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Mangalore

Mangalore
Mangalore Population • Density Time zone Area • Elevation Codes • Pincode • Telephone • Vehicle
The Town Hall of Mangalore 398,745 (2001)

• 3,586.5 /km2 (9,289 /sq mi) IST (UTC+5:30)
132.45 km² (51 sq mi)

• 22 m (72 ft)

• 575001 to 575025[1] • +0824[2] • KA-19[3]
www.mangalorecity.gov.in

Website

Mangalore
Location of Mangalore in Karnataka and India

Country State District(s) Mayor

India Karnataka Dakshina Kannada Ganesh Hosabettu

Coordinates: 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 Mangalore (pronounced /ˈmæŋɡəlɔr/; Kannada: ???????, Mangalūru;Tulu: Kudla, ?????; Konkani: Kodial, ????????; Beary: Maikala, ?????) pronunciation is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bounded by the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, Mangalore is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in southwestern Karnataka. Mangalore derives its name from the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea – remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies on the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the SouthWest monsoons. Mangalore’s port handles 75% of India’s coffee exports and the bulk of the nation’s cashew exports.[4] Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar dynasty, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India’s independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.[5]

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Mangalore is demographically diverse with several languages, including Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary commonly spoken and understood. The city’s landscape is characterized by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams, and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings.[6]

Mangalore
honour at Bolar in Mangalore.[9] The city got its name from the Mangaladevi temple.[10] One of the earliest references to the city’s name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Managalapuram.[11] The 11th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta referred to Mangalore as Manjarur in his chronicles.[12] In Kannada, the city is called Mangalūru, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix ūru means town or city in Kannada).[9] During the British occupation in 1799, Mangalore (anglicized from Mangalūru), stuck as the official appellation.[10][13] Mangalore’s diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the city is called Kudla meaning junction, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Phalguni rivers. In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodial. The Beary name for the city is Maikala, meaning wood charcoal, an attribution to the early practice of producing charcoal from wood on the banks of the Netravati river.[9] On the occasion of Suvarna Karnataka (Golden Karnataka) in 2006, the Government of Karnataka stated that the city would be renamed Mangalooru, though this change in name is not implemented.[14]

Etymology

History

The local Hindu deity Mangaladevi, after which the city of Mangalore derives its name Mangalore was named after the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple.[7][8] According to local legend, Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition, arrived in the area with a princess from Kerala named Premaladevi. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. After her death, the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her The Sultan Battery in Mangalore, built in 1784 by Tippu Sultan to prevent English warships from entering the Gurupura river.[15][16] The area that is now Mangalore has been mentioned in many ancient works of Hindu history. In the epic Ramayana, Lord Rama ruled over the region, while in the epic Mahabharata, Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandavas, governed the area.[9] Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata, also visited the area

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when he travelled from Gokarna to Adur, a village near Kasargod.[17] Mangalore’s historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travelers. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, referred to the port of Mangalore as Mangarouth.[18] Pliny, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nithrias, while Greek historian Ptolemy referred to a place called Nitre. Ptolemy’s and Pliny the Elder’s references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore.[19] Ptolemy also referred to the city as Maganoor in some of his works.[20] Several regional and foreign powers have fought over the control of Mangalore. Major regional dynasties, such as the Western Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Hoysalas ruled the town until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. From 200–600 CE, the Kadamba dynasty ruled over the region. Mangalore was the capital of the Alupa dynasty until the 14th century.[21] The city, then an important trading zone for Persian merchants, was visited by Adenese merchant Abraham Ben Yiju.[22][23] The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarun, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary.[24] In 1448, Abdul Razak, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, and was amazed at a glorious temple he saw in the city, en route to Vijayanagara.[25] European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama landed at St Mary’s Island near Mangalore.[26] In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio conquered Mangalore.[27][28][29] In the 16th century, Goud Saraswat Brahmins and Roman Catholics from Goa migrated to Mangalore as a result of the Portuguese–Maratha Wars and the Goa Inquisition.[30][31] In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.[32] During the 17th century, the Keladi Nayaka kingdom defeated the Portuguese and ruled the town until 1762. Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763,[34] consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783,[35][36] but was subsequently wrested from their control

Mangalore

The Light House Hill tower in Mangalore, which served as a watchtower for the British Navy.[33] by Hyder Ali’s son, Tippu Sultan in 1783.[37] The Second Anglo–Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tippu Sultan and the British East India Company on March 11, 1784.[38] After the defeat of Tippu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the Canara district under their regime.[10][13][39] The city was largely peaceful during British rule, with urban and infrastructural developments being affected during the period. Mangalore flourished in education and in industry, becoming a commercial centre for trade. The opening of the German Basel Mission in 1834 brought many cotton weaving and tile manufacturers to the city.[23][40] When Canara was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1863, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters.[10] The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.[41] Roman Catholic missions to Mangalore like the Italian Jesuit

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Mangalore Mission of 1878 played an important role in education, health, and social welfare.[42] The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on May 23, 1866,[17] which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities. As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka).[5] Mangalore is a major city of Karnataka, providing the state with access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port on May 4, 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited on March 15, 1976.[43][44] The late 20th century saw Mangalore develop as a business, commercial and information technology (IT) centre, although the traditional red tile-roofed houses are still retained in the city.

Mangalore
Kannada district, the largest urban coastal center of Karnataka, and the fourth largest city in the state.[12] Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 132.45 km2 [12] (51.14 sq mi). Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night.[48] The topography of the city ranges from plain to undulating, with several hills, valleys and flat areas within the city. The geology of the city is characterized by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore.[11] The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorized the city in the Seismic III Zone.[49][50] Mangalore lies on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers. These rivers effectively encircle the city, with the Netravti flowing at the south of the city, and the Gurupura flowing at the north of the city. The rivers form an estuary at the southern region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea.[51] The city is often used as a staging point for traffic along the Malabar D Coast. The coastline of the city is dotted with several beaches, such as Mukka, Panambur, Tannirbavi, Suratkal, and Someshwara. Co1 conut trees, palm trees, and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.

Geography and climate
Climate chart for Mangalore J F M A M J J A S O N

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15 94 98 59 26 20 7

31 31 32 32 35 28 27 27 28 30 31 31 21 22 24 25 26 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: Weatherbase[45] Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D

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0.1 0.6 3.7 3.9 2.3 1

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88 88 90 90 95 82 81 81 82 86 88 88 Sunset at Panambur beach in Mangalore 70 72 75 77 79 75 73 73 73 73 73 72 average temperatures in °F Mangalore has a tropical climate; summer precipitation totals in inches and winter months experience similar temMangalore is located at 12°52′N 74°53′E / perate conditions, with average temperatures 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshranging from 27 °C (81 °F) to 34 °C (93 °F). ina Kannada district of Karnataka.[46] It has Humidity is approximately 78% on averan average elevation of 22 metres (72 ft) age,[45] and peaks during May, June and [47] It is the adminisabove mean sea level. July.[52] The maximum average humidity is trative headquarters of the Dakshina 93% in July and average minimum humidity

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is 56% in January.[52] Under the Köppen climate classification, Manglore belongs to the Tropical/megathermal zone and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoon. It receives about 90% of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March.[53] The annual precipitation in Mangalore is 4,242.5 millimetres (167 in).[54] The most pleasant months in Mangalore are from December to February, during which time the humidity and heat are at their lowest.[45] During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 30 °C (86 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night. This season is soon followed by a hot summer, from March to May, when temperatures rise as high as 38 °C (100 °F). The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences more precipitation than most urban centres in India, due to the Western Ghats.[55] Rainfall up to 4,000 millimetres (157 in) could be recorded during the period from June to September. The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.[56]

Mangalore
activities.[57] The New Mangalore Port is India’s ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75% of India’s coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts.[4] During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of Rs. 33.47 crore (US$ 6.71 million) to the state.[58] The city’s major enterprises include Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), BASF, and ELF Gas. The leaf spring industry has an important presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city.[57] The Baikampady and Yeyyadi Industrial areas harbour several small-scale industries. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber.[59] The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.[60] Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys, Wipro, MPhasis BPO, and First American Corporation have established a presence in Mangalore.[61] Plans to create three dedicated I.T. parks are underway, with two parks (Export Promotion Industrial park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University) currently under construction.[62] A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt.[63] Another IT SEZ, sponsored by the BA group, is under construction at Thumbe and spans 2 million square feet (180,000 m²).[64]

A 2007 panoramic view of Mangalore from Kadri

Economy

The Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited was a major industry in Mangalore that was commissioned in 1976. The Infosys campus in Mangalore Mangalore’s economy is dominated by the agricultural processing and port-related The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over Rs 35,000 crore (US$ 7.02 billion) in a new 15 million tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as

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well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone. Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, is developing strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India.[65][66] Out of the proposed 5 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) storage, 1.5 MMTPA would be at Mangalore.[67] According to an International edition of India Today (November 28 – December 4, 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non-metro in South India.[4] Corporation Bank,[68] Canara Bank,[69] and Vijaya Bank[70] were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Karnataka Bank, founded in Mangalore, was one of the largest banks to have not been taken over by the Government.[71] The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd.[72] and SCDCC Bank[73] were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore. The boat building and fishing industry have been core businesses in Mangalore for generations. The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor.[74] The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04.[75] The fishing industry employs thousands of people, their products being exported to around the region. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction.[57][61] The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore was India’s first red roof tile manufacturing factory.[76][77] Cotton industries also flourish in Mangalore. The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coir yarns,[23] while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.[57]

Mangalore

The St Aloysius Chapel in Mangalore extrapolations, the World Gazetteer estimated the population of the Mangalore urban area to be 603,269, making it the 61st most populated urban area in India.[81] The number of males was 200,234, constituting 50% of the population, while the number of females were 198,511. The decadal growth rate was 45.90.[78] Male literacy was 86%, while female literacy was 79%. About 6% population was under six years of age. Mangalore’s literacy rate is 83% – significantly higher than the national average of 59.5%.[79] Birth rate was 13.72%, while death rate and infant mortality rate were at 3.71% and 1.24% respectively.[82] The Mangalore urban area had 32 recognised slums, and nearly 22,000 migrant labourers lived in slums within the city limits.[83][84] According to the Crime Review Report (2006) by the Dakshina Kannada Police, Mangalore registered a drop in the crime rate in 2005, compared with 2003.[85] The four predominant languages in Mangalore are Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary.[10] Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu and English are also spoken in the city. A resident of Mangalore is known as a Mangalorean in English, Kudladaru in Tulu, Kodialgharano in Catholic Konkani, Kodialchi or Manglurchi in Goud Saraswat Brahmin Konkani, Manglurnavaru in Kannada, and Maikaaltanga in Beary. Hinduism is followed by a large number of the population, with Mogaveeras, Billavas, Ganigas and Bunts forming the largest groups. Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs), Daivajna brahmins, and Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins also form considerable sections of the Hindu population. Christians form a sizable section of Mangalorean society, with Konkani-speaking

Demographics
See also: Mangaloreans Mangalore has a population of 398,745 per the 2001 census of India.[78] The urban area has a population of 538,560,[79] while the metropolitan area has a population of 419,306 (2001).[12] According to World Gazetteer, Mangalore’s estimated population in 2008 was 431,976, making it the 101st most populous city in India.[80] As of the same

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Catholics, popularly known as Mangalorean Catholics, accounting for the largest Christian community. Protestants in Mangalore typically speak Kannada.[86] About 80% of the Muslims in Mangalore are Bearys, who speak a dialect called Beary bashe. There is also a sizeable group of landowners following Jainism. According to the 1961 Census of India statistics, 31,330 Christians and 36,556 Muslims lived in Mangalore taluk.[87]

Mangalore
and Ganesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple.[93][94] The Catholic community’s unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary’s feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests.[95] The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain families of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually,[96] while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival, is celebrated by the whole community.[97] Aati, a festival worshiping Kalanja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlostava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music.[98] Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night. Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.[99]

Culture
See also: Tulu Nadu (Culture)

The Jyothi Talkies is one of the older cinema theatres in Mangalore Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore,[88] while Hulivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[89] Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.[90] Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats.[90] The Bearys’ unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings).[91] The Eucharistic procession is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year.[90] The Srimanthi Bai Museum, in Bejai, is the only museum of Mangalore.[92] Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dussera, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid,

Neer dosa, a variant of dosa, is native to Mangalore Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is popular dish in Canara. The Tulu community’s well-known

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dishes include Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silvergrey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa (lacy rice-crêpes), Boothai Gasi, Kadubu, and Patrode. The Konkani community’s specialities include Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, paagila podi, and chana gashi. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, fish forms the staple diet of most people.[100] Mangalorean Catholics’ Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna – idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas – Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani of the Muslims are wellknown dishes. Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.[90]

Mangalore

Mangalore City Corporation headquarters at Lalbagh in Mangalore for the northern part of the city which fell under the Udupi Lok Sabha Constituency. Additionally, Mangalore sent three members to the Karnataka State Legislative Assembly. With the revision, the entire Mangalore Taluk now falls under the Dakshina Kannada Lok Sabha constituency, resulting in Mangalore contributing only one Member of Parliament (MP).[105][106] The Dakshina Kannada Police is responsible for the law and order maintenance in Mangalore. The department is headed by a Superintendent of Police (SP). Mangalore is also the headquarters of the Western Range Police, covering the western districts of Karnataka, which is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IGP).[107]

Civic administration
Mangalore City officials Mayor Deputy Mayor Superintendent of Police Ganesh Hosabettu[101] Shakeela Kava[102] Dr. Subramanyeshwara Rao[103]

The Mangalore City Corporation (MCC) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. Municipal limits begin with Mukka in the north, to Netravati river bridge in the south and western sea shore to Vamanjoor in the east. The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called corporators, one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. A corporator from the majority party is selected as a Mayor.[104] The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation is at Lalbagh. Its suboffices are at Surathkal and Bikarnakatta. As of 2001, the Mangalore municipality covered an area of 73.71 km2 (28.46 sq mi).[58] Until the revision of Lok Sabha and the legislative constituencies by the Delimitation commission, Mangalore contributed two members to the Lok Sabha, one for the southern part of the city which fell under the Mangalore Lok Sabha Constituency, and another

Education

National Institute of Technology (Karnataka) in Surathkal is one of the premier institutes of India is located in Mangalore. The pre-collegiate medium of instruction in schools is predominantly Kannada, while English and Kannada are predominant languages in private schools. Additionally, other media of instruction exist in Mangalore. The medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation in colleges is English. Recently, a committee of experts

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constituted by the Tulu Sahitya Academy recommended the inclusion of Tulu (in Kannada script) as a medium of instruction in education.[108] Schools and colleges in Mangalore are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. After completing 10 years of schooling in secondary education, students enroll in Higher Secondary School, specializing in one of the three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science. Since the 1980s, there have been a large number of professional institutions established in a variety of fields including engineering, medicine, dentistry, business management and hotel management. The earliest schools established in Mangalore were the Basel Evangelical School (1838) and Milagres School (1848). The Kasturba Medical College established in 1953, was India’s first private medical college.[109] Popular educational institutions in the city are Father Muller Medical College, KS Hegde Medical Academy, National Institute of Technology (Karnataka), St. Aloysius College, and St. Joseph Engineering College. The Bibliophile’s Paradise, a hi-tech public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore.[110] Mangalore University was established on September 10, 1980. It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts[111] and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution.[112]

Mangalore
(cockfight) are popular. Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Dakshina Kannada’s only full-fledged cricket stadium, the Mangala Stadium, is in Mangalore.[114] The Sports Authority of India (SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium.[115] The Central Maidan in Mangalore is another important venue hosting domestic tournaments and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments.[116] The Mangalore Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organization in the city and has been elected as the institutional member for the Mangalore Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket Association (KSCA).[117][118] Football is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments. Chess is also a popular indoor sport in the city. Mangalore is headquarters to the South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.[119][120][121] Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas. Pilikula Nisargadhama, an integrated theme park, has a fully functional ninehole golf course at Vamanjoor in Mangalore.[122][123] Budhi Kunderan, a former Indian wicket keeper was from Mangalore.[124] Ravi Shastri, who represented India for several years in international cricket as an allrounder and captained the team, is of Mangalorean origin.[125]

Media
Major national English language newspapers such as The New Indian Express The Hindu, , Times of India and Deccan Herald publish localised Mangalore editions. The Madipu, Mogaveera, Samparka and Saphala are wellknown Tulu periodicals in Mangalore.[126] Popular Konkani language periodicals published in the city are Rakno, Konknni Dirvem and Kannik. Beary periodicals like Jyothi and Swatantra Bharata are also published from Mangalore. Among Kannada newspapers, Udayavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Prajavani, Kannada Prabha and Varthabharathi are popular. Evening newspapers such as Karavali Ale, Mangalooru Mitra, Sanjevani, and Jayakirana are also published in the city. The first Kannada language newspaper Mangalore

Sports

Pilikula Nisargadhama golf course Several sports are unique to Mangalore. Kambala (buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields,[113] and Korikatta

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Mangalore
Tulu dramas, mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta, are very popular.[109] In 2006, the Tulu film festival was organized in Mangalore.[133]

Transport

National Highway 17 passing through Nantoor Cross in the city Mangalore’s location makes it accessible via all forms of transport. Transport systems in Mangalore include private buses, KSRTC buses, trains, taxis and autorickshaws. Three National Highways pass through Mangalore. NH-17, which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Edapally Junction (near Cochin in Kerala), passes through Mangalore in a north–south direction, while NH-48 runs eastward to Bangalore. NH-13 runs northeast from Mangalore to Solapur.[134] National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore Port to Surathkal on NH-17 and BC Road junction on NH-48. Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), a 37.5-kilometre (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads.[135] Mangalore’s city bus service is operated by private operators and provides access within city limits and beyond. Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist – city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state.[136] The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association

All India Radio’s FM tower at Kadri Samachara was published from Mangalore in 1843.[127] The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable television also provides broadcast cable channels of independently owned private networks. Canara Tv transmits daily video news channels from Mangalore.[128] Mangalore is not covered by the Conditional access system (CAS); however, a proposal to provide CAS to television viewers in Mangalore sometime in the future has been initiated by V4 Media, the local cable service provider.[129] Direct-toHome (DTH) services, although nascent, are available in Mangalore via Dish TV, Sun Direct and Tata Sky.[130] All India Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri that airs program during scheduled hours. Mangalore’s private FM stations include Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, Big 92.7 FM,[131] Superhitz 93.5 FM and 94.3 Century FM.[132] Mangalore is home to the Tulu Film Industry, which has a catalogue of 31 films, and releases one film annually, on average. Popular Tulu films are Kadala Mage and Suddha.

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(CBOA).[137] These buses usually ply from the Mangalore Bus Station. White coloured taxis also traverse most of the city. Another mode for local transport is the autorickshaw.

Mangalore

The Kadri Park in Mangalore Electricity in Mangalore is regulated by the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) and distributed through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM).[144][145][146] Mangalore experiences scheduled and unscheduled power cuts, especially during the summer, due to excess consumption demands.[147] Major industries like Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals (MRPL) and Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers (MCF) operate their own captive power plants.[148][149] Potable water to the city is supplied by MCC.[150] Almost all water is from the vented dam constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from Mangalore.[151][152] The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aim to improve safe water supply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the distribution system in Mangalore.[150] The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore is in Vamanjoor.[153] The city generates an average of 175 tons per day of waste, which is handled by the health department of the Mangalore City Corporation.[154] The city has developed and maintains public parks such as Pilikula Nisargadhama,[155] Kadri Park at Kadri, Tagore Park at Light House Hill, Gandhi Park at Gandhinagar.[156] and Corporation Bank Park at Nehru Maidan. Fixed Line telecom services are offered along side GSM and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services. Mangalore is the headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada Telecom District, the second largest telecom district in Karnataka.[157] The telephone density in the city is 8.74 per 100 population.[158] Prominent broadband internet

The Netravati railway bridge serves as the gateway to Mangalore. Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907. Mangalore was also the starting point of India’s longest rail route.[41] The city has two railway stations – Mangalore Central (at Hampankatta) and Mangalore Junction (at Kankanadi).[138] A metre gauge railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore with Hassan. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006 [139] and passenger traffic in December 2007.[140] Mangalore is also connected to Chennai through the Southern Railway and to Mumbai via the Konkan Railway.[141] The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage, and logistical services, while the New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk, and fluid cargoes. The New Mangalore Port is also well equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers. It is also the station for the coast guard. This artificial harbour is India’s ninth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka.[11][142] Mangalore International Airport (IATA: IXE) is near Bajpe, and is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-east of the city centre. It is the second airport in Karnataka to operate flights to international destinations.[143]

Utility services
11

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
service providers in the city include Tata, Airtel and DataOne by BSNL.[159]

Mangalore

http://www.kar.nic.in/zpdk/temples.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. [9] ^ Integrated Solid Waste Management Operation & Maintenance report, p. 5 [10] ^ Raghuram, M.. "Mangaluru: it has • Hamilton, Canada[160] come a long way". The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/07/18/ stories/2007071855190700.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-27. • Tulu Nadu [11] ^ Mangalore City Corporation, p. 4 • Mangalore Tiles [12] ^ "City of Mangalore". Mangalore City Corporation. http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. [1] "Central Excise and Service Tax Location [13] ^ Townsend 1867, p. 628 Code (Areas Under the Range West of [14] "They will be Belagavi, Mangalooru, Mangalore-II DVN (610201)". Central Mysuru". The Hindu. 2005-12-19. Board of Excise & Customs. http://www.hindu.com/2005/12/19/ http://sermon.nic.in/sermon/servlet/ stories/2005121916120100.htm. loc_code_repx_location_area?p1=610201. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. Retrieved on 2008-07-05. [15] "Worst-Case Scenario". The Times of [2] "STD Codes for cities in Karnataka". India. 2006-11-30. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). http://epaper.timesofindia.com/ http://www.bsnl.co.in/ Repository/ searchcode.php?state=Karnataka&pgno=3. ml.asp?Ref=VE9JQkcvMjAwNi8xMS8zMCNBcjAwND Retrieved on 2008-07-06. skin-custom. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. [3] "List of RTOs". AICDA (All India Car [16] Kunal Bhatia (2008-02-26). "Mangalore: Dealers Association). Of cultural institutions, tiles and http://www.aicda.com/Rtolst.asp. religious spots". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved on 2008-04-08. http://www.mumbaimirror.com/net/ [4] ^ "CNC India Fund Summary" (PDF, mmpaper.aspx?page=article&sectid=79&contentid= 1.88 MB). CNC India Fund I Periodical Retrieved on 2008-08-25. (CNC India Group) 1 (1): p. 2. [17] ^ Mangalore City Corporation, p. 6 http://www.cncindiafund.com/ [18] Indicopleustes 1897, pp. 358–373 Newsletter%201.pdf. Retrieved on [19] Menachery & Chakkalakkal 2001 2008-07-04. [20] Sharath, Lakshmi (2008-01-21). "Filled [5] ^ "States Reorganization Act 1956". with lore". The Hindu. Commonwealth Legal Information http://www.thehindu.com/mp/2008/06/ Institute. http://www.commonlii.org/in/ 21/stories/2008062151860400.htm. legis/num_act/sra1956250/. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 2008-07-01. [21] Chopra 2003, p. 162 [6] Babu, Savitha Suresh (2007-02-17). [22] Ghosh 2002, p. 189 "Tiles for style". The Hindu. [23] ^ Hoiberg & Ramchandani 2000, p. 358 http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/ [24] Lee 1829, In Malabar mp/2007/02/17/stories/ [25] Urs 1953, p. 119 2007021701030100.htm. Retrieved on [26] Kamath, J. (2002-09-16). "Where rocks 2008-04-05. tell a tale". The Hindu Business Line. [7] Susheela Nair (2006-11-03). http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ "Mangalored!". The Hindu Business Line. life/2002/09/16/stories/ http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ 2002091600170300.htm. Retrieved on life/2006/11/03/stories/ 2008-07-08. 2006110300080200.htm. Retrieved on [27] South Kanara District Gazetteer 1973, 2008-08-25. p. 52 [8] "Temples @ Mangalore". National [28] Kerr 1812, Portuguese Transactions in Informatics Centre (Karnataka State). India, under several governors, from the close of 1515, to the year 1526

Sister Cities See also Notes

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[29] Kerr 1812, Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, from 1526 to 1538 [30] "Christianity in Mangalore". Diocese of Mangalore. http://www.dioceseofmangalore.org/ history.asp. Retrieved on 2008-07-30. [31] Pereira, Maxwell (1999-05-03). "We the Mangaloreans". Indian Express Newspapers (Bombay) Ltd.. http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/ pIe/ie/daily/19990503/iex03030.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-08. [32] Muthanna 1977, p. 235 [33] Raghuram, M.. "Feeling on top of the world". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2005/06/18/ stories/2005061800910200.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. [34] "Tourism Information". Deputy Commissioner’s Office (Dakshina Kannada, Mangalore). http://dk.nic.in/ tourism.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-30. [35] Venn 1945, pp. 14–28 [36] Thornton 1859, p. 114 [37] Thornton 1859, p. 170 [38] Forrest 1887, pp. 314–316 [39] Riddick 2006, p. 28 [40] Monteiro, John B.. "Mangalore: Comtrust Carries On Basel’s Mission". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. http://www.daijiworld.com/chan/ exclusive_arch.asp?ex_id=400. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. [41] ^ "Mangalore was once the starting point of India’s longest rail route". The Hindu. 2007-10-29. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/10/29/ stories/2007102958510300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [42] "College all set to celebrate 125th anniversary". The Hindu. 2004-01-08. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2004/01/08/ stories/2004010810180300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-30. [43] "Brief History". New Mangalore Port. http://www.newmangalore-port.com/ default.asp?channelid=2759&city=PORT. Retrieved on 2008-07-27. [44] "Corporate Profile". Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited. http://www.mangalorechemicals.com/ about_Cprofile.asp. Retrieved on 2008-07-27. [45] ^ "Mangalore, India". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/

Mangalore
weather.php3?s=48234&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [46] "Mangalore, India Page". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/19/ Mangalore.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [47] "Rainfall Stations in India". Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Pune). http://envis.tropmet.res.in/ rainfall_stations.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-27. [48] Balakrishna, K. M.; Narayana, Y; Kumari, Anitha (PDF, 320 KB). Meteorological Measurements of Mangalore Region for ARMEX Programme (Observations and Data Analysis). Department of Physics (Mangalore University). pp. p. 26. http://www.nio.org/past_events/ARMEX/ presentations/P2.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-25. [49] Geological Survey of India. Seismic zoning map of India [map]. Retrieved on 2008-07-20. [50] India Meteorological Department. Seismic Zoning Map [map]. Retrieved on 2008-07-20. [51] Mangalore City Corporation, p. 38 [52] ^ Shrihari, S. (DOC, 109 KB). Environmental Concerns For A Typical Fast Developing Indian City : Mangalore. Faculty of Civil Engineering (National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal). pp. pp. 5–6. http://www.arch.ku.ac.th/upebangkok/ images/Jan_4/Room_2/e24/Paper.doc. Retrieved on 2008-07-20. [53] Subrahmanyam, V. P.. "Some aspects of water balance in the tropical monsoon climates of India" (PDF, 466 KB). Hydrology of Humid Tropical Regions with Particular Reference to the Hydrological Effects of Agriculture and Forestry Practice (Proceedings of the Hamburg Symposium, August 1983) (International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)) 140: pp. 327–328. http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~iahs/ redbooks/a140/iahs_140_0325.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-08. [54] "Urbanisation and Urban Sprawl". Environmental Information System (Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/

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Mangalore

urban/chapter4.htm. Retrieved on [64] "Two more plans for EPIP cleared". The 2008-04-16. Hindu. 2006-08-31. [55] "Western Ghats (sub cluster http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/31/ nomination)". UNESCO World Heritage stories/2006083118290300.htm. Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/ Retrieved on 2006-09-29. tentativelists/2103/. Retrieved on [65] "Strategic oil reserves to come directly 2008-07-27. under Govt". The Hindu Business Line. [56] Mishra, A. K.; Gnanaseelan, C.; 2006-04-02. Seetaramayya, P. (2004-08-25). "A study http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ of rainfall along the west coast of India 2006/04/02/stories/ in relation to low level jet and air–sea 2006040202220200.htm. Retrieved on interactions over the Arabian Sea" (PDF, 2008-02-20. 522 KB). Current Science (Current [66] "Strategic crude reserve gets nod". The Hindu. 2006-01-07. Science Association) 87 (4): p. 483. http://www.thehindu.com/2006/01/07/ http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug252004/ stories/2006010704081600.htm. 475.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. Retrieved on 2008-02-20. [57] ^ "South Scan (Mangalore, Karnataka)". [67] "India to form crude oil reserve of 5 CMP Media LLC. http://www.crn.in/ mmt". The Economic Times. 2007-06-20. SouthScanNov152007.aspx. Retrieved on http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ 2008-03-20. India_to_form_crude_oil_reserve_of_5_mmt/ [58] ^ Directorate of Economics and articleshow/2137148.cms. Retrieved on Statistics (Government of Karnataka) 2008-02-20. 2005, p. 1 [68] "History". Corporation Bank. [59] "Commissionerate of Customs — http://www.corpbank.com/asp/ Mangalore". Mangalore Customs. 0100text.asp?presentID=84&headID=84. http://customsmangalore.gov.in/ Retrieved on 2008-04-18. organization/about-us.htm. Retrieved on [69] "Cheque truncation process from April, 2008-07-23. says Leeladhar". The Hindu. [60] "Kerala’s timber market sustained by http://www.hindu.com/2005/11/20/ imports". NDTV Profit. 2008-02-17. stories/2005112015560300.htm. http://www.ndtvprofit.com/2008/02/ Retrieved on 2008-04-18. 17121444/Keralas-timber-market[70] "Inception". Vijaya Bank. sustain.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. http://vijayabank.com:8081/vijaya/vijaya/ [61] ^ "Mangalore takes over as the new SEZ internet-en/menus/we-at-vijaya-bank/ destination". The Economic Times. inception.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. 2008-07-09. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ [71] "History". Karnataka Bank. Features/The_Sunday_ET/Property/ http://www.karnatakabank.com/ktk/ Mangalore_takes_over_as_the_new_SEZ_destination/ History.jsp. Retrieved on 2008-04-18. articleshow/2788712.cms. Retrieved on [72] "Mangalore: Countdown for MCC Bank 2008-03-20. Election Begins Amid Blame Games". [62] Mangalore City Corporation. "Study Area Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. around SEZ, Mangalore" (DOC, 1.45 2008-03-15. http://www.daijiworld.com/ MB). http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/ news/ forms/sez/MSEZ%20Draft%20EIA/ news_disp.asp?n_id=44631&n_tit=Mangalore%3A%2 Mangalore%20SEZ,%20Oct.%202007/ Retrieved on 2008-07-22. Chapter%203/Fig.%203.5.1.doc. [73] "History". SCDCC Bank. Retrieved on 2008-07-02. http://www.scdccbank.com/history.html. [63] Mangalore City Corporation. "Proposed Retrieved on 2008-06-24. MSEZ Site and Existing Industries" [74] National Council of Applied Economic (DOC, 790 KB). Research 1961, pp. 6–73 http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/forms/ [75] Directorate of Economics and Statistics sez/MSEZ%20Draft%20EIA/ (Government of Karnataka) 2004, p. 233 Mangalore%20SEZ,%20Oct.%202007/ [76] Somerset & Bond Wright, p. 510 Chapter%201/Fig.1.2.doc. Retrieved on [77] Somerset & Bond Wright, p. 511 2008-04-09.

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[78] ^ "Population of Corporation/CMC/TMC/ articleshow/354160109.cms. Retrieved TP (Population 2001 Census)". on 2007-12-07. Directorate of Municipal Administration, [90] ^ D’Souza, Stephen. "What’s in a Bangalore. Name?". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd http://municipaladmn.kar.nic.in/ Mangalore. http://www.daijiworld.com/ AreapopE.htm. Retrieved on chan/exclusive_arch.asp?ex_id=726. 2008-04-16. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. [79] ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the [91] "Beary Sahitya Academy set up". The 2001 Census, including cities, villages Hindu. 2007-10-13. and towns. (Provisional)". Census http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/13/ Commission of India. Archived from the stories/2007101361130300.htm. original on 2006-12-15. Retrieved on 2008-01-15. http://web.archive.org/web/ [92] "Srimanthi Bai Museum is in a 20040616075334/www.censusindia.net/ shambles". The Hindu. 2006-07-07. results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2006/07/07/ Retrieved on 2007-09-03. stories/2006070717580300.htm. [80] "India: largest cities and towns and Retrieved on 2008-01-21. statistics of their population". World [93] "Shree Venkatramana Temple (Car Gazetteer. http://www.worldStreet, Mangalore)". Shree gazetteer.com/ Venkatramana Temple, Mangalore. wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&va=&pt=a. http://www.svtmangalore.org/ Retrieved on 2008-01-31. jeernodhara/#. Retrieved on [81] "India: metropolitan areas". World 2008-07-25. Gazetteer. http://www.world[94] Shenoy, Rajanikanth (2008-02-13). gazetteer.com/ "Colourful Kodial Theru". wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&va=&pt=a. Mangalorean.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. http://www.mangalorean.com/ [82] Mangalore City Corporation, p. 131 news.php?newstype=broadcast&broadcastid=67248 [83] "Growing number of slums in Mangalore Retrieved on 2008-07-09. a cause for concern". The Hindu. [95] Monteiro, John B.. "Monti Fest 2006-04-08. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years 04/08/stories/2006040818420300.htm. Ago!". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Retrieved on 2008-03-14. Mangalore. http://www.daijiworld.com/ [84] "Slums mushrooming in port city". The chan/exclusive_arch.asp?ex_id=129. Hindu. 2006-01-21. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/21/ [96] Nayak, Amrita (2007-11-24). "Food for stories/2006012111860300.htm. thought". The Hindu. Retrieved on 2008-03-14. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2007/11/24/ [85] Dayananda, B. (2006) (PDF, 747 KB). stories/2007112450980400.htm. Crime Review - 2006. Dakshina Kannada Retrieved on 2008-01-18. Police. http://www.geocities.com/ [97] "`Mosaru Kudike’ brings in communal mngpolice/CrimeReviewDK2004-06.pdf. harmony". The Hindu. 2005-08-28. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. http://www.hindu.com/2005/08/28/ [86] South Kanara District Gazetteer 1973, stories/2005082812400300.htm. p. 93 Retrieved on 2008-02-22. [87] South Kanara District Gazetteer 1973, [98] "Objectives of Karavali Utsav". Karavli p. 96 Utsav, Mangalore. [88] Prabhu, Ganesh (2004-01-10). "Enduring http://www.karavaliutsav.com/ art". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/ display.php?content_option=SECTION&ref_id=140. mp/2004/06/10/stories/ Retrieved on 2008-07-09. 2004061000340300.htm. Retrieved on [99] "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". 2008-07-20. Mangalorean.com. 2007-08-18. [89] "Human `tigers’ face threat to health". http://mangalorean.com/ The Times of India. 2001-10-26. news.php?newstype=broadcast&broadcastid=50662 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ Retrieved on 2008-01-28.

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[100]Typically home". The Hindu. " stories/2006040100730100.htm. 2007-08-11. http://www.hindu.com/mp/ Retrieved on 2008-01-31. 2007/08/11/stories/ [111]Details of Mangalore University". " 2007081150880400.htm. Retrieved on Mangalore University. 2008-07-09. http://www.mangaloreuniversity.ac.in/. [101]Ganesh Hosabettu is MCC mayor". The " Retrieved on 2008-03-21. New Indian Express. 2008-02-22. [112]Mangalore University has been " http://www.newindpress.com/ Accredited at the 4 Star level by the NewsItems.asp?ID=IEK20080221225616&Page=K&Title=Southern+News+National Assessment and Accreditation +Karnataka&Topic=0. Retrieved on Council (NAAC).". Mangalore University. 2008-04-08. http://www.mangaloreuniversity.ac.in/ [102]Hosabettu is Mangalore Mayor". The " xampp/accredition.html. Retrieved on Hindu. 2008-02-22. 2008-04-15. http://www.thehindu.com/2008/02/22/ [113]Colours of the season". The Hindu. " stories/2008022258320300.htm. 2006-12-09. http://www.hinduonnet.com/ Retrieved on 2008-07-23. thehindu/mp/2006/12/09/stories/ [103]Dr. Subramanyeshwara Rao takes " 2006120901650100.htm. Retrieved on charge as new SP". The Hindu. 2008-07-09. 2009-03-04. http://www.hindu.com/2005/ [114]Minister keen on improving sports " 09/04/stories/2005090413010300.htm. infrastructure". The Hindu. 2006-08-07. Retrieved on 2009-03-11. http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/07/ [104] angalore City Corporation, p. 7 M stories/2006080716740300.htm. [105]New Assembly constituencies". " Retrieved on 2008-02-18. Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. [115]Approval granted for sports training " 2007-07-14. http://www.daijiworld.com/ centre at Mangala Stadium". The Hindu. news/ 2006-07-17. http://www.thehindu.com/ news_disp.asp?n_id=35701&n_tit=M%27lore%3A+Assembly+Constituencies+Revised+%2D+Bye+B 2006/07/17/stories/ Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 2006071717730300.htm. Retrieved on [106]Assembly constituencies proposed by " 2008-07-25. Delimitation Commission". The Hindu. [116]Central Maidan (Mangalore, India)". " 2006-05-05. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ Cricinfo. http://content05/05/stories/2006050522990400.htm. www.cricinfo.com/india/content/ground/ Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 58296.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [107]The Indian Police Service (Fixation of " [117] asu, Anand (2007-09-09). "Wadiyar V Cadre Strength) Regulations, 1955". defeats Viswanath in Karnataka Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances elections". Cricinfo. http://contentand Pensions. http://persmin.nic.in/ais/ www.cricinfo.com/india/content/story/ Ips_fcsreg.htm. Retrieved on 310173.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. 2007-04-15. [118]Mixed verdict in KSCA polls". Deccan " [108]`Use Kannada script to teach Tulu " Herald. 2007-09-10. now’". The Hindu. 2005-06-22. http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/ http://www.hinduonnet.com/2005/06/22/ Sep102007/ stories/2005062215310300.htm. scroll2007091024510.asp?section=frontpagenews. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [109] Fernandes, Ronald Anil; Naina J. A.; ^ [119]Recent Tournaments". United " Hegde, Bhakti V.; Raveendran, Aabha; Karnataka Chess Association. Padmanabha K. V., Sibanthi; Mayya, http://www.karnatakachess.com/ Sushma P. (2007-08-15). "Sixty and still recent.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-07-22. enterprising...". Deccan Herald. [120]Mangalore: All India Fide Rated Open " http://www.deccanherald.com/content/ Chess Tournament takes off". Aug152007/district2007081519172.asp. Mangalorean.Com. 2006-07-03. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. http://mangalorean.com/ [110] amila, Raviprasad (2006-04-01). "It’s a K news.php?newsid=47176&newstype=local. treasure of books". The Hindu. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/04/01/ [121]All India chess tourney in Mangalore " from July 19". Mangalorean.Com.

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2008-06-17. http://mangalorean.com/ news.php?newsid=81429&newstype=local. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [122]Details of Pilikula Nisarga Dhama " (Pilikula)". Pilikula Nisargadhama. http://www.pilikula.com/index.php. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [123]Pilikula — Perched for higher growth". " Mangalorean.Com. 2008-07-20. http://mangalorean.com/ news.php?newsid=85522&newstype=local. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [124]Budhi Kunderan (India)". Cricinfo. " http://content-usa.cricinfo.com/ci/ content/player/30178.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-26. [125] asu, Anand (2007-03-11). "Repaying the V faith". Cricinfo. http://contentwww.cricinfo.com/india/content/story/ 310173.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [126]’Madipu’ literary competitions". Deccan " Herald. 2007-07-19. http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/ Jul192007/district2007071913749.asp. Retrieved on 2008-01-18. [127]Herr Kannada". Deccan Herald. " 2004-01-18. http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/ jan182004/artic6.asp. Retrieved on 2008-01-18. [128]Daily Video News Channels from " Mangalore". Canara Tv. http://canaratv.com/. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. [129]Mangalore: Channel V4 to offer " Conditional Access system". Mangalorean.com. 2007-12-22. http://www.mangalorean.com/ news.php?newsid=61578&newstype=local. Retrieved on 2008-01-24. [130]Good response for DTH in Mangalore". " The Hindu. 2005-03-19. http://www.hindu.com/2005/03/19/ stories/2005031912050300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-21. [131]BIG FM Launches Station in " Mangalore". Media Newsline. 2007-12-05. http://www.medianewsline.com/news/ 119/ARTICLE/1796/2007-12-05.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-05. [132] elgaumkar, Govind D. (2007-11-23). B "It’s time to swing to hits from FM channels". The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/11/23/

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stories/2007112350640200.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-05. [133]Tulu film festival". The Hindu. " 2006-02-23. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ 02/23/stories/2006022315050300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-19. [134]NH wise Details of NH in respect of " Stretches entrusted to NHAI" (PDF, 62.2 KB). National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). http://www.nhai.org/Doc/ project-offer/Highways.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-04. [135]4-lane road project in Mangalore likely " to be completed in 30 months". The Hindu Business Line. 2005-10-07. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ 2005/10/07/stories/ 2005100700631900.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-13. [136]Profile of KSRTC". Karnataka State " Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC). http://ksrtc.in/ksrtc-fecility.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-04. [137]Transport operators in district vie for " routes". The Hindu. 2006-03-06. http://www.thehindu.com/2006/03/06/ stories/2006030616460300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-16. [138]Name changed". The Hindu. " 2007-11-08. http://www.thehindu.com/ 2007/11/08/stories/ 2007110854800400.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-05. [139]Mangalore -Hassan rail line open for " freight traffic". The Hindu Business Line. 2006-05-06. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ 2006/05/06/stories/ 2006050601880700.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-13. [140]Bangalore-Mangalore train service from " December 8". The Hindu. 2007-11-24. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2007/11/24/ stories/2007112461660400.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-02. [141]The Beginning" (PDF, 117 KB). Konkan " Railway Corporation Limited. http://www.konkanrailway.com/website/ ehtm/intro1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-16. [142]New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT)". " New Mangalore Port. http://www.newmangalore-port.com/ default.asp?channelid=2759&city=PORT. Retrieved on 2006-10-13.

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[143]Intl services begin at Mangalore " airport". The Hindu Business Line. 2006-10-04. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ 2006/10/04/stories/ 2006100403880900.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. [144]About Us". Karnataka Power " Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL). http://www.kptcl.com/ kptclaboutus.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [145]About Us". Mangalore Electricity Supply " Company (MESCOM). http://www.mesco.in/aboutus/index.asp. Retrieved on 2008-04-03. [146] irectorate of Economics and Statistics D (Government of Karnataka) 2004, p. 227 [147]Unscheduled load-shedding may be " inevitable: Mescom". The Hindu Business Line. 2003-02-05. http://www.hinduonnet.com/businessline/ 2003/02/05/stories/ 2003020500611700.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [148]Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals " Ltd. (A Subsidiary of Oil and Natural gas Corporation Ltd.)" (PDF, 31.2 KB). Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals (MRPL). http://www.mrpl.co.in/ downloads/sep06_06_pmc.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [149]Infrastructure". Mangalore Chemicals & " Fertilizers (MCF). http://www.mangalorechemicals.com/ operations_Infrastructure.asp. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [150] Budhya, Gururaja (PDF, 22.2 KB). ^ ‘Social relevance of decision making’ – A case study of water supply and waste water management in Mangalore, Coastal Karnataka, India.. Asian Educational Services. pp. pp. 1–2. http://www.ihdp.uni-bonn.de/ihdw02/ summaries/pdf/Guru%20text1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-18. [151]No funds crunch to tackle water " scarcity in Dakshina Kannada". The Hindu Business Line. 2005-04-21. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ 2005/04/21/stories/ 2005042101271900.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-05. [152]PDF, 418 KB) Karnataka Coastal ( Project. Duraline Pipes. pp. p. 1. http://www.duraline.in/newsletter/

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Q4%202004%20Newsletter.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-27. [153]Vamanjoor dumpyard turns killer". The " Times of India. 2002-12-08. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/30602735.cms. Retrieved on 2008-04-16. [154] angalore City Corporation, p. 10 M [155]About Place". Pilikula Nisargadhama. " http://www.pilikula.com/ index.php?slno=90&pg=1. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [156]Gandhi Nagar park gets a new lease of " life". The Times of India. 2003-09-07. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/170491.cms. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. [157]Dakshina Kannada Telecom District". " Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (Karnataka Telecom Circle). http://www.karnataka.bsnl.co.in/ mangalore/. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. [158]Fact Sheet". STPI (Mangalore). " http://www.mgl.stpi.in/fact_sheet.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-18. [159]BSNL launches broadband service". The " Hindu. 2005-06-17. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2005/06/17/ stories/2005061714690300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. [160]Hamilton’s Sister Cities". " myhamilton.ca — Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. http://www.myhamilton.ca/ myhamilton/ CommunitiesAndOrganizations/ communitiesofhamilton/sistercities. Retrieved on 2007-12-07.

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282 KB). Area, Population, Membership, Chapter%203/Chap_Socio.doc. Retrieved Revenue, Expenditure & Employment by on 2008-04-09. Municipalities, Karnataka, 2000-2001.. • Lee, Samuel (1829). "On the Malabar National Informatics Centre (Karnataka Coast". Quoted in "Selections from the State). http://des.kar.nic.in/cnl/ Travels of Ibn Batuta". London: Oriental lbs2000.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-26. Translation Committee. Forrest, George W. (1887). Selections http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/ from the Letters, Despatches, and Other pritchett/00generallinks/ibnbatuta/. State Papers Preserved in the Bombay Retrieved on 2008-07-29. • Mangalore City Corporation (DOC, 964 Secretariat. 2. Bombay: Government KB). Integrated Solid Waste Management Central Press. Operation & Maintenance report. Ghosh, Amitav (2002). The Imam and the http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/forms/ Indian: Prose Pieces. Orient Longman. SWM%20Details%20for%20Website.doc. ISBN 8175300477. Retrieved on 2008-06-20. http://books.google.com/ • Menachery, George; Chakkalakkal, books?id=QQHp9wsWaZcC&printsec=frontcover. Werner (2001). Kodungallur – The Cradle Retrieved on 2008-07-02. of Christianity in India. Thrissur: "History" (PDF, 3.7 MB). South Kanara Marthoma Pontifical Shrine. District Gazetteer. Karnataka State http://www.indianchristianity.com/html/ Gazetteer. 12. Gazetteer Department Books.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. (Government of Karnataka). 1973. • Muthanna, I. M. (1977). Karnataka, pp. 33–85. History, Administration & Culture. Lotus Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Printers. "Mangalore". Students’ Britannica India. • National Council of Applied Economic Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0852297602. Research (1961). Traffic Survey of http://books.google.com/ books?id=kEj-2a7pmVMC&printsec=frontcover. Mangalore and Malpe Ports: Report. Public Works Department, Government of Retrieved on 2008-06-16. Mysore. Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian • "People" (PDF, 2.57 MB). South Kanara Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The District Gazetteer. Karnataka State Tertullian Project. Gazetteer. 12. Gazetteer Department Kerr, Robert (1812). "Discoveries, (Government of Karnataka). 1973. Navigations, and Conquests of the pp. 86–125. Portuguese in India, from 1505 to 1539". • Riddick, John F. (2006). The History of General History and Collection of Voyages British India: A Chronology. Greenwood and Travels. 6. George Ramsay and Publishing Group. ISBN 0313322805. Company. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/ http://books.google.com/ mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/kerr/. books?id=V2nGnWXV7coC&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved on 2008-07-21. Retrieved on 2008-07-02. Mangalore City Corporation. "Description • Somerset, Playne; Bond, E. W.; Wright, of Environment" (DOC, 2.52 MB). Arnold; Wright, Playne (2004). Southern Mangalore SEZ Draft (October 2007). India: Its History, People, Commerce, and pp. 31–48. Industrial Resources. Asian Educational http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/forms/ Services. ISBN 8120613449. sez/MSEZ%20Draft%20EIA/ http://books.google.com/ Mangalore%20SEZ,%20Oct.%202007/ books?id=8WNEcgMr11kC&printsec=frontcover. Chapter%203/Chap_3Water.doc. Retrieved on 2008-06-18. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. • Thornton, Edward (1859). The History of Mangalore City Corporation. "Description the British Empire in India. Cox and of Environment" (DOC, 6.35 MB). Wyman Printers. http://books.google.com/ Mangalore SEZ Draft (October 2007). books?id=GYpCAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage. pp. 111–134. Retrieved on 2008-07-05. http://www.mangalorecity.gov.in/forms/ • Townsend, George Henry (1867). A sez/MSEZ%20Draft%20EIA/ Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Mangalore%20SEZ,%20Oct.%202007/ Reference to the Most Important Events in

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the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. Warne. http://books.google.com/ This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, books?id=zLBCAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage. you may see question marks or Retrieved on 2008-08-19. boxes, misplaced vowels or • Urs, K. Basavaraj (1953). Speeches of missing conjuncts instead of Indic Sirdar Sir M. Kantharaj Urs (Dewan of text. Mysore 1919-1922). Govt. Branch Press. • Venn, T. W. (1945). "The First Coming of • Mangalore City Corporation Website the British". Mangalore. Mysore: Wesley • Mangalore travel guide from Wikitravel Press. • The City of Mangalore by Vikas Kamat from Kamat.com

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangalore" Categories: Former Portuguese colonies, Coastal settlements, Cities and towns in Karnataka, Port cities in India, Indian Ocean, Dakshina Kannada, Mangalore This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 05:05 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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