomato seed to support global demand                                                                                 ###
of fruit has facilitated the spread of numerous seed-transmissible
pathogens resulting in severe economic losses. Strict phytosanitary
measures attempt to restrict trade of infected seed but current detection
methods are lengthy and demonstrate limited sensitivity for reliable
diagnosis in a single assay. A highly sensitive and specific microarray chip
is under development that will detect a number of targeted pathogens
simultaneously thus reducing time and labour required for diagnosis. The
genomes of five seed-borne pathogens of tomato, responsible for the
greatest global losses in the tomato industry, were screened for
conserved regions that demonstrate high diagnostic potential for strains
and isolates of each pathogen. These regions were used to design highly
specific primers, for use in conventional and multiplex PCR, to amplify
targeted pathogenic sequences in infected tomato plant and seed
samples. Primers demonstrating the best results were expanded to
design 30 – 70mer probes to be included in a DNA microarray for specific
detection of fluorescently labelled pathogenic DNA in infected plant and
seed samples. Results and identified regions will be represented on the
submitted poster. The efficacy of chip will be analysed and compared to
other available phytodiagnostic tools by tests on various seed samples
including clean samples spiked with different concentrations of the

                                                                                                                                 Masters by research
                                                                               Moralo M, Rey M.E.C

                                                                                                                                                             Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster
Abstract maximum length 250 words Cele Philasande; Moralo Maabo,                                                                                       ###
Rey, M.E.C School of Molecular and Cell Biology First Preference:
Presented poster Second Preference: Free Standing Poster Genetic
Transformation of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) for resistance to
Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) Cassava accounts for up to 60% of the daily
calorie intake in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, a major constraint to
cassava cultivation is the 30-50% yield loss due to CMV. Current
strategies for obtaining resistance to CMV are through genetic
engineering. The aim of this study is thus to develop transgenic cassava,
based on Pathogen Derived Resistance Mechanisms. The most efficient
and reproducible transformation system for cassava is Agrobacterium
mediated transformation of Friable Embryogenic Callus (FEC). FECs of the
model cassava cv. TMS 60444, have been transformed with various viral
gene silencing constructs, using regions from EACMV, ACMV and SACMV
which are the most prevalent isolates of CMV in South Africa and
Southern Africa. FECs were induced from a high frequency of somatic
embryos which were produced from auxiliary buds. Agrobacterium strain
LBA 4404, transformed with pCambia 1305.1 harboring the various
                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                      Freestanding poster
                                                                            Somnath Bhattacharyya
Name of author: George Chimowa Co-author: Somnath Bhattacharyya                                                           ###
School: Physics First Preference: Free standing Poster Second Preference:
Free standing Poster Third Preference: Free standing Poster Title:
Synthesis and Characterization of nanodiamond films We report on the
Raman, scanning electron microscopy and electron transport
characterization of nanodiamond films synthesized using the hot filament
chemical vapour deposition method. We observed a transition from
UNCD to NCD as the CH4/Ar ratio in the feeder gases was increased. This
is due to the fact high argon ratio, increases the amount of C-C dimmers
that favors renucleation and hence the formation of UNCD films. High
substrate deposition temperatures increased the growth rate
independent of film type and consequently improved the quality of the
crystals. The conductivity is observed to be a contribution from two
worlds of physics, the classical and quantum interference phenomenon.
The quantum interference is made up of two parts namely weak
localization and electron-electron interactions. A clear understanding of
the contribution from the quantum phenomenon would help in the
realization of these films, for future electronic applications.
                                                                                                                                    Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                             Presented poster
                                                                             Davidson C. Bruce; Erlwanger Kennedy, H.
Research on the indigenous trees Mimusops zeyheri and Ximenia caffra                                                          ###
has focused on their fruit pulp and the medicinal properties of the trees.
We determined the nutritional composition of the seeds which are
generally discarded. Organic matter content was 88.3% and 93.5% for M.
zeyheri and X. caffra respectively. The crude protein content was 9.44%
(M. Zeyheri) and 18.3% (X. Caffra). Lipids constituted 25.6% of the M.
zeyheri and 48.5% of the X. caffra seed mass. Oleic acid was the most
abundant fatty acid in both seeds at 84.59% and 62.84% of M. zeyheri
and X. caffra seed oil, respectively. Calcium was the most abundant
mineral in M. zeyheri whereas in X. caffra it was phosphorus . Glutamic
acid was the most abundant amino acid in both seeds. The Vitamin E
concentration of about 2 μg g-1 for M. zeyheri was four times that of X.
caffra. Gross energy was 24.3 MJ Kg-1 for M. zeyheri and 32.1 MJ Kg-1 for
X. caffra. The phytate-phosphate content for the seed was 0.03 - 0.04%.
Whilst neutral detergent fibre (NDF) constituted 33.2% and acid
detergent fibre (ADF) constituted 15.3% of M. zeyheri seed, for X. caffra
21.3% was NDF and, 5.1% ADF.The analysis showed that M. zeyheri seed
could be exploited as a source of dietary energy and, X. caffra seed could
be used as both a protein and energy source. Oil from M. zeyheri and X.
caffra seed could also be exploited for oleic acid and vitamin E.
                                                                                                                                                         freestanding poster
                                                                                                                                Presented Poster
Mapping and modeling mass movement phenomena such as solifluction
lobes has gained international interest in recent years. Here we map and
classify solifluction lobes which have developed in Clarens Formation
Sandstone in the Bushman’s Nek region of the southern Drakensberg. In
particular, the study evaluates and compares the relative quality and
accuracy of mapping using aerial photography, oblique photography,
Google Earth imagery and ground truthed GPS tracks. Google Earth
images and oblique photos yielded the least digitizing error and
permitted the digitizing of a greater number of landforms in contrast to
georeferenced aerial images. Digitized polygons of the images with least
bias (error) were classified by shape using a shape index (SI) and
circularity ratio (Rc). Four solifluction lobe forms were identified from the
classification; namely micro-lobate, lobate, terrace-lobate and elongate-
lobate forms. Statistical analyses of topographic variables (aspect, slope
unit, gradient, altitude) derived from a DEM of the study area reveals a
relationship with the different solifluction lobe forms. It is found that
solifluction form sizes (mean area), form type, and frequency, are a
function of altitude and slope gradient variables. The frequency of

                                                                                                    Masters by research
                                                                                Prof. L.D. Ashwal

                                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
Deseta, Natalie School of Geosciences First preference: Oral presentation                                                 ###
Second preference: Presented poster Third preference: Free standing
poster The influence of water on deep earthquakes Deep-focus
earthquakes (30 - 300 km depth) are the manifestation of the destruction
of oceanic plates deep within the Earth’s mantle. Earthquakes and their
after effects have been well studied from the perspective of geophysics.
However, the process by which they initiate has not been well-
established. Seismic research has shown that the epicentres of these
earthquakes appear to coincide with the presence of hydrous minerals in
the down-going plate. Pseudotachylyte veins (PST) are relict fusion melts
generated by the high temperatures and strain rates associated with
these seismic events. By studying the chemistry of these melts the
posited relationship between earthquakes and hydrous minerals can be
explored. PST from the Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica have been
analysed and thus far the data indicate that these melts contain up to 14
wt % H2O. This high water content is a direct result of the fusion of
hydrous minerals in the host rock. Hence, the relationship of hydrous
minerals with seismic events has been confirmed independently by
                                                                                                                   Masters by research
                                                                               Rey Christine, Van Heerden Schalk

                                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
The cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicon is widely grown around the                                                                   ###
world and constitutes a major agricultural industry. A new destructive
viral disease of tomatoes emerged during 1997 and 1998 in South Africa.
This newly identified virus, Tomato curly stunt virus (ToCSV) is a
monopartite begomovirus which is spread rapidly by the whitefly,
Bemisia tabaci Biotype B. Infected plants show upper leaf yellowing,
reduction in size with curling margins, progressively stunted internodes,
the flowers are abscised shortly after formation therefore no fruit is
borne in the affected tissue, resulting in severe tomato yield losses (up to
100%).The use of resistant varieties is an alternative method to control
the effect of the virus on the tomato plants. Many hybrids and inbred
lines were gathered together from the database of Sakata Vegenetics RSA
(Pty) Ltd. They were narrowed down to one line (called TAM) on the basis
of having the most resistance and no known Ty marker genes.Different
generations from TAM, (F5, F6 and F7 respectively) were infected with
Tomato curly stunt virus by viruliferous whiteflies. Test crosses were
made between TAM and a very susceptible cultivar, namely Rooikhaki. F1
seeds (from the test cross) were selfed and F2’s were generated. All the
generations were infected with ToCSV and the resistance patterns
recorded. The resulting resistance found, hints to partial dominance. In
order to generate another important resistance marker to ToCSV, further
studies should include microarrays, suppressive subtractive hybridization

                                                                                                                   Masters by research
                                                                               Scurrell Mike, Coville Neil

                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
USING MICROWAVE RADIATION TO MODIFY FISCHER-TROPSCH                                                                                      ###
CATALYSTS IN THE SOLID STATE Microwave-assisted catalysis is a fast,
selective and volumetric method for activating catalysts. However, a lot
of chemists still find it hard to answer questions like “my reaction is not
activated by microwaves, what is the problem?” or “my reaction yields
90% after 7 days of reflux, is it possible to obtain the same yield after a
few minutes under microwaves?”. Herein we present the effects induced
by microwave pre-treatment on iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts,
with particular attention being on the effect of potassium. Preparation of
catalysts with varying loadings of potassium was done via the continuous
precipitation method and the incipient wetness pore-filling technique as
described elsewhere.1 Changes in reducibility, specific surface area,
morphology, thermal stability and CO adsorption modes after exposing
the catalysts to microwave radiation have been studied using TPR, BET,
SEM, TGA and DRIFTS, respectively. Temperature programmed surface
reactions (TPSR) has been used to investigate the change in surface
properties of the catalysts, with methanation being the reaction under
study. The microwave pre-treatment effect is found to increase as the
loading of potassium is increased, reaching a maximum at 1% loading of
                                                                                             Masters by research
Empirical studies have shown that the canonical Black-Scholes option                                                                     ###
pricing model fails to capture several key aspects of asset returns. In
particular, observed returns possess kurtosis and skewness significantly
different to the normal distribution, particularly on fine time scales – in
other words, extreme returns (especially negative returns) are more
likely than predicted by the model and this error is exacerbated when
returns are viewed over short time periods. Moreover, the geometric
Brownian motion which underpins the Black-Scholes model produces
continuous asset price paths. In reality, prices move exclusively by jumps
on the intraday scale. Indeed, in many cases, short term returns are
dominated by “large jumps”. The effect of such “heavy tails” and large
jumps and their implications for option pricing and hedging was explored
by examining the class of exponential Levy processes. Levy processes
provide flexible distribution characteristics and may be discontinuous,
while retaining much of the tractability of the geometric Brownian
motion framework. Such analysis provided numerous insights into the
inherent riskiness of option contracts and how best to quantify and
mitigate such risk for short-dated claims. The presentation will introduce

                                                                              Deanne Drake

                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
                                                                                             Masters by coursework and research report
The cultivation of food crops on soils polluted by industrial waste, as is                                                               ###
the case in many urban centers, could endanger the health of consumers.
This study determined the concentrations of lead and cadmium in edible
parts of amaranth, taro and sweet potatoes cultivated on farms in
industrially polluted sections of Nyabugogo marsh in Kigali, Rwanda. The
concentrations of lead and cadmium in the farm soils were all found
acceptable based on EU standards (300mg/kg for lead and 3mg/kg for
cadmium) with the highest being 285 ± 28.05 mg/kg and 1.75 ± 0.38
mg/kg respectively. However, the concentrations of these metals in the
food crops exceeded WHO/FAO acceptable limits (0.3 mg/kg of lead in
root and leafy vegetables, cadmium: 0.2 mg/kg in leafy vegetables and
0.1 mg/kg in root vegetables). Amaranth plants had the highest
concentration of lead (269.5 ± 28.05 mg/kg), almost nine hundred times
the acceptable limit, while taro contained the most cadmium (15.33 ±
3.06 mg/kg), a hundred and fifty times over the limit. Even though sweet
potatoes contained the least amount of lead, (12.67 ± 3.06 mg/kg), this is
more than one hundred times over the limit. These results suggest that
large doses of lead and cadmium are being transferred to consumers of
these food crops originating in Nyabugogo marsh. Notably, the actual
                                                                                                                   Masters by research

                                                                                                                                               Freestanding poster
                                                                             De Koning Charles and Pelly Stephen

                                                                                                                                                                        Presented poster
Hadje Georgiou, Kathy De Koning Charles, Pelly Stephen School of                                                                         ###
Chemistry First preference: Freestanding poster Second preference:
Presented poster Progress Towards the Enantioselective Synthesis of the
Natural Pesticide, Rotenone Rotenone is a naturally occurring compound
isolated from several plant species belonging to the genera Lonchocarpus
or Derris of the tropical and subtropical family Leguminosae. Interest in
this compound stems from the fact that it possesses significant
insecticidal properties and although these properties have been exploited
for centuries, it was not until 1912 that the root extract preparations,
which contain significant quantities of rotenone, were patented for
commercial use [1]. In 1932 the structure of rotenone was established
[2], although it required another thirty years to determine the absolute
stereochemistry of this interesting compound [3]. With its three
stereogenic centres and five fused ring systems, rotenone poses an
interesting and challenging synthetic target for organic chemists. To date
there has only been one total synthesis of the compound and even this
was not performed stereoselectively [4]. Here we describe the synthesis
of a chiral (R)-2-isopropenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran subunit upon which

                                                                             Edward Witkowski

                                                                                                                                               Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                        Freestanding poster
Helm, Chantal Vinisia Witkowski, Edward School of Animal, Plant and                                                                      ###
Environmental Sciences First preference: Oral paper Second preference:
Freestanding poster Third preference: Presented poster Mortality and
utilisation of marula between 2001 and 2008 in the Kruger National Park,
South Africa A resurvey of a sample of marula trees in the Kruger
National Park (KNP) that were marked in 2001 was conducted in 2008 to
determine the response of this population segment to the conditions
prevalent during that time. These included an increasing elephant
population and changes to the KNP fire policy. The mortality rate was
estimated to be approximately 2.6% per annum, and little recruitment
into the seedling size class was observed. No recruitment of saplings less
than 2 m in height to heights greater than 2 m was observed. Almost half
the individuals that were heavily damaged in 2001 had died by 2008.
Most of the dead individuals were between 11 and 15 m in height in
2001. Heavy elephant utilisation and mortality was concentrated in the
Sabie thorn thickets ecozone on granites where marula density appears
higher than in the other vegetation types surveyed. Utilisation levels on
the surviving individuals had almost tripled with individuals between 5
and 8 m in height accumulating the most additional elephant utilisation.
                                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
                                                                               Georgia Mason; Neville Pillay
Early life experience has profound and enduring effects on an animal’s                                                                ###
later psychological, physiological, and behavioural responses to the
environment. Using the striped mouse, we investigated how various early
life experiences influenced the development of stereotypic behaviour
(SB), an abnormal repetitive behaviour that is rife in captive animals. In a
series of three experiments, we showed that (1) pups reared with both
parents present (biparental care) were less likely to develop SB (20.7%)
than pups raised by the mother alone (uniparental care; 28.8%)
(F1,30=5.14, p=0.03); (2) early weaning (day 12) was associated with a
significantly higher incidence of SB (67.5%) than later weaning (day 16
[37.5%] or 20 [30.0%]) (F2,36=11.26, p

                                                                                                                Masters by research
                                                                               Fanucchi Sylvia, Dirr Heini W.

                                                                                                                                            Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
CLIC1 is an intracellular channel protein that either exists in a soluble                                                             ###
state in the cytoplasm or is bound to the membrane. The mechanism by
which CLIC1 traverses to the membrane is not known although it is likely
to depend on redox reactions and pH. During membrane insertion, the
helix α1 located in the putative transmembrane region is proposed to
solubilise and insert into membranes. Recent studies show that this helix
α contains an N-capping box (Ser27), which will act as a lock on the helix.
In order to find out the contribution of S27 to the stability and the
structure of the helix α1, S27 was replaced with proline, a helix breaker. A
comparative study was conducted that focused on the characterisation of
the mutant in terms of secondary and tertiary structure and
determination of its conformational stability at equilibrium in comparison
with the wild-type. The study was performed at both pH 7 and 5.5 which
takes into account the environment in the cytoplasm and at the
membrane surface, respectively. The results were expected to determine
the significance of the N-capping box to the structure and the stability of
CLIC1 which would give insight into the role of the putative
transmembrane helix.. The secondary structure of the mutant was found
to be less helical as compared to the wild-type. In terms of tertiary
structure, the unique tryptophan residue, Trp35 was found to be more
                                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper
                                                                              Togo, Chamunorwa

                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
Whey from the cheese making industries and paper mill wastewater pose                                                  ###
a serious environmental threat due to their very high organic load. In line
with the modern waste management’s focus on reuse and simultaneous
energy recovery, research was performed to establish the ability of whey
and paper mill wastewater to drive electricity generation in microbial fuel
cells (MFCs) and concomitant remediation of such wastes. Three sets of
MFCs were ran with each effluent to: investigate presence of electricity
generating microorganisms (electricigens),determine synergism between
native waste microorganisms and a known electricigen (Enterobacter
cloacae) and determine the ability of effluents to support E. cloacae as a
sole source of carbon and energy. While there was no evidence of
synergism between E. cloacae and microorganisms inherent to the
wastes, effluents were able to support the growth of E. cloacae with
maximum power densities of 15 500 mW/m2 and 24 mW/m2 in whey
and paper mill wastewater, respectively. Remediation of wastes was
observed, with a cumulatively greater chemical oxygen demand (COD)
removal efficiencies ranging between 29.4 and 55.4 % in paper mill
wastewater than 4.97 and 44.7 % in whey. However, setups fed with
whey had higher coulombic efficiencies (εcb) (up to 3.70 %) compared to

                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                      Freestanding poster
                                                                              Trevor Derry

Metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix are interesting                                                 ###
because of their optical properties with a high potential for applications.
They differ from corresponding bulk properties and strongly depend on
their size, shape, and surrounding medium. The interest in the synthesis
and characterization of metallic nanocrystals is a very active field of
research. There are several techniques that can be used to synthesize
nanoparticles. We use ion implantation technique, which generates
damage in solids creating defects which form along the tracks of the ions.
The density of these defects is very high, greater than normally
encountered using impurity doping or ionizing radiation. There is a
variety of the different optically active defects. The stability of the
defects and rate of their production is influenced by the implantation
temperature, the crystallography of the target, beam current density and
its orientation relative to the ion beam. The efficiency of damage by ion
implantation depends on the linear rate of energy deposition in
electronic processes (dE/dx)e and the ions velocity. These parameters
affect the formation of nanoparticles. They are characterized by strong
optical absorption bands whose magnitude, peak positions and the
peak’s halfwidth change with the particles geometry and size.
                                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper
                                                                            Prof Ray Durrheim
Lesiba Ledwaba Durrheim Ray, Linzer Lindsay School of Geosciences,                                                    ###
Geophysics department First preference: Oral/presented paper Seismic
Damage Mechanism at Impala Platinum mine Impala Platinum Mines
(Implats) situated north of the town of Rustenburg in the North West
Province of South Africa has experienced increase in seismicity from ~856
seismic events in the year 2005 to ~1605 seismic events year 2008. Most
projects conducted on Implats and other Bushveld Complex mines in the
Rustenburg area provide limited information regarding the source
parameters and mechanism due to insufficient data. The seismologist and
rock engineers need to understand the underlying mechanisms and
driving forces responsible for seismicity and develop design layouts and
support strategies to lessen such problems The study is designed to
investigate the seismic hazard on Impala Platinum Mine by means of two
approaches: An investigation of seismic source parameters and the
mechanism of potentially damaging seismic events, and reflection seismic
mapping of the near surface within the Implats. A number of detailed
investigations (>10) of rockbursts has been conducted whereby damages
are mapped and photographed. The investigations includes reviews of
the seismic history, short-, medium- and long-term seismic hazard
                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
                                                                               J. E. Lowther

                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
Boron suboxide (B6O) is an important material with superhard                                         ###
properties. It has a hexagonal crystal structure which is highly anisotropic
that needs consideration in estimating elastic properties. Elastic
properties of bulk B6O are examined and thereafter the influence of
Oxygen (O) vacancies and light substitutional defects such as Carbon (C)
and Nitrogen (N) and O vacancies in particular have significant influence
on the properties of the material.
                                                                                                                                             Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                      presented poster
Fe filled carbon nanotubes (FeCNTs) were synthesized in a dual zone
furnace by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene was used as a
catalyst and the iron source for the filling of CNTs. Dichlorobenzene and
benzene were used as carbon sources. Transmission Electron Microscopy
(TEM) revealed that dichlorobenzene favor thin walled CNTs with wide
inner cavities that allow continuous filling of iron inside the CNTs. TEM
also revealed that the FeCNTs grow via an open ended base growth
mechanism. The use of chlorinated carbon source reduces the
percentage of amorphous carbon in the product, resulting in much
cleaner and more graphitic CNTs with fewer defects. This was confirmed
through the use of Raman spectroscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)
spectrum confirmed that the metal filling inside CNTs is purely iron. We
synthesized FeCNTs with a thermal stability of up to 616 oC and Fe
content of about 41 % as per Thermal Gravimetric analysis (TGA).
Transport properties (at low temperatures and high magnetic fields) of
FeCNTs are discussed. The temperature dependence of the resistance in
FeCNTs can be attributed to by Mott’s 3D variable range hoping
mechanism. The observed negative magneto-resistance with increase in

                                                                                                             Amouroux David

                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                            Cukrowska Ewa, Tessier Emmanuel, Weiersbye Isabel,
The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is known to be one of the most                                                                 ###
important gold mining regions in the world. The consequences of mining
activities (including illegal mining) have been the release of important
amount of mercury to the environment. Distribution, transport and fate
of this toxic element strongly depend on its chemical form and
biogeochemical conditions. In this study, mercury speciation was
determined using ID-GC-ICP-MS in water, soil and sediments of areas
impacted by mining activities and the recovery of gold. The MDL was 0.39
pg L-1. Both inorganic mercury and methylmercury were detected at high
concentrations in all watersheds where gold mining occurred. The
majority of study sediments were beyond the threshold level and some
areas have demonstrated a high percentage of methylmercury in water
samples, reaching sometimes 90%. This suggests great methylation
efficiency due, mostly, to the presence of organic matter. Migration of
mercury away from pollution sources due to seasonal influences was also
determined. Mercury in sediments mostly speciated as Hg0.
Enhancement of mercury methylation occurred mainly in deeper
sediments at regions corresponding to the lowest redox potential, higher
pH and enrichment of inorganic mercury.
                                                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
Information-based asset pricing refers to a new framework for asset                                                               ###
pricing, where the price dynamics of the underlying asset processes are
derived from fundamental qualitative information relating to both
specific and systematic economic aspects of the underlying entity. This
concept was introduced by D.C. Brody, L.P. Hughston and A. Macrina,
with the aim of challenging the more traditional modeling notion of pre-
specifying the market filtration. Within this new framework, assets are
characterized by the structure of their respective cash flows. In turn, cash
flows are defined by a collection of independent market factors,
commonly referred to in the literature as "X-factors". Each market factor
is modeled as an information process consisting of true information
about the value of the respective market factor and a random noise
component, which is modeled via an independent Brownian bridge
process. The market filtration is then assumed to be generated by the
aggregation of these independent market factor information processes.
The price of an asset is then given by the expectation of the discounted
cash flows in the risk-neutral measure, conditional on the information
provided by the market filtration. In this dissertation, we shall provide a
comprehensive overview of the theory underlying this new pricing
framework and explore various applications to the equity market.
Moreover, such a characterization of asset price dynamics yields natural

                                                                               Prof. Elias Sideras-Haddad

                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
The interaction of accelerated ions (of both single and multiple charge                                                           ###
states) with diamond and graphite is studied in terms of morphology,
electronic and magnetic modification of ion impact regions. Following
irradiation by multiply charged ions (highly charged ions) in graphite,
nanoscale surface defects
                                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper
                                                                               R J Durrheim & M A G Andreoli

                                                                                                                                                                    Freestanding poster
There are two nuclear reactors in South Africa, a research reactor at                                                                ###
Pelindaba near Pretoria and a power-generating reactor at Koeberg near
Cape Town. High level radioactive waste (HLW), such as spent fuel and
reprocessing products, is currently stored at the reactors, whereas the
shorter lived, low and intermediate level waste (half-life

                                                                                                               Masters by research

                                                                                                                                           Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                    Presented poster
                                                                               Ncube Kim, Durrheim Ray
The high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data                                                                   ###
acquired for Goldfields Mining Ltd, form an integral part of Goldfields’
mine planning and development programme. These datasets are of
sufficiently high quality to offer the opportunity for Goldfields to
significantly improve their understanding of the geometric layout of its
lease ore-body. Both surface and underground borehole data were
utilized in the mine areas as to control during the interpretation using the
oil based Kingdom Suite Software. The current interpretation of results
has provided confidence in the depth accuracy of gold reefs such as
Ventersdorp Contact Reef and Black Reef, and the dangerous major fault
systems in the mines have been well defined. The results have also
shown that the modified directional derivatives, sunshading algorithm
and attributes analyses have the potential to improve the faults and
linear features enhancements. Potential areas of improvement include
inter alia: (1) improved understanding of the inter-relationship between
fault activity and reef distribution, and (2) improved understanding of the
dominance of major West Rand and Bank Fault systems in the Goldfields
mine areas.
                                                                                Kana Bavesh

                                                                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                       Freestanding poster
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis is                                                                                      ###
responsible for approximately 2 million deaths annually. The majority of
infected individuals have clinically latent tuberculosis infection and it has
been postulated that the tubercle bacilli are in a dormant-like state.
Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) is a protein first identified in M.
luteus and has been shown to stimulate growth of dormant organisms.
M. tuberculosis encodes five rpf-like homologues which are collectively
dispensable for growth but are required for reactivation from dormancy
in vitro, and for virulence. This work aims to further study the biological
functions of Rpfs by assessing the effects of rpf gene deletion in M.
smegmatis, a model organism used for tuberculosis research. M.
smegmatis encodes four rpf-like genes designated rpfA, rpfB, rpfC and
rpfE. Deletion mutants that lack one or more of these genes were
constructed and analyzed for growth and sensitivity to cell wall targeting
antibiotics. Strains of M. smegmatis that lack either rpfA or rpfB display
no significant growth defects or differences in antibiotic susceptibility
when compared to the wild type, although the former displays significant
bacterial clumping during growth in broth culture. However a ∆rpfA∆rpfB

                                                                                                                                  Masters by research
                                                                                Dirr Heini, Achilonu Ikechukwu and Sayed Yasien

                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative agent of                                                                                        ###
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).HIV-1 subtype C
predominates in southern Africa, accounting for the majority of
infections. The HIV protease (PR) is one of the targets in HIV treatment
due to its pivotal role in HIV maturation; however, due to its high
mutation rate, drug resistance is a major problem in treatment. These
new recombinant forms that arise have structural alterations leading to
unfavourable drug binding. The most common forms of drug resistant
mutations are substitution mutations. Most recently it appears that
insertion mutations are of great concern. A unique HIV PR insertion
mutation, L38_NL, was found in a South African patient infected with HIV-
1 subtype C. This is the first time such a mutation at position 38 has been
reported in South African subtype C PR. This research aims to evaluate
the impact of the L38_NL insertion mutation on the structure, function
and stability of HIV-1 South African subtype C protease. The expression
system for the L38_NL mutant has been constructed and the conditions
for over-expression optimised in T7 Express cells. The mutant PR has
been purified. Further work will 1) Assess the structural integrity of the
PR by characterising its secondary and tertiary structure using far-UV
                                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
                                                                               Mike Scurrell, Neil Coville
Maringa Audacity Mike Scurrell, Neil Coville School of Chemistry First                                                             ###
preference: Presented poster Second preference: Free standing poster
The effect of the addition of Ceria on to the Platinum supported on
Carbon nanofibers for the hydrogenation of Ethylene We report the
preparation of Pt and Pt-CeO2 supported on the carbon nanofibers (CNF)
by microwave assisted polyol technique. In this preparation ethylene
glycol was used as both a solvent and a reducing agent. The UV-Vis was
used to show that reduction was occurring in the Hexachloroplatinic acid
to platinum. Hexachloroplatinic acid has a peak at 262 nm. The
disappearance of this peak is a sign of reduction of hexachloroplatinic
acid to platinum. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicate
that well dispersed small particle have been formed on the CNFs. The
CNF were functionalised using 30% nitric acid. This was done to create
site at which the Platinum ions would attach before they are reduced.
Infra red spectroscopy was used to determine whether the functional
groups were attached on the CNF. The expected functional groups
include carboxylic groups and hydroxyl groups. Energy dispersion
spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the presence of platinum and
ceria. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to confirm the loading
of metal on the CNF. Hydrogenation of ethylene was used to test the
activity of these two catalysts. The results obtained show that the

                                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health burden that has been                                                                 ###
identified as one of the leading causes of micronutrient malnutrition
infections. It is very common in developing countries and in South Africa,
VAD was found to be responsible for up to 50% of deaths of children that
were admitted to hospitals. Supplementation and food fortification
programmes have been introduced but these are either not available or
are unaffordable to the communities in remote rural areas. Selecting for
crops naturally rich in provitamin A and in other carotenoids that can be
recommended to small-scales farmers for breeding and food production
could be one of the most effective ways to address VAD and associated
diseases. To this effect, two cultivars of potato, tomato, bread wheat and
durum wheat, highly consumed in South Africa, were screened for
carotenoid content and profiled using HPLC. Reliable measurements of
five carotenoids were achieved for the three crops. The data produced in
this study highlighted the variability that exists in the carotenoid content
of South African crops and within cultivars of the same crop. These
differences can be exploited in breeding programmes for the
development of new varieties as well as recommended for consumer
consumption for added health benefits. Methods used for the extraction
and quantification of carotenoids proved to be robust and consistent and
                                                                                                                        Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                    Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                          Freestanding poster
                                                                                Prof. H.W. Dirr and Dr. S. Gildenhuys
Cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) exist as stable homo- or                                                                            ###
heterodimers with a conserved archetypical fold, and dimerisation is
reported to be highly specific occurring only between subunits within the
same gene class and is required for the formation of a fully functional
active site, part of which is located at the dimer interface. Currently, very
little is known about the stability, folding and assembly of GST subunits in
the absence of quaternary interactions. In class Mu GST M1-1, the
mutation of the two key residues , Phe-56 and Arg-81, involved in subunit-
subunit interactions, into Ser and Ala, respectively, results in a stable
monomer. In this study, the monomeric mutant is found to be
catalytically in active due to the loss of the subunit-subunit contacts,
displaying approximately 1.6 % activity relative to the wild type enzyme.
Moreover, the stability and folding of a monomeric form of rGST M1-1
are investigated under equilibrium conditions by circular dichroism,
intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and ANS binding. The results show that
the monomer is less stable, with a ∆G (H2O) value of 12.78 ± 1.95
kcal/mol relative to the reported wild type enzyme ∆G(H2O) value of
16.5 kcal/mol.

                                                                                                                        Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                          Presented poster
                                                                                Prof Vince Gray

                                                                                                                                                    Freestanding poster
Hydrogen (H2) is seen as the most promising energy carrier of the future,                                                                     ###
it is required to feed the fuel cells for efficient conversion to electrical
power. Many microorganisms are able to biologically produce hydrogen
directly from renewable sources such as energy crops or organic wastes
(carbohydrates) via dark anaerobic fermentation. However, under most
bioreactor design and operation conditions the maximum possible
hydrogen yield in the anaerobic oxidation of glucose to acetate, H2 and
CO2 has generally been observed not to exceed the theoretical maximum
of 4 mol H2.mol-1 glucose. In this study the application of external work
in the form of high temperatures, high dilution rates and high rates of de-
gassed effluent recycling were investigated as a means to overcome the
thermodynamic constrains preventing the simultaneous achievement of
high hydrogen yield and hydrogen productivity. At an HRT of 1.67 h and
degassed effluent recycle rate of 3.5 L/min a volumetric hydrogen
productivity (HP) of 212.5 mmol H2 / (L h) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 3.4
mol H2 / mol glucose were achieved in an anaerobic thermophilic
fluidized bed bioreactor. This work confirms that the application of
external work to a bioreactor in the form of high temperatures, high
                                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster
                                                                             Drake Deanne

                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
                                                                                            Masters by coursework and research report
The Jukskei River has been reported to be polluted to some degree. Poor                                                                 ###
waste disposal in Alexandra Township can affect river water quality;
therefore, changes in water quality as the Jukskei passes through
Alexandra were determined between May and December 2009. Eleven
physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were monitored at
four sites in the river catchment using standard methods. Relative to
water entering the township, water exiting Alexandra had a significantly
higher pH (7.7 ± 0.1) and contained elevated concentrations of nitrate-N
(0.36 ± 0.07 mgN/l), ammonium-N (3.26 ± 2.34 mgN/l) and
orthophosphate-P (0.41± 0.17 mgP/l). E. coli in water exiting Alexandra
varied considerably over time but was up to two orders of magnitude
higher (20 486 ± 19 880 cfu/ml) than the water entering the township
and was above the drinking water and recreational guidelines.
Surprisingly, water entering Alexandra was significantly more turbid (27.1
± 4.5 NTU) than that exiting the township (12.9 ± 8.4 NTU). Most
parameters in water exiting Alexandra were within the acceptable ranges
of aquatic ecosystems guidelines. Ammonium-N and EC, however, fell
into the “bad” categories of the aquatic and domestic guidelines,
respectively. Turbidity and TSS were higher in the wet season, while

                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper
FA is one of the components of humic substances (HSs). FAs as carrying                                                                  ###
agents and complexing media affect the transport and bioavailability of
environmental contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals and therefore the
characterization of FAs is of paramount importance in environmental risk
assessment. FAs were isolated from soils and sediments that had been
sampled from wetlands within the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa.
Different methods of instrumental analysis were used for FAs
characterization, for example, elemental analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy,
Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Ion Chromatography,
fluorimetry, thermal methods of analysis, liquid 1H nuclear magnetic
resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, and cross-polarization magic-angle
spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS 13C NMR)
spectroscopy. Elemental analysis results of FAs agreed with literature
values, within the limits of experimental error. Almost all the FAs had a
peak around 1650 cm-1 for their FTIR spectra. The results of Ion
Chromatography showed the major components of the low molecular
weight FAs (LMWFAs), with acetic acids being one of the most abundant
LMWFAs. Results for the variation of thermal stability of FAs with depth
profiling are presented. Wetlands are often cited as being effective at
reducing nutrient loadings, acting as the kidneys of the catchment,
thereby reducing eutrophication in water bodies and improving the
                                                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
                                                                             Neumann, F.H; Bamford, M.K; Scott, L.; Oberhänsli, H
We present a continuous Holocene pollen record from Tswaing crater                                                                                        ###
lake sediment core. The site is located 40km north of Pretoria within the
savanna biome. A total of 65 samples were withdrawn (resolution 230
yrs/sample) to reconstruct the vegetation and climatic change during the
Holocene period. There is change in the climate during the Holocene
period inferred from the productive part of the section from depth 150 to
600 cm which covers a time period between ca. 8000 and 1700 yrs BP.
From a depth of 600cm until 800cm there is a gap in the pollen record
probably because of the destruction of pollen grains by oxidation. Until
ca. 7000 BP (depth 500cm) the climate was probably dry. This is
evidenced by high pollen percentages of Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae
and Poaceae and low percentages of savanna trees like Burkea,
Combretaceae and Spirostachys. Values of swamp plants and aquatics
such as Cyperaceae and Typha are also low. From ca. 6800 until ca. 3500
yrs BP (depth 500cm - 300cm) the climate was probably becoming
subhumid because Burkea percentages increase. Combretaceae and
Acacia are comparably high. Locally swampy conditions are shown by the
high percentages of Cyperaceae and other swamp plants since about
5000 yrs BP (depth 450 cm). A slight increase of Podocarpus
(Afromontane forest element) since ca. 4800 yrs BP (depth 400 cm) also

                                                                                                                                    Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                                         Freestanding poster
The movements and interactions of tectonic plates are related to the                                                                                      ###
processes of rock formation and in particular the development of
sedimentary basins. Analysing rocks can lead to an interpretation of the
plate tectonic processes that formed them. Phanerozoic sedimentary
basins in Africa have been classified according to the tectonic episodes
that formed them, by making use of the oldest rocks in the basin and
unconformities in the sequences. The assembly of Gondwana caused the
formation of a large basin in which the North African platform sequences
were deposited. At this time, the Cape Basin was also formed. The
assembly of Pangaea led to the formation of new basins on top of the
earlier formed mega basin in North Africa and this separated the strata
into different basins. The Cape Fold Belt was also formed at this time and
the Karoo rocks were deposited. The eruption of the Karoo Plume
marked the end of sedimentation in some of the Karoo Basins and was
related to the formation of new rifts that include the West and Central
African Rift System, and the rifts that were to later on develop into the
Atlantic margins. The Eruption of the Tristan Plume caused the breakup
of South America and Africa. This caused tectonic reactivation in the
earlier formed rifts and this is seen as unconformities in the basins. The
eruption of the Afar Plume caused the formation of the Red Sea and the
East African Rift. The results have been recorded on a map.
                                                                                                              Masters by research

                                                                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                   Presented poster
                                                                              Naidoo Keisha, Lindsay Denise
The microbial food safety standards of biltong (a dried, Ready-to-eat                                                               ###
(RTE) meat commodity) have been vastly dismissed. As the epidemiology
of foodbourne diseases changes, new pathogens emerge and well-
documented ones associates with novel food vehicles. Disease outbreaks
and an increased prevalence of toxins (enterotoxins) from similar RTE
meat products serve as motivation for this study. Biltong samples (n=26)
from various vendors were collected. Plate counts divulged that,
although beef varieties showed lowest microbial counts compared to
chicken and venison varieties (approx. 6log cfu/g), the microbial levels of
biltong do not meet international food safety standards. Presumptive
Staphylococcus Counts and 16S rDNA analysis revealed the presence of 7
staphylococcus isolates. Isolate Sip 27 showed significant genetic
similarity to S. aureus subsp. aureus MRSA252, a well documented
enterotoxin (bacterial toxins associated with foodbourne illnesses)-
producing strain. SET-RPLA Toxin Detection kits revealed that Isolate SIP
27 produced heat-stable Enterotoxin B. This study reveals the presence of
enterotoxin-producing S. aureus associated with biltong at point of sale.
This casts a dark cloud on the acceptability of the production standards
and shows that biltong harbours the potential to cause foodbourne
illnesses. Looking ahead, production and handling procedures of the RTE
delicacy need to be more stringently assessed. Consumers should be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                                      David Rubin, Karl Rumbold, David Sherwell, R.W.Sparrow, Marco Weinberg

                                                                                                                                                                Masters by coursework and research report
                                                                               Laura Millroy, Ezekiel Madigoe, David Martens, Musa Mhlanga, Robert Kowalenko,
Six honours students from the University of the Witwatersrand have                                                                                                                                          ###
formed a team to compete in the International Genetically Engineered
Machine Competition (iGEM) organized by MIT (Massachusetts Institute
of Technology). This is the first team from an African University that has
entered the competition. These students are supported by Scientists
from the University of Witwatersrand and the CSIR. iGEM is an initiative
from MIT and has become the premiere undergraduate Synthetic Biology
competition. The competing teams consist of students who work on a
synthetic biology project. They design and build novel biological systems
and operate them in living cells. In November, the results are presented
at the iGEM Jamboree in Boston, Massachusetts. The first iGEM
competition in 2004 featured teams from 5 Universities. Last year, 110
teams from were participating with over 1200 participants taking part in
the competition. In 2010 there are 128 teams. This paper presents
information on the iGEM competition and the Wits-South Africa team
and how the competition is changing the way in which biology is
understood and taught.

                                                                                                                           Prof. Michael Scurrell

                                                                                                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
Controlling selectivity in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is an important                                                                                                                                  ###
aspect for catalyst development. By utilising Iron or Cobalt catalysts since
they are the most feasible for use industrially, and with the addition of
promoters one may enhance the selectivity to a particular type of
product. Researchers like Das and Li have shown that
Manganese promoted Iron catalysts are able to selectively produce light
olefins during FTS. Selectivity to the production of C2-C4 olefins has
become significant since they are used as chemical feed stocks in the
petrochemical industry and a more environment friendly way of
producing them would be beneficial. However, Fe-Mn catalysts have not
been used industrially possibly due to inappropriate selectivity for
commercial FT application. Research of microwave dielectric heating in
the field of heterogeneous catalysis has shown that it can lead to
increased selectivities and enhanced reaction rates. Zhang has
shown increased selectivities and enhanced reaction rates in
heterogeneous catalytic systems such as the oxidative coupling of
methane and the reduction of SO2 with methane. However not much is
mentioned about microwave dielectric heating in FTS, therefore it is
                                                                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                 Presented poster
                                                                               Witkowski Ed, Newton David, Lets’ela Taelo
Pelargonium sidoides has been used for centuries as a traditional                                                                                 ###
medicine in Lesotho and South Africa as well as globally in modern
medicine. The wild harvesting of P. sidoides tubers has been occurring
extensively in some parts of the Eastern Cape and Lesotho for years.
However key information regarding sustainability of wild harvest for
plants harvested for their tubers, such as P. sidoides, is lacking and hence
has implications for conservation. The active compound in the tubers is
highly correlated with colour development from white/cream to dark
red/purple. In order to determine rate of tuber recovery, relationships
between time since harvest and tuber colour were determined using
simple linear regression models. There was a significant relationship
between time since harvest and tuber colour in the Eastern Cape (r2=
0.63, p

                                                                               Dr. Bernhard Zipfel

                                                                                                                            Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                        Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                 Freestanding poster
There are unanswered questions in the fossil record concerning the                                                                                ###
thoracic skeleton and its elements. The costal skeleton forms a
substantial part of the postcranial skeleton. Ribs are therefore potentially
numerous in the fossil record. As a result of being fragile, distorted or
fragmentary when recovered, very little is known about the variability of
in particularly the fossil primate rib morphology when compared to the
other cranial and postcranial elements. The assessment of the structure
of the thoracic skeletal elements and its evolutionary and ecological
significance, particularly in humans, is a thus a challenge. This detailed
study analysed the 1st rib of Hominoidea, Cercopithecoidea and selected
non-primate mammalian species by looking at 11 variables, 7 indices and
8 osteological non-metric features. These were compared to the 1st rib
found in the fossil record, namely the 1st rib of Australopithecus
aferensis (Lucy) and of early Homo in order to determine if there are any
structural correlates between the extant and the extinct hominin and
mammalian species. The results suggest that the 1st rib, due to its unique
morphology, may be considered most diagnostic in differentiating
different taxa and a template for the morphological of the proximal end
                                                                                                                                  Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
                                                                             Rob Veale2, Valerie Mizrahi1 and Digby. F. Warner1
The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium                                                                                           ###
tuberculosis (MTB), the causative agent of tuberculosis, reinforces the
need for novel antimycobacterial compounds. Secondary metabolites
from various microorganisms have provided most antibacterials
introduced clinically since 1935. Previously, a putative Pseudomonas
isolate was identified that inhibited growth of the non-pathogenic M.
smegmatis (MSM). Here, we demonstrate the stable isolation of the
inhibitory compound(s) in crude extract, and present microbiological data
characterizing the antimycobacterial effect. A parallel extraction was
performed on an unrelated Pseudomonas isolate which failed to inhibit
growth of MSM, thereby confirming that the inhibitory effect is limited to
our strain, designated Pseudomonas αMB (anti-mycobacterial).
Moreover, the crude extract inhibited growth of all Gram-positive
organisms assayed, including other actinobacteria, but not the Gram-
negative E. coli, establishing restricted target range. As the cell wall
constitutes the dominant target of natural-product antibacterials, we
hypothesised that the active compound(s) might inhibit cell wall
metabolism. However, preliminary data are inconclusive and the target of
the extract remains to be elucidated, perhaps reflecting the presence of
more than one active compound. Notably, the crude extract was shown
by broth microdilution assay to inhibit growth of MTB at a concentration
of 14-16 µg/ml, a value ten-fold higher than key frontline anti-TB agents
tested. Therefore, although the identity of the constituent compound(s)
                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
The use of fossil fuels, especially oil and gas, in recent years are causing
global climate change, environmental degradation and health problems
due to the emission of .pollutant. To replace fossil fuels, attention is
being paid to the usage of renewable bioenergy viewed as one of the
ways to alleviate the global warming crisis. . Hydrogen has been
identified as a possible alternative to fossil fuel energy. As a first step, an
investigation of the production of hydrogen from anaerobic wastewater
treatment using granular sludge reactors was conducted The efficiency
of dark anaerobic biohydrogen production measured in terms of
hydrogen yield (HY) for most continuous fluidized bed anaerobic
bioreactors does not exceed 3 mol H2 / mol glucose (Valdez-Vazquez et
al. 2009). If it is accepted that for dark fermentative biohydrogen
production, the efficiency goal should be HYs between 3 and 4 mol
H2/mol glucose then what should the goal be for hydrogen productivities
(HP)? It is not a simple matter to objectively define the most desirable HP
threshold value for biohydrogen bioreactor. The key question is whether
it is possible to simultaneously achieve both high HPs (120 mmol H2/
(L.h)) and high HYs (3.0 mol H2 /mol glucose) with bioreactors having
high bacterial biomass densities. Thermodynamic analysis confirms
experimental findings that the application of external work in the form of
high temperatures, high dilution rates and high rates of de-gassed
effluent recycling can remove the thermodynamic constraints preventing
the simultaneous achievement of high HYs and high HPs.

                                                                                                Masters by research
                                                                                  Ian Sanders

                                                                                                                            Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                     Presented poster
The Internet has become an essential component of people's everyday                                                   ###
life throughout the world for its support in improving the way people
seek information, conduct research, perform business transactions,
communicate with others and many more of its other features. The
increasing demand for Internet access on campus has made students to
be heavy users of this huge information reservoir compared to the
general public. However, the 24/7 availability and easy accessibility of the
Internet have developed potentially dangerous effects resulting from its
overuse. Such negative effects, range from physical and mental health
problems to students' academic performance being impaired. In this
study, we will investigate evidences of the potential existence of a
correlation between extensive Internet usage and poor academic
performance among 2000 3rd year students at the university of the
Witwatersrand. A mixed methods research using students’ performance
data, proxy log records and survey answers will be conducted to
determine the influence the Internet has L227had on students’ academic
performance by looking at whether students who excessively use the
Internet perform badly and whether students who perform badly
                                                                                S. Fanucchi, H.W. Dirr

                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
CLIC1 is a member of the chloride intracellular channel proteins (CLICs), a                                                    ###
group of amphitropic chloride channels. CLICs are able to transform from
the cytoplasmic form to the membrane-bound form by a mechanism
thought to involve a structural rearrangement of the proteins to reveal a
hydrophobic transmembrane region (TMR) that contains a helix for
inserting into the membrane. The TMR lies between Cys24 and Val46 in
CLIC1 and is highly conserved among the CLICs. Here, a 30-residue
peptide containing the TMR was synthesised and characterised using far-
UV circular dichroism and fluorescence. The TMR peptide was dissolved
in methanol and showed a highly alpha-helical secondary structure. 2,2,2-
Trifluoroethanol was used as a membrane mimetic to observe the
behaviour of the TMR peptide in a membrane environment. The
secondary structure of the peptide increased with increasing TFE
concentration until 40% TFE. Changing the pH at this TFE concentration
had no effect on the secondary structure of the peptide indicating that
the TMR was likely to form a transmembrane helix in the hydrophobic
environment of the membrane although pH at this environment did not
affect the helical structure. Chemical and thermal denaturation of the
TMR revealed that the helix that was formed in the membrane
environment followed an unfolding pathway that was gradual with no
discernible transition from the native to the denatured form, indicating a
Oral stable structure as would be required for a transmembrane helix.
very ( ) / Poster (√ ) Please check Role of the linker region in GST proteins

                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                     Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                           Freestanding poster
Obakeng Ntshudisane, Samantha Gildenhuys* and Heini W. Dirr Protein
Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology,
Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South
Africa. E-mail: Keywords:
keyword 1, keyword 2, keyword 3 Topic: ( Delete those not applicable)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is a
monomeric protein which belongs to the GST family. It is made up of two
domains; N-terminal domain which is connected to the C-terminal
domain by an eleven residue linker. The aim of this current study was to
determine the role of the linker region. Bioinformatics studies revealed a
conserved leucine residue in all the linker regions of the GST family. Site-
directed mutagenesis was performed in order to obtain Y58W/L78A
mutant. Y58W/L78A was characterised structurally using circular
dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, cysteine reactivity and ANS binding
assays. The stability and folding of Grx2 was affected therefore showing
that the linker does play a significant role in folding and stability.
                                                                                                                 Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                          Freestanding poster
                                                                               Dr. Andrew Dinsmore

Pterin (2-amino-4-oxopteridine, is a naturally occurring heterocyclic                                      ###
system. Pterin, in biological systems, is incorporated into a number of
redox active cofactors. Examples include folic acid (an essential
component of single carbon transfer chemistry in biological systems)1,
biopterin (the cofactor for phenylalanine and tryptophan hydroxylase and
nitric oxide synthase)2 and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco, the
cofactor of all oxo-transfer enzymes and essential for all life)3. It comes
as no surprise that an understanding of pterin chemistry is of enormous
importance in understanding the biochemistry of the various cofactor
systems. It is also apparent that pterin derivatives have potential as
useful drugs and this has been long recognized. An example is
methotrexate (amethopterin) which is a commercially used drug for
treatment of cancer5 and arthritis. Another example is aminopterin
which acts as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding site
of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), leading to DNA, RNA and
protein synthesis inhibition While pterins are very important in life, it is
surprising that few synthetic approaches to the 6-substituted pterin
systems exist. This is partly because of their insolubility in organic
solvents. Most of the commercial pterin molecules available are derived
from folic acid and thus limit the scope of pterin derivatives. In this
project we report alternative routes to making 6-substituted pterin
molecules, starting from commercial starting materials and using simple
chemistry in achieving these derivatives
                                                                                                     Masters by research
                                                                               Prof Kevin Balkwill

                                                                                                                                 Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
The morphological variation exhibited within five species (Barleria                                                        ###
bechuanensis C.B. Clarke, B. irritans Nees, B. jubata S. Moore, B. pungens
L. and B. rigida Nees) was studied to establish whether it was discrete or
continuous. Morphological characters were examined and recorded in
matrices. Cluster analysis was employed to impose a hierarchical non-
overlapping association among OTUs (operational taxonomic units) while
ordination was used to establish whether the variation was discrete or
continuous. Discrete characters were determined from quantitative
morphological data using box and whisker plots. Locality information for
the OTUs was also obtained from herbarium sheets and used to generate
maps to illustrate geographical distribution in taxa. Cluster analysis and
ordination demonstrated that there was discrete variation within Barleria
bechuanensis, B. irritans and B. jubata which each split into two distinct
clusters, whereas B. pungens and B. rigida exhibited both continuous and
discontinuous variation as they separated into clusters with clear gaps
and clusters that were not clearly differentiated. Box and whisker plots
illustrated that there were few discrete quantitative characters within
and between the species. Since the clear morphological gaps between
clusters can therefore be deduced to represent breaks in gene flow, the
distinct clusters can be recognised at species level. Where clusters are
not clearly differentiated but can be distinguished by at least one discrete
morphological character varieties are recognised.
                                                                                          Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                   Presented poster
Abundant biomass from various industries could be a source for
biohydrogen production where, combination of waste treatment and
energy production from the process would be an advantage. Biohydrogen
production in this work takes the advantage of sewage and cow dungs as
the biomass used because they are cheap and readily available in South
Africa. The microbial community composition dynamics was studied
during H2 fermentation from sucrose in anaerobic fluidized-bed
bioreactor (AFBR) along side with the factors affecting biohydrogen
production such as undissociated acid, hydrogen partial pressure and
metal ions. Results obtained were thus used to predict true yield of
biohydrogen and stoichiometry of bacterial reactions involved in the
process thermodynamically since bacterial yield prediction is critical for
bioprocess optimization and modeling of natural biological systems.

                                                                                          Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                   Freestanding poster
As the recent financial crisis demonstrated, it is becoming more and more           ###
important to understand the market risks involved in financial
transactions. To quantify this risk and help financial institutions
determine the amount of capital reserves they should be holding,
numerous risks measures have been proposed, the most popular
amongst practitioners being Value at Risk (VaR). This presentation will
give a brief overview of the different risk measures and will conclude with
a robust representation for general quasiconvex risk measures.
                                                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
                                                                               Prof. Lewis Ashwal; Prof. TrondTorsvik
The Seychelles archipelago represents a fragment of continental crust                                                                                          ###
that separated from the northward-migrating Indian plate during the
break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. The majority of the
Seychelles islands consist of granite of Precambrian age (~750 Ma).
Silhouette and North Island, however, have a unique alkaline felsic
composition and are dated at 66-61 million years old. At approximately
65 million years ago, the Réunion Mantle Plume - an upwelling of hot,
buoyant material from deep in the Earth’s mantle - caused the eruption
of more than 10 million km3 of lava, forming the Deccan Traps
continental flood basalts of India. This is also the time of the last global
mass extinction event – that which saw the demise of the dinosaurs and
the cause of which is the source of much controversy. The age of the
Silhouette and North Island plutonic-volcanic complex strongly suggests
that their formation is related to the Deccan magmatic event. This study
shows that strong trace element affinities between the Seychelles and
Deccan rocks and a common radiogenic isotope signature support this
hypothesis. It is further proposed that the Seychelles alkaline rocks
originated by fractional crystallisation of Deccan precursors. These

                                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
                                                                               Cukrowska Ewa, Darkwa James, Torto Nelson, Chimuka Luke
A polymer specific for Cr(VI) adsorption was prepared from a linear                                                                                            ###
copolymer of 4-vinylpyridine and styrene. The linear copolymer was
quaternized with 1,4-chlorobutane then thermally copolymerized with 2-
vinylpyridine as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol
dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linking monomer in presence of 1,1’-
azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as initiator and methanol as porogen.
Leaching of the chromate anion from the polymer particles was achieved
with successive stirring of the IIP particles in 4 M HNO3 solutions to
obtain leached materials which were then used for selective rebinding of
Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. Similarly, the non-imprinted polymer
(CP) material was also prepared exactly under the same conditions as the
IIP but without the chromate anion template. Post-column derivatized IC-
HPLC was used for chromium (VI) analysis. Various parameters such as
solution pH, initial concentration, aqueous phase volume, sorbent
dosage, contact time and leaching solution volumes were investigated.
SEM, IR and BET-surface area and pore size analysis were used for the
characterization of ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) (both unleached and
leached) and CP materials. Optimal parameters were as follows, solution
pH 3, contact time 90 min, eluent 10 ml of 0.1 M NaOH and sorbent
amount 125 mg. Maximum retention capacity of IIP and CP was 37.58
                                                                                             Masters by research

                                                                                                                         Oral/presented paper
Macrofracture analysis is an experimentally derived method that can be                                             ###
used as an initial step towards investigating the hunting function of stone
artefacts. The method has been widely applied and has proven to be
useful for understanding prehistoric subsistence practices when used in
conjunction with other studies such as micro-residue, micro-wear and
faunal analyses. Recently it gained favour in Middle Stone Age studies,
supporting hypotheses for effective hunting during the late Pleistocene in
sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic impact fractures, which can only develop
as a result of longitudinal impact, are a key set of macrofracture types
that underpin the method. Yet, the limitations of the method and factors
affecting macrofracture formation are not fully understood. This paper
outlines a set of experiments designed to test macrofracture formation
under human and cattle trampling conditions. The results show that: a)
macrofractures occur frequently when stone artefacts are trampled by
cattle and humans and in knapping debris; b) diagnostic impact fractures
occur on some of the trampled experimental flakes and knapping debris,
but are not often associated with tips or pointed ends; c) when they do
occur, they could have been produced by forces similar to those

                                                                              Coville Neil

                                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
In industry automobile fuel is produced by a convertion of natural gas to                                          ###
liquid, i.e. gas-to-liquid (GTL) process called Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
(FTS). This process stands out being the most promising and well proven
technology that has potential to revolutionize the fuel, also one that
produce environmentally sound fuel. Cobalt and iron catalyst can be used
to increase the rate of fuel formation, however, the cost for cobalt is a
thousand times more expensive than that of iron, and therefore
commercially iron is more preferred than cobalt catalyst. This study
entails preparation, characterisation and activity testing of new unique
cobalt based catalyst in the FTS for the production of fuel that have
potential as alternative catalysts for iron. This catalyst was achieved by
dispersing only 10% cobalt loading on a titania-carbon nanocomposite
based carrier known as a support. Carbon nanospheres (CS) were
successfully prepared by a vertical furnace using a chemical vapour
method (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) gas at a 1000oC. Transmission
electron microscope (TEM) has shown that a unique, perfect and
unimodal particle size was achieved. Titania was then used as a uniform
coating for CS using a simple sol-gel method. After cobalt was loaded on
                                                                                                                Freestanding poster
                                                                                M.E.C. Rey
In susceptible hosts, co-evolution has favoured viral strategies to evade                                 ###
host defenses and utilize resources to their own benefit. The degree of
manipulation of host gene expression is dependent on host-virus
specificity and certain abiotic factors. In order to gain insight into global
transcriptomic changes for the pathosystem, South African cassava
mosaic virus (SACMV) and Arabidopsis thaliana, 4 x 44K Agilent
microarrays were used. Virus progression was monitored over three time-
points (14dpi, 24dpi, and 36dpi) using a direct comparison experimental
design. Microarray data was normalized using LIMMA functions,
generating a top-table of 13,933 differentially expressed genes (false
discovery rate p-value < 0.05), of which 1,660 were present across all 3
time points. A 2 fold change cut-off (p

                                                                                                                Oral / presented paper
                                                                                De Koning Charles


                                                                                                                                         Presented poster
Pillay, Adushan De Koning Charles School of Chemistry First preference:                                   ###
Presented poster Second preference: Free standing poster The Synthesis
of Potential Anti-tumour Naphthoquinones Cancer is a complex disease
that can affect many regions of the body. Currently there are multiple
routes to try and combat this illness. Anti-tumour drugs play an
important role in the cancer treatment process. The fungus Fusarium
solani produces numerous toxins that assist in the invasive nature of this
parasitic species. A large amount of these toxins are naphthoquinone
molecules that contain chemical structures that have theorized to display
anti-tumour activities based on similar known anti-tumour quinine/
naphthoquinone compounds. In this PhD project, we aim to develop new
knowledge towards the synthesis of some of these compounds, including
marticin and dehydrohebarin. A proposed synthetic route to these
molecules was initially developed using retrosynthetic analysis. The next
step was to carry out these synthetic pathways experimentally. The
starting materials are cheap, commercially available compounds
containing a 2,5-dihdroxy phenyl functionality. The synthetic steps that
have been successfully achieved using our desired substrates include
allylation, Claisen rearrangement, methylation, ozonolysis, Wacker
                                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper
                                                                                Lowther J. E.

                                                                                                                            Presented poster
Electronic structure calculation methods based upon Density Functional                                                ###
Theory (DFT) formalism have been used to search for new class of high
temperature super-alloys. The search, focused on alloys between the
noble metals and aluminum. In all the calculations, over-estimation of the
structural properties of the target alloys was avoided by approximating
only the gradient of the exchange and correlation functional. The
behavior of each alloy under stress was evaluated using volume-
conserving strains, which led to reduction in the number of special k-
points needed to obtain the elastic moduli. The calculated bulk modulus
varies from 300GPa for osmium-based alloys to 166GPa for palladium
based alloys. The ratio of shear to bulk modulus (G/B) varies from 0.23
for Ru3Al to 0.51 for Pt2IrAl, which is an indication of better ductility in
ruthenium based alloys, than in platinum based alloys. The theoretical
weight estimation of the alloys showed that rhodium (Rh), ruthenium
(Ru) and palladium (Pd) based alloys becomes much lighter than iridium,
osmium and platinum based alloys. The substitution of 33% platinum in
the alloy by Rh, Ru or Pd leads to decrease in the density of the alloys by
about 20%. Based on the heat of formation calculations, all the alloys
investigated are predicted to be stable in their respective phases, with
suitable synthesis route identified for the ternary alloys. The density of
states calculations further confirmed the stability of these alloys, with all

                                                                                                Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                  Oral / presented paper
                                                                                                                            Freestanding poster
                                                                                Prof. V. Gray
Effect of Nitrate on Lipid Production by Isochrysis Galbana, a promising                                              ###
candidate for biodiesel production Numerous microalgal species have
been studied due to their ability to produce significant lipid yields which
may be converted to biodiesel. One such species is Isochrysis Galbana.
The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of varying
nitrate concentrations on the productivity of biomass and intracellular
fatty acids in I. Galbana. Batch cultures were set up containing various
dilutions of the nitrate concentration used in f/2 media. Lipid productivity
ranged from 19.197mg/l/day (with a biomass productivity of 3mg/l/day
and lipid content of 51.463%w/w) on day 21 of a nitrate deplete culture
to 58.431mg/l/day on day 3 (with a biomass productivity of 50mg/l/day
and a lipid content of 33.71%w/w) of the same culture. In the lipid
replete culture lipid productivity ranged from 20.461mg/l/day (with a
biomass productivity of 113mg/l/day and a lipid content of 8.565%w/w)
on day 6 to 50.226mg/l/day (with a biomass productivity of 43mg/l/day
and a lipid content of 36.163%w/w) on day 21 of the culture. Lipid
productivity is dependant on both lipid yield and biomass productivity. It
may be deduced that nitrate limitation favours lipid production and
nitrate abundance favours biomass production. Lipid productivity was
                                                                                                                                 Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
                                                                               Judith Kinnaird, Deshenthree Chetty
The Witwatersrand basin of south Africa is known for its extraordinary                                                                                 ###
gold production for over the last 120 years, producing more than 50, 000
tons of gold, amounting to almost 40% of all the gold ever mined during
recorded history. The origin of gold in this basin has been studied in great
detail with three model of occurrence proposed. The first is a placer
model, which proposes that gold is detritus derived from an older source
area and has been mechanically transported into the basin and
concentrated by fluvial/deltaic processes. The second hypothesis, is a
modified placer model, it shares some similarities with the placer model.
This model suggests that detrital gold has been mobilised and re-
precipitated by hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids with other
associated phases. The third model is the hydrothermal model, which
proposes that gold was transported in solution from outside of the basin
by metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids after the formation of the basin
between 2.7 and 2.0 Ga. Uranium in the Witwatersrand Basin has been
produced as a by-product of gold mining, and 150, 0000 tons of uranium
has been produced. This is actually three times the production of gold.
This research attempts to find out how many generations of uranium
minerals are found in the Vaal Reef and also to find out which genetic

                                                                                                                                 Masters by research
                                                                               Dirr Heini, Achilonu Ikechukwu and Sayed Yasien

                                                                                                                                                             Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                                                      Presented poster
HIV-1 protease (PR) is an obligate homodimer, which plays a pivotal role                                                                               ###
in the maturation and hence the propagation of the human
immunodeficiency virus. Although successful developments on the PR
active site inhibitors have been achieved, the major limiting factor has
been the emergence of HIV drug resistant strains. The solving and
analysis of the first crystal structures of HIV-1 protease has led to the
postulation that disruption of the non-active site dimer interface, may
result in an inactive enzyme. Bioinformatic studies showed that residue
F99 is highly conserved and has been reported in previous studies to play
a major role in the activity of HIV-1 subtype B protease. The F99A
mutation was successfully generated using PCR-based site-directed
mutagenesis. Higher levels of mutant PR expression in T7 cells compared
to the wild-type under the same conditions; were observed using SDS-
PAGE. Far-UV circular dichroism was employed in detecting secondary
structural changes, and it was found that the wild-type has minima at 218
nm which is typical of β-sheeted proteins while minima for the mutant
was at 198 nm. Fluorescence spectroscopic data showed emission
maxima for F99A at 348 nm and that of the wild-type at 355 nm.
Therefore, the tryptophan residues are less exposed to the aqueous
environment in the mutant. The F99 residue, thus, forms an integral role
in the structural integrity of the protease. Further comparative studies of
the functionality and stability of the proteases will be performed using
                                                                               N J Coville

                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                  Freestanding poster
For decades the scientific community has considered filamentous carbon                             ###
as only an unwanted by-product of catalysis, with all efforts focused on
how to prevent their formation. However within the past decade focus
has shifted, with carbon nanofibers attracting considerable interest due
to their exceptional properties, which has launched a number of diverse
applications. As such researchers have come to appreciate the fact that
the size and form of these carbon fibres are the key to future
breakthroughs and for any application it is necessary to have control over
the morphology and geometry of the carbon fiber, which to date has not
been adequately achieved, probably due to an incomplete understanding
of the growth mechanism. It is recognized that carbon filaments are
formed as a result of the interaction of carbon containing compounds
with transition metal catalysts, with the size of the metal particle
influencing the structure of the extruded carbon fiber. However there are
very few reports that consider the shape of the metal particle as a
controlling factor in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers Herein we report
on our findings that illustrates the dominant effect catalyst morphology
has on carbon nanofiber synthesis.

                                                                               Dabbs, Eric

                                                                                                         Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                  Presented poster
Nocardia is a clinically and industrially important genus of Gram-positive,                        ###
high G+C content bacteria belonging to the family Actinomycetales.
Detailed reports on plasmids from Nocardia are scarce, and availability of
molecular tools for their genetic studies is limited. In this study, we have
isolated a 4.3 kb cryptic plasmid pYS1 from Nocardia aobensis, sequenced
its DNA and characterized its replicative and transfer functions. The
plasmid was predicted to contain three open reading frames (ORFs), one
of which encodes for a replication initiation gene similar to those from
rolling-circle-replication plasmids from related bacteria. This mode of
replication was confirmed when single-stranded intermediates were
detected. It was shown that a 1.5kb region containing this gene, along
with predicted single- and double-stranded origins of replication,
constitute the minimum replicon of pYS1, which was used to construct a
Nocardia - E. coli shuttle vector. Plasmid maintenance was preserved
when half of the single-stranded origin was deleted but abolished when it
was entirely deleted. The second ORF has sequence similarity to plasmid
transfer genes of conjugative plasmids from other Gram-positive
bacteria, and the third has no similarity match. Using selectable variants
of pYS1 where a kanamycin resistance gene was inserted separately at
five different locations, functions of these ORFs are currently being tested
by assaying for conjugation frequency and plasmid stability. This study is
one of the most detailed reports of any plasmid from Nocardia, and will
                                                                                                                                                           presented poster
Sibanda, Wisdom Nkosilathi
Hearne Giovanni, Naidoo Deena
School of Physics
First preference : Presented poster
Second preference: Free standing poster
Magnetic-electronic pressure response of ilmenite (FeTiO3)
Ilmenite is of geophysical importance in considerations of the pressure-
temperature conditions of the formation of diamond and also in rock
magnetism. In the past decade there has been a surge of interest in the
candidacy of ilmenite as a semiconductor material. In this work the
variation of the oxidation state of iron was monitored up to ≈33 GPa and
14 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at room temperature. 57Fe
Mössbauer Spectroscopy was used as the fingerprinting spectroscopy to
obtain hyperfine interaction parameters of the oxidation state of iron at
elevated pressures. At low pressure (2.5 GPa), there is an asymmetry
which develops in the spectrum which is attributed to Fe3+ emerging,
this could be due to metal-metal charge transfer between Fe2+ and Ti4+
cations. This could be one explanation, though a contentious one, for this
asymmetry. A structural phase change of the ilmenite unit cell initiates at
≈ 18 GPa, from a rhombohedral to a high pressure perovskite phase.
These two phases co-exist, with the perovskite phase having an ever
increasing abundance. Abundances and hyperfine interaction parameters


A novel, sensitive, simple and cheap extraction technique based on liquid     Chimuka Luke1, Jönsson Jan Ake2, Cukrowska Ewa1 and Hlanganani         ###
phase microextraction has been developed. The technique involves
extraction of PAHs from a 20 ml sample containing 20 % acetonitrile as a
modifier. The PAHs are extracted into a 5 cm hollow fibre filled with
heptane as organic solvent. After 30 minutes extraction, the acceptor
solvent is collected and injected into a GC-MS. The extraction was
optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of organic
modifier in the sample, addition of salt in the sample, stirring speed of
the sample and extraction time. To increase the sample throughput,
simultaneous extraction was performed since the set-up of each
extraction is very simple. The obtained enrichment factors ranged from
48 to 95, depending on the individual PAH. The detection limit ranged
from 0.2-1.0 µg L-1. Finally, the optimised conditions for the method
were applied to real water samples in and around Johannesburg.
                                                                               Backwell Lucinda

                                                                                                                              Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                                       Presented poster
Abstract maximum length 250 words Hair identification provides a wealth                                                 ###
of information in criminology, epidemiology, ecology and archaeology.
Previous researchers have recognized that ancient mammalian hair
undoubtedly gives insights into a site’s use, the nature of the
environment, species evolution, and the relation between people and
animals in the past. Although ancient mammalian hair is rare, it is an
important data source for understanding palaeobiology, palaeoecology
and palaeoanthropology. This research focuses on cuticular scale pattern
and cross-sectional morphology of hairs from coprolites from Gladysvale
cave. The coprolites are part of a brown hyaena latrine preserved in
calcified cave sediment dated to the Middle Pleistocene (195 000 to 257
000 years). Following the recent discovery of possible human hair in a
single coprolite, the purpose of this project is to identify the mammal
species represented by the hairs in an enlarged sample of coprolites from
the same deposit. A 75cm block of the calcified latrine containing ten
coprolites was removed for laboratory analysis. Fifty fossil hairs were
extracted using fine tweezers and a binocular microscope. They were
gently ultrasonic cleaned in analar ethanol and placed directly onto
double-sided sticky stubs for examination using scanning electron
microscopy. Hair identification is based on consultation of standard
guides to hair identification and guard hair samples from fifteen modern
mammals housed at the Transvaal Museum.This research presents the
microstructure of the modern hairs studied, and based on the
identification of the fossil hairs, discusses the implications for Middle

                                                                                                  Masters by research
                                                                               Phil Ferrer

                                                                                                                              Oral / presented paper

                                                                                                                                                       Oral / presented paper
The Corona Ionization (CorIon) Space Propulsion system is a new                                                         ###
electrostatic propulsion system intended for use on satellites (orbit
transfer and station-keeping) and for deep space probes. It makes use of
the corona ionization mechanism to create the needed propellant ions.
Its size and complexity are reduced by the coupling of the ionization and
acceleration mechanisms. The main body of the thruster is a sharp
electrically conducting needle. In operation, the propellant tank feeds
propellant through the hollow needle, which is maintained at a very high
potential by an external power source. The propellant exits through the
sharp tip into the very strong electric field there. Corona ionization takes
place in the strong field region, stripping electrons away from some
propellant molecules. The electrons are attracted and move towards the
needle tip, where they further ionize propellant molecules by collision.
The positive ions are repelled from the needle and collide with neutral
molecules exiting the needle. Collision of these fast ions with neutral
molecules increases the overall speed at which the propellant stream
exits the needle effectively heating the exhaust plume in the direction
away from the thruster. This mechanism provides the thrust. Considering
                                                                              Neil Coville, Rui Krause

                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
The synthesis of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes over Fe-                                          ###
Co/CaCO3 via catalytic pyrolysis of acetonitrile The synthesis of nitrogen-
doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes was achieved using catalytic
chemical vapour deposition process (CVD). The formation of nitrogen-
doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes was achieved by the pyrolysis of
acetonitrile on Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst, using C2H2 and N2 as the carbon
source and carrier gas, respectively. We performed a series of syntheses
of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes at different reaction temperatures
in the range from 700 to 900 °C and different acetonitrile temperatures
(room temperature, 50 °C and 80 °C). The obtained results revealed that
the highest efficiency of the formation of nitrogen-doped carbon
nanotubes was observed at synthesis temperatures ranging from 800 to
850 °C, and contain virtually no impurities and amorphous carbon. An
increase in nanotubes yield with increasing synthesis temperature was
observed, also as the CH3CN temperature increased the nanotubes yield
decreased. The outside diameters of the bamboo-shaped nanotubes,
with V-shaped hollow cores, are generally in the range 25-100 nm.
Judging from the electron microscope images, the N-CNTs produced at
temperatures from 800 to 850 °C have very thick walls and metallic
catalyst particles are located at the tips of the N-CNTs. Some open tips
are also observed, which are always at the larger sides of the hollow


                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster

                                                                                                                                           Presented poster
                                                                              Penny, C and Hosie, M
Clomiphene citrate (CC) is an efficient superovulator used in infertility                                      ###
treatment. Despite being widely prescribed, pregnancy rates remain low.
Research has suggested that this may be due to an adverse effect on
uterine receptivity to implantation, however little has been done to
assess these effects at the molecular level. The aim of this present study
was to determine the effect of CC on whole gene expression profiles of
rat uteri receptive to implantation. Four 44K Agilent Whole Rat Genome
Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to screen gene expression
changes between the uteri of 8 CC (0.25mg) treated and 8 saline treated
ovariectomized rats, hormonally treated to induce uterine receptivity to
implantation (CCPPPE and SPPPE respectively). Data analysis and
functional annotation analysis were performed using limma and FatiGO
respectively. The expression of selected genes was validated using real
time PCR. Results showed 351 significantly up-regulated and 158
significantly down-regulated genes more than 2 fold in the CCPPPE
treated uteri. Some genes, such as sostdc1 (Fold Change [FC]: -5.9,
adjusted p value [p]: 3.92x10-10), have previously been suggested to play
a role in uterine receptivity to implantation. Functional analysis showed
that the immune response was significantly up-regulated in the CCPPPE
treated samples (p = 1.79x10-8). Since the embryo is essentially an
                                                                                                                      Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
                                                                              Billing Caren, and Levendis Demetrius
A combination of reliable, analytical techniques is used to research                                                                        ###
complex formation within solution chemistry and solid state chemistry. It
is a known fact that changing parameters (such as temperature, pressure,
pH, concentration etc.) within a chemical experiment could yield different
products. What has not yet been investigated is whether there is a
correlation between the products found in solution and in the solid state
when they are produced under specified, controlled conditions. Studies
conducted via electrochemical experiments yield information from which
the various complexes, existing across the pH scale, in solution can be
deduced. It is clear that certain metal-ligand complexes predominate at
specific regions of the pH scale. The solid state technique used requires
the formation of a crystalline substance which is then analyzed to reveal
the atomic composition and structure of the complex. Would crystals
grown under similar pH conditions produce the same complexes as found
in the solution? Solution studies conducted using cadmium(II) (metal ion)
and picolinic acid (organic ligand) led to the discovery of a complex that
was found to exist only in highly acidic solution. This complex has never
before been reported and so it was important to validate this finding.

                                                                                                                      Masters by research
                                                                              Fanucchi, Sylvia; Dirr, Heini W.

                                                                                                                                                  Presented poster

                                                                                                                                                                     Freestanding poster
Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) belongs to a family of ion                                                                 ###
channel proteins specifically for anion molecules. There is an unusual
property of the proteins in this family: they are translated as soluble
proteins and under specific conditions they will change their
conformation to insert into membranes. Therefore, it is interesting to
study how the structure of CLIC1 changes to facilitate membrane
insertion. Previous equilibrium unfolding studies have shown that CLIC1
forms a stable intermediate at pH 5.5 which corresponds to the pH value
on the surface of membranes while the intermediate species is absent at
pH 7.0. In this study, the unfolding kinetics of CLIC1 was monitored at pH
7.0 and pH 5.5 to understand the unfolding pathway of CLIC1. At pH 7.0
the unfolding pathway of CLIC1 is simply two states; that is, CLIC1 unfolds
directly from the native state to the denatured state without any
intermediate formation. The unfolding kinetic trace at pH 5.5 also shows
a single phase transition which indicates the two-state unfolding.
However, non-coincident rate constants obtained from monitoring
secondary and the tertiary structure as the protein unfolds suggests that
there might be an intermediate species appearing even though it cannot
                                                                                                                                         Masters by research

                                                                                                                                                                     Oral / presented paper
                                                                               Marques, H. M., Michael, J. P. and Fernandes, Manuel A.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Presented poster
Vitamin B12 is one of nature’s wonders. The incorporation of an inert                                                                                          ###
cobalt III metal ion into an extremely labile protein system remains one
of science’s great mysteries. Model systems similar to vitamin B12,
known as biomimetics, have been used to try to understand how vitamin
B12 works. The corrole ring, a fully aromatic and more electron rich
system than vitamin B12’s corrin ring, will be used to test the hypothesis
that the metal’s environment affects its lability. The first step towards
this end was an investigation of the feasibility of corrole synthesis, and a
series of functionalised corroles have been produced. Molecular
modelling was employed for the design of several suitable biomimetic
systems. A novel model short tailed corrole was designed, synthesised
and metalated successfully and its solid state explored. A tailed corrole-
based biomimetic model was designed and the synthesis is in progress.
Preliminary studies suggest that this system is within reach and once it
has been successfully synthesised, it will be used to study the effect that
the increased electron density has on both the kinetic and
thermodynamic properties of the cobalt III metal centre.
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