Introduction of the euro in the new Member States Analytical Report by dnl19611

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									                                                                                                           Flash Eurobarometer                          European
                                                                                                                                                      Commission




                                                            Introduction of the euro in
                                                            the new Member States

                                                            Analytical Report


                                                            Fieldwork: September 2009
Flash Eurobarometer 280– The Gallup Organization




                                                   This survey was requested by Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs and
                                                   coordinated by Directorate General Communication


                                                   This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission.
                                                                                                                              Analytical Report, page 1
                                                   The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.
            Flash EB Series #280

    Introduction of the euro
   in the new Member States
                   Wave 9


Survey conducted by The Gallup Organization,
       Hungary upon the request of the
           European Commission,
    Directorate-General for Economic and
               Financial Affairs




      Coordinated by Directorate-General
               Communication


 This document does not represent the point of
       view of the European Commission.
The interpretations and opinions contained in it
         are solely those of the authors.



   THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION
Analytical Report                                                               Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 4
Main findings ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
1. Awareness of - and experience with - the euro ............................................................................................... 5
    1.1. Citizens‟ awareness of the euro‟s introduction and of the euro area ........................................................... 7
        1.1.1. Awareness of current euro area countries ..................................................................................................................................... 7
        1.1.2. Expected date of the euro’s adoption ............................................................................................................................................ 8
        1.1.3. Can new Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro? ............................................................................................ 10
        1.1.4. Knowledge of euro banknotes ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
        1.1.5. Familiarity with the design of euro coins .................................................................................................................................... 12

    1.2. Experience with euro cash ......................................................................................................................... 14
        1.2.1. Euro banknotes ........................................................................................................................................................................... 14
        1.2.2. Euro coins ................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

    1.3. Where do people use the euro? .................................................................................................................. 17
    1.4. Socio-demographic segments: awareness and experience of the euro ....................................................... 19
2. Informing citizens about the euro .................................................................................................................. 20
    2.1. Level, channels and content of information ............................................................................................... 20
        2.1.1. Self-perceived level of information .............................................................................................................................................. 20
        2.1.2. Scheduling information ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
        2.1.3. Trusted distributors of information on the euro .......................................................................................................................... 23
        2.1.4. Preferred channels of information .............................................................................................................................................. 25
        2.1.5. Most favoured topics of information campaigns ......................................................................................................................... 27
        2.1.6. Main activities and events essential to be included in an information campaign ........................................................................ 29
3. The euro: perceptions and support for its introduction .............................................................................. 30
    3.1. Consequences of the euro‟s introduction ................................................................................................... 30
        3.1.1. Consequences at the national level ............................................................................................................................................. 30
        3.1.2. Consequences at the personal level ............................................................................................................................................. 32

    3.2. Support for the single currency.................................................................................................................. 35
        3.2.1. Opinions within the respondents’ social environment ................................................................................................................. 35
        3.2.2. Support for replacing the national currency by the euro ............................................................................................................. 36
        3.2.3. The most desired timeframe for the euro’s adoption ................................................................................................................... 38
        3.2.4. Status of the euro as an international currency ........................................................................................................................... 39

    3.3. Analysis by demographic variables ........................................................................................................... 41
4. Consequences of adopting the euro ............................................................................................................... 42
    4.1. Political and economical consequences of introducing the euro ............................................................... 44
        4.1.1. Will the changeover to the euro increase prices? ........................................................................................................................ 44
        4.1.2. Favourable political and economic consequences of the euro .................................................................................................... 46
        4.1.3. The euro as an ingredient in European identity .......................................................................................................................... 48

    4.2. Practical consequences of the euro changeover ......................................................................................... 50
    4.3. Fears regarding the introduction of the euro .............................................................................................. 52
        4.3.1. Fear of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover.................................................................................................... 52
        4.3.2. Loss of national identity due to the adoption of the euro ............................................................................................................. 54
        4.3.3. Expected difficulties due to the euro’s introduction .................................................................................................................... 55
        4.3.4. Loss of control over a nation’s economic policy ......................................................................................................................... 57

    4.4. Fears related to the euro from a socio-demographic perspective ............................................................... 58
Annex tables ........................................................................................................................................................ 60
Survey details ...................................................................................................................................................... 89
Survey questionnaire .......................................................................................................................................... 92


                                                                                                                                                                                                     page 3
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                          Analytical Report



Introduction

EU Member States can adopt the common currency, the euro, once they have fulfilled the criteria
defined in the Maastricht Treaty. There is no common strategy or fixed timetable with regard to the
introduction of the euro in each of Member States that joined in 2004 or later, but the Treaty does
require them to join the euro area in the future.

Considering the countries that joined the Union in 2004 or 2007, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta have
already joined the euro area in 2007 and 2008, and Slovakia followed in January 2009. Before
adopting the euro, a country must comply with the Maastricht criteria and have been a member of the
Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II) for a minimum of two years. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are
members of the ERMII, whereas Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania have
not yet joined.

Concerning the introduction of the euro in these Member States that joined the EU in 2004 or later, the
European Commission is keeping track of general opinions, the levels of knowledge and information
and the familiarity with the single currency among citizens of the respective countries. The objective
of this survey is to identify and further track citizens‟ perceptions in the new Member States not yet in
the euro area (hereafter described as the NMS81), regarding the future introduction of the common
currency.

The main themes of this report are the:

                 levels of knowledge and experience of the euro among citizens in the NMS8
                 feelings as to whether citizens are informed – and their most favoured information
                  channels
                 perceptions about the single currency
                 expectations and fears concerning the adoption of the euro.

This report sums up the main attitudes towards the euro in the NMS8 and describes the climate of
opinion in each of the countries due to adopt the common currency in the coming years. It should be
noted that “average” perceptions might change because of the different composition of the samples in
comparison to previous waves: Slovakia was dropped from the surveys in 2009, Malta and Cyprus in
2008 and Slovenia in 2007. In addition, Bulgaria and Romania joined the surveys as of autumn 2007.

This study is the ninth of its kind, following earlier Flash Eurobarometer surveys in the period 2004 –
May 2009. The present questionnaire is fully comparable to those of 2006 – May 2009. Please note
that the analysis always provides results for the relevant NMS of the time. In the current wave, the
NMS average does not include Cyprus and Malta, Slovenia and Slovakia of the 12 countries that have
joined the EU since 2004.

The survey‟s fieldwork was carried out between 21 and 25 September 2009. Over 8,000 randomly
selected residents aged 15 and above were interviewed in the eight Member States that joined the EU
in 2004 or later and are not yet using the euro as their legal tender (the NMS8).




1
    Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania.



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Analytical Report                       Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



Main findings

Familiarity with the euro
    Six in 10 citizens of the new Member States not yet in the euro area (the NMS8) did not feel
       well informed about the euro (59%), while 4 in 10 felt well informed. The Czech Republic was
       the only country where a majority of respondents felt well informed (52%), compared to 45%
       of citizens who felt they had a low level of knowledge.
       As in other waves, NMS8 citizens were more familiar with euro banknotes than with euro
        coins:
        o    81% of respondents had seen euro banknotes and 76% had seen euro coins; 55% had
             already used banknotes and 49% had used coins.
        o    46% of NMS8 citizens were correct in knowing that the design of the banknotes was
             uniform throughout the euro area; 37% of citizens knew that coins had designs that varied
             from country to country. Romanians were the most familiar with the actual design of euro
             banknotes (61%) and Estonians had the best awareness of euro coins (52%).


Information and information channels
       A majority of those NMS8 citizens who did not feel well informed would like to have
        information about the introduction of the euro as soon as possible or at least a few years
        before the changeover (57%).
       National central banks and the European Institutions remained the most trustworthy sources
        of information regarding the euro and issues related to the changeover (trusted by,
        respectively, 76% and 69% of NMS8 citizens).
       With the exception of Lithuania, the national central bank was – across all NMS8 countries -
        the institution that respondents had most confidence in when it came to receiving correct
        information about the euro and its introduction. Whereas Lithuanians placed most trust in the
        European Institutions, the European Institutions figured in the top three in all NMS8
        countries.
       Television remained the medium by which most citizens in the NMS8 would like to be
        informed about the euro and the changeover (89%).
       The topic that most people wanted to see in a euro information campaign was the value of the
        euro in the national currency (considered essential by 92% of citizens). All of the topics
        suggested for inclusion in such an information campaign were considered as essential by 8 in
        10 or more respondents.
       Among the actions to be taken in a euro information campaign, the dual display of prices was
        seen to be the most important information tool by far; most frequently so in the case of shops
        (87%), followed by its use on utility bills (80%) and payslips (75%).


Joining the euro area
       More than two-thirds of NMS8 citizens thought that their country should not rush into joining
        the euro area: 36% would like to have the euro introduced after a certain time and one-third as
        late as possible. A quarter of respondents would like to see their national currency replaced by
        the euro as soon as possible. Compared to the previous survey wave, more respondents were
        hesitant about an immediate changeover. (-3 percentage points, “as soon as possible”)
       Six in 10 respondents expected their country to join the euro area in the next five years.
        Estonians, Bulgarians and Latvians were the respondents having the most confidence that their




                                                                                                    page 5
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                      Analytical Report


         country would have adopted the euro by 2012; Hungarians, Czechs and Polish, on the other
         hand, tended to feel this would not happen before 2015.
        Despite a widespread belief in the NMS8 that countries were free to choose whether or not
         they joined the euro area (63%), hardly anyone thought that their country would never adopt
         the euro (just 2%).

Perceptions of and support for the euro
        A majority of NMS8 citizens expected the introduction of the euro to have positive
         consequences for their country (52%), and a relative majority thought there would be positive
         consequences for themselves (48%); negative impacts were expected from 35% and 38%,
         respectively, of interviewees. Over half (52%) of respondents thought that the euro had had a
         positive impact on those countries where it had been introduced.
        Relative majorities said they would personally be happy (49%) if the euro was introduced and
         that the general opinion in their country was favourable (44%). Slightly less than 4 in 10 said
         they would personally be unhappy if the euro was introduced (39%) and that their fellow
         citizens were not in favour of its introduction (37%).
        The results of these perception and support indicators showed that the NMS8 citizens‟ support
         for the euro and its introduction has slightly decreased since May 2009. However, the results
         were now similar to those seen in 2008, indicating that the gradual improvement in attitudes
         towards the euro – noticed since 2004 - has been stopped rather than reversed.
        One of the factors leading to the slight decrease of positive attitudes towards the euro, at an
         overall NMS8 level, was the significant drop of support for the euro in those countries that
         had seen a steep increase in such support in the previous wave (conducted in the middle of the
         financial crisis, May 2009). This was particularly so in the case of the Czech Republic and
         Hungary.


Expectations and fears regarding the euro
        More than half of NMS8 citizens agreed that introducing the euro in their country would make
         them feel more European (55%), while 35% thought that their country would lose a great deal
         of its identity.
        An overwhelming majority of respondents agreed with several positive statements concerning
         the practical effects of introducing the euro – e.g. “it will be more convenient for those who
         travel to other EU countries” (90%); will make it easier to shop in other countries that use the
         euro” (87%), etc. As in previous waves, the only exception was “it offers protection from the
         effects of an international crisis”, which had the support of 41%. The share of citizens
         believing in the power of the euro to protect their country from crises has slightly decreased
         compared to the previous survey wave (-3 percentage points).
        Looking at the various economic and political effects of the euro‟s introduction, 64% of
         respondents agreed that an enlargement of the euro area by the accession of their country
         would improve Europe’s global significance and 47% thought it would ensure sounder public
         finances. Fewer respondents agreed that the euro would foster employment and growth (41%).
        The only widespread fear among NMS8 citizens regarding the introduction of the euro was the
         potential for abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover (73%). Most people said
         they were not worried about personal inconveniences that would be caused by the changeover
         (57%) or about a loss of the country’s control of economic policy (55%).
        Over two-thirds of respondents (68%) believed that the euro would cause prices to increase
         just after its introduction, while 45% thought that one of the euro‟s advantages would be low
         inflation rates. The proportion of citizens who believed in the long-term stabilising effect of
         the euro on prices, however, has decreased sharply since the past wave (-10 percentage
         points).


page 6
Analytical Report                                      Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



1. Awareness of - and experience with - the euro

This first chapter looks at respondents‟ awareness of the euro and their familiarity with the currency.

1.1. Citizens’ awareness of the euro’s introduction and of the euro area

1.1.1. Awareness of current euro area countries
When asked about the number of countries already in the euro area, roughly a quarter of
respondents (27%) knew the correct answer: 16. One in three respondents thought that 13 countries
had introduced the common currency (29%), and 13% believed it was six countries. Just 5% thought
that all EU Member States had already started using the euro. A quarter of respondents did not know
how many countries have the euro as their currency (26%). The number of correct responses has
slightly decreased compared to the previous wave of May 2009.2

               Number of current euro area countries
                                                   6   13 (12)         16 (15)         27 (25)           DK/NA

                  09/2009 %NMS8         13                29                             27                 5               26


                  05/2009 %NMS8          14                29                              29                   4            24


                  05/2008 %NMS9         13                 31                              28                   4            25


                  09/2007 %NMS11         15                 29                             27                  4             25


                  04/2007 %NMS11             18                  28                           26               3            25


                 09/2006 %NMS10               21                           40                             20           3          17


                 04/2006 %NMS10               23                           38                             19          3           17


                 09/2005 %NMS10           18                          38                            16         2            26


                 09/2004 %NMS10          15                       39                               16      2               28

                                                         Q5. According to you, how many EU countries have already introduced the euro?
                                                                                       (figures in parentheses were asked in previous surveys)




Czech and Estonian respondents were the ones most often stating the correct number of EU
Member States having the euro as their currency (42%-41%). On the other hand, just approximately
one-fifth of Romanians (18%) and a quarter of Polish respondents (25%) and Bulgarians (26%) gave
the right answer.

In Poland, Romania and Hungary, fewer respondents knew the right number compared to the previous
wave of the survey (-3, -3 and -1 percentage point(s), respectively). In three countries - the Czech
Republic, Estonia and Bulgaria - the number of right answers has shown an increase, particularly so in
the Czech Republic (+5 percentage points). The results for Lithuania and Latvia have remained the
same.




2
 Even if the answering categories (the numbers of countries) were different in the various waves, the responses can be compared as the
proportion of differences in the numbers has remained similar.



                                                                                                                                                 page 7
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                    Analytical Report


     Number of current euro area countries (% correct answers: “16”)

         100

         90                                                                                                    05/2009 %NMS8             09/2009 %NMS8

         80

         70

         60

         50
                                                    42             41
                                                         39              38       38
         40                               37                                             37        36
                                                                                                          32        32
               29        27                                                                                                             28
         30                                                                                                                        26             25
                                                                                                                         24
                                                                                                                                                          21
         20                                                                                                                                                         18

          10

          0
               NMS8                            CZ          EE               LV             HU                LT           BG              PL               RO

                                                                              Q5. According to you, how many EU countries have already introduced the euro?
                                                                                                                                % of correct answers, by country




1.1.2. Expected date of the euro’s adoption

A majority of respondents (60%) expected their country to join the euro area in the next five years.
Just over a third (35%) of respondents thought that their country would join in 2011/2012, and one in
five thought this would happen in 2013/2014. However, only a few respondents thought that their
country would have adopted the euro by the end of next year (5%). About one in five (22%) did not
expect the accession to the euro area to happen until 2015 at the earliest and 2% thought that it would
never happen. About one in seven (16%) said they did not know or gave no answer.

Estonians (55%), Bulgarians (50%) and Latvians (47%) were the most positive about their
country adopting the euro by 2012 and 12% of Bulgarians expected their country to switch over to
the euro by 2010 at the latest. Romanian respondents were the least optimistic about a changeover to
the euro by 2012 (35%).

         Expected date of the euro’s adoption
                              2009-2010        2011-2012                2013-2014                  2015 or later          Never                   DK/NA
         100
                                                                                                               7
                    16                                        13                              15                              13                               13
         90                                                                                                    3                             17
                                               24                           23
                                                              2                                                               3                                2
                    2                                                                         4                                              2
         80
                                               1              15              2               12               31                                              24
          70        22                         8                                                                          24                 19
                                                                              21
         60                                                                                   15
                                               18          24
          50    20                                                                                                                        24               20
                                                                                                             22           23
                                                                              19
         40

         30                                    38                                             49
                                                           39
                    35                                                      28                               32           32              33                   39
         20

          10
                                               12             8
                    5                                                         7               6                6              5              5
          0                                                                                                                                                    2
               NMS8                        BG              LV               RO              EE               HU           CZ              LT                   PL

                                                                          Q5ter. When, in which year do you think the euro will be introduced in [ COUNTRY]?
                                                                                                                                                    % by country




page 8
Analytical Report                                                                                                       Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


On the other hand, Hungarians, Czech and Polish were the most pessimistic about their countries‟
eventual accession to the euro area. One in three Hungarian respondents expected the euro to be
adopted in 2015 at the earliest, and 3% thought it would never happen. In the Czech Republic and
Poland, a quarter of respondents had a similar opinion (that it would be adopted in 2015 at the earliest)
and 3%-2% of respondents did not foresee their countries joining the euro.

Bulgarian and Romanian respondents were the ones most likely to either not respond or say they did
know the possible accession date of their country (24% and 23%, respectively); just 7% of Hungarians
did not / would not respond.

Comparing the current results with those of the survey wave that was conducted four months before
(May 2009), respondents now have less optimism about their country joining the euro:

                 The increase in the proportion of respondents who thought their country would join the euro
                  area at the earliest in 2013-2014 ranged from 3 percentage points in Estonia (15% vs. 12%) to
                  10 percentage points in Bulgaria (18% vs. 8%).

                 The most drastic increase in respondents who expected an accession date of 2015 or later was
                  seen in Poland, where their share has doubled from 12% to 24%. In Bulgaria, and Estonia,
                  however, there was only a slight increase (+1 and +2 points, respectively).

                 The drop in respondents expecting their country to adopt the euro by the end of 2012 was most
                  visible in Poland (-18 percentage points from 59% to 41%)

                 Decreases in the proportion of respondents who expected the euro to be adopted by the end of
                  2010 were seen in Lithuania (-7 percentage points), the Czech Republic and Estonia (both -6
                  points). In Romania (7%, -1 point) and Hungary (6%, -1 point), however, there was little
                  change in the proportions expecting the euro to be introduced by the end of next year.


    Expected date of the euro’s adoption
                                                                                                                    Up till 2008                                  27
                                                                                                                                                                  15
                                                                                                                                                         2009-20102
                                                                                                                                                                  34
                                                                                                                                                                                      2011-2012                         2013-2014            2015 or later                           Never

                  CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                     ESTONIA                                                                    HUNGARY                                                                   LATVIA
        8                                                                       01
                                                                                 2         2
                                                                                           0                                                                 9                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1         3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1         7
         1        11        16        15                                                   3          5                             10                                           17                                                 4         7                  10                   12
                  2                             19                              14                    1        10        13                    12            4        17                  19                                                            4         5        16                    15
        12                                                26         24                                                                                                                             24        27
                              7        6                                                             16         5                   12                                                                                    31
                  21                                                                                                      9                     15          21                  10                                                 29                  19                  12         19
                                                12                                        35                                                                          15                    9                                                                    24                              24
                                                                                                                                                                                                    13                                       38
                                                          17                                                  29                                                                                              16
                            31        31                             23                                                                                                         32                                       22
                                                                                                                         35                                           31                  28                                                                               32
        58                                      35                                                                                  48
                                                                                71                  50                                                                                              34                                                 43                             44
                  46                                                                                                                           49           51                                                                                                   40                              39
                                                          32                                                                                                                                                  39                   51
                                                                     32                   44                                                                                                                             32                  36
                            30        31                                                                       31                                                     22        31        30
                                                                                                                         21                                                                                                                                                26
                                                19                                                                                                                                                  18                                                 13         9                   12
        12         8                                       11                                         7                             12           6            7        4                                        7          6                                                                      8
                              1         1       0                     5                                         3         0                                                       2         1                                                                               0
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                            LITHUANIA                                                                 POLAND                                                                    BULGARIA                                                               ROMANIA
        01         1
                   0
                   5                                                             8                                                                                                         3
        10                    5         6                                                 10        12        10                   12                                            5         1         5                     8                             8        10
                              3         4        14        15         19         2                                       11                                                                          4         7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16         18
                                                                                           2                   5                              24                                 9        13                                                                                                      21
                                                                                                    4                    7                                                                                     8         18                             11         8
                             17        18         8                             18                                                 14                                                               19
                                                           15                             19                                                                                                                                                                                11
                  40
                                                                      24                            23                                        20                                                                                                        16        19
                                                                                                              39                                                                                                                                                                       26         19
                                                 29                                                                                                                                                           35
        72                                                                                                               49                                                     50                                                                                          23
                                                                                35        35                                                                                              53                             38
                            47        48                   34                                                                      55
                                                                                                                                                                                                    42                                                 30         31                              28
                                                                      33                            30                                        39                                                                                                                                       27
                  36                                                                                          26
                                                 28                                                                                                                                                                                                                         21
                                                                                15        13                             15                                                                                   16
                                                           12                                                                                                                    8                                       12                              8         8                    8           7
                              4         4                               5                            4          1        0          4          2                                           5         0                                                                        1
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                                                                                                                                                Q5ter. When, in which year do you think the euro will be introduced in [COUNTRY]?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         % by country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            page 9
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                        Analytical Report




1.1.3. Can new Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro?

As in the previous wave, the majority of the surveyed countries’ citizens believed that their nation
had a choice as to whether it adopted the euro, even if the Accession Treaty obliges all new
Member States to join the euro area. Indeed, more than 6 in 10 respondents (63%) held this opinion
and only 3 in 10 (29%) had an opposite view.

               Can Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro?
                                                      Yes                      No                    DK/NA

                09/2009 %NMS8                              63                                                     29              8


                05/2009 %NMS8                             62                                                  29                  9


                05/2008 %NMS9                               65                                                    27              8


                09/2007 %NMS11                            62                                                  29                  8


                04/2007 %NMS11                             64                                                     28              8


                09/2006 %NMS10                                 67                                                  26                 7


                04/2006 %NMS10                                 69                                                      26             5


                09/2005 %NMS10                        58                                                 30                      11


                09/2004 %NMS10                        57                                                 33                      10


                                                                    Q5bis. Can [COUNTRY] choose whether or not to introduce the euro?




Awareness of their country‟s legal obligation was the highest in Hungary (43%), the Czech Republic
(42%) and Bulgaria (41%), where more than 4 in 10 respondents gave the correct answer. On the
other hand, only one-fifth of Polish respondents and a quarter of Romanians were aware of this (21%
and 24%, respectively).

      Can Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro? % of correct („NO”) answers

      100

          90                                                                                   05/2009 %NMS8                09/2009 %NMS8

          80

          70

          60
                          51                                             51
          50
                                 43   43        42             41                  39
                                                     39                                   38
          40                                                                                        36
                                                                                                             32        34
               29   29
          30
                                                                                                                            23        24
                                                                                                                                                       21
          20                                                                                                                                 17

          10

          0
                NMS8           HU          CZ             BG                  LV               LT                 EE             RO               PL

                                                                              Q5bis. Can (OUR COUNTRY) choose whether or not to introduce the euro?
                                                                                                                  % of correct answers (NO), by country




page 10
Analytical Report                                            Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


While, on average across those countries not yet in the euro area, the knowledge on this topic has
remained stable since May 2009 (29%), Hungary and Latvia both experienced a considerable drop in
informed respondents. Indeed, while in May 2009 about half of respondents knew about the legal
obligation in those countries, these figures dropped to 43% in Hungary (-8 percentage points) and 39%
in Latvia (-12 points). In Romania (+1 percentage point), Bulgaria and Estonia (+2 points), and
particularly in Poland (+4 points), on the other hand, the share of knowledgeable people has slightly
increased.


1.1.4. Knowledge of euro banknotes
Less than half of the respondents in the NMS8 were aware that euro banknotes looked exactly
the same in all Member States (46%). The number of respondents who knew the right answer has
fallen by four percentage points since May 2009. Approximately a third of citizens (32%) thought that
euro banknotes had partly different designs from country to country, and a significant proportion
either did not know the answer or did not reply (22%).

              Familiarity with the design of euro banknotes:
              the euro banknotes look exactly the same in all countries that use the euro

                09/2009 %NMS8                                                                                               46


                05/2009 %NMS8                                                                                                       50


                05/2008 %NMS9                                                                                                          52


                09/2007 %NMS11                                                                                                   49


                04/2007 %NMS11                                                                                                    50


                09/2006 %NMS10                                                                                            45


                04/2006 %NMS10                                                                                             46


                09/2005 %NMS10                                                                                                                56


                09/2004 %NMS10                                                                                                                      59

                                                         2006-2009: Q3. And what do you think, which of the following statements is correct?
                        The euro banknotes look exactly the same in all countries / have partly different designs from country to country/ that use the euro

                                  2004-2005: Q15. According to you, do the euro banknotes look the same in all countries of the euro area?
                                                                                                                           Yes /No /DK/NA




Romania (61%), Estonia (56%) and the Czech Republic (51%) were the only countries where a
majority of respondents knew that euro banknotes looked exactly the same in all countries of the
euro area. In Lithuania (49%) and Latvia (45%), slightly less than half of respondents gave the right
answer, and in Bulgaria (41%), Poland and Hungary (both 38%), approximately 4 in 10 interviewees
did so.

Hungary, however, was the only country where the number of respondents who gave the wrong
answer outnumbered those who gave the right answer (44% vs. 38%); in Poland, the proportions were
equal (both 38%). Across all eight countries, the rate of people saying they did not know was high:
ranging from 11% in the Czech Republic to 33% in Bulgaria.

In several countries – particularly in those that were more knowledgeable about the euro banknotes -
there was a considerable drop in the proportion of those that knew that those banknotes looked exactly
the same in all countries of the euro area: in Romania, the proportion decreased by 10 percentage



                                                                                                                                                               page 11
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                    Analytical Report


points, in the Czech Republic by nine and in Lithuania and Latvia by eight percentage points. In
Poland, this drop was less pronounced (-3 percentage points). In Hungary (+1 point), Bulgaria (+4
points) and Estonia (+6 points), on the other hand, the share of respondents who knew about the
design of banknotes has increased, even if only slightly in the case of Hungary.

           Familiarity with the design of euro:
           euro banknotes look exactly the same in all countries of the euro area
      100

          90                                                                                                          05/2009 %NMS8                    09/2009 %NMS8

          80
                                            71
          70
                                                   61                          60
          60                                                         56                          57
                                                                                        51                         53
               50                                            50                                          49
          50        46                                                                                                     45
                                                                                                                                             41          41
          40                                                                                                                           37                         38      37   38

          30

          20

          10

          0
               NMS8                            RO                EE                CZ                 LT               LV                BG                   PL            HU

                                                                                                      Q3. What do you think, which of the following statements is correct?
                                                                                                                                                             % by country




1.1.5. Familiarity with the design of euro coins
As in the previous waves of the survey, respondents were less familiar with the design of euro
coins than with the design of euro banknotes: While 46% of respondents knew that banknotes had
the same design in all of the euro-area Member States, only 37% said, correctly, that euro coins had a
slightly different design from country to country. Half of the interviewed NMS8 citizens were of the
opinion that euro coins looked the same everywhere (51%) and a quarter did not know about
differences in design.
                         Familiarity with the design of euro coins:
                         the euro coins have partly different designs from country to country

                          09/2009 %NMS8                                                                                                            37


                          05/2009 %NMS8                                                                                                     34


                          05/2008 %NMS9                                                                                             31


                          09/2007 %NMS11                                                                                               33


                          04/2007 %NMS11                                                                                          31


                         09/2006 %NMS10                                                                                                             37


                         04/2006 %NMS10                                                                                                            37


                         09/2005 %NMS10                                                                                     28


                         09/2004 %NMS10                                                                                          30


                                                           2006-2009: Q4. And what do you think, which of the following statements is correct?
                              The euro coins look exactly the same in all countries- / have partly different designs from country to country/ that use the euro

                                          2004-2005: Q16. According to you, do the euro coins look the same in all countries of the euro area?
                                                                                                                               Yes /No /DK/NA




page 12
Analytical Report                                                                                        Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


However, the share of respondents who knew that euro coins had different designs from country to
country has increased since the past wave in May 2009: from 34% in May 2009 to 37% in September
2009.

Estonia was the only country where a majority of respondents knew that the design of euro coins
varied somewhat from country to country. In Hungary (49%) and the Czech Republic (47%),
slightly less than half of respondents gave the correct answer, as did approximately 4 in 10
interviewees in Lithuania (42%), Latvia and Poland (both 41%) and Bulgaria (38%). Romania was an
outlier here, with less than one in five respondents who gave the right answer (18%).

In most NMS8 countries, there has been an increase in the share of respondents giving the right
answer: ranging from one percentage point in Estonia to seven points in Lithuania. Only Hungary (-1
percentage point) and Latvia (-3) showed a decrease in the proportion of knowledgeable respondents.
The share of citizens not knowing the answer - or not responding - was quite significant across all
NMS8 countries (ranging from 12% in the Czech Republic to an extremely high 35% in Bulgaria).

                                         Familiarity with the design of euro:
                                         the euro coins have partly different designs from country to country
                                         100

                                         90
                                                                                                                                          05/2009 %NMS8               09/2009 %NMS8

                                         80

                                         70

                                         60
                                                                              51     52
                                                                                            50      49
                                         50                                                                           47
                                                                                                                                 42     44
                                                                                                            41                                  41              41
                                         40             37                                                                                             38                    38
                                                   34                                                                      35                                          34
                                         30

                                         20                                                                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                                                                                                      15

                                          10

                                          0
                                                   NMS8                            EE          HU                CZ             LT         LV              PL             BG             RO

                                                                                                                            Q4. What do you think, which of the following statements is correct?
                                                                                                                                                                                   % by country


 As in previous surveys, Estonia was the only country where a majority of respondents gave the
                                                 right answer concerning both euro banknotes
The design of the euro money                     (56%) and coins (52%). In most countries,
    60                                           respondents were either more informed about the
“COINS HAVE A PARTLY DIFFERENT DESIGN”




                                                 design of coins, e.g. Hungary (49%) or banknotes,
                                   EE
    50                                           e.g. the Czech Republic (51%), Lithuania (49%)
                     HU         CZ
                                                 and Latvia (45%). A striking difference, however,
                      PL   LV LT
    40                                           was again seen in Romania, where respondents
                        BG
                                                 were the most frequently familiar with the design
    30
                                                 of banknotes (61%), while they were the least
                                                 familiar with the features of euro coins (18%). An
    20
                                                 opposite observation can be made for Hungarians:
                                      RO
                                                 half of respondents said they were informed about
    10
                                                 the differing design of coins (49%), but only 38%
                                                 gave the correct answer concerning banknotes.
                                          0
                                              20         30           40            50         60            70

                                                                “BANKNOTES LOOK EXACTLY THE SAME”
                                                                                                                           As in May 2009, Bulgarians were the least
                                                              Q3-Q4. What do you think, which of the following
                                                                                                                           informed about the design of the euro:
                                                                                        statements is correct?
                                                                                                   % by country




                                                                                                                                                                                                   page 13
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                          Analytical Report


approximately 4 in 10 gave the right answer concerning banknotes (41%) and coins (38%);
furthermore, a third gave no response concerning the banknotes (33%) and a similar number for the
coins (35%). Concerning both types of money, the Czechs stood out with a low share of respondents
who did not know how or what to answer (11% euro banknotes, 12% coins).


1.2. Experience with euro cash

1.2.1. Euro banknotes
Similar to May 2009, 81% of respondents in the surveyed countries indicated that they had seen euro
banknotes. The number of those who had already used the euro has remained stable - 55% in both
May and September 2009.

                   Seen and used euro banknotes
                                         Seen   Used

                                                                                                      81
                   09/2009 %NMS8
                                                                           55

                                                                                                       82
                   05/2009 %NMS8
                                                                           55

                                                                                                        82
                   05/2008 %NMS9
                                                                         53

                                                                                                   79
                  09/2007 %NMS11
                                                                      50

                                                                                                 77
                  04/2007 %NMS11
                                                                    48

                                                                                                 77
                  09/2006 %NMS10
                                                                 45

                                                                                                      80
                  04/2006 %NMS10
                                                                 45

                                                           Q1a. Have you already seen euro banknotes?
                                                          Q2a. Have you already used euro banknotes ?
                                                                                       %, all respondents



Across all NMS8 countries, citizens were more likely to have seen euro banknotes than to have
actually used them. Respondents in Estonia and the Czech Republic were the ones most familiar
with the euro. Indeed, in both countries, just a little fewer than 9 in 10 respondents (87% and 86%,
respectively) said they had seen euros and 69% and 63%, respectively, had actually used them. In
Romania and Poland, as well, an overwhelming majority (83%) had seen euro banknotes. In Romania,
the usage rate of euro banknotes was as high as in Estonia (63%), while in Poland, only half of the
respondents had used the banknotes (51%).

On the other hand, Hungarians, Bulgarians and Lithuanians were the least likely to have seen or used
euro banknotes. Around three-quarters of citizens said they had seen those banknotes (73%, 75% and
75%, respectively), and slightly less than half had (48%, 48% and 46%, respectively) actually used
euro banknotes.

The most significant increases – since May 2009 - have occurred in the Czech Republic: familiarity
with euro banknotes has increased by nine percentage points, to 86%, and usage has increased by six




page 14
Analytical Report                                                                                  Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


percentage points, to 69%. In Romania, however, the share of those who said they had seen and/or
used euro banknotes has dropped3, from 87% to 83% and from 68% to 63%, respectively.
In the other countries, the number of those who had seen and/or used euro banknotes has either
remained stable or changed slightly. In Bulgaria, for example, the share of respondents who had seen
euro banknotes has increased by one percentage point (from 74% to 75%) and of those who had used
such notes by two percentage points (from 46% to 48%).

                            Seen and used euro banknotes                                                                                                                   Seen                                          Used

                                       CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                    ESTONIA                                                                HUNGARY
                             83 83 83 80 86 77 86                                                    77 82 79 82 79 88 87                                                   71 69 79 77 79 74 73

                                               69
                             62 56 62 59 66 63                                                                                                         63 63
                                                                                                     51 50 46 53 52                                                                        49 48
                                                                                                                                                                            42 40 48 46 47
                             04/2006
                                       09/2006
                                                 04/2007
                                                           09/2007
                                                                     05/2008
                                                                               05/2009
                                                                                         09/2009



                                                                                                     04/2006
                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009



                                                                                                                                                                            04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009
                                   LITHUANIA                                                                LATVIA                                                                              POLAND
                             74 74 73 75 75 75 75                                                    77 69 71 75 78 79 81                                                   82 78 74 82 84 85 83


                                                                                                                    54 55                                                            48 47 50 51
                                         42 44 46                                                    42 37 40 48 47                                                         40 42 40
                             35 35 38 39




                                                                                                                                                                            04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009
                             04/2006
                                       09/2006
                                                 04/2007
                                                           09/2007
                                                                     05/2008
                                                                               05/2009
                                                                                         09/2009


                                                                                                     04/2006
                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                                 BULGARIA                                                                ROMANIA
                                                          74 75                                                          83 79 85 87 83
                                                 66 71 72

                                                                                                                         63 57 67 68 63
                                                                     46 46 48
                                                 37 39
                                                                                                                                                                               Q1a. Have you already seen
                                                                                                                                                                                           euro banknotes?
                                                                                                                                                                               Q2a. Have you already used
                             04/2006
                                       09/2006
                                                 04/2007
                                                           09/2007
                                                                     05/2008
                                                                               05/2009
                                                                                         09/2009


                                                                                                     04/2006
                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                          euro banknotes ?
                                                                                                                                                                                % all respondents, by country




1.2.2. Euro coins
This survey wave showed once again that euro coins are - in general - less known and less widely
used than euro banknotes in the NMS8. Just a few more respondents than - in May 2009 - had seen
(76%, + 2 percentage points) and used euro coins (49%, + 1 point).

Familiarity with euro coins was the highest in the Czech Republic (86%), Estonia (81%) and Poland
(79%), where about 8 in 10 respondents or more said they had seen those coins; 7 in 10 Czech
respondents had actually used euro coins (69%), as had 58% of Estonian respondents and nearly half
of Polish (48%) interviewees. Lithuanian respondents were among those who were the least familiar
with euro coins: two-thirds had seen euro coins and 4 in 10 had used them.

In the remaining NMS8 countries, approximately 7 in 10 respondents had used the coins: Latvia
(69%), Bulgaria and Romania (both 70%) and Hungary (72%). Among those countries, usage of the
coins was most widespread in Hungary and Romania (47% in both). In Latvia and Bulgaria, the
respective figures were 44% and 43%.




3
 While any decrease in such a measure might seem illogical (as the question inquires about any past use of the currency and therefore one
might expect an ever-increasing figure for such an indicator), a certain “memory effect” plays a role when such questions are answered. It
might be the case that someone still remembers that they used the euro during last years‟ vacation, but they would no longer remember such
an event three years later.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  page 15
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                                                                              Analytical Report


                   Seen and used euro coins
                                                                                       Seen             Used

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      76
                    09/2009 %NMS8
                                                                                                                                                                          49

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               74
                    05/2009 %NMS8
                                                                                                                                                                         48

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                74
                    05/2008 %NMS9
                                                                                                                                                                     47

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            72
                   09/2007 %NMS11
                                                                                                                                                                    44

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  68
                   04/2007 %NMS11
                                                                                                                                                          41

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       70
                   09/2006 %NMS10
                                                                                                                                                          41

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      75
                   04/2006 %NMS10
                                                                                                                                                          41

                                                                                                                                                   Q1b. Have you already seen euro coins?
                                                                                                                                                  Q2b. Have you already used euro coins ?
                                                                                                                                                                          % all respondents

As with banknotes, the Czech Republic saw a steep increase in familiarity with euro coins. Indeed, the
share of respondents who had seen those coins has increased by 10 percentage points (to 86%) and of
those who had used them by eight points (to 69%).

In Lithuania and Latvia, both the share of those who had seen and used euro coins has increased by
three percentage points. In Lithuania, for example, the number of those who had seen euro coins has
risen to 66% and of those who had used them to 40%. In Bulgaria, the share of those who had seen
euro coins has increased by four points (to 70%) and those who had used the coins by three points (to
43%). Stable results or only slight changes were observed in Poland (seen: no change, used: + 1
percentage point) and Romania (seen: + 1 point, used: - 1 point), while in Estonia and Hungary,
familiarity with euro coins has slightly decreased (seen: - 2 points in Estonia and -1 point in Hungary;
used: -1 point in both countries).

                     Seen and used euro coins                                                                                                                            Seen                                        Used

                                 CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                    ESTONIA                                                                    HUNGARY
                     78 78 80 80 81 76 86                                                     73 76 74 72 71 83 81                                                        70                  77 74 75 73 72
                                                                                                                                                                                    63

                                 65 61 69
                     58 54 61 60                                                                                                                59 58
                                                                                              46 46 40 46 47                                                                                  47 45 46 48 47
                                                                                                                                                                          40 37
                     04/2006

                               09/2006

                                         04/2007

                                                   09/2007

                                                             05/2008

                                                                       05/2009

                                                                                 09/2009


                                                                                              04/2006
                                                                                                        09/2006
                                                                                                                  04/2007
                                                                                                                            09/2007
                                                                                                                                      05/2008
                                                                                                                                                05/2009
                                                                                                                                                          09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       09/2009




                                         LITHUANIA                                                                   LATVIA                                                                    POLAND
                                                                                                                                                                          77 70 68 78 78 79 79
                     61        59        57
                                                   66        67        63        66           63        61 56 61                      63 66 69


                                                                                                                                            44                                     45 46 47 48
                                     35                      36        37        40
                                                                                              32
                                                                                                                            39        36 41                               37 39 35
                     29        28 31                                                                    27 31
                     04/2006

                               09/2006

                                         04/2007

                                                   09/2007

                                                             05/2008

                                                                       05/2009

                                                                                 09/2009


                                                                                              04/2006

                                                                                                        09/2006

                                                                                                                  04/2007

                                                                                                                            09/2007

                                                                                                                                      05/2008

                                                                                                                                                05/2009

                                                                                                                                                          09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       09/2009




                                         BULGARIA                                                                 ROMANIA
                                                                                                                              70
                                               63 66 70                                                           63 64 69 69
                                         56 62


                                               39 40 43                                                           43 39 45 48 47
                                         29 33                                                                                                                                 Q1b. Have you already seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                euro coins?
                                                                                                                                                                               Q2b. Have you already used
                     04/2006

                               09/2006

                                         04/2007

                                                   09/2007

                                                             05/2008

                                                                       05/2009

                                                                                 09/2009


                                                                                              04/2006

                                                                                                        09/2006

                                                                                                                  04/2007

                                                                                                                            09/2007

                                                                                                                                      05/2008

                                                                                                                                                05/2009

                                                                                                                                                          09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                euro coins?
                                                                                                                                                                                % all respondents, by country




page 16
Analytical Report                                 Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



1.3. Where do people use the euro?

As was seen in previous waves, payments with the euro in foreign countries were reported to be
more widespread than those made with the euro at home: over half of respondents had only used
euro banknotes abroad (55%), nearly two-thirds (64%) had only used coins outside of their own
borders and about one in five had used euros both at home and abroad (banknotes: 23%, coins: 21%);
in addition, 22% had only used banknotes in their home country and 15% had only used euro coins at
home.

The proportion of respondents only using the euro in foreign countries has increased since the past
wave of the survey (+5 points to 55% for banknotes, +4 points to 64% for coins). The proportion of
respondents who said they had used euro banknotes and coins in both their country and abroad, on the
other hand, saw a slight decrease (banknotes: 23%, -2 points; coins: 21%, -3 points), as did the use of
banknotes limited to respondents‟ home countries (22%, -3 percentage points). The use of coins
exclusively in their home countries, however, remained stable at 15%.

             Where do people use the euro ...?
                                       Banknotes                                                                 Coins

             09/2009 %NMS8    22           55             23                09/2009 %NMS8             15              64                21

             05/2009 %NMS8    25           50             25                05/2009 %NMS8             15             60                24


             05/2008 %NMS9    24           50             25                05/2008 %NMS9             16             60                23


            09/2007 %NMS11    24           51             24               09/2007 %NMS11             16              61               23


            04/2007 %NMS11        29        50            21               04/2007 %NMS11              19              61               19


            09/2006 %NMS10   15           66              20               09/2006 %NMS10            11               70                19


            04/2006 %NMS10   13           67              20               04/2006 %NMS10            9               71                 19


                                           In [country]        Abroad           In [country] and abroad

                                                           Q2bis. /Q2ter. You said you already used euro banknotes/coins. Was it ..?
                                                                                    Base: those, who have already used euro banknotes/coins




A closer review of country level results showed considerable differences in the usage of euro
banknotes and coins between individual countries.

In three NMS8 countries (Estonia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary), over all survey waves a wide
gap between a large majority who had only used the euro only abroad compared to a minority
who had also used them at home was observed. Indeed, in the current wave we saw in the Czech
Republic a gap of 70 percentage points for banknotes and 71 points for coins, in Estonia of 61 for
banknotes and 71 for coins, and in Hungary of 38 percentage points for banknotes and 42 for coins. In
Estonia, for example, 80% of respondents had used banknotes only in a foreign country, while 19%
had used them also at home.

In Lithuania, Latvia and Poland we can see different behaviours regarding banknotes and coins.
Concerning coins, findings are similar to the aforementioned, even if results varied more importantly
across the different survey waves: In the current wave, a large majority (70% in Latvia, 73% in Poland
and 74% in Lithuania) had used the coins only abroad and between a quarter (in Lithuania) and one in
three (in Latvia) have used them also in their home countries. Concerning banknotes it holds also true
that the majority of respondents had used them only abroad, while only a minority had used them also
at home. However, the gap between those two spending behaviours was smaller. In Latvia, for



                                                                                                                                              page 17
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Analytical Report


example, this gap was 14 percentage points for banknotes (57% of respondents had used the banknotes
only abroad, while 43% had used them also at home).

                                Where do people use the euro banknotes?
                                              Abroad only                                                               In COUNTRY (as well)

                                           CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                                    ESTONIA                                                                                                                      HUNGARY
                                                                                                                                                    71 77 77 74 77 78 81 87 80                                                                                                   74 76 69 76 76 70 72 74 69
                 86 86 83 80 82 82 82 82 85

                          21 17 18 17 18 15
                                                                                                                                                    29 23 23 25 23
                                                                                                                                                                   21 19                                                                                                         26 24 32 23 23 29 27 26 31
                 14 14 16                                                                                                                                                14 19




                                                                                                                                                    9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9/2009
                  9/2004
                                9/2005
                                              4/2006
                                                            9/2006
                                                                          4/2007
                                                                                        9/2007
                                                                                                      5/2008
                                                                                                                    5/2009
                                                                                                                                  9/2009                                                                                                                                                                                POLAND
                                                       LITHUANIA                                                                                                                                  LATVIA

                             64 58 58                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    65
                       61 61             61
                                                                                                                                                          55 57 56 61 59 56 57                                                                                                         57 56 56 57 56 61
                 47 59                50                                                                                                            48 53                                                                                                                        48 55

                 51                            50                                                                                                   52 47                                                                                                                        52 45 43 44
                             40 40 38                                                                                                                     44 43 44 39 41 43 43                                                                                                               44 43 43 39
                                      36 42 42    38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     35




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9/2009
                  9/2004
                                9/2005
                                              4/2006
                                                            9/2006
                                                                          4/2007
                                                                                        9/2007
                                                                                                      5/2008
                                                                                                                    5/2009
                                                                                                                                  9/2009


                                                                                                                                                    9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2009
                                                        BULGARIA                                                                                                                            ROMANIA

                                                                        63 69 61 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                       87 87 86 88 84
                                                                                                                                50

                                                                                                                                50                                                                     13 13 14 11 16
                                                                        38                          38 39                                                                                                                                                                                   Q2bis. You said you already
                                                                                      30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    used euro banknotes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Was it ..?
                  9/2004
                                9/2005
                                              4/2006
                                                            9/2006
                                                                         4/2007
                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                     5/2008
                                                                                                                   5/2009
                                                                                                                                 9/2009


                                                                                                                                                    9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                           4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Base: those, who have already used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               euro banknotes, % by country




                                     Where do people use the euro coins?
                                                  Abroad only                                                                   In COUNTRY (as well)
                                             CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                                                                       ESTONIA                                                                                    HUNGARY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 78 71 76 75 73 72 76 71
                     86 89 82 83 84 82 82 84 85                                                                                                                             91 85
                                                                                                                                                                   83 86 87
                                                                                                                                                       74 79 79 76
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            29
                                                                                                                                                       26 21
                                                                                                                                                             18 23 17 13 13                                                                                                         22 21 28 23 20 26 27 24
                     12 11 17 17 15 18 17 15 14                                                                                                                              9 14
                      9/2004
                                    9/2005
                                                  4/2006
                                                                9/2006
                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                            9/2007
                                                                                                          5/2008
                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                      9/2009


                                                                                                                                                         9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                       9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                    4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             9/2009




                                                    LITHUANIA                                                                                                     LATVIA                                                                                                                                        POLAND
                                                  70 76 76 64       74
                                                                                                                                                            66 70 64 66
                                                                                                                                                                        74
                                                                                                                                                                              66 70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               73
                     57 51                                    58 62                                                                                      56                59                                                                                                                                61 62 65 65 63 68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   52 50


                     42 48                                                                                                                               44                                                                                                                        47 49
                                                  30                                        36 42 38                                                                   33 29 36 33
                                                                                                                                                                                      41
                                                                                                                                                                                         34 30                                                                                                               38 38 35 35 36 32
                                                                23 23                                                                 25                                           26                                                                                                                                          27
                      9/2004
                                    9/2005
                                                  4/2006
                                                                9/2006
                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                            9/2007
                                                                                                          5/2008
                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                      9/2009



                                                                                                                                                             9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                           9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                         4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             9/2009




                                                           BULGARIA                                                                                                                               ROMANIA


                                                                              55 59 49 55 55
                                                                                                                                                                                                               74 74 73 73 73

                                                                              44 39 49 43 44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Q2ter. You said you already
                                                                                                                                                                                                               25 25 26 24 27                                                                             used euro coins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Was it ..?
                                                                                                                                                             9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                       9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                     4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9/2009
                           9/2004
                                         9/2005
                                                       4/2006
                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                   4/2007
                                                                                                 9/2007
                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                             5/2009
                                                                                                                                           9/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Base: those, who have already used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    euro coins, % by country




In Bulgaria, banknotes were as often used at home as only abroad (50% vs. 50%), while coins were
more often only used abroad than within the country’s territory (55% vs. 44%). These findings are due
to a significant increase in the specific usage of banknotes (+11 points) and coins (+12 points) abroad,


page 18
Analytical Report                       Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


while the share of those who had also used euros at home had decreased by a similar number (-10
percentage points, and -11, respectively).

Finally, Romanians differed significantly from the other NMS8 citizens in their use of the euro. It
was the only country where respondents were more likely to have used both euro banknotes and coins
in their home country as well as abroad rather than having just used them abroad. In Romania, 84% of
respondents said they had used euro banknotes in their home country (-4 percentage points) and 73%
said they have done the same in regard to euro coins; 16% of respondents had only used euro
banknotes abroad (+5 points) and 27% had only used euro coins outside of Romania (+3 points).


1.4. Socio-demographic segments: awareness and experience of the euro

Some clear patterns appeared when analysing the awareness of - and experience with - the euro
according to different socio-demographic groups. In most of the cases, these patterns have been stable
throughout the various waves of the survey.

In general, men, younger respondents, highly-educated citizens and those still in education, self-
employed, employees and people from large cities said they had more experience and a better
knowledge of the euro than women, older respondents (aged 55+), those with less education, those not
working, manual workers and respondents from rural areas.

Regarding those respondents who had both seen and used euro banknotes and coins, this patterns fits
perfectly, except for slight variations dependent on age: while 15-39 year-old respondents were most
likely to have seen both euro banknotes and coins, those aged 25-54 were the most likely to have used
both euro banknotes and coins.

A similar pattern was observed concerning the awareness that euro coins have partially different
designs from country to country: men, 15-24 year-olds, those with high levels of education, people
from metropolitan zones and the self-employed and employees were the ones most informed about this
aspect of the currency. Concerning banknotes, however, differences showed the same trend but were
less pronounced. For example, respondents aged 15-54 did not differ in their knowledge, as it was
only members of the oldest age group who were less likely to know that euro banknotes had the same
design everywhere. As an exception to the rule, the correct answer (regarding the banknote design)
was most often given by manual workers (54% vs. 42%-51% of other occupational groups).

Furthermore, regarding questions about the number of countries that had already joined the euro area
- the socio-demographic categories most likely to give a correct response were men, 15-24 year-olds,
those from metropolitan zones and urban areas, those with the highest level of education,employees
and manual workers. For example, 29% of the self-employed, 31% of employees and 26% of manual
workers and those without paid work knew that the euro area consisted of 16 countries.

A similar pattern existed in regard to the knowledge about the possibility of choice with regard to the
adoption of the common currency with the exception that it was 25-54 year-olds, in particular, who
knew that the NMS8 countries did not have a choice about joining the euro area: 31% of 25-39 year-
olds and 32% of 40-54 year-olds were aware of this obligation, compared to 22% of 15-24 year-olds
and 29% of those aged 55+.

A demographic breakdown for responses to each question in this survey is included in the annex tables
attached to this report. Regarding the aforementioned questions, please see annex tables 1-10.




                                                                                                   page 19
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                               Analytical Report



2. Informing citizens about the euro

This chapter analyses the degree to which NMS8 citizens feel informed about the euro, their preferred
- and most used - information channels, the kind of information they would like to have and when they
would like to receive such information.


2.1. Level, channels and content of information

2.1.1. Self-perceived level of information
Overall in the NMS8, a majority of citizens did not feel informed about the euro (59%). Indeed,
43% said they were not very well informed, and 16% did not feel informed at all. Four in 10
respondents felt informed, and 6% few citizens felt very well informed.

Compared to the previous wave, the level of self-perceived euro-related knowledge has slightly
decreased: fewer citizens (6% vs. 8%, -2 percentage points) now said that they were very well
informed, while the share of those who said they were not well informed at all has increased by two
percentage points (from 14% to 16%).

                    Evolution of self-perceived information level regarding the euro, %

                            Very well           Rather well        Not very well        Not at all             DK/NA
                            informed            informed           informed             well informed

                    09/2009 %NMS8       6                  34                               43                     16         1


                     05/2009 %NMS8          8                 34                              43                    14        1


                     05/2008 %NMS9      6                  33                            42                        17         1


                    09/2007 %NMS11          7               34                              41                     16         2


                    04/2007 %NMS11      5                  32                            44                        17         2


                    09/2006 %NMS10      5                  35                               42                     16         2


                    04/2006 %NMS10      5               32                              43                        18          2


                    09/2005 %NMS10      3             29                               51                           16        1


                    09/2004 %NMS10      3             31                               48                          16         2

                                                      Q6. To what extent do you feel informed about the euro? Do you feel…:




In most NMS8 countries, respondents who felt not very well or not well informed at all outnumbered
those who felt well or rather well informed. The only exception was the Czech Republic, where a
slight majority of respondents felt informed (52%), compared to 45% of respondents who did not
feel informed about the euro.

Differences between most of the remaining countries were insignificant; in six other Member States,
around 6 in 10 respondents did not feel (very well or not at all well) informed (from 58% in Lithuania
to 62% in Hungary and Poland), and around 4 in 10 felt (rather or very) well informed (from 37% in
Poland to 40% in Lithuania). In Estonia, however, the gap between the uninformed and the informed
was smaller – 55% did not feel (very well or not at all) informed, while 44% felt (very or rather) well
informed.




page 20
Analytical Report                                                                                         Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


In five of the surveyed countries, the share of those who perceived themselves as uninformed, since
May 2009, has increased at the expense of those feeling informed. This was most strikingly the
case in Romania, where, in September 2009, 6 in 10 respondents said they were not very well or not at
all well informed about the euro, compared to 52% who felt that way in May 2009 (+8 percentage
points). On the other hand, roughly 4 in 10 Romanians (39%) felt very or rather well informed,
compared to almost half of respondents who did so in the wave before (47%, - 8 points).

In Latvia and Bulgaria, however, the level of self-perceived knowledge has increased: in Latvia,
the share of those who felt well informed has increased from 32% to 39% (+7 points) and in Bulgaria
from 33% to 39% (+6 points), while the percentage of those who did not feel well informed has
decreased about six percentage points from 66% to 60% in both cases.

                      Evolution of self-perceived information level regarding the euro, %
                                % of quite well and very well-informed                                                                                     % not very well and not at all informed
                                         CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                              ESTONIA                                                                           HUNGARY

                      63 67                                                                               68 65 63 62 62                                                                   65 62 66 65
                                                                                                                         57 62 54 55                                                                   56 60 62 57 62
                                         50 49 48    48 56 52
                                                  43

                                         48 48 49 55 50                                          45                                                                      45 44                                                  44 40
                                                                                        42                            37 37 37                                                                                                        37 43 38
                      33 31                                                                               30 34 36 36                                                                      34 36 34 35
                       9/2004
                                9/2005
                                          4/2006
                                                    9/2006
                                                             4/2007
                                                                      9/2007
                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                 9/2009


                                                                                                          9/2004
                                                                                                                   9/2005
                                                                                                                            4/2006
                                                                                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                           9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9/2009
                                                   LITHUANIA                                                                         LATVIA                                                                             POLAND
                      68 69                                                                               72 71 68 73 72 68
                                                                                                                            65 66 60                                                       64 69 65 61 67    66 60 62
                                         56 54 54 50 54 56 58                                                                                                                                             58


                                                  49 44
                                         42 44 44       39 40                                                               34 32 39                                                       35 31 32 37 31 40 33 39 37
                      31 31                                                                               27 28 31 27 28 32
                       9/2004
                                9/2005
                                          4/2006
                                                    9/2006
                                                             4/2007
                                                                      9/2007
                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                 9/2009


                                                                                                          9/2004
                                                                                                                   9/2005
                                                                                                                            4/2006
                                                                                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                           9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9/2009
                                                   BULGARIA                                                                          ROMANIA

                                                             68 68                      66
                                                                               60                60                                           59 56 56    60
                                                                                                                                                       52

                                                                                                                                                       47
                                                                               39 33 39                                                       39 43 42    39
                                                             31 31                                                                                                                                      Q6. To what extent do you
                                                                                                                                                                                                    feel informed about the euro?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Do you feel…:
                                                                                                          9/2004
                                                                                                                   9/2005
                                                                                                                            4/2006
                                                                                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2009
                       9/2004
                                9/2005
                                          4/2006
                                                    9/2006
                                                             4/2007
                                                                      9/2007
                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                 9/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      % by country




Just as in the past wave of the survey, men, 40-54 year-olds, those with higher levels of education and
the self-employed were more likely to feel well informed than their counterparts in the respective
socio-demographic categories. For further details, see annex table 12.


2.1.2. Scheduling information
As a next step, those respondents who said they did not feel well informed were asked when, i.e. at
what stage of the process, they would like to have more information about the euro and its
introduction.

As in previous years, a majority of citizens lacking proper information in the (now) NMS8 would like
to be informed about the introduction of the euro well in advance of the changeover.4 Indeed, a



4
  Due to different national target dates, it is sometimes hard to compare what the different time perspectives mean; generally, however, the
selection of the “as soon as possible” and the “a few years before” categories in most countries suggest a rather immediate need for
information on this matter.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             page 21
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                           Analytical Report


majority of respondents would like to be informed as soon as possible or at least a few years before
the introduction of the euro (57%).

Fewer respondents, however, wanted to be informed as soon as possible: this number has decreased
from 37% in May to 32% in September 2009 (-5 percentage points) and the number of those who felt
that they wanted to be informed only a few weeks before has increased from 5% to 8% (+3 points).
Nevertheless, those who still wanted to have information a few years before (i.e. well in advance) has
slightly increased from 22% to 25% (+3 points).

                       Desired timeframe for being informed about the euro
                                  As soon          A few years             A few months            A few weeks             DK/NA
                                  as possible      before                  before                  before


                        09/2009 %NMS8                   32                         25                      30                8      6


                        05/2009 %NMS8                      37                          22                       31                5 5


                        05/2008 %NMS9                      37                           25                     27              6    5


                       09/2007 %NMS11                      34                       24                       30               5     7


                       04/2007 %NMS11                  29                       26                         32                6      7


                       09/2006 %NMS10                 29                          30                          31                 5 5


                       04/2006 %NMS10                 28                         30                           33                   5 3


                                   Q7. When would you like to be informed about the introduction of euro in [COUNTRY]?
                                                                                                Base: who are not informed


The share of those who wanted to be informed as soon as possible ranged from 19% in Latvia and
20% in Hungary to 45% in Romania; this latter figure was 13 percentage points above the NMS8
citizen on average. Over a third of Latvians (35%) and Lithuanians (34%) wanted to be informed a few
years before the introduction of the euro. Relatively few Bulgarians chose this option for the adoption
of the euro (16%).
           Desired timeframe for being informed about the euro

                 As soon as possible       A few years before           A few months before                A few weeks before                DK/NA

          100                                                                                         3                                 4
                 6                                     6               5                                              7                              6
                                         10                                                           8
                                                       4                               15                             4                 11           6
          90     8                                                    10
                                          7
          80                                                                            7
                                                      28
                                         17                                                           31             31
           70    30                                                   33                                                                             34

                                                                                      33                                             44
          60
                                         21
          50                                          28
                 25                                                   21                             28
          40                                                                                                         34
                                                                                       16                                                            35
          30                                                                                                                         22
                                         45
          20
                 32                                   35              32              30             30
           10                                                                                                        24              20              19

           0
                NMS8                     RO           EE              CZ             BG              PL              LT             HU               LV

                                                                Q7. When would you like to be informed about the introduction of euro in [COUNTRY]?
                                                                                                                  Base: who are not informed, % by country



Hungarians were the respondents most liable to think that an information campaign about the euro
could wait until shortly before its introduction. Indeed, 44% of Hungarians preferred to be informed a


page 22
Analytical Report                                  Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


few months before, and 11% thought that a few weeks before would be sufficient. Romanians were the
least likely to favour information a few months before (17%), and Estonians and Lithuanians were the
least liable to opt for a campaign a few weeks before (4%).

Men, younger respondents (the 15-39 year-olds), those with a higher level of education, those living in
metropolitan areas and the self-employed and manual workers, most frequently said that they wanted
to have information on the topic as soon as possible. For further details, see annex table 13.


2.1.3. Trusted distributors of information on the euro
Trust is a key factor in the provision of information: people tend to differentiate between possible
sources based on an assessment of their trustworthiness. It is therefore essential to provide the
necessary information through channels that are widely trusted in those countries planning to adopt the
euro.

Traditionally, as previous measurements have established, national central banks are considered to be
the most trustworthy sources of information regarding the euro and issues related to the changeover.
Also in the current wave, national central banks were seen as the most trusted distributor of
information and campaigns (76%, no change). They are followed by the European Institutions, with
69% of citizens trusting them about euro-related information (no change).

Slightly fewer than half of respondents had faith in information given by the tax or fiscal
administration (47% - item not asked before) and 45% (-3 percentage points) would trust the
government, national or regional authorities and commercial banks (+1 point) for such information. A
similar number (43%) thought that consumer associations were a trustworthy source of information on
the euro (-1 point) and 39% would put that trust in journalists (-2 points).

The body that respondents had least confidence in when it came to information about the euro and its
introduction were trade unions or other professional organisations (35% ,+1 point).

               Trusted distributors of information and campaigns

                                                                                                                       76
                        National Central Bank
                                                                                                                       76
                                                                                                                 69
                        European Institutions
                                                                                                                 69
                                                                                              47
                     Tax, fiscal administration
                                                   N.A.
              Government, national or regional                                               45
                       authorities                                                             48
                                                                                             45
                            Commercial banks
                                                                                             44
                                                                                          43
                       Consumer associations
                                                                                          44                     09/2009
                                                                                       39                        %NMS8
                                   Journalists
                                                                                        41
                                                                                                                 05/2009
                    Trade unions, professional                                    35                             %NMS8
                        organisations, etc                                        34

                                          Q8. For each of the following institutions or groups, please tell me if you would
                                                   trust information they provide on the changeover to the euro, or not?
                                                                                                                  % of „trust”



With the exception of Lithuania, the central bank was - in all NMS8 countries - the institution that
respondents had most confidence in when it came to receiving correct information on the euro and its
introduction: trust ranged from 64% in Latvia to 85% in the Czech Republic.



                                                                                                                                 page 23
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                 Analytical Report


Lithuanians placed most trust in the European Institutions (68%). There, the central bank was in
second place (58%). In the other seven countries, the European Institutions were among the three most
frequently named institutions, indicating a key role for them with regard to the information and
communication processes used by the European Commission and the European Central Bank. The
share of respondents who named the European Institutions ranged from 58% of respondents in Latvia
to 76% in Romania.

Just as in previous waves, commercial banks were also among the top three most trusted sources in the
Czech Republic (in second position), Latvia and Romania (the third most trusted distributor in each
one). In Bulgaria, however, the government and authorities took over from commercial banks in third
position. In addition, in line with the findings of the previous waves, Poland was the only country
where consumer associations were among the three most trusted organisations when it came to
providing information about the euro (third place, 47%).

Most trusted distributors of information and campaign (% trust)
BG                                              CZ                                 EE

Central Bank                       75           Central Bank                 85    Central Bank                 78
European Institutions              68           Commercial banks             73    European Institutions        69
Government, authorities            59           European Institutions        72    Tax, fiscal administration   62

HU                                              LT                                 LV

Central Bank                       80           European Institutions        68    Central Bank                 64

European Institutions              72           Central Bank                 58    European Institutions        58

Tax, fiscal administration         58           Tax, fiscal administration   45    Commercial banks             41

PL                                              RO

Central Bank                       71           Central Bank                 84
European Institutions              64           European Institutions        76
Consumer associations              47           Commercial banks             59
Q8. For each of the following institutions or groups, please tell me if you would trust information they provide
on the changeover to the euro, or not?



As a general trend, 15 to 24 year-olds and those with an average or higher level of education were
more likely to say they trusted most kinds of euro information sources than the other groups. However,
exceptions did exist: journalists were, for example, most trusted by those aged 25 and older.

Men and women were as likely as each other to put trust in local governments, national central banks,
commercial banks and trade unions, while men more frequently trusted national and regional
government authorities, the European institutions, journalists and consumer associations.

Local administrations were more trusted by respondents living in rural areas; employees placed the
most trust in government, national and regional authorities, national central banks, European
institutions and commercial banks; journalists, trade unions and consumer associations were most
often trusted by manual workers. For further details, see annex table 14.




page 24
Analytical Report                                      Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




2.1.4. Preferred channels of information

Another key aspect of a successful information and communication campaign is the medium used to
reach the citizens. Respondents were asked to say how they would like to receive useful information
about the euro and the related changeover.

The sequence of the preferred channels in September was approximately the same as that seen in May
2009. The most preferred information channel was television (89%, - 1 percentage point). Regardless
of the nature of information to be conveyed, Flash Eurobarometer surveys consistently show that
television is the most preferred source of information (89%).

                    Preferred channels for information and campaigns, %

                                 On television                                                                           89
                                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                  79
                     In newspapers, magazines
                                                                                                                  79
                                                                                                                 78
                                      In banks
                                                                                                                 78
                                                                                                               76
                                  On the radio
                                                                                                                77
                                                                                                             74
                               On the Internet
                                                                                                             74
                    In schools and other places                                                        64
                     of education and training                                                         65
                                                                                                  58
                               In public places
                                                                                                       62
                                                                                                                       09/2009
                                                                                                  56
                             In your letter box                                                                        %NMS8
                                                                                                    60
                                                                                             53                        05/2009
                              In the workplace
                                                                                                  58                   %NMS8
                                                                                        47
                    In supermarkets and shops
                                                                                             52

                                            Q9. Where would you like to receive useful information on the euro and the changeover?
                                                                                                                      multiple answer




The next most preferred channels for campaigns, with approximately 8 in 10 respondents, were
newspapers and magazines (79%, unchanged), banks (78%, unchanged) and the radio (76%, -1
percentage point).

As in May 2009, three-quarters of respondents named the Internet (74%), two-thirds named schools
and other places of education and training (64%, -1 percentage point) and approximately 6 in 10 opted
for public places (58%, -4 points).

Information by “traditional” mail was requested by 56% (- 4 points) and 53% wanted to get
information at the workplace (- 5 points). A minority of respondents would like to be provided with
information material on the euro in supermarkets and shops (47%, - 5 points).

While support for most channels of information remained the same, the wish to be informed in public
places, by mail, at the workplace and in supermarkets and shops has decreased since the past wave by
4-5 percentage points.

Looking at the country level, we can see that
       Except in Estonia, television was the most preferred channel of information in all countries,
        ranging from 78% in Hungary to 96% in Poland.
       The use of banks was the most preferred channel for information and campaigns in Estonia
        (81%). They were placed second in Bulgaria (70%) and Hungary (62%) and in third place in


                                                                                                                                        page 25
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                  Analytical Report


          the Czech Republic (78%), Hungary (62%), Lithuania (74%) and Latvia (83%). Poland was
          the only country not placing banks in the top three.
         The print media (newspapers and magazines) was the second most preferred information
          channel about the euro in Poland (92%), Latvia (85%), Lithuania (82%) and Romania (73%).
          That channel was ranked third in Estonia (71%) and Bulgaria (70%).
         The radio was the third most trusted channel in Poland (88%) and Hungary (59%).
         The Czechs were the respondents most frequently citing the Internet (78%) – only television
          was preferred to the Internet in that country.
    Compared to the previous wave, in Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia the top-3 most
    popular information channels remained exactly the same. In the other four NMS8 countries, either
    new channels have reached the top-three or there have been some changes in position. In Estonia,
    for example, the print media replaced the radio in third place.

          Most preferred channels for information and campaigns (% prefer)
          BG                                     CZ                                    EE
          Television               87            Television               81           Banks            81
          Banks                    70            Internet                 78           Television       79
          Print media              70            Banks                    78           Print media      71

          HU                                     LT                                    LV
          Television               78            Television               89           Television       91
          Banks                    62            Print media              82           Print media      85
          Radio                    59            Banks                    74           Banks            83

          PL                                     RO

          Television               96            Television               88
          Print media              92            Print media              73
          Radio                    88            Banks                    72
          Q9. Where would you like to receive useful information on the euro and the changeover?



Men were more liable to prefer receiving information in public places and on the Internet, while
women found it more useful to receive information by (traditional) mail, in banks and at work.
The youngest age group particularly wanted to receive information in banks, in public places, in the
workplace and over the Internet, while 40-54 year-olds most frequently opted for the radio.

With the exception of supermarkets and shops, in the workplace and by (traditional) mail, respondents
with the highest level of education gave the highest levels of support to all of the given methods of
becoming informed about the euro and its introduction. Supermarkets, shops and written mail were
most often cited by those with the lowest level of education, and the workplace by those with an
average level of education.

City dwellers were most likely to name the Internet and the radio, while respondents from rural areas
were more liable to want to receive information in supermarkets and shops, and at work.

Furthermore, there were some variations concerning occupational groups. Manual workers, for
example, showed a preference to receive information in supermarkets and in schools. For further
details, see annex table 15.




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Analytical Report                                             Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



2.1.5. Most favoured topics of information campaigns

As for information content required by citizens, most people felt that all topics suggested for
inclusion in the euro information campaign were important (between 80% and 92% of
respondents chose at least one topic).

The most preferred topic remained the value of the national currency in euro – almost unanimously,
NMS8 citizens said this was an essential aspect of any campaign (92%, -1 percentage point), as was
the need for information about how the euro would be introduced in a particular country (89%, -1
point). Furthermore, respondents identified measures to ensure a fair conversion of old prices (85%,
+1 point), the practical implications of the euro’s introduction regarding salaries and bank accounts
(84%, -1 point), and the social and political implications of the euro (83%, +1 point) as important
topics for a euro information campaign. Finally, the appearance of euro banknotes and coins was
considered to be the least essential element of an information campaign. However, it was still
mentioned by an overwhelming majority of 80% (+2 points).

The order of the most favoured topics has remained unchanged since May 2009. Moreover, the
percentages of respondents identifying a topic as meaningful have only changed slightly. The design
of the euro, for example, was cited by 80% of respondents instead of 78% in May 2009 (+2 points)

           Preferred topics for information and campaigns
                                                                                              09/2009 %NMS8                    05/2009 %NMS8

                                                                                                                                                         92
                                 The value of one euro in [CURRENCY]
                                                                                                                                                          93

                                                                                                                                                        89
            The way how the euro will be introduced in [COUNTRY]
                                                                                                                                                         90

            How to ensure that the rules for currency conversion into                                                                               85
                               euro are respected                                                                                                  84

                The practical implications of the euro regarding your                                                                              84
                              salary, your bank account                                                                                            85

                                                                                                                                                   83
            The social, economic or political implications of the euro
                                                                                                                                                 82

                                                                                                                                               80
                                 What notes and coins in euros look like
                                                                                                                                              78


                    Q10. In your view, which of the following issues about the euro are essential to be covered in priority by the information campaign?
                                                                                                                                             % of „essential”



Except for Estonia, the value of the euro in the local currency was the most popular topic in all of
the NMS8 countries – the share of respondents naming it ranged from 87% in Romania to 96% in
Hungary. In Estonia, it was listed in second place (88%), just one percentage point behind the
changeover scenario (89%).

The second most important topic – the changeover scenario (the way the euro will be introduced in [
COUNTRY]) – appeared among the top three preferences in all the NMS8, from 84% of respondents
in Romania to 91% in the Czech Republic and Lithuania. While it was ranked in second position in the
Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Romania (RO: equal second), it only came
third in Bulgaria.

How to ensure the conversion rules are respected appeared as one of the top three essential topics in
five countries: Lithuania (91%), Bulgaria (89%), the Czech Republic and Latvia (both 88%) and
Romania (84%). Practical implications of the euro regarding salaries and bank accounts appeared in
third place in Hungary (88%) and Estonia (87%). In Poland, information on social, economic or


                                                                                                                                                                page 27
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                             Analytical Report


political implications was mentioned by 87%; this placed the subject third among preferred topics of
the campaign.

The preferences of Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian and Lithuanian respondents have remained exactly
the same since the last wave in May 2009. In the remaining countries, either the top three has stayed
the same (but with a different sequence) or one new topic has gained a place in the top three. For
example, in Poland, the social, economic or political implications of the euro have replaced the
practical implications of the euro regarding salaries and bank accounts in third place.

    Preferred topics for information and campaigns (% essential)
    BG                                         CZ                                           EE
    Value of euro in local                     Value of     euro   in   local
                                     92                                         92          Changeover scenario              89
    currency                                   currency
    Ensure the conversion rules                                                             Value of     euro   in   local
                                     89        Changeover scenario              91                                           88
    to be respected                                                                         currency
                                               Ensure the conversion rules to
    Changeover scenario              88                                         88          Practical implications           87
                                               be respected

    HU                                         LT                                           LV
    Value of     euro   in   local             Value of     euro   in   local               Value of     euro   in   local
    currency                         96        currency                         93          currency                         92
    Changeover scenario              89        Changeover scenario              91          Changeover scenario              88
                                               Ensure the conversion rules to               Ensure the conversion rules
    Practical implications           88                                         91                                           88
                                               be respected                                 to be respected

    PL                                         RO
    Value of     euro   in   local             Value of euro in local
    currency                         94        currency                         87
                                               Ensure the conversion rules to
    Changeover scenario              92                                         84
                                               be respected
    Social, economic or political
                                     87        Changeover scenario              84
    implications
    Q10. In your view, which of the following issues about the euro are essential to be covered in priority by the information
    campaign?



Regarding socio-demographic groups, there were no significant differences between men and women
in their preferences for the topics to be covered by an information campaign on the euro. When
looking at differences between age groups, only minor variations were observed: for example, those
aged 55 and older were most likely to identify the design of euro money as a priority.

Respondents with a higher level of education were the ones giving more priority than their
counterparts to knowing more about such issues as how to ensure that currency conversions to the
euro will be respected”, the “practical implications of the euro regarding salaries and bank
accounts” and the “social, economic or political implications of the euro”. Those with an average
level of education were the respondents most frequently interested in the design of euro money.

The design of the euro was most often considered to be essential by people living in rural areas, while
city dwellers were more eager to learn about how the euro will be introduced, the social, economic
and political implications of the euro and the practical implications of the euro regarding their
personal finances. Among the few differences between occupational groups, it was noted that
employees were more interested than their counterparts in learning about the practical implications of
the euro regarding their personal finances and how a fair conversion of the local currency into euro
could be ensured. For further details, see annex table 16.




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Analytical Report                                                                                                                                                     Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



2.1.6. Main activities and events essential to be included in an information
campaign


Survey participants in NMS8 countries were also asked which campaign activities and tools they
considered to be essential if they were to be prepared for the introduction of the euro. Across NMS8
countries, a majority of respondents considered the activities – that had actually been used in
other countries prior to the changeover – to be indispensable.

However, as in previous years, there were significant differences in the priorities given to the various
methods. The dual display of prices was seen to be the most important information tool by far; most
frequently so in the case of shops (87%, unchanged), followed by its use on utility bills (electricity,
gas, etc., 80%, -1 percentage point) and on payslips (75%, unchanged).

TV ads were the next most popular method of providing effective explanations about the euro and its
introduction (73%, unchanged), followed by ads in newspapers (72%, +1 point). Two-thirds of
respondents considered radio ads to be useful (+1 point), and about 6 in 10 opted for leaflets and
brochures (63%, +2 points).

    Preferred tools of the information campaigns

  100                                                                                                                    Dual display of the amount on 100
               Dual display of prices in shops 100                                                                                                                                                                                  Dual display on your pay                                                                    100                    TV advertisements
                                                                                                                         bills                                                                                                      slip
  90                                                                                                        90                                                                                                        90                                                                                                        90
  80                                                                                                        80                                                                                                        80                                                                                                        80
   70                                                                                                       70                                                                                                        70                                                                                                        70
  60                                                                                                        60                                                                                                        60                                                                                                        60
        81 79 86 85 83 86 84 87 87                                                                                70 69 76 75 75 79 78 81 80                                                                                66 66 71 70 70 74 75 75 75                                                                                78 73 71 70 71 72 73 73 73
  50                                                                                                        50                                                                                                        50                                                                                                        50
                                *09/2006




                                                                                                                                          *09/2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *09/2006
                                                                                ****05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                          ****05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ****05/2009
                                           **04/2007
                                                       **09/2007
                                                                   ***05/2008




                                                                                                                                                     **04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                 **09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             ***05/2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               **04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           **09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ***05/2008


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ****09/2009
                                                                                              ****09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                        ****09/2009
                      04/2006




                                                                                                                         2005
                                                                                                                                04/2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006
        2004
               2005




                                                                                                                  2004




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2005




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         **04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    04/2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ***05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     **09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2004




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ****09/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ****05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2005


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              *09/2006



  100           Newspaper advertisements                                                                    100                 Radio advertisements                                                                  100                 Leaflets / Brochures

  90                                                                                                        90                                                                                                        90
  80                                                                                                        80                                                                                                        80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    **** % NMS8
  70                                                                                                        70                                                                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     *** % NMS9
  60                                                                                                        60                                                                                                        60
        N/A 73        72 70 70 71 71 71 72                                                                        66 64 64 64 65 67 67 66 67                                                                                64 61 62 60 60 63 65 61 63                                                                                               ** % NMS11
  50                                                                                                        50                                                                                                        50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      * % NMS10
                                                                   ***05/2008
                                           **04/2007
                                                       **09/2007


                                                                                ****05/2009
                                                                                              ****09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                             ***05/2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ***05/2008
                                *09/2006




                                                                                                                         2005



                                                                                                                                                     **04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                 **09/2007




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2005



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               **04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           **09/2007



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ****09/2009
                      04/2006
        2004
               2005




                                                                                                                                                                                                        ****09/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                          ****05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ****05/2009
                                                                                                                                          *09/2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *09/2006
                                                                                                                  2004


                                                                                                                                04/2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2004


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006




                 Q11. Here is a list of various information campaign actions. Could you tell me for each of them whether you would find it essential or not essential to
                                                                                                                                       prepare yourself for the euro?
                                                                                                                                                          % of “essential”


For most of the suggested tools, women gave a higher priority, e.g. the dual display of prices on utility
bill and on payslips, information given in leaflets and brochures and TV ads.

Respondents aged 55 and over were more enthusiastic than their counterparts about TV, radio and
newspaper ads, while those aged 25-39 gave most weight to the dual display of prices, especially on
payslips. Moreover, those with the lowest level of education, respondents living in rural areas and
those not working were the groups most frequently mentioning TV and radio ads as an essential part
of a campaign.

Among other small differences observed was, for example, that the dual display of prices in shops was
most often seen as essential by respondents from metropolitan areas and employees.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          page 29
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                               Analytical Report



3. The euro: perceptions and support for its introduction

This chapter deals with NMS8 citizens‟ interest in, perceptions of and support for the introduction of
the euro. This survey was conducted in a climate that is still influenced by the global financial and
economic crisis that continues having a more or less strong impact on the NMS8 economies.

The survey results showed that NMS8 citizens‟ attitudes towards the euro and its introduction have
worsened since May 2009. There has only been a slight deterioration, however, and the results were
now similar to those in the survey wave conducted in 2008. The gradual improvement in attitudes
towards the euro and its introduction, which has been observed since these Flash Eurobarometer
waves were first conducted in 2004, has therefore been stopped and not reversed.


One of the factors leading to the slight decrease of positive attitudes towards the euro, at an overall
NMS8 level, was the significant drop of support for the euro in those countries that had seen a
steep increase in such support in the previous wave - that had been conducted in the middle of the
financial crisis (May 2009). This was particularly so in the case of the Czech Republic and Hungary.



3.1. Consequences of the euro’s introduction

When examining attitudes in the NMS8 about the introduction of the euro at both national and
personal levels, it is seen that citizens expect rather more positive consequences for their country
than they do for themselves.

3.1.1. Consequences at the national level
Slightly more than half of citizens thought that the euro would have positive consequences for
their country (52%), compared to approximately one-third of respondents who expected negative
consequences at the national level (35%). In addition, more respondents expected very positive
consequences than very negative ones (14% vs. 10%). About one in eight respondents didn‟t know
how to judge the most probable effects of the euro‟s introduction (13%).

               Consequences of the euro’s introduction at a national level
                       Very positive            Rather positive …            Rather negative …          Very negative     DK/NA
                       consequences                                                                     consequences


                  09/2009 %NMS8            14                          38                          25               10     13

                  05/2009 %NMS8            16                           39                             23             9   13

                  05/2008 %NMS9            13                      37                             28                  9   14

                 09/2007 %NMS11            15                          38                          24               9     15

                 04/2007 %NMS11            13                          40                          25               10    13

                 09/2006 %NMS10        8                          42                              26             10       15

                 04/2006 %NMS10        8                          44                               26               7     15

                 09/2005 %NMS10     4                   34                              33                     13         16

                 09/2004 %NMS10      6                       38                              30                  11       15

                           Q13.(2007-2009)/Q12(2006). Do you think the introduction of the euro would have positive or negative
                                                                                              consequences for [COUNTRY]…?




page 30
Analytical Report                                                                                              Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Those numbers indicate a slight increase in the proportion of citizens believing that the euro’s
introduction would have a negative impact; in May 2009, 55% expected a positive outcome and
32% expected negative consequences. The expectations were, however, more positive than they were
in May 2008 and were similar to the findings of 2007. Looking back at previous waves, one can
particularly notice an increase in those respondents expecting very positive consequences for their
country once the euro is introduced (from 4% in 2005 to 16% in 2009).

In most NMS8 countries, respondents who expected positive consequences for their country
outnumbered those who expected negative ones. Romania and Poland, however, were the only
countries where a majority of respondents were positive about developments once their country
had joined the euro area (62% and 52%, respectively), compared to a minority who were concerned
about the future after the euro (25% and 37%, respectively).

Latvia and the Czech Republic, on the other hand, were the only countries where more respondents
expected the euro to have negative consequences for the country than positive ones: 46% of
Czech respondents and 43% of Latvians were negative about the euro‟s impact and 41% were positive
(in both countries).

                Consequences of the euro’s introduction at a national level, %
                                                                        % very and rather positive                                                                           % very and rather negative

                                        CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                       ESTONIA                                                                                            HUNGARY


                                               47 46 45 51                                                                                                                                                        54 51 54                                                              58
                    45 47                45 50             46                                                  44 45 46 47 43 45                                               41 49
                                                                                                                                                                                     47                                                         44 50 48 44                                       49

                                                           41                                                        42
                    42 35                41 35 41 40 44 40                                                     40 39       41 40 40 39 42                                                                                  40 37 38 43
                                                                                                                        35                                                                                        32 35 27             32 37
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                   06/2009
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009



                                                                                                               09/2004
                                                                                                                         09/2005
                                                                                                                                   04/2006
                                                                                                                                             09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009
                                               LITHUANIA                                                                                        LATVIA                                                                                          POLAND

                                52 53 51                                                                                                   55                                                                                        52 53    58 52
                    45 59 47 44                                                                      44                  48 51 52 52 51 51    43                                                                            46 55 52       47
                                                                                                               41                                                                                                 44
                                                                                           36
                    41                  40 43                                                        44                                41                                                                         41 37       36
                              32                             33 35 37 35                                       38 32 37 36 33 34
                                                                                                                                 31 37                                                                                  29 33    32 39 28 37
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009



                                                                                                               09/2004
                                                                                                                         09/2005
                                                                                                                                   04/2006
                                                                                                                                              09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009




                                                   BULGARIA                                                                                  ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                        65 67 64 59 62
                                                             48 44 48 42 46

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Q13.(2007-2009)/Q12.(2006)
                                                             35 39 37 41 35                                                                                   21 25 25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Do you think the introduction of
                                                                                                                                                        21 18                                                      the euro would have positive or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        negative consequences for
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009



                                                                                                               09/2004
                                                                                                                         09/2005
                                                                                                                                   04/2006
                                                                                                                                             09/2006
                                                                                                                                                        04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                          05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   [COUNTRY]…?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       % by country




In comparison to the past wave in May 2009, the citizens of Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania have
developed a more positive attitude towards the impact of the introduction of the euro at a national
level; those of Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Estonia have become more negative
about the currency.

The drop in respondents who were convinced about a positive impact was most pronounced in the
Czech Republic and Hungary: since May 2009, the survey showed a 10 percentage point drop, to 41%
and a nine percentage point drop, to 49%, respectively, in those countries. At the same time, the share
of those who expected a negative impact increased by six percentage points (to 46%) in the Czech
Republic and by five points (to 37%) in Hungary. In Poland, the decrease in those having positive



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            page 31
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                               Analytical Report


expectations was not so steep (-6 points to 52%), but the increase of those who were negative was
more significant (to 37%, +9 points).

On the other hand, in Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania, the share of respondents convinced of an
improvement in their country‟s situation once the euro is introduced increased: by three percentage
points in Romania (62%), and by four percentage points in Latvia (41%) and in Bulgaria (to 46%). At
the same time, the share of respondents who thought the situation would deteriorate has dropped by 13
points in Latvia (to 43%) and by six points in Bulgaria (to 35%). Romania saw no change in this
respect (25% in both waves).

In Lithuania, both the numbers of supporters and opponents of the euro have increased: by eight points
(to 44%) and nine points (to 44%), respectively.


3.1.2. Consequences at the personal level
Respondents were somewhat less positive about how their personal situation will develop once the
euro is introduced than about the consequences for their country.

Approximately half of NMS8 citizens (48%) expected positive consequences for themselves, while
nearly 4 in 10 expected negative ones (38%). However, also on this personal level, those respondents
who expected very positive consequences outnumbered those who expected very negative ones (15%
vs. 12%). About one in seven (14%) of respondents could not or did not want to give an opinion about
the personal consequences of the euro‟s introduction on their country.

A slight increase in negative attitudes since May 2009 concerning the impact of the euro after its
introduction is also visible on that level. Indeed, since the past wave, the number expecting negative
consequences has increased by three percentage points (to 38%), with a two point increase of those
expecting very negative consequences. However, compared to waves conducted in 2007-2008, the
attitudes of NMS8 citizens on that point have remained stable, and have become more positive
overall since 2004.

                   Consequences of the euro’s introduction at a personal level
                           Very positive         Rather positive         Rather negative        Very negative       DK/NA


                    09/2009 %NMS8           15                     33                         26              12        14

                    05/2009 %NMS8           15                     34                         25           10          16

                    05/2008 %NMS9           14                     33                         29               10       14

                    09/2007 %NMS11          16                      33                        24          10          17

                    04/2007 %NMS11          13                     35                         26            11         15

                   09/2006 %NMS10       8                   36                           28              12           17

                   04/2006 %NMS10      7                      39                           26             10          17

                   09/2005 %NMS10     5                31                           34                   15            16

                   09/2004 %NMS10      6                 34                           32                  13           16

                                   Q14.(2007-2009)/Q13.(2006) And for you personally, do you think that it would be positive or
                                                                                   negative if the euro would be introduced?


The country level results show that only Romania had an absolute majority of respondents who
expected positive personal consequences from the changeover: more than 6 in 10 (64%, +3
percentage points) believed in the positive effects for themselves and 21% (-1 point) felt the euro


page 32
Analytical Report                                                                                              Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


would have negative personal consequences. These figures were comparable with Romanians‟
expectations for their country.

While in most NMS8 countries, no absolute majority was seen to be positive about the changeover,
there were, nevertheless, more respondents who expected positive personal consequences than
negative ones: Bulgaria (48% vs. 32%), Hungary (46% vs. 37%), Latvia (45% vs. 42%), Lithuania
(42% vs. 37%) and Estonia (43% vs. 42%).

Only in two NMS8 countries, the Czech Republic and Poland, were respondents who expected rather
negative personal consequences of the changeover more numerous than those expecting a positive
outcome. An absolute majority of Czech respondents thought that they would personally suffer
disadvantages (54%), while those thinking the contrary were in a minority (37%). In Poland, their
numbers were about equal (45% negative, 43% positive).

                    Consequences of the euro’s introduction at a personal level, %
                                                                       % very and rather positive                                                                  % very and rather negative
                                        CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                         ESTONIA                                                                                   HUNGARY


                    45 49 46 44 46 45 48 48                                                          54                                                                                                    51 46 50             48 46
                                                                                                                44 49 48 44 46 47 42 47 43                                                                          41 44 42 43

                    42 37 42 40 43 40 42 43                                                          37         42 36 39 41 40 39 40 41 42                                                                                               41 38 38 40 39 37
                                                                                                                                                                                                           31 33 29
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                        04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2009
                                                                                                                09/2004
                                                                                                                          09/2005
                                                                                                                                    04/2006
                                                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                                  LITHUANIA                                                                                    LATVIA                                                                                    POLAND


                              55                                                                                                    51 52 47 50 48 54                                                      50 52
                    40                  43 44 46 48 47 41 42                                                    44 49                                 45                                                                       48 43 43                      46 45 45                      45

                    44                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     43
                              32 40 37 33 35 38 37 37                                                           41 37 39 39 39 40 41 40 42                                                                 34              39 42                             35 40 37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     31 34
                                                                                                                09/2004
                                                                                                                          09/2005
                                                                                                                                    04/2006
                                                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2009
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                        04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009




                                                  BULGARIA                                                                                    ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                         65 66 66 61 64
                                                             49 49 48 46 48

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Q14. (2007-2009)/q13.(2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 And for you personally, do you
                                                             34 36 35 36 32
                                                                                                                                                         19 18 21 22 21                                           think that it would be positive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   or negative if the euro would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  be introduced?
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                        04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                       09/2007
                                                                                 05/2008
                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                     09/2009


                                                                                                                09/2004
                                                                                                                          09/2005
                                                                                                                                    04/2006
                                                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      % by country




Just as with the euro‟s introduction at the national level, the development of citizen‟s attitudes has
differed between countries. In the Czech Republic, Estonia and Poland, respondents became more
negative about the consequences of the euro‟s introduction at a personal level; in Latvia, Lithuania,
Bulgaria and Romania respondents were becoming increasingly positive about the euro‟s introduction:

       Latvia: a + 5 percentage point increase in positive views (to 45%), a - 12 percentage point
        decrease in negative views (to 42%)
       Romania: a + 3 percentage point increase in positive views (to 64%), a -1 point drop in
        negative views (to 21%)
       Bulgaria: a + 2 percentage point increase in those seeing a positive personal impact (to 48%),
        a - 4 percentage point decrease in those seeing a negative personal impact (to 32%)
       Lithuania: a + 5 percentage point increase in positive views (to 42%), a - 4 percentage point
        decrease in negative views (to 37%).




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     page 33
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                      Analytical Report


A decrease of positive attitudes and/or an increase in negative views was observed in:

         The Czech Republic: there was an increase of 11 percentage points in those seeing a negative
          personal impact (to 54%), and a similar size decrease in those seeing a positive personal
          impact (to 37%).
         Estonia: a + 1 percentage point increase in negative views (to 42%), a- 4 percentage point
          decrease in positive views (to 47%).
         Poland: a +8 percentage point increase in negative views (to 45%), a 3 percentage point
          decrease in positive views (45%).

In Hungary, both the numbers of those seeing a positive impact (- 2 points, to 48%) and those seeing
negative consequences (- 2 points, to 37%) have decreased.
Comparing expectations at national and personal levels, fewer citizens in NMS8 countries expected
the euro‟s introduction to have positive consequences for themselves (48%) than those who foresaw a
positive impact for their country (52%). This difference has been seen in all waves of the survey
(2004-2009) and has ranged from two to six percentage points.

 Very positive or rather
                             09/2004 09/2005 04/2006 09/2006 04/2007 09/2007   05/2008 05/2009 09/2009
 positive consequences at a…
 national level              44      38      52      50      53      53        50        55      52
 personal level             40       36       46       44      48     49       47        49      48
 Difference:                4        2        6        6       5      4        3         6       4

The country-based analysis of expectations at the national and personal levels revealed that Polish
citizens were much more likely to expect positive consequences for their country than for themselves
(a +9 percentage point difference). Similar views, but to a lesser extent, were held in the Czech
Republic, Estonia, Hungary and Lithuania, a 2-4 points difference). However, more Latvians (4 points
difference), Bulgarians and Romanians (both 2 points difference) foresaw personal benefits than
advantages for their country.




page 34
Analytical Report                                  Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




3.2. Support for the single currency

This subchapter reviews respondents‟ perceptions about the climate of opinion regarding support for
the changeover to the euro and about the status of the euro as an international currency.

3.2.1. Opinions within the respondents’ social environment
In order to describe general attitudes towards the euro, respondents were asked to evaluate how people
they knew felt about the introduction of the euro. This is important because a country‟s overall social
environment has a great impact on the average citizen‟s opinion.

Across the NMS8, more respondents said that their fellow citizens were favourable towards the
introduction of the euro then those who thought they were against it: 44% of respondents said that
their fellow citizens were very much or rather in favour of the euro, while 37% reported a negative
climate. About 1 in 10 respondents either had the impression that their fellow citizens were very much
in favour of the euro being adopted (10%) or were against it (9%). A fifth of respondents did not know
how to judge the overall climate concerning the euro‟s introduction or gave no answer.

Compared to the previous wave, in May 2009, these numbers indicate a slightly worsening climate of
opinion concerning the euro: the share of those who judged the situation favourable has decreased by
3 percentage points (to 44%) and the numbers claiming it was rather hostile have increased by 2
percentage points (to 37%). Compared to the waves of 2008 and before, the results were stable or
indicated a more positive public opinion about the euro now than some years ago.


                    Climate of opinion regarding the euro’s introduction

                         Very much in favour     Rather in favour       Rather against       Very much against        DK/NA

                    09/2009 %NMS8      10                    34                      28                9          20

                    05/2009 %NMS8          12                 35                        27                 8       18

                    05/2008 %NMS9         9               34                         29                   9       19

                    09/2007 %NMS11        10                 35                      26               9          21

                    04/2007 %NMS11     8                  36                         26               9          21

                    09/2006 %NMS10     7                35                           31                    11      17

                    04/2006 %NMS10     8                 35                          30                   9       19

                    09/2005 %NMS10    5            28                        32                  13             23

                    09/2004 %NMS10     6                33                         30                 10         20


                               Q15.(2007-2009)/Q14.(2006) Generally speaking, are most people you personally know more in
                                                          favour or against the idea of introducing the euro in [COUNTRY]?




Czech respondents painted the gloomiest picture of public opinion concerning the euro’s
introduction. Slightly more than half of Czech respondents said their fellow citizens were against
joining the euro area (52%). In addition, nearly half of Latvian and Lithuanian respondents thought
that the climate in their country about the euro was rather negative (both 47%) – a view that was
shared by 46% of Polish and 44% of Estonian respondents.




                                                                                                                              page 35
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                     Analytical Report


In Bulgaria (34%) and Hungary (31%), approximately a third of the interviewees said their fellow
citizens were against the introduction of the euro. Only a small minority of Romanians had this
impression (16%).

The aforementioned overall deterioration of public opinion towards the euro since May 2009 has been
particularly due to a significant worsening in the perceived climate in the Czech Republic. There,
the share of respondents who thought their fellow citizens were against the euro‟s introduction has
significantly increased by 13 percentage points (to 52%). Poland was the only other country where
concerns have increased, but to a lesser extent, by 6 points (to 46%).

In most of the other countries, the numbers seeing a negative climate have decreased (Romania -6
percentage points, Lithuania – 4 points, Bulgaria -3points and Latvia -2 points; in Estonia and
Hungary they have remained stable (44% and 31%, respectively).

          Respondents’ perception of the climate AGAINST the euro’s introduction
          100

          90                                                                                    05/2009 %NMS8                           09/2009 %NMS8

          80

          70

          60
                                        52         51
                                                             47     49      47
          50                                                                                 46         44     44
                                 39                                                   40
          40         37                                                                                                   37
                35                                                                                                               34
                                                                                                                                           31      31
          30
                                                                                                                                                             22
          20                                                                                                                                                         16

           10

           0
                NMS8                 CZ                 LT              LV                PL               EE                BG               HU                RO

                                Q15.(2007-2009)/q14.(2006) Generally speaking, are most people you personally know more in favour or against the
                                                                                                                    idea of introducing the euro in [COUNTRY]?
                                Proportion of respondents claiming that the people they know are against the idea of introducing the euro in their country, % by country




3.2.2. Support for replacing the national currency by the euro
Besides the rational aspects that must be considered, changing a national currency is also an emotional
issue. A national currency represents the autonomy of the nation state and contributes to a citizen‟s
national identity. Since it was first conducted, this Flash Eurobarometer survey looks at how people
are related emotionally to a future changeover to the euro, by asking whether or not they were happy
that the euro would replace their national currency.

About half of the respondents would welcome the replacement of their national currency by the
euro (49%), while about 4 out of 10 would not (39%). Most respondents said they would be rather
happy about the changeover (38%), while the second biggest share of respondents said the changeover
would make them rather unhappy (27%). A minority of 1 in 10 respondents said that the euro‟s
introduction would either make them very happy (11%) or very unhappy (12%). About one in eight
(13%) did not know or gave no answer.

In line with the results on the general climate surrounding the euro‟s introduction, the share of
respondents who said they would personally be happy to see their currency being replaced by the
euro has decreased by three percentage points (to 49%) and those who said they would be unhappy
about the changeover has increased by three points (to 39%). However, since the beginning of the



page 36
Analytical Report                                                                                          Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


survey, the share of respondents welcoming the euro introduction has – even if only moderately –
increased.
                     Are people happy that the euro will replace their national currency?

                                                         Very happy                                Rather happy                            Rather unhappy                                          Very unhappy                                       DK/NA

                     09/2009 %NMS8                                                    11                                     38                                                                    27                                       12                      13

                     05/2009 %NMS8                                                     14                                              38                                                           25                                      11                      13

                     05/2008 %NMS9                                               10                                          37                                                                27                                      12                          13

                    09/2007 %NMS11                                                    12                                      38                                                                   25                                11                          15

                    04/2007 %NMS11                                               10                                          38                                                                25                                    13                           14

                    09/2006 %NMS10                                                9                                      38                                                                        30                                         13                        10

                    04/2006 %NMS10                                               9                                           39                                                                    29                                        13                         10

                    09/2005 %NMS10                                           6                             31                                                                    35                                                   18                                11

                    09/2004 %NMS10                                              8                                   35                                                                        31                                            16                          10

                                        Q12.(2007-2009)/q15. (2006)Are you personally happy or not that the euro could replace the [CURRENCY]?



As was seen in the previous waves of the survey, when looking at country results, the proportion of
people who said they were happy with the changeover to the euro was comparable to those who
anticipated positive consequences of the euro’s introduction on a national and a personal level
(see Chapters 3.1.1 and 3.1.2).

For example, more citizens would be happy (rather than unhappy) about the future changeover in
Romania (60% vs. 23%), Hungary (54% vs. 38%), Bulgaria (49% vs. 31%) and Lithuania (48% vs.
37%). In the Czech Republic (54% vs. 37%), Estonia (49% vs. 38%) and Latvia (50% vs. 32%)
respondents were more liable to be unhappy about the idea of switching to the euro. In Poland,
opinions were more or less equally divided (45% happy, 44% unhappy).
                    Are people happy that the euro will replace their national currency?

                                                                   % very and rather happy                                                            % very and rather unhappy
                                      CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                   ESTONIA                                                                                     HUNGARY

                                                                                                              64 60
                    55 58 52                                                                               57       57 57 60                                                                            56                56                                            58 54
                             47 46 48 48 50 54                                                                                                                     47 47 49                                      49                46 49 48 47

                                46 42 42 44 37                                                                                                                              42                                   37 35 45 37 38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                43 34
                    39 33 39 44                                                                            29                 31 32 33 30 38                                         38                 33                            38
                                                                                                                    24
                                                                                                           9/2004
                                                                                                                    9/2005
                                                                                                                              4/2006
                                                                                                                                        9/2006
                                                                                                                                                 4/2007
                                                                                                                                                          9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                            5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                        9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009
                    9/2004
                             9/2005
                                      4/2006
                                                9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                    9/2007
                                                                              5/2008
                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                  9/2009




                                               LITHUANIA                                                                                 LATVIA                                                                                    POLAND

                             69                                                                                  64 64 65 63    67
                    58                56 53 55 56                                                          59 64             59
                                                                             51 51 48                                                                                                                   49 54 50 49 46 49
                                                                                                                                   50                                                                                     46 52 45


                    34                                                       40                                                                                                                         40 34 39 41 42 36 41 36 44
                             25 33 32                     31 34                        37 37                                  28 26 24 26 31 28 32
                                                                                                           23 21
                                                                                                                                                                                                        9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009
                    9/2004
                             9/2005
                                      4/2006
                                                9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                    9/2007
                                                                             5/2008
                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                  9/2009


                                                                                                           9/2004
                                                                                                                    9/2005
                                                                                                                              4/2006
                                                                                                                                        9/2006
                                                                                                                                                 4/2007
                                                                                                                                                          9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                            5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2009




                                               BULGARIA                                                                                ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                 59 62 62 59 60
                                                          45 46 50 44 49


                                                          33 33 31 36 31                                                                                                                                   Q12.(2007-2009)/Q15(2006).
                                                                                                                                                 24 19 21 24 23                                          Are you personally happy or not
                                                                                                                                                                                                          that the euro could replace the
                    9/2004
                             9/2005
                                      4/2006
                                                9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                    9/2007
                                                                             5/2008
                                                                                       5/2009
                                                                                                 9/2009


                                                                                                           9/2004
                                                                                                                    9/2005
                                                                                                                              4/2006
                                                                                                                                       9/2006
                                                                                                                                                 4/2007
                                                                                                                                                          9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                            5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          [CURRENCY]?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              % by country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          page 37
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                           Analytical Report


The number of respondents that would welcome a changeover has increased significantly in Lithuania
(+11 percentage points), Bulgaria (+5points) and Latvia (+4 points), while it has dropped or remained
stable in the other countries. This decrease was seen most drastically in the Czech Republic: in May
2009, half of the respondents said they would be happy about a changeover, and four months later that
number has dropped to 37% (-13 percentage points).

In line with those figures, the number of respondents who have declared themselves unhappy about a
possible changeover has increased in the Czech Republic (+10 points), Poland (+8 points), Hungary
(+4 points) and Estonia (+2 points). In Latvia, and Lithuania, however, their number has considerably
decreased (-17 and -14 percentage points, respectively). A decrease was also seen in this regard in
Bulgaria, but it was less significant (-5 points).



3.2.3. The most desired timeframe for the adoption of the euro
To estimate support for the euro, respondents were asked when they would like to have the common
currency introduced. In response, NMS8 citizens tended to say they were rather „relaxed‟ about the
issue: roughly a third either wanted the euro to be introduced after a certain time (36%) or as late as
possible (33%). A quarter of NMS8 citizens, however, wanted to see their national currency replaced
as soon as possible.
                Desired timeframe for adopting the euro
                           As soon as possible        After a certain time          As late as possible         [DK/NA]


                    09/2009 %NMS8              25                         36                           33             6

                    05/2009 %NMS8                28                            37                          29         6

                    05/2008 %NMS9                26                       36                              32          6

                   09/2007 %NMS11                26                           39                          28          7

                   04/2007 %NMS11            24                           39                           31             7

                   09/2006 %NMS10          20                        40                                36                 5

                   04/2006 %NMS10           21                           39                            34             5

                   09/2005 %NMS10         17                   32                                 46                  5

                   09/2004 %NMS10          19                       36                              40                5

                                                               Q16. When would you like the euro to become your currency?


Compared to May 2009, NMS8 citizens showed a growing hesitation about the euro’s
introduction. Fewer respondents wanted the euro to be introduced as soon as possible (-3 points, to
25%) and more said they wanted to have their currency replaced as late as possible (+4 points, to
33%). However, the amount of support for an early adoption was still similar to that expressed in
the 2007-2008 survey waves and higher than in those in waves prior to 2007.

In most NMS8 countries, respondents were more likely to opt for a late rather than a quick
accession. Respondents were the most hesitant in the Czech Republic and Latvia, where 47% and
43%, respectively, wanted the euro to be introduced as late as possible; 14% and 16%, respectively,
thought that an early accession to the euro area was preferable.

The gap between those who wanted an early accession and those who preferred a late one was also
considerable in Poland, Estonia and Lithuania. In Poland, for example, 39% wanted to switch to euros
from zloty as late as possible, compared to 18% who wanted to do so as soon as possible (a 21



page 38
Analytical Report                                                                                        Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


percentage point difference). In Bulgaria as well, respondents preferred a late accession, but the views
were less divided (28% vs. 20%, an 8 point difference).

Romania and Hungary were the only countries where respondents were more liable to think that
adopting the euro as soon as possible was the better choice. This was particularly the case in
Romania, where more than twice as many respondents wanted an early accession (43% vs. 20% who
preferred to wait).
                    Desired timeframe for adopting the euro
                                As soon as possible                                                    As late as possible                                          "After a certain time" not shown
                                       CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                               ESTONIA                                                                      HUNGARY


                              49                                                                         47 47                               47 48
                                                                                              47                           43 39                   42                                                                                                    42
                     42                40 35              39 35 42 36                                                                                                   34 36             32 30 36 32                                                             34
                                                                                                                                                                                                      29 27 29


                     16 14 15 16 19 18 18 23 14                                                                                                                                           21 29 27 28 24 24 26 22 24
                                                                                                         15 19 17 20                         15 15 16 23 23




                                                                                                                                                                                          9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2009
                     9/2004
                              9/2005
                                       4/2006
                                                 9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                   9/2007
                                                                            5/2008
                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                              9/2009


                                                                                                         9/2004
                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                           4/2006
                                                                                                                                    9/2006
                                                                                                                                             4/2007
                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009
                                            LITHUANIA                                                                               LATVIA                                                                           POLAND

                                                                                                                            47                                          50
                              46                                   44                                     46 52 48 50 51 51                                                      43       45 50
                     38                36 36              40                39       35 35                                                                                                                   35 38 36 31 41                              33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39

                                                                                                         13 12 13 15 9 12 13 15 16
                     15 12 21 17 18 16 20 21 20                                                                                                                                           17 15 20 18 18 21 18 23 18
                     9/2004
                              9/2005
                                       4/2006
                                                 9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                   9/2007
                                                                            5/2008
                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                              9/2009



                                                                                                         9/2004
                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                           4/2006
                                                                                                                                    9/2006
                                                                                                                                             4/2007
                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                          9/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                   9/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9/2009
                                                BULGARIA                                                                       ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                      48 50
                                                                                                                                             42                         40 43
                                                                                     29 28
                                                          27 27 25

                                                                                                                                                                                               Q16. When would you like the
                                                          17 19 19 19 20                                                                     15 12 12                   18 20                          euro to become your
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 currency?
                                                                                                         9/2004
                                                                                                                  9/2005
                                                                                                                           4/2006
                                                                                                                                    9/2006
                                                                                                                                             4/2007
                                                                                                                                                      9/2007
                                                                                                                                                               5/2008
                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009
                     9/2004
                              9/2005
                                       4/2006
                                                 9/2006
                                                          4/2007
                                                                   9/2007
                                                                            5/2008
                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                              9/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                % by country




The Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary5 saw increases in the numbers who wanted the changeover
to happen as late as possible (+11, +6, +2 percentage points, respectively), and a significant decrease
in those who wanted to have the euro sooner rather than later (-10, -5, -8 percentage points,
respectively). On the other hand, slightly more Romanians (+3 points), Latvians (+1 point) and
Bulgarians (+1 point) now wanted an accession to happen as soon as possible. In Latvia and Bulgaria,
the share of those who wanted their country to join the euro area as late as possible dropped (-7
percentage points and -1 point, respectively). In Romania, their share also increased slightly (+2
points).

3.2.4. Status of the euro as an international currency
Since the first wave of the present survey there has been a solid and broad consensus among citizens in
the NMS8 that the euro was an international currency, similar to the Japanese yen or the US dollar.

Indeed, 75% of respondents considered the euro to be one of the major international currencies and
slightly less than one in five felt it was not (18%). Compared to some months before, however, the
image of the euro as a strong international currency has slightly declined: in May 2009, more
respondents considered it to be an international currency (79%) and fewer opposed the idea (15%).


5
  While in Hungary the number of supporters for an early accession had importantly decreased by -8 percentage points and of those who
wanted a late accession had increased by +2 points, Hungarians who opted for an early accession still outnumbered those who preferred to
join the euro area as late as possible (34% vs. 24%).



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           page 39
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                           Analytical Report


When looking at the development since the survey waves began, however, a growing confidence in
the euro as an international currency can be seen.

                       Status of the euro as an international currency
                                                                                    Yes                             No                DK/NA

                        09/2009 %NMS8                                                                           75                                                           18               7

                        05/2009 %NMS8                                                                               79                                                        15              7

                        05/2008 %NMS9                                                                               78                                                        15              8

                        09/2007 %NMS11                                                                              76                                                       15              9

                        04/2007 %NMS11                                                                              76                                                       15              9

                        09/2006 %NMS10                                                                          75                                                           18               7

                        04/2006 %NMS10                                                                         74                                                            18               8

                        09/2005 %NMS10                                                                      72                                                           20                   8

                        09/2004 %NMS10                                                                       73                                                              20               7

                                                        Q19.(2007-2009)/Q18. (2006) Do you think that the euro is an international currency like
                                                                                                            the US dollar or the Japanese Yen?




Hungarians were particularly sceptical about the status of the euro among other currencies. 6 in
10 respondents felt that it could be considered as a major international currency (62%) and slightly
less than 3 in 10 opposed this idea (27%). Support was highest in Estonia and Romania, where 84%
and 83%, respectively, thought that the euro was a major currency, while only about 1 in 10 did not.

           Status of the euro as an international currency                                                                                                             Yes        No          DK/NA

                        NMS                                     BG                                        CZ                                            EE                                   HU
               7               7                      12                   9                     5                        6                   8               7                    10             12
              15                                                                                18                                            12             10
                             18                       13                  14                                             23                                                        20
                                                                                                                                                                                                  27



              79                                                          77                    78                                            80             84
                             75                       74                                                                 71                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                                                                  62
              05/2009



                             09/2009




                                                      05/2009



                                                                          09/2009




                                                                                                05/2009



                                                                                                                         09/2009




                                                                                                                                              05/2009



                                                                                                                                                             09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                   05/2009



                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009




                        LT                            LV                                        PL                                           RO
              9            7                 8                   7                     5                   7                       8              7
                          13                                    14                    14                                           11            10
             16                             20                                                            20




                          81                                    80                    81                                           81            83
             74                             73                                                            74
             05/2009




                                            05/2009




                                                                                      05/2009




                                                                                                                                   05/2009
                          09/2009




                                                                09/2009




                                                                                                          09/2009




                                                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                       Q19.(2007-2009)/Q18. (2006) Do you think that the euro is an international currency like the US dollar or the Japanese Yen?




While at the overall level, the ratio of respondents who considered the euro to be an international
currency has decreased, in most countries their share has increased. This was seen most strikingly in
Latvia and Lithuania (+ 7 percentage points), but it was also noticeable in Bulgaria and Estonia (+ 4
points), and Romania (+ 2 points). The fact that, at the NMS8 level, the image of the euro as an


page 40
Analytical Report                       Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


international currency has deteriorated has been due to significant decreases in those countries that
now have the lowest levels of support (for the euro as a major currency): in Hungary, by eight
percentage points (to 62%) and by seven points in both the Czech Republic (to 71%) and Poland (to
74%).


3.3. Analysis by demographic variables

All key indicators relating to the respondents‟ attitudes towards the euro and its introduction showed
the same answering patterns for the different socio-demographic groups.

Men, younger age groups, people with the highest levels of education and the self employed were
more positive than other demographic groups about the euro and its introduction in their country, they:
     said more frequently that they would be happy if the euro replaced their national currency
     more often mentioned positive consequences about the introduction of the euro – both at
       national and personal levels
     perceived a more favourable climate of opinion concerning the euro
     were consequently more likely to want to switch to the euro sooner rather than later.

For example, 55% of men thought that the euro‟s introduction would have positive consequences for
them personally, compared to just 41% of women.

Men, those aged 15-24, highly-educated respondents, those living in metropolitan or urban areas, the
self-employed and employees were more likely to consider the euro to be an international currency,
such as the US dollar or the Japanese yen.

Further details on the socio-demographic aspects of public support for the euro can be found in the
annex tables 18-23.




                                                                                                   page 41
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                        Analytical Report



4. Consequences of adopting the euro

This last chapter deals with citizens‟ opinions and perceptions about the consequences of adopting the
euro. More specifically, it looks at:

         citizens‟ views about political and economic advantages of the euro,
         their expectations in terms of the practical consequences of joining the euro area, and
         respondents‟ fears related to the adoption of the euro.

Slightly over half of citizens in the NMS8 thought that the introduction of the euro has had
positive consequences in the countries that were already members of the euro area (52%), while 3 in
10 thought that the consequences had been negative. The largest group of respondents judged the
impact in the existing euro countries to have been rather positive (38%) and 14% said they had been
very positive. A quarter said they were rather negative (24%), and 6% were convinced that the euro‟s
impact had been very negative (6%). Roughly one-fifth of respondents could not or would not answer
this question (18%).

Differences between the various survey waves have been minor. For example, the share of those who
thought that the consequences (in the euro-area countries) have been negative have increased by two
percentage points between May (22%) and September 2009 (24%).

                     Consequences of the introduction of the euro in those
                     countries already using the euro
                       Very positive     Rather positive …        Rather negative …          Very negative        DK/NA
                       consequences                                                          consequences


                      09/2009 %NMS8           14                  38                     24             6      18



                      05/2009 %NMS8           14                   39                     22            6     19



                      05/2008 %NMS9           13                 38                     23          6         20



                      09/2007 %NMS11          13                 38                     21          6        21


                            Q17. Do you think the introduction of the euro has had positive or negative consequences in
                                                                        those countries that are using the euro already?


Except for the Czech Republic, respondents in all NMS8 countries were more apt to feel that the euro
has had positive consequences, rather than negative ones, in the countries where it has been
introduced.

Respondents in Romania were most confident about the good effects of the euro in those
countries where the changeover has already taken place: nearly two-thirds of Romanians thought
that the changeover has had positive consequences in those countries (64%), compared to only 17% of
those who thought they had been negative. In Hungary (52%), and Poland (51%), as well, a majority
of respondents were positive; but in Poland, more respondents now thought the consequences had
been negative (+ 8 points, to 35%). In Estonia, 48% gave a positive judgement about the effects of the
euro, while 31% were negative; in Latvia those numbers were 45% and 23%, in Lithuania 43% and
35% and in Bulgaria 41% and 31%.

As mentioned, the Czech Republic was the only country where more respondents thought the
countries of the euro area had seen negative consequences after the changeover: 45% of respondents
held that pessimistic view, compared to only 39% who disagreed.




page 42
Analytical Report                                              Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


The number of those who did not give a judgement about the effects of the euro‟s introduction was
significant in all countries and was particularly high in Latvia (33%) and Bulgaria (28%).

         Consequences of the introduction of the euro in those countries
         already using the euro
        100                                                                                                          05/2009                   09/2009
              Positive consequences
         80
                                                 64
               54                         55              58              58
         60         52                                           52                 51              48                                                     52
                                                                                          45                        45     41        43            41
                                                                                                          37                              36                         39
         40

         20

          0
                NMS8                         RO              HU                PL              EE              LV               LT            BG                CZ
        100
              Negative consequences
         80

         60
                                                                                                                                                                     45
                                                                                    35                                    34         35   34       31     36
         40    28   31                                    27              27              29        31    29
                                          23                     26                                                 23
                                                  17
         20

          0
                NMS8                         RO              HU                PL              EE              LV               LT            BG                CZ
        100
              DK/NA
         80

         60

         40                                                                                               34        33                    30
                                                                 23                       26                              25                     28
               19   18                    22      19                                              22                                 22
         20                                               15              16        14                                                                     12        16

          0
                NMS8                         RO              HU                PL            EE                LV               LT           BG                 CZ
                          Q17. Do you think the introduction of the euro has had positive or negative consequences in those countries that are using the euro already?
                                                                                                                                                           % by country




Even if the differences between the waves of May and September 2009 were only minor at the NMS8
level, at the country level some important trends could be seen.

In Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Bulgaria and Lithuania, for example, positive attitudes about the
consequences of the euro’s introduction have increased. In Romania, the share of those who judged
the consequences in other countries to have been positive has risen (+9 points, to 64%) and of those
who thought that they had been negative have fallen (-5 points, to 17%). There were also rises in
positive views in Latvia (+8 points, to 45%), in Bulgaria (+5 points, to 41%), in Estonia (+3 points, to
48%) and in Lithuania (+2 points, to 43%). Decreases in negative attitudes were seen in Latvia (-6
points, to 23%), Romania (-6 points, 17%) and Bulgaria (-3 points, to 31%).

Czech and Polish respondents, on the other hand, were increasingly negative in their judgement
about the euro’s impact on the current members of the euro area. Indeed, the share of Czech
respondents who were critical about the euro‟s effects has risen by nine percentage points (to 45%),
while those who saw a rather positive effect has decreased by 13 points (to 39%). In Poland, negative
views have increased by seven points (to 35%).

In Lithuania, opinions have remained practically unchanged between May and September 2009.

Looking at the differences between the socio-demographic groups, they were similar to those observed
for the key indicators relating to attitudes towards the euro‟s introduction. (see chapter 3).

Men, those aged 15-24 and 40-54, people with the highest levels of education (as well as those still in
education), respondents in metropolitan areas and the self-employed were most likely to think that the
euro has had positive consequence in countries that currently make up the euro area.




                                                                                                                                                                          page 43
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                  Analytical Report



4.1. Political and economical consequences of introducing the euro

4.1.1. Will the changeover to the euro increase prices?

Participating NMS8 citizens were asked for their opinions about the impact the euro would have on
prices at the time of its introduction. More than two-thirds (68%) of respondents feared that the
euro’s introduction would increase prices, while approximately one in five (22%) thought that it
would contribute to price stability. Only a handful of respondents expected no impact (2%) and 8%
said they could not or would not estimate the euro‟s impact.

                       Expected consequences of the changeover to the euro on prices

                                       05/2009 %NMS8                                                 09/2009 %NMS8

                                                8                                                               8
                                         5                                                                2



                                                                                                22
                               23



                                                                       65                                                            68




                                  Will increase prices         Will contribute to price stability             No impact       DK/NA

                                             Q18. Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced
                                                                               or, on the contrary, it will contribute to price stability?



Romanians showed the least concern about prices increasing due to the euro‟s introduction: just
under half of respondents believed that the euro would either contribute to price stability or have no
impact (42% and 2%, respectively) and an approximately equal number feared an increase in prices
(46%). In all other NMS8 countries, a majority of around 6 in 10 respondents or more were concerned
that goods and services will be more expensive once the euro is introduced. Polish and Estonian
respondents were particularly fearful of the euro’s impact: nearly 8 in 10 respondents expected
prices to increase (both 78%) while 14% (in both countries) expected prices to remain stable over the
long term.
          Expected consequences of the changeover to the euro on prices
                      Will increase prices                 Will contribute to price stability                   No impact                    DK/NA

      100
                8                              4               6               7               8                               8
                                               3               2                                               10                              11           11
          90    2                                                              4               2                               2
                                                                                                                3                               5           2
                                              14              14
          80                                                                  15              19
                22                                                                                             16             25

          70                                                                                                                                   26
                                                                                                                                                           42
          60

          50

          40                                  78              78              75              72               71
                68                                                                                                            66
          30                                                                                                                                   59
                                                                                                                                                           46
          20

          10

          0
               NMS8                           EE              PL              CZ              LT               BG             HU               LV          RO

                Q18. Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or, on the contrary, it will contribute to price stability?
                                                                                                                                                        % by country




page 44
Analytical Report                                                                                                                    Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Compared to May 2009, interviewees in almost all NMS8 states were now more sceptical about the
euro‟s impact on prices after its introduction. The increase of respondents expecting prices to rise at
the time of the changeover ranged from two percentage points in Poland (to 78%) to nine points in the
Czech Republic (to 75%). Exceptions were Latvia and Hungary, where the numbers expecting price
rises has decreased by one percentage point in Latvia (to 59%) and by five points in Hungary (to
66%).

In line with those views, Latvians and Hungarians were now more likely to give a positive estimation
about the euro‟s impact on prices. The share of those expecting the euro to contribute to price stability
increased by three percentage points in Hungary (to 25%) and by two percentage points in Latvia (to
26%). With the exception of Romania, where the proportions of interviewees who expected either
positive and negative consequences both increased by four percentage points, the remaining NMS8
countries all showed a decrease in the share of those who thought the euro would contribute to price
stability. This fall was the sharpest in the Czech Republic (-9 points, to 15%), in line with the strong
increase in the aforementioned negative expectations.6

The number of respondents expecting no impact has decreased in all NMS8 countries since May 2009.
This was most strikingly the case in the Czech Republic and Romania, where the share of “neutral”
respondents has decreased by four percentage points in each country (to 4% and to 2%, respectively).

        Expected consequences of the changeover to the euro on prices
                               NMS                                                            BG                                                              CZ                                                                  EE                                                             HU
          9          9            7                       8             7                         6         11           10                                      7             4            7                4           3            6            5            4                                             5
                                              8                                      9                                                                                                                       6                                                  3            9          9          8          2             8
                               4             5            2             9                        5                        3              10          7         5              8            4                 2         10            3            5                                               3                         2
           8         11                                                 2            9                      4                                                                                                           3           13                         14          12           8
           8                   19                        22                          3          19                       16               5          8         17                          15                                                    16                                     7        20          22
                     6                     23                                                               19                                                              24                                                                                              7                                             25



                                                                      83                                                                                                                                   89          84
         75         74                                                             79                                                   80          79                                    75                                       78            74            78          72         77
                                71         65            68                                    70          66            71                                    70           64                                                                                                                   69          71           66
                                           ***05/2009




                                                                                                           ***05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                            ***05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ***05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ***05/2009
                               **05/2008




                                                                                               **05/2008




                                                                                                                                                               **05/2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   **05/2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 **05/2008
         *04/2007

                    *09/2007




                                                                      *04/2007

                                                                                   *09/2007




                                                                                                                                        *04/2007

                                                                                                                                                   *09/2007




                                                                                                                                                                                                           *04/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       *09/2007




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           *04/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      *09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ***09/2009
                                                         ***09/2009




                                                                                                                        ***09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                          ***09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ***09/2009
         ** % NMS9,*** % NMS8, :                                             Will increase prices                                       Will contribute to price stability                                                                      No impact                        DK/NA
                                                        * NMS11:                 Will increase prices                                  Will lower prices                                               No impact                         DK/NA
                               LT                                                             LV                                                              PL                                                                  RO
          5          3          4                                                                                                                                                          6
                                                                       8             6                                   11                                     5             5                           14
                               4             9             8                                     9          11                            8          8          3           4             2                                        12                          11
           7          9                      4            2             6            7           4                                        4                                                                            17                       14
           2          2                                                              5                       4            5               7         8           9                        14                                         4                          2
                               17                        19             4                                                                           4                      16                                                                    6
                                           20                                                  21                                                                                                         17          18
                                                                                                           24           26
                                                                                                                                                                                                          14                      36                         42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14                       38

         87         86                                                82           82                                                   81         80         83
                               75                        72                                                                                                                76            78
                                           68                                                  66          60           59                                                                                55          52          48           42            46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ***09/2009
                                                         ***09/2009




                                                                                                                        ***09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                         ***09/2009
                                           ***05/2009




                                                                                                           ***05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                           ***05/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ***05/2009
                               **05/2008




                                                                                               **05/2008




                                                                                                                                                              **05/2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  **05/2008
         *04/2007

                    *09/2007




                                                                      *04/2007

                                                                                   *09/2007




                                                                                                                                        *04/2007

                                                                                                                                                   *09/2007




                                                                                                                                                                                                          *04/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      *09/2007




        Q18. (2008-2009) Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or, on the contrary, it will contribute to price stability?
                           Q18. (2007) Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or, on the contrary, it will lower prices?
                                                                                                                                                            % by country




6
  Comparisons with the survey waves of 2007 have to be handled with caution, as the question wording in the 2007 wave was slightly
different. Instead of being asked “do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or, on the contrary, it
will contribute to price stability??”, respondents were asked “do you think the euro’s introduction will increase or lower prices?”. The
answering category “no impact” was not read out by the interviewers. However, if respondents voiced that opinion spontaneously, this
answer was recorded. It has also to be noted that the questions related to inflation were only introduced in 2007.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       page 45
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                  Analytical Report




4.1.2. Favourable political and economic consequences of the euro

Respondents were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with several statements that suggested a
positive impact on their countries‟ economies due to the forthcoming adoption of the euro. While the
degree of agreement varied across the items, more respondents in the NMS8 tended to agree
(rather than disagree) with each of the statements.

Most agreement was obtained in regard to a reinforcement of Europe’s place in the world when the
currency would be adopted by their country: nearly two-thirds expected that outcome (64%, +1
percentage point), and approximately one in five disagreed (22%, no change).

A relative majority of respondents thought that the euro will ensure low inflation rates (45%).
Contrary to the other items, the share of respondents who agreed on this point has decreased sharply
(by 10 percentage points) since the last wave. However, the number of those who actively disagreed
has only increased slightly - by two percentage points (to 32%).

Even if the previous question (Q18) showed that a majority of respondents expected prices to
increase during the changeover (68%), the responses to this question indicated that interviewees
tended to associate the euro in the long run with price stability. Indeed, nearly 4 in 10 of those
respondents who expected prices to increase during the changeover felt that one of the major
advantages of the euro was an assurance of low inflation rates (38%).

A stable proportion (47% of respondents) agreed that adopting the euro would ensure sounder public
finances, and 30% (+1 point) disagreed. Just over 4 in 10 (41%, -1 point) agreed, and 3 in 10 (33%, +2
points) disagreed, with the statement that the euro would ensure lower interest rates and lower debt
charges. Respondents were most sceptical about whether a change to the euro would improve growth
and employment: about equal numbers of respondents agreed (41%, +1 point) or disagreed (38%, -1
point) with this statement.

A high proportion of respondents could not – or would not - answer these questions (ranging from
15% to 27% across NMS8 countries).

  Potential political and economic advantages of adopting the euro                                             Yes    No       DK/NA

                                                                                           Will ensure
    Will reinforce the     Will ensure                      Will ensure                  lower interest                    Will improve
    place of Europe       low inflation                   sounder public                rates, lower debt                    growth,
      in the world            rates                          finances                       charges                        employment

       22        22
                           30        32                     29         30                   31         33                   39        38




       63        64
                           55        45                     47         47                   42         41                   40         41
                09/2009




                                    09/2009




                                                                      09/2009




                                                                                                     09/2009




                                                                                                                                     09/2009
      05/2009




                          05/2009




                                                           05/2009




                                                                                           05/2009




                                                                                                                           05/2009
      %NMS8




                          %NMS8




                                                           %NMS8




                                                                                           %NMS8




                                                                                                                           %NMS8



                                                                                                                                     %NMS8
                %NMS8




                                    %NMS8




                                                                      %NMS8




                                                                                                     %NMS8




                                              Q21a-e. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?




There is no significant doubt in any of the NMS8 countries about Europe having a stronger global
position following a further enlargement of the euro area; the numbers of those agreeing that the euro
would reinforce the place of Europe in the world were much higher than the numbers of those who
disagreed. Most confident about this strengthening effect of the euro were Romanians (70%); the


page 46
Analytical Report                                                             Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


least optimistic were Bulgarians (55%). Compared to the previous wave, the ratio of those being
optimistic has increased by six percentage points in Latvia, Lithuania and Romania and decreased by
eight percentage points in Hungary. In the remaining NMS8 countries, the results were more or less
stable.

The number of respondents who thought that the euro would ensure low inflation rates has dropped
considerably in all of the NMS8 countries. Romania was seen to be the only country where a
majority of respondents agreed about this possible benefit (55%); it was also the country with the
smallest drop in the numbers agreeing with the statement (-6 points). The Czech Republic, on the
other hand, had the fewest respondents who agreed that the euro ensured low inflation rates (27%);
that country had one of the sharpest decreases in the numbers of supporters of this statement compared
to the previous wave (-16 points). Only Hungary had a bigger fall in support (-17 points, to 48%).

Apart from the Czech Republic (30% agreeing vs. 45% disagreeing), the proportion of people who
believed that the common currency could help their country to achieve healthier public finances
outnumbered those who did not share that view. This positive outlook was especially held by
Hungarians: about 6 in 10 (62%) expected the euro to ensure sounder public finances. However,
compared to the previous wave, this was a decrease of eight percentage points – the largest drop
among the NMS8 countries on that point. A decrease was also seen in Poland (-3 points, to 44%),
while in the remaining countries, their share has increased by between one percentage point in
Bulgaria (to 43%) and 11points in Lithuania (to 51%).

Except for those in the Czech Republic and Estonia, NMS8 citizens were more likely to believe that
credit charges will be more favourable after their country joins the euro area. Romanian respondents
were the most optimistic in this regard: 56% of respondents agreed, and only one in four disagreed
(24%). In the Czech Republic, the conviction that the euro would ensure lower interest and credit
rates was the least widespread (24% agreed, 48% disagreed), they were followed by Estonia (31%
agreed, 35% disagreed). The Czech Republic also had the biggest decrease in those who thought that
the euro would ensure lower interest rates (- 10 points). In most NMS8 countries, however,
respondents have become more optimistic about this subject; this was most strikingly so in Latvia
(+12 points).

                                                                                                                                      Will      ensure    lower
           Will reinforce the place Will ensure sounder Will      ensure                                                      low                                Will improve growth,
                                                                                                                                      interest rates, lower debt
           of Europe in the world   public finances     inflation rates                                                                                          employment
                                                                                                                                      charges

           Yes                 No                 Yes                    No                 Yes                    No                 Yes                    No                 Yes                    No
             5/2009
                      9/2009


                                5/2009
                                         9/2009


                                                       5/2009
                                                                9/2009


                                                                          5/2009
                                                                                   9/2009


                                                                                                 5/2009
                                                                                                          9/2009


                                                                                                                    5/2009
                                                                                                                             9/2009


                                                                                                                                           5/2009
                                                                                                                                                    9/2009


                                                                                                                                                              5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                       9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                     5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                              9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                        5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9/2009




 NMS       63         64       22        22       47            47       29        30       55            45       30        32       42            41       31        33       40            41       39        38


 BG        54         55       23        24       42            43       22        24       48            37       31        33       33            34       29        32       34            35       34        37
 CZ        56         56       39        31       42            30       48        45       43            27       48        49       34            24       52        48       32            22       57        59
 EE        56         57       28        28       40            47       34        30       48            41       36        34       28            31       37        35       38            39       43        39
 LV        53         59       34        28       38            42       35        34       48            40       41        37       24            36       43        34       30            34       54        47
 LT        54         60       24        21       40            51       35        30       38            48       40        28       42            48       29        26       36            49       37        27
 HU        68         60       22        24       70            62       21        22       65            48       25        28       44            43       34        30       50            43       38        34
 PL        67         66       19        20       47            44       29        32       55            44       29        33       44            39       28        35       40            41       37        39
 RO        64         70       19        16       45            54       24        25       61            55       23        22       48            56       26        24       42            49       35        29
 Q21a-e. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?




                                                                                                                                                                                                        page 47
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                  Analytical Report


In the Czech Republic, Latvia and Bulgaria, citizens were more likely to disagree that the introduction
of the euro would improve economic growth and employment, while in Lithuania, Hungary, Poland,
and Romania, a relative majority expected this to be one of the main advantages of the changeover.
Lithuanians and Romanians were by far the most confident about such an improvement: about half
(49%) agreed in both countries and 27% and 29%, respectively, disagreed. In the Czech Republic, the
idea that the euro would foster economic growth and employment found the lowest breeding ground
(22% agreed, 59% disagreed). In Bulgaria (35% disagreed and 37% agreed), Estonia (39% vs. 39%)
and Poland (41% vs. 39%), opinions were divided on this point.

Since May 2009, the ratio of those expecting the euro to improve growth and employment has
increased in Lithuania (+13 points), Romania (+7 points), Latvia (+4 points), Bulgaria, Estonia and
Poland (all by +1 point), while it has decreased in the Czech Republic (-10 points), and Hungary (-7
points).

Overall, the citizens of Romania tended to be the most optimistic about the potential advantages of
the changeover, while the Czech respondents were most critical about the various impacts that the
euro could have.

Looking at the differences between the various socio-demographic groups, it can be seen that men,
the youngest age group, those with the highest level of education and those living in a metropolitan
area or other large town were more likely to agree on the potential political and economic advantages
that were presented to participants in the survey. The assurance of lower interest rates and debt
charges following the euro‟s introduction was one exception to this, as there were barely any
differences between the 15-24 year-olds and the 25-54 year-olds. Except for the strengthening of
Europe thanks to the enlargement of the euro area, among the different occupation groups, employees
were most positive about the impact of the euro. In that particular case, the self-employed were more
confident (71% agreed, compared to 67% of employees). For details, see annex table 27.

4.1.3. The euro as an ingredient in European identity
A slight majority of respondents in the NMS8 countries thought that using the euro would make
people feel more European (55%, +2 percentage points), while approximately 4 in 10 did not agree
(38%, no change). Since 2007, these figures have remained fairly stable across the countries waiting to
join the euro area.
                 Using the euro will make people feel more European
                                                          Agree                 Disagree                   DK/NA

                  09/2009 %NMS8                                 55                                         38                  7

                  05/2009 %NMS8                               53                                        38                     9

                  05/2008 %NMS9                               53                                        40                     8

                  09/2007 %NMS11                                55                                         35                 9

                  04/2007 %NMS11                              54                                        37                    10

                  09/2006 %NMS10                                56                                         36                  8

                  04/2006 %NMS10                                55                                         39                   6

                  09/2005 %NMS10                         43                                        48                          9

                  09/2004 %NMS10                           47                                         45                       8

                   Q22e.(2007-2009)/Q21e. (2006) Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?
                           „The usage of the euro instead of the NATIONAL CURRENCY will make us feel more European than now”




page 48
Analytical Report                                                                                                Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Although there have only been minor variations in the 2006-2009 waves across NMS8 countries
overall, considerable differences between individual countries have remained. In five countries, the
majority (including a relative majority in Bulgaria) of citizens agreed with the statement that using the
euro will make them feel more European: Czech Republic (67% agreed vs. 29% disagreed), Poland
(59% vs. 36%), Romania (59% vs. 29%), Latvia (54% vs. 39%) and Bulgaria (48% vs. 40%).

The remaining three NMS8 countries showed an opposite picture. In Hungary, a large majority of
nearly two-thirds of respondents actively disagreed that the euro would impact their identity as
Europeans (64%), and only 30% agreed. In Estonia, half of respondents disagreed, and 43% agreed,
and in Lithuania, opinions were divided (44% disagreed, 45% agreed).

Except for Estonia (-3 percentage points), the share of respondents who believed that the euro would
make them feel more European has increased in all NMS8 countries since May 2009, most notably in
Lithuania (+ 7 points). The share of those who disagreed fell in Latvia (-11 points), Romania (-6
points) and Lithuania (-3 points); it remained unchanged in Hungary and Bulgaria and increased
slightly in the Czech Republic (+1 point), Poland (+2 points) and Estonia (+3 points).

                    Using the euro will make people feel more European
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      % agree                                  % disagree
                                        CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                          ESTONIA                                                                                    HUNGARY

                                        69 67 67                                 67                                                                                                                         64 63 60 66 66 63 62 64 64
                                                                        59 62 66
                    53
                              44                                                                                  49 54 45 48 46 47 43 47 50

                                                                                                                                       46 43
                    37 41                        34 32 28 29                                                      38 34 44 43 42 40 41                                                                      32 31 36 30 27 30 35 28 30
                                        26 28 28
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                    09/2006
                                                              04/2007
                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                      09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                            09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               09/2009
                                                                                                                  09/2004
                                                                                                                            09/2005
                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009




                                                   LITHUANIA                                                                                       LATVIA                                                                                    POLAND


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 58 62 56 62    58 59
                                                                                                                                      53 47 53 51 52 50 54                                                  49 47                            50
                              51 45 46 45 48 47 48 45                                                             41 47
                    43

                    42                       44 38 44                                                             40 36 38 44 37 41 41 43 39                                                                45 46                                                         43
                              37 42 42 41 41                                                                                                                                                                                     37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           29 32 29                                 34 36
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                    09/2006
                                                              04/2007
                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                       09/2009


                                                                                                                  09/2004
                                                                                                                            09/2005
                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                            09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2009




                                                   BULGARIA                                                                                     ROMANIA


                                                                                                                                                          59 61 62 57 59                                    Q22e.(2007-2009)/Q21e.(2006)
                                                              47 48 51 45 48                                                                                                                                Could you tell me for each of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  following statements if you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         agree or disagree…?
                                                              42 42 38 40 40                                                                                                                                 „The usage of the euro instead
                                                                                                                                                          30 26 29 35 29                                      of the NATIONAL CURRENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       will make us feel more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        European than now”
                                                                                                                  09/2004
                                                                                                                            09/2005
                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                  09/2009
                    09/2004
                              09/2005
                                         04/2006
                                                    09/2006
                                                              04/2007
                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                      09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  % by country




Men, 15-24 year-olds, those with higher levels of education and the self-employed were most likely to
agree that using the euro would foster a more European identity. For further details, see annex table
28.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          page 49
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                     Analytical Report




4.2. Practical consequences of the euro changeover

Respondents were also asked to evaluate some of the practical consequences of belonging to the euro
area.

As was seen in previous survey waves, an overwhelming majority agreed with statements
suggesting that travelling and shopping in Europe would become easier (“it will be more
convenient for those who travel to other EU countries: 92%, +2 percentage points; “it will make it
easier to shop in other countries that use the euro ” 87%, no change; “it will allow you to easily
compare prices between EU countries”: 82%, -2 points, it will eliminate charges for changing from
one currency to another inside the EU”: 78%, +1 point).

As observed before, respondents were particularly critical about the power of the euro to protect
against the effect of international crises – only a minority of respondents agreed on this statement
(41%, -3 points), while nearly the same share disagreed (37%, +2 points).

      Expected positive effects of joining the euro area                                                                       Yes      No


      Will be more                Will make it            Will allow you to             Will eliminate                        Will protect from
      convenient for those        easier to shop in       easily compare                charges for changing                  the effects of
      who travel in other         other countries         prices between EU             from one currency to                  international
      countries of EU             that use the euro       countries                     another inside EU                     crises




  92 92 95 93 89 89 92 90 92   8280 9089 85 84 88 87 87   73 70 83 81 8080 82 84 82   77 74 78 80 74 74 80 78 79
                                                                                                                              42 40 45 44 45 44 41

                                                                                                                       N.A.
  5   4 3 4 5 6 4 5 5          12 13 7 7 7 10 8 7 8       18 19 11 12 11 12 11 9 11    11 12 13 10 12 13 11 11 11
                                                                                                                              30 32 27 29 30 35 37
  9/2004 %NMS10

  4/2006 %NMS10




                               9/2004 %NMS10

                               4/2006 %NMS10




                                                          9/2004 %NMS10

                                                          4/2006 %NMS10




                                                                                      9/2004 %NMS10

                                                                                      4/2006 %NMS10




                                                                                                                      9/2004 %NMS10

                                                                                                                      4/2006 %NMS10
  9/2005 %NMS10




                               9/2005 %NMS10




                                                          9/2005 %NMS10




                                                                                      9/2005 %NMS10




                                                                                                                      9/2005 %NMS10
   9/2009 %NMS8




                                9/2009 %NMS8




                                                           9/2009 %NMS8




                                                                                       9/2009 %NMS8




                                                                                                                       9/2009 %NMS8
  9/2007 %NMS11

   5/2009 %NMS8




                                5/2009 %NMS8




                                                          9/2007 %NMS11

                                                           5/2009 %NMS8




                                                                                       5/2009 %NMS8




                                                                                                                      9/2007 %NMS11

                                                                                                                       5/2009 %NMS8
  4/2007 %NMS11




                               4/2007 %NMS11
                               9/2007 %NMS11




                                                          4/2007 %NMS11




                                                                                      4/2007 %NMS11
                                                                                      9/2007 %NMS11




                                                                                                                      4/2007 %NMS11
  9/2006 %NMS10




                               9/2006 %NMS10




                                                          9/2006 %NMS10




                                                                                      9/2006 %NMS10




                                                                                                                      9/2006 %NMS10
   5/2008 %NMS9




                                5/2008 %NMS9




                                                           5/2008 %NMS9




                                                                                       5/2008 %NMS9




                                                                                                                       5/2008 %NMS9




                                                                                  Q20a-e .(2007-2009)/Q19. (2006) Do you think that the euro ...?




When looking at the country level, it can be seen that Hungarian and Polish respondents were
somewhat more likely to agree on the euro’s positive effects, while Lithuanians were - on several
statements – the least liable to agree on the benefits. Moreover, Czech respondents showed an
inclination to actively disagree with the suggestions

Hungarians were the most likely to agree that it will be more convenient to travel in the EU (94%,
together with Estonians) and that prices would be more easily comparable (91%). Together with
Polish citizens, the Hungarians also felt that purchasing goods and services in other EU countries
would be easier (both 89%) and agreed that currency conversion fees would be eliminated (HU: 83%,
PL: 84%). A conviction that the euro might protect countries from the effects of international crises,
however, was most often felt by Estonians (47%).
Lithuanians, on the other hand, were the least likely to agree that purchasing in the EU would be
easier (80%), that prices would be more easily comparable and that conversion fees would be
eliminated (63%).

Except for the elimination of conversion fees (where Lithuanians showed the most disagreement:
23%), Czech respondents demonstrated the most opposition to each of the statements. For example,



page 50
Analytical Report                                                                 Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


half of Czech interviewees disagreed that the euro was an efficient tool that would protect against
international crises, vs. 30% of Bulgarian citizens (a 20 percentage point difference).
           Will       be   more                                                                                                         Will eliminate charges
                                Will make purchasing Will allow you to easily                                                                                  Will protect from the
           convenient for those                                                                                                         for changing from one
                                in the EU countries compare            prices                                                                                  effects of international
           who travel in other                                                                                                          currency to another
                                easier               between EU countries                                                                                      crises
           countries of EU                                                                                                              inside EU
           Yes                  No                    Yes                No                    Yes                No                    Yes                 No                    Yes                No
              5/2009
                       9/2009


                                    5/2009
                                             9/2009


                                                       5/2009
                                                                9/2009


                                                                             5/2009
                                                                                      9/2009


                                                                                                5/2009
                                                                                                         9/2009


                                                                                                                      5/2009
                                                                                                                               9/2009


                                                                                                                                          5/2009
                                                                                                                                                   9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                         9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                   5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                            9/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                      5/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                               9/2009
 NMS       90          92       5            4        87        87       7            8        84        82       9            11       78         78       11           11       44        41       35        37


 BG        88          90       3            5        82        85       6            8        75        80       13           11       72         77       10           8        43        44       28        30
 CZ        83          91       15           7        81        87       17           10       80        83       18           14       76         77       20           18       37        34       53        50
 EE        94          94       3            4        81        85       12           9        79        81       10           12       80         80       7            10       38        47       42        36
 LV        94          92       3            4        89        87       5            8        83        83       10           10       82         79       9            10       31        33       48        47
 LT        90          92       4            3        78        80       12           9        71        77       13           11       57         63       25           23       30        36       46        41
 HU        96          94       1            2        95        89       2            6        93        91       3            5        85         83       10           11       49        40       34        42
 PL        94          93       4            4        90        89       5            7        87        83       7            11       85         84       7            8        52        42       30        36
 RO        86          89       6            6        83        83       9            9        82        79       9            11       68         71       12           11       37        45       37        31
 Q20a-e . Do you think that the euro ...?



Despite this relative opposition to the statements, compared to the previous wave conducted in May
2009, Czech respondents showed the biggest rise in optimism about the euro’s potential impact.
The country showed the biggest increase in the opinion that it would be more convenient to travel in
the EU (+8 points, to 91%) and that purchasing in the EU would be easier (+6 points, to 87%); at the
same time, disagreement on those statements decreased in the Czech Republic significantly (-8 and -7
points, respectively). Furthermore, there was less disagreement that prices would be more easily
comparable (- 4 points, to 14%).

While agreement that the euro has some power to protect against international crises has decreased
overall by 3 percentage points, the views in the various NMS8 countries have not developed in the
same way. Support for this benefit of the euro has decreased in the Czech Republic (-3 points),
Hungary (-9 points) and Poland (-10 points); it has increased, however, in Bulgaria (+1 point), Latvia
(+2 points), Lithuania (+6 points) and most strikingly, in Romania (+8 points) and Estonia (+9 points).
The level of disagreement increased most markedly in Hungary (+8 points), while it had the sharpest
drop in Romania and Estonia (both -6 points).

Looking at differences in responses between the various socio-demographic groups, the findings
were similar to the previous questions relating to respondents‟ expectations about the euro‟s
introduction and its potential impact. Men, younger respondents, those living in metropolitan areas,
the self-employed and employees were more likely than their counterparts in other socio-demographic
groups to agree to the positive effects of the euro that were presented to survey participants. Moreover,
as already observed, the higher the educational level of the respondent, the more likely he or she was
to agree to the euro‟s positive effects.

Concerning age, some minor exceptions to this recurring pattern were seen. While the youngest age
group (15-24) gave most support to the practical implications of the euro concerning shopping,
comparing prices and the elimination of currency exchange fees, in regard to travelling to other euro
area countries, the older respondents (25-54) were just as supportive (15-24: 94%, 25-54: 93%). There
were also minor differences between age groups when judging the euro’s potential to protect against
international crises: between 40% (55+) and 43% (40-54) agreed on this. For further details, see
annex table 26.


                                                                                                                                                                                                          page 51
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                       Analytical Report



4.3. Fears regarding the introduction of the euro

In accordance with the aforementioned overall positive attitudes of citizens in the NMS8 towards the
euro, a majority of respondents disagreed with the statements that suggested some negative
impacts due to the euro’s introduction.

Just as in the previous wave, the only fear that a majority of respondents in the NMS8 countries shared
among the statements presented were possible abuses and cases of cheating on prices during the
changeover (73%, +1 point). Most people did not worry about personal inconveniences that could be
caused by the changeover (57%, -1 point), a loss of the country’s control of economic policy (55%, -2
points) or that adopting the euro could have a negative effect on their country’s identity (54%, -2
points).
      Fears regarding the adoption of the euro                                                                             Agree         Disagree            DK/NA

             The replacement of the                  You are afraid of abuses                   Adopting the euro will                      Adopting the euro will
          [CURRENCY] by the euro will                 and cheating on prices                   mean that [COUNTRY]                          mean that [COUNTRY]
           cause you personally a lot of              during the changeover                    will lose control over its                   will lose a great deal of
                  inconvenience                                                                    economic policy                                 its identity

                                                         3            4
                 7            7                                                                                                                     11         11
                                                                                                     15            15
                                                         25           23


                58           57                                                                                                                                54
                                                                                                                                                    56
                                                                                                     57            55


                                                         72           73

                35           37                                                                                                                     34         35
                                                                                                    28             30
               05/2009




                            09/2009




                                                       05/2009




                                                                     09/2009




                                                                                                   05/2009




                                                                                                                 09/2009




                                                                                                                                                05/2009




                                                                                                                                                              09/2009
               %NMS8




                                                       %NMS8




                                                                                                   %NMS8




                                                                                                                                                %NMS8
                            %NMS8




                                                                     %NMS8




                                                                                                                 %NMS8




                                                                                                                                                              %NMS8
                                                                          Q22a-d. Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?




4.3.1. Fear of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover
This fear clearly stood out, as it is was shared by three-quarters of respondents (73%). This level of
concern has only changed slightly (agreed: +1 point, disagreed: - 2 points)
                           Fears regarding the introduction of the euro:
                           afraid of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover
                                                                  Agree                    Disagree                     DK/NA

                            09/2009 %NMS8                                           73                                           23          4

                             05/2009 %NMS8                                         72                                            25             3

                             05/2008 %NMS9                                         72                                            24             4

                            09/2007 %NMS11                                        69                                         26             6

                            04/2007 %NMS11                                       67                                         26              7

                           09/2006 %NMS10                                           73                                           24             3

                           04/2006 %NMS10                                             74                                           23           3

                            09/2005 %NMS10                                            75                                         20          5

                           09/2004 %NMS10                                          71                                         23            6


                             Q22b.(2007-2009)/Q21b. (2006) Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?
                                                                             „Fear of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover”




page 52
Analytical Report                                                                                       Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Since the question was first asked in 2004, the proportion of those who were afraid of abuses and
cheating on prices during the changeover has always significantly outnumbered those who did not
have that concern across all of the new Member States not yet in the euro area. The smallest difference
was seen in Romania (58% had such a concern vs. 36% who did not) while the greatest differences
were found in Poland (80% vs. 20%), Hungary (77%vs. 18%) and Bulgaria (76% vs. 18%).

                    Fears of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover
                                                                                                                                                                                                     % agree                        % disagree
                                   CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                    ESTONIA                                                                      HUNGARY

                    69 71 66 67 65 70 72                                                                  72 69                                                              67                       71 73               75 71               75        77
                                                                                                                                 65 65 64 69                                               64




                    28 27 31 29 32 28 26                                                                                         25 26 25                                    28            32         26 22                         24        22
                                                                                                          21 24                           24                                                                              21                            18



                                                                                                          04/2006

                                                                                                                      09/2006

                                                                                                                                 04/2007

                                                                                                                                            09/2007

                                                                                                                                                       05/2008

                                                                                                                                                                  05/2009

                                                                                                                                                                             09/2009
                    04/2006

                               09/2006

                                          04/2007

                                                      09/2007

                                                                  05/2008

                                                                              05/2009

                                                                                           09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                           04/2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                04/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05/2008

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2009

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009
                                          LITHUANIA                                                                               LATVIA                                                                           POLAND
                    75 77 76 77 78 74                                                      73             74 78 74 68 76 78 75                                                             79 75 71 74 84 79 80




                                                                                           23                                               27
                    21
                               18 19 20 19 21                                                             22 18                  21                    21         18         20
                                                                                                                                                                                           19 24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                20        21 15               19 18
                    04/2006

                               09/2006

                                          04/2007

                                                      09/2007

                                                                  05/2008

                                                                              05/2009

                                                                                           09/2009




                                                                                                          04/2006

                                                                                                                      09/2006

                                                                                                                                 04/2007

                                                                                                                                            09/2007

                                                                                                                                                       05/2008

                                                                                                                                                                  05/2009

                                                                                                                                                                             09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                           04/2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                                04/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05/2008

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2009

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009
                                              BULGARIA                                                                            ROMANIA

                                          74          82           78          74            76
                                                                                                                                 54 51 55 59 58
                                                                                                                                                                                        Q22b (2007-2009)./Q21b (2006).
                                                                                                                                                                                         Could you tell me for each of the
                                                                                                                                                                                        following statements if you agree
                                                                                                                                 39 41 39 37 36
                                                                                20 18                                                                                                                      or disagree…?
                                          20            14 17                                                                                                                               „You are afraid of abuses and
                                                                                                                                                                                            cheating on prices during the
                     04/2006

                                09/2006

                                            04/2007

                                                        09/2007

                                                                    05/2008

                                                                                 05/2009

                                                                                              09/2009




                                                                                                            04/2006

                                                                                                                       09/2006

                                                                                                                                  04/2007

                                                                                                                                             09/2007

                                                                                                                                                        05/2008

                                                                                                                                                                   05/2009

                                                                                                                                                                              09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                             changeover”
                                                                                                                                                                                                              % by country




Comparing the current results with those of the previous wave, any changes in attitudes were only
minor.

In half of the countries, the number of those who feared that there would be unfair pricing of goods
during the changeover has slightly increased (by 1 percentage point in Poland and Romania, by 2
points in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Bulgaria); in the other half, their share has decreased (- 1
point in Lithuania and Romania, - 2 points in Estonia and - 3 points in Latvia). On the other hand,
those who did not fear cheating with prices decreased in Romania and Poland (-1 point), the Czech
Republic and Bulgaria (-2 points) and Hungary (-4 points) and increased in Lithuania and Latvia (+2
points) and in Estonia (+4 points).




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  page 53
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                   Analytical Report




4.3.2. Loss of national identity due to the adoption of the euro
The majority of respondents (54%) in the NMS8 countries did not believe that adopting the euro
would cause a loss of national identity; while just over a third were concerned about this (35%),
around 1 in 10 respondents did not give an answer or did not know how to reply (11%). Since May
2009, the proportion of those not being concerned about a loss of national identity has decreased by
two percentage points, while the number of those fearing such a loss has slightly increased by one
percentage point.

                 Fear of losing a great deal of national identity
                                                      Agree                 Disagree                  DK/NA


                  09/2009 %NMS8                      35                                       54                            11


                  05/2009 %NMS8                     34                                       56                             11


                  05/2008 %NMS9                      35                                       54                            11


                  09/2007 %NMS11                    33                                      54                             13


                  04/2007 %NMS11                    33                                      54                             13


                 09/2006 %NMS10                       37                                         53                         10


                 04/2006 %NMS10                     34                                        58                             9


                 09/2005 %NMS10                        39                                        49                         11


                 09/2004 %NMS10                        39                                        49                         11

                    Q22d.(2007-2009)/Q21d. (2006) Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?
                                                  „Adopting the euro will mean that COUNTRY will lose a great deal of its identity”




Contrary to the NMS8 countries on average, in three of them, more respondents were convinced that
the introduction of the euro would lead to a loss of national identity than those that disagreed. This
was the case in Latvia (64% vs. 29%), the Czech Republic (53% vs. 41%) and Lithuania (48% vs.
42%).

In the remaining NMS8 countries, a majority of respondents did not think that their feeling of
national identity would suffer when they switched to the euro; this was most often the case in
Hungary (63%). Similar views, to a lesser extent were held in Poland and Romania, a majority of
respondents disagreed on that point (57% in both), and in Bulgaria, a relative majority of 46% felt
there would be no such loss.

In five NMS8 countries, the number of those who disagreed about the loss of identity has decreased,
while the number agreeing has either remained more or less stable (in Poland 34%, in Lithuania 48%,
-1 point) or has increased. The greatest drop (in disagreement) was seen in Hungary (-7 points, to
63%); other decreases were observed in Estonia (-1 point, to 47%), in Romania (- 2 points, to 57%), in
Poland (- 3 points, to 57%) and the Czech Republic (-4 points, to 41%). The most striking increases
(in agreement) were observed in Hungary (+5 points, to 24%) and Romania (+4 points, to 28%).




page 54
Analytical Report                                                                                                            Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



                    Fear of losing a great deal of national identity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          % agree                                   % disagree

                                          CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                                     ESTONIA                                                                                            HUNGARY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              67 65 71 61 69       70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             60 61    63
                                  54 51 53
                45 45 49 50 52 52                                                                                           49 49 48 48 48 51 44
                                                                                                                                                 48 47

                43 41 46 45 42 40 41 45                                                                     41                                42 39 42
                                                                                                                            35 33 35 39 36 37                                                                                                30 26 19 24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 26 19 27 20
                    09/2004
                               09/2005
                                          04/2006
                                                     09/2006
                                                                04/2007
                                                                           09/2007
                                                                                      05/2008
                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                            09/2009


                                                                                                                            09/2004
                                                                                                                                       09/2005
                                                                                                                                                  04/2006
                                                                                                                                                             09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                        04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2009
                                                    LITHUANIA                                                                                                LATVIA                                                                                               POLAND

                                                                                                                                  66 68 65 64 65 66 64                                                                              63 57
                               51 51 52 52 50 50 49 48
                                                                                                                            58 59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50 52       55 60 55 60 57
                    40

                    38                              42                                                                                                                                                                        41 38                              37 34 34
                               30 34 33 35 36 35 34                                                                                              27 29                                                                                               29 32 30 29
                                                                                                                            25 24 27 24 25 25 28
                                                                                                                            09/2004
                                                                                                                                       09/2005
                                                                                                                                                  04/2006
                                                                                                                                                             09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                        04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                              09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2009
                    09/2004
                               09/2005
                                          04/2006
                                                     09/2006
                                                                04/2007
                                                                           09/2007
                                                                                      05/2008
                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                            09/2009




                                                     BULGARIA                                                                                                ROMANIA


                                                                                                                                                                        59 58 64 59 57
                                                                47 44 48 46 46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Q22d.(2007-2009)/Q21d. (2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Could you tell me for each of the
                                                                40 40 36 34 36                                                                                                                                                following statements if you agree or
                                                                                                                                                                        26 23 20 24 28                                                                 disagree…?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                „Adopting the euro will mean that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [COUNTRY] will lose a great deal of
                     09/2004
                                09/2005
                                           04/2006
                                                      09/2006
                                                                 04/2007
                                                                            09/2007
                                                                                       05/2008
                                                                                                  05/2009
                                                                                                             09/2009


                                                                                                                             09/2004
                                                                                                                                        09/2005
                                                                                                                                                   04/2006
                                                                                                                                                              09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       its identity”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        % by country




4.3.3. Expected difficulties due to the euro’s introduction

A majority (57%) of respondents in NMS8 countries disagreed with the statement that the euro‟s
introduction would cause them a lot of personal inconvenience, while just over a third (37%)
expected such difficulties. This was a slight increase in the amount of concern since May 2009 (+2
percentage points “agreed/were concerned” and – 1 point “disagreed/not concerned”).

                Fears regarding the introduction of the euro:
                the euro will cause you personally a lot of inconvenience

                                                                                                                            Agree                                                             Disagree                                                   DK/NA]

                     09/2009 %NMS8                                                                                     37                                                                                                     57                                                                           7

                      05/2009 %NMS8                                                                                    35                                                                                                    58                                                                            7

                      05/2008 %NMS9                                                                                    38                                                                                                       55                                                                          7

                    09/2007 %NMS11                                                                                     38                                                                                                     55                                                                          8

                    04/2007 %NMS11                                                                                     35                                                                                                    56                                                                         9

                09/2006 %NMS10                                                                                         38                                                                                                       56                                                                          6

                04/2006 %NMS10                                                                                         35                                                                                                    58                                                                            7

                09/2005 %NMS10                                                                                          39                                                                                                    51                                                                        10

                09/2004 %NMS10                                                                                         36                                                                                                    54                                                                         10


                                         Q22a.(2007-2009)/Q21a. (2006) Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?
                                                     „The replacement of national currency by the euro will cause you personally a lot of inconvenience”




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              page 55
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Analytical Report


With the exception of the Czech Republic, respondents in all NMS8 countries who were not
expecting personal inconveniences due to the introduction of the euro outnumbered those expecting
such difficulties. This gap was particularly large in Romania: two-thirds of respondents disagreed
with the statement that they would personally suffer a lot of inconvenience (65%), while only 27%
agreed on that point.

In the other countries, the gap between those who feared a lot of personal inconvenience and those
who did not was smaller. Hungarians (48% agreed vs. 44% disagreed) and Bulgarians (47% vs. 39%)
were the most divided over that question. In the Baltic states, majorities of between 54% (in Estonia)
and 60% (in Lithuania) did not think they would be personally inconvenienced and between a third (in
Lithuania) and 38% (in both Estonia and Latvia) thought they would have problems.

Contrary to the NMS8 countries on average, in the Czech Republic slightly more respondents feared
that the euro would cause a certain amount of personal inconvenience (49%) than did not (46%).

In four of the surveyed countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania), the share of
those rejecting the idea that the euro would mean some personal inconvenience has remained stable or
changed only slightly (by one to two percentage points) since May 2009. In Bulgaria, for example, the
proportion of respondents disagreeing with the proposition has decreased by two percentage points (to
47%) and the share of those agreeing (has also decreased) by one percentage point (to 39%).

In the Baltic states, respondents were less fearful – now, compared to May 2009 - about personal
problems that could be caused by the euro. In all three countries, the share of those who disagreed with
the statement has increased, while the number agreeing has decreased. This change was most visible in
Lithuania (+11 percentage points “disagreed/not concerned”, -7 points “agreed/concerned”).

                 Fears regarding the introduction of the euro:
                 the euro will cause you personally a lot of inconvenience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               % agree                                  % disagree
                                      CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                                        ESTONIA                                                                                                 HUNGARY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 57
                50 46 53 54 48 50 50 51 49                                                                          51 50 46 52 46 51 51 51 54                                                                                            52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    45 50 49 48 48 48

                                      41 39 44 43 44 45 46                                                                      46 41                                                                                                                     40 43 39 41 42 43 44
                34 34                                                                                               37 42 41 39       38 42 38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 29
                 09/2004
                            09/2005
                                       04/2006
                                                   09/2006
                                                              04/2007
                                                                         09/2007
                                                                                    05/2008
                                                                                               05/2009
                                                                                                          09/2009



                                                                                                                      09/2004
                                                                                                                                  09/2005
                                                                                                                                              04/2006
                                                                                                                                                          09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                      04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                             05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2009




                                                LITHUANIA                                                                                               LATVIA                                                                                                      POLAND

                                                                        55 53    60                                                                                                                                                       63 60 59       63 59
                                                                                                                                         55 56                                                                                      55 53          56 55
                49 53                 46 48 51                                49                                    45 46 50 47 53 53 54

                40 40                 45 44 40 37 42 40 33                                                          41 41 46 45 41 41 40 42 38                                                                                      40 42                          39 42    37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 36 33       32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      09/2009
                                                                                                                    09/2004
                                                                                                                                09/2005
                                                                                                                                            04/2006
                                                                                                                                                        09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                    04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                              05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                           05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        09/2009
                09/2004
                           09/2005
                                      04/2006
                                                  09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                   05/2008
                                                                                              05/2009
                                                                                                         09/2009




                                                 BULGARIA                                                                                               ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                                    63 63 65 65 65
                                                             50 48 49 49 47                                                                                                                                                              Q22a.(2007-2009)/Q21a. (2006)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Could you tell me for each of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        following statements if you agree
                                                             40 44 41 40 39                                                                                                                                                                                or disagree…?
                                                                                                                                                                    27 27 26 28                                        27                        „The replacement of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [CURRENCY] by the euro will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cause you personally a lot of
                                                                                                                    09/2004
                                                                                                                                09/2005
                                                                                                                                            04/2006
                                                                                                                                                        09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                    04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                          05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       09/2009
                09/2004
                           09/2005
                                      04/2006
                                                 09/2006
                                                             04/2007
                                                                        09/2007
                                                                                   05/2008
                                                                                              05/2009
                                                                                                         09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         inconvenience”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              % by country




page 56
Analytical Report                                             Flash EB No 280- Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



4.3.4. Loss of control over a nation’s economic policy

A majority (55%) of respondents disagreed with the statement that adopting the euro would make
their government lose control of their national economic policy, and 30% did fear such a loss of
control. Around one in seven (15%) did not know how to judge this particular effect of the euro‟s
introduction.
NMS8 citizens have become slightly more sceptical since May 2009 on this point. In the current wave,
more interviewees agreed that the introduction of the common currency would lead to a loss of control
over national economic policy (+2 points), while the numbers disagreeing decreased by a similar
margin (to 55%).

               Fears regarding the introduction of the euro:
               adopting the euro will mean that [COUNTRY] will lose control over its
               economic policy
                                                           Agree              Disagree                 DK/NA]

                    09/2009 %NMS8                    30                                     55                               15

                    05/2009 %NMS8                   28                                      57                               15

                    05/2008 %NMS9                     31                                       54                            15

                    09/2007 %NMS11                  28                                     55                               17

                    04/2007 %NMS11                  27                                    55                                18

                09/2006 %NMS10                        31                                       55                             14

                04/2006 %NMS10                      29                                         59                               13

                09/2005 %NMS10                           35                                 45                             20

                09/2004 %NMS10                           34                                    49                           18

                      Q22c.(2007-2009)/Q21c.(2006) Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree…?
                                        „Adopting the euro will mean that OUR COUNTRY will lose control over its economic policy”




The country level analysis showed that, in all countries except Latvia, those who disagreed with the
statement “their country will lose control over its economic policy by adopting the euro”
outnumbered those who agreed with that sentiment. In Latvia, one in two respondents expected the
introduction of the euro to cause a loss of economic control (50% vs. 38% who did not fear such
consequences). In the remaining countries, Hungary (61%) and Poland (58%) had the greatest
proportions of respondents who did not fear a loss of control over national economic policy, and
Bulgaria (48%) had the lowest number of respondents feeling that way.

A comparison of the results of the current and previous waves showed that - in most countries -
changes in attitudes were only minor. Lithuanians were most likely to have changed their mind about
the euro‟s influence on this point: the level of disagreement has increased by nine percentage points
(to 52%), while the numbers agreeing have decreased by four points (to 33%).

In the other countries, the proportions of those who were not worried about a loss of control have
remained stable in Estonia (51%) and Romania (56%); they have increased in Bulgaria (+1 point, to
48%) and Latvia (+5 points, to 38%), and decreased in Poland (- 4 points, to 58%), the Czech
Republic and Hungary (-2 points, to 51% and 61%, respectively).

Greater changes were seen in relation to the proportion of those who were worried about their
government losing control of their nation‟s economic policy. Those figures have increased in Romania
(+6 points, to 25%), Bulgaria (+4 points, to 30%) and Poland (+2 points, to 30%); they have remained



                                                                                                                                       page 57
Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Analytical Report


stable in Estonia and Hungary and decreased in Latvia (-5 points), Lithuania (-4 points, to 33%) and
the Czech Republic (-3 points, to 37%).

                  Fears regarding the introduction of the euro: adopting the euro
                  will mean that [COUNTRY] will lose control over its economic policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     % agree                                 % disagree
                                      CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                          ESTONIA                                                                                    HUNGARY

                                      61 59                                                                                                                                                                67 63 69                                68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             61 62 63 61
                  50 44                                    52 47 52 53 51                                                         51 51                                                                                                  56
                                                                                                                   44 42 45 44 45
                                                                                                             43 42

                                                           39 38 38 40 37                                                          39 39
                  30 32 29 31                                                                                 38 38                      32 37 35 35 35                                                             28 19 28 24 26 26
                                                                                                                                                                                                           23 25 19
                  09/2004
                            09/2005
                                       04/2006
                                                 09/2006
                                                           04/2007
                                                                     09/2007
                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                   09/2009



                                                                                                              09/2004
                                                                                                                         09/2005
                                                                                                                                    04/2006
                                                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2009
                                             LITHUANIA                                                                                         LATVIA                                                                                    POLAND


                                                                                                                   54 54 50 48 48 55 50                                                                                        59 56 56 58 53 62 58
                                                                                                   52
                  41 43                44 41 44 42 45 43                                                     45 51                                                                                         48 44


                  36 38                38 35 37 39 37 37
                                                         33                                                                 34 36 33 38                                                                    36 35                           36
                                                                                                             27 26 32 32 31                                                                                                    28 30 26 28    28 30
                  09/2004
                            09/2005
                                       04/2006
                                                 09/2006
                                                           04/2007
                                                                     09/2007
                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                   09/2009



                                                                                                              09/2004
                                                                                                                         09/2005
                                                                                                                                    04/2006
                                                                                                                                               09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009


                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     09/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               04/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         09/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           09/2009
                                                 BULGARIA                                                                                     ROMANIA

                                                                                                                                                               62 56 56
                                                                                                                                                         55 62                                             Q22c.(2007-2009)/Q21c.(2006)
                                                           46 40 46 47 48                                                                                                                                  Could you tell me for each of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                               following statements if you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       agree or disagree…?
                                                                                                                                                                                                             „Adopting the euro will mean
                                                           29 33 28 26 30                                                                                19 18 19 19 25                                          that [COUNTRY] will lose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 control over its economic
                                                                                                             09/2004
                                                                                                                        09/2005
                                                                                                                                   04/2006
                                                                                                                                              09/2006
                                                                                                                                                         04/2007
                                                                                                                                                                   09/2007
                                                                                                                                                                             05/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                       05/2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                 09/2009
                  09/2004
                            09/2005
                                       04/2006
                                                 09/2006
                                                           04/2007
                                                                     09/2007
                                                                               05/2008
                                                                                         05/2009
                                                                                                   09/2009




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    policy”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                % by country




4.4. Fears related to the euro from a socio-demographic perspective

Throughout the report, certain socio-demographic groups have been seen to have a more positive
attitude towards the euro and its introduction than others. Broadly speaking, those were men, young
respondents, the highly educated, those living in a metropolitan area and the self-employed and/or
employees.

Accordingly, those with an opposite socio-demographic profile tended to have negative views about
joining the euro area. This also held true in regard to the questions about the different fears that people
might have concerning the euro and its introduction: women, the oldest age group, those with the
lowest level of education, manual workers and those not working tended to be more concerned about
the introduction of the euro than their counterparts. For example, three-quarters of women (75%) were
afraid of abuses and cheating on price conversions during the changeover, compared to 7 in 10 men.

Exceptions to this were observed in regard to the fears about a country’s loss of identity once its own
currency would be replaced by the euro. Here, members of the youngest age group were the most
fearful (40%). Furthermore, the self-employed (35%) were about as concerned as manual workers
(37%) and those without paid work (36%).

Among other differences noted, respondents in rural areas showed a particular concern that they would
suffer from some personal inconvenience, once the euro was introduced (41% vs. 36% in urban and
32% in metropolitan areas), while fears about cheating on price conversions were most widespread in
metropolitan areas (77% vs. 72% in urban and 71% in rural areas). For further details, see annex table
28



page 58
Annex         Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




             Flash EB Series #280



         Introduction of the euro
        in the new Member States
                     Wave 9




           Annex
         Tables and
           Survey
          Details


        THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION




                                                                          page 59
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                Annex

Annex tables

Table 1. Already seen euro banknotes ............................................................................................... 61
Table 2. Already seen euro coins ........................................................................................................ 62
Table 3. Already used euro banknotes .............................................................................................. 63
Table 4. Already used euro coins ....................................................................................................... 64
Table 5. Where do people use the euro banknotes? ......................................................................... 65
Table 6. Where do people use the euro coins? .................................................................................. 66
Table 7. Familiarity with the design of euro banknotes................................................................... 67
Table 8. Familiarity with the design of euro coins ........................................................................... 68
Table 9. Number of current eurozone countries............................................................................... 69
Table 10. Can Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro? ...................................... 70
Table 11. Expected date of the euro’s adoption ................................................................................ 71
Table 12. Evolution of self-perceived information level regarding the euro .................................. 72
Table 13. Desired timeframe for being informed on the euro ......................................................... 73
Table 14. Trusted distributors of information and campaigns ....................................................... 74
Table 15. Preferred channels for information and campaigns........................................................ 75
Table 16. Preferred topics for information and campaigns............................................................. 76
Table 17. Preferred tools of the information campaigns ................................................................. 77
Table 18. Are people happy that the euro will replace their national currency? .......................... 78
Table 19. Consequences of the euro’s introduction on national level ............................................. 79
Table 20. Consequences of the euro’s introduction on personal level ............................................ 80
Table 21. Climate of opinion regarding the euro introduction ....................................................... 81
Table 22. Desired timeframe for adopting the euro ......................................................................... 82
Table 23. Consequences of the introduction of the euro in those countries that are using the euro
already .................................................................................................................................................. 83
Table 24. Expected consequences of the changeover to the euro on prices .................................... 84
Table 25. Status of the euro as an international currency ............................................................... 85
Table 26. Expected positive effects of joining the eurozone ............................................................ 86
Table 27. Potential political and economic advantages of adopting the euro ................................ 87
Table 28. Fears regarding the adoption of the euro ......................................................................... 88




page 60
Annex                                    Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 1. Already seen euro banknotes
QUESTION: Q1_A. Have you already seen..? - euro banknotes


                                      Total N               % Yes           % No             %DK/NA
        NMS8                           8054                 81.4             18.6                0
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                       1002                 75.2             24.8                0
        Czech Republic                  1001                86.4             13.6                0
        Estonia                        1008                 87.2             12.8                0
        Latvia                         1004                 80.6             19.3               0.1
        Lithuania                      1003                 75.4             24.4               0.2
        Hungary                         1010                 73               27                 0
        Poland                          1016                83.1             16.9                0
        Romania                         1010                82.7             17.3                0
        SEX
        Male                           3842                 85.6             14.4                0
        Female                          4212                77.5             22.5                0
        AGE
        15 - 24                         1398                91.3             8.7                 0
        25 - 39                         2140                89.2             10.8                0
        40 - 54                         1780                87.1             12.9                0
        55 +                            2671                65.8             34.1                0
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age           871                 49.3             50.6                0
        16 - 20                        3922                  82               18                 0
        20 +                            2152                90.5             9.5                 0
        Still in education              879                 92.8             7.2                 0
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area               1683                 89               11                 0
        Other towns                     3723                81.9              18                 0
        Rural zones                    2585                 75.8             24.2                0
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                   696                 94.8             5.2                 0
        Employee                        2148                91.7             8.3                 0
        Manual worker                   888                 89.2             10.8                0
        Not working                    4250                 72.3             27.7                0




                                                                                                      page 61
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                  Annex


Table 2. Already seen euro coins
QUESTION: Q1_B. Have you already seen..? - euro coins


                                       Total N          % Yes         % No   % DK/NA
      NMS8                              8054            75.5          24.2     0.3
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                          1002            69.9          30.1      0
      Czech Republic                    1001            85.8          14.2      0
      Estonia                           1008            80.7          19.1     0.2
      Latvia                            1004            68.7          31.1     0.2
      Lithuania                         1003             66           33.8     0.2
      Hungary                           1010            71.8          28.2      0
      Poland                            1016            78.8           21      0.2
      Romania                           1010            70.2           29      0.8
      SEX
      Male                              3842            81.1          18.7     0.1
      Female                            4212            70.3          29.3     0.4
      AGE
      15 - 24                           1398            91.3          8.6       0
      25 - 39                           2140            86.2          13.7     0.2
      40 - 54                           1780            79.5          19.9     0.6
      55 +                              2671            55.7           44      0.3
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age              871            38.4          61.6      0
      16 - 20                           3922            75.5          23.9     0.5
      20 +                              2152            85.1          14.8     0.1
      Still in education                 879            91.6          8.4       0
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area                 1683            84.4          15.3     0.4
      Other towns                       3723            76.7          23.2     0.1
      Rural zones                       2585            67.5          31.9     0.6
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                      696            88.8          11.1      0
      Employee                          2148            88.1          11.9      0
      Manual worker                      888            83.3          15.1     1.6
      Not working                       4250            65.1          34.7     0.2




page 62
Annex                                        Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 3. Already used euro banknotes
QUESTION: Q2_A. Have you already used..? - euro banknotes
Base: those who have seen euro banknotes

                                           Total N           % Yes              % No             % DK/NA
        NMS8                                6554              67.7               32.3                0
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                            754               63.5               36.4               0.1
        Czech Republic                      865               80.3               19.7                0
        Estonia                             879               72.3               27.7                0
        Latvia                              809               68.6               31.3               0.1
        Lithuania                           756               60.5               39.5                0
        Hungary                             738               65.7               34.3                0
        Poland                              844               61.3               38.7                0
        Romania                             836               75.6               24.4                0
        SEX
        Male                                3289              70.8               29.1                0
        Female                              3266              64.6               35.4                0
        AGE
        15 - 24                             1277               69                 31                 0
        25 - 39                             1909              79.1               20.9                0
        40 - 54                             1551              73.6               26.3                0
        55 +                                1759              48.7               51.3                0
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age               430               41.7               58.3                0
        16 - 20                             3215              65.7               34.3                0
        20 +                                1947              76.2               23.8                0
        Still in education                  815               69.2               30.8                0
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area                   1498              71.5               28.5                0
        Other towns                         3051              70.4               29.6                0
        Rural zones                         1959               60                39.9                0
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                       660               79.7               20.3                0
        Employee                            1970              78.1               21.9                0
        Manual worker                       791               68.6               31.4                0
        Not working                         3074              57.9               42.1                0




                                                                                                          page 63
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                  Annex


Table 4. Already used euro coins
QUESTION: Q2_B. Have you already used..? - euro coins
Base: those who have seen euro coins

                                       Total N          % Yes         % No   % DK/NA
       NMS8                             6078            65.1          34.9     0.1
       COUNTRY
       Bulgaria                          701            60.9          39.1      0
       Czech Republic                    859            80.6          19.4      0
       Estonia                           814            71.9          28.1      0
       Latvia                           690             64.3          35.3     0.4
       Lithuania                         662            61.1          38.9      0
       Hungary                           725            65.3          34.6     0.1
       Poland                           800             60.7          39.3      0
       Romania                           709            66.1          33.7     0.2
       SEX
       Male                             3118            66.2          33.7     0.1
       Female                           2960            63.9          36.1      0
       AGE
       15 - 24                          1277            64.1          35.9      0
       25 - 39                          1844            76.3          23.5     0.2
       40 - 54                          1414            69.9          30.1      0
       55 +                             1486            47.1          52.9      0
       EDUCATION
       until 15 years of age             335            42.4          57.6      0
       16 - 20                          2963            61.9          38.1      0
       20 +                             1831             74           25.8     0.1
       Still in education               805             66.5          33.4      0
       LOCALITY TYPE
       Metropolitan area                1420            70.5          29.5     0.1
       Other towns                      2857            66.9          33.1      0
       Rural zones                      1745            57.4          42.4     0.1
       OCCUPATION
       Self-employed                     619            76.3          23.7      0
       Employee                         1893            75.6          24.2     0.2
       Manual worker                     739            61.1          38.9      0
       Not working                      2768             56            44       0




page 64
Annex                                         Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 5. Where do people use the euro banknotes?
QUESTION: Q2bis. You said you already used euro banknotes. Was it..?
Base: those who already used euro banknotes

                                                                                       % In
                                                      % In                         [COUNTRY]
                                    Total N        [COUNTRY]        % Abroad        and abroad       % DK/NA
      NMS8                           4438             22.2             54.5            23.2             0.1
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                        479             25.9             50.3            23.8              0
      Czech Republic                  694              4.1             85.1            10.5             0.3
      Estonia                         636              6.8             80.3            12.4             0.5
      Latvia                          555              18.6            57.4            23.9             0.1
      Lithuania                       458              14.5            61.3            23.6             0.5
      Hungary                         485              10.4            69.4            20.2              0
      Poland                          517              13.5            65.1            21.4              0
      Romania                         632              49.7             16             34.1             0.2
      SEX
      Male                           2330             22.2             50.7            27.1             0.1
      Female                         2108             22.3             58.7            18.9             0.1
      AGE
      15 - 24                         880              15.4            63.9            20.7              0
      25 - 39                        1509              17.5            53.3            29.2             0.1
      40 - 54                         1142            26.2             51.6            22.1             0.1
      55 +                            856              31.7            52.3            15.7             0.3
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age           179             40.9             38.9            20.2              0
      16 - 20                         2112             27.3            49.5            23.1             0.1
      20 +                           1484              16.8            57.9            25.3              0
      Still in education              564              11.1            71.5            17.3              0
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area               1071             10.3            66.7            22.9              0
      Other towns                    2149             23.6             52.6            23.7              0
      Rural zones                     1176             30              46.8            22.9             0.3
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                   526              13.4             50             36.4             0.2
      Employee                       1539              16.2            58.6            25.1             0.1
      Manual worker                   543              39              40.4            20.6              0
      Not working                    1780             24.4              57             18.5             0.1




                                                                                                          page 65
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                            Annex


Table 6. Where do people use the euro coins?
QUESTION: Q2ter. You said you already used euro coins. Was it..?
Base: those who already used euro coins

                                                                                  % In
                                                   % In                       [COUNTRY]
                                     Total N    [COUNTRY]          % Abroad    and abroad   % DK/NA
      NMS8                            3955           15              63.5        21.1         0.4
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                        426           20.5             54.8        23.8         0.9
      Czech Republic                  692           3.8              85          10.6         0.5
      Estonia                         585           4.6              85.3         9.3         0.8
      Latvia                          444           8.4              69.8        21.7         0.1
      Lithuania                       405           6.2              74.4        19.1         0.3
      Hungary                             474       9.3              70.9        19.7         0.2
      Poland                          486           10.2             72.9        16.8         0.1
      Romania                         469           35.4             26.5        37.1          1
      SEX
      Male                            2063          14.8             59.5        25.2         0.5
      Female                          1892          15.2             67.8        16.6         0.4
      AGE
      15 - 24                             818       11.4             68.6        19.6         0.4
      25 - 39                         1407          11.9             60.9        26.7         0.4
      40 - 54                         989           16.9             63.9        18.8         0.3
      55 +                            700           21.7             63.2        14.5         0.6
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age               142       29.6             46.3        24.1          0
      16 - 20                         1834          18.5             59.6        21.5         0.4
      20 +                            1356          11.1             66.4        21.9         0.5
      Still in education                  535       7.4              76.1        16.1         0.4
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area               1001          6.8              73.6        19.1         0.4
      Other towns                     1911          15.7             62.6        21.2         0.4
      Rural zones                     1002          21.1             55.4        22.9         0.6
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                       472       7.1              61.3        30.6          1
      Employee                        1431          11.8             65.6        22.3         0.3
      Manual worker                   452           28.4             49.7        21.6         0.4
      Not working                     1551          15.8             66.7        17.1         0.4




page 66
Annex                                      Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 7. Familiarity with the design of euro banknotes
QUESTION: Q3. What do you think, which of the following statements is correct?


                                                         % The euro           % The euro
                                                       banknotes look      banknotes have
                                                      exactly the same      partly different
                                                       in all countries      designs from
                                        Total N       that use the euro   country to country     % DK/NA
        NMS8                             8054               45.8                 31.8              22.4
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                         1002               40.5                 27                32.5
        Czech Republic                   1001               51.2                 38.3              10.5
        Estonia                          1008               56.2                 26.3               17.5
        Latvia                           1004                45                  31.7              23.3
        Lithuania                        1003                49                  29.2              21.8
        Hungary                          1010               37.9                 43.6              18.5
        Poland                           1016               38.2                 37.7              24.1
        Romania                          1010               61.3                 15.4              23.4
        SEX
        Male                             3842               47.4                 36.4              16.3
        Female                           4212               44.5                 27.6              27.9
        AGE
        15 - 24                          1398               50.3                 38.1               11.6
        25 - 39                          2140               50.1                 34.6              15.3
        40 - 54                          1780               48.9                 33.5               17.5
        55 +                             2671               38.1                 25.3              36.6
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age             871               32.4                  19               48.6
        16 - 20                          3922               47.2                 31.7               21.1
        20 +                             2152                49                  34.4              16.7
        Still in education                879                48                  40.6               11.4
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area                1683               43.8                 37.5              18.7
        Other towns                      3723               46.6                 31.9              21.5
        Rural zones                      2585               45.8                 28.3              25.9
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                     696               46.4                 39.1              14.5
        Employee                         2148                51                  34.6              14.4
        Manual worker                     888               54.1                 28.8               17.1
        Not working                      4250               41.5                 30.1              28.4




                                                                                                       page 67
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                    Annex


Table 8. Familiarity with the design of euro coins
QUESTION: Q4. And what do you think, which of the following statements is correct?


                                                         % The euro       % The euro coins
                                                          coins look         have partly
                                                      exactly the same    different designs
                                                       in all countries   from country to
                                        Total N       that use the euro        country        % DK/NA
      NMS8                               8054                38                 37.2           24.8
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                           1002                27.8               37.5           34.7
      Czech Republic                      1001              40.7                47.3            12
      Estonia                            1008               28.8                52.2            19
      Latvia                             1004               30.2                41.4           28.4
      Lithuania                          1003                33.1                42            24.9
      Hungary                             1010               29.7               48.9            21.4
      Poland                              1016               33.5               40.9            25.5
      Romania                             1010               54.2               18.1           27.6
      SEX
      Male                               3842                37.5               43.2            19.3
      Female                             4212               38.4                31.8           29.8
      AGE
      15 - 24                            1398               43.4                44.6            12
      25 - 39                            2140                41.7               40.4            17.9
      40 - 54                            1780                37.7               41.9           20.4
      55 +                                2671              32.6                 28            39.5
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age               871               28.3                23.2           48.4
      16 - 20                            3922               40.4                35.6            24
      20 +                                2152              35.8                43.8           20.4
      Still in education                  879                41.4               47.1            11.5
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area                  1683                33.7               45.7           20.6
      Other towns                        3723                38                 36.9            25.1
      Rural zones                        2585               40.5                32.5            27
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                       696               34.6                46.5            18.9
      Employee                           2148               39.6                42.7            17.7
      Manual worker                       888                47.4               34.2            18.4
      Not working                        4250                35.9               33.9           30.2




page 68
Annex                                       Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 9. Number of current eurozone countries
QUESTION: Q5. According to you, how many EU countries have already introduced the euro?


                                  Total N           %6         % 13        % 16        % 27       % DK/NA
        NMS8                       8054             12.7        29.2        27.2        5.2          25.7
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                   1002             8.8         21.6       25.8         3.8          40
        Czech Republic             1001             7.9         32.4       42.3          7           10.5
        Estonia                    1008             6.8         30.9        41.3         7           14
        Latvia                     1004             10.4        31.9        37.6        3.2          16.9
        Lithuania                  1003             13.1        26.9       32.3         4.1         23.5
        Hungary                    1010              9          38.2       36.2         3.3          13.4
        Poland                     1016             15.7        34.5       24.8         3.5          21.5
        Romania                    1010             13.4        16.7        17.7         9          43.2
        SEX
        Male                       3842             10.7        29.9       32.4         6.4         20.7
        Female                     4212             14.5        28.6        22.5        4.1         30.3
        AGE
        15 - 24                    1398             10.1        31.4       33.8          8           16.7
        25 - 39                    2140             14.1        31.1        27.3        5.1         22.4
        40 - 54                    1780             14.2        32.1        25.5        5.7         22.5
        55 +                       2671              12         24.2        25.3        3.5          35
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age       871             8.2         17.3        15.4        6.5          52.7
        16 - 20                    3922             13.2        29.6        27          5.1          25.1
        20 +                       2152             15.5        32.8       29.9         3.9          17.9
        Still in education          879              9          30.7       35.8         8.1          16.4
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area          1683             11.2        33.3       28.9         6.2         20.4
        Other towns                3723             13.4        31.1        28          4.3         23.2
        Rural zones                2585             12.7        24.1        25          5.9         32.2
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed               696             17.1        33.9       28.8         4.5          15.6
        Employee                   2148             12.6        34.1       30.8         4.8          17.6
        Manual worker               888             14.8        25.7        25.5        6.5          27.5
        Not working                4250             11.6        26.8        25.7        5.1         30.8




                                                                                                          page 69
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                           Annex


Table 10. Can Member States choose whether or not to adopt the euro?
QUESTION: Q5bis. Can [COUNTRY] choose whether or not to introduce the euro?


                                      Total N           % Yes             % No       % DK/NA
      NMS8                             8054              63.1                 29.2     7.6
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                         1002              44.8                 40.8     14.4
      Czech Republic                   1001               52                  41.9     6.1
      Estonia                          1008              59.3                 33.7     6.9
      Latvia                           1004              51.7                 39.1     9.2
      Lithuania                        1003              57.2                 36       6.8
      Hungary                          1010               53                  43.3     3.7
      Poland                           1016              73.2                 21.1     5.6
      Romania                          1010              64.5                 24.2     11.2
      SEX
      Male                             3842              63.8                 30.9     5.3
      Female                           4212              62.5                 27.7     9.7
      AGE
      15 - 24                          1398              73.1                 22.4     4.5
      25 - 39                          2140              63.5                 31.3     5.2
      40 - 54                          1780              61.3                 32       6.7
      55 +                             2671              59.4                 28.8     11.8
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age            871               54.5                 26.7    18.8
      16 - 20                          3922              62.6                 30.1     7.3
      20 +                             2152               64                  31.9     4.1
      Still in education               879               72.9                 22.4     4.8
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area                1683              63.1                 31.9      5
      Other towns                      3723               64                  29.2     6.8
      Rural zones                      2585              62.6                 27       10.4
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                    696               62.2                 34       3.9
      Employee                         2148              61.9                 33.9     4.1
      Manual worker                    888               63.5                 29.8     6.7
      Not working                      4250              63.9                 26       10.1




page 70
Annex                                     Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 11. Expected date of the euro’s adoption
QUESTION: Q5ter. When, in which year do you think the euro will be introduced in [COUNTRY]?


                                       % 2009-    % 2011-      % 2013-    % 2015 or                  %
                             Total N    2010       2012         2014        later      % Never     DK/NA
        NMS8                  8054       5.1        34.7        20.4         22           2.1        15.8
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria              1002      11.6        38.2        18.3         7.5         0.5         23.9
        Czech Republic        1001       5.1        31.5        23.2         24.4        3.2         12.7
        Estonia               1008       5.7        48.5        15.4         11.6         3.7        15.1
        Latvia                1004       7.7        38.5        23.6         15.1        2.3         12.9
        Lithuania             1003        5          33         24.4         19.4         1.5        16.7
        Hungary               1010       5.6         32         21.5         30.6        3.3          7
        Poland                1016       2           39         20.2         23.8         1.6        13.4
        Romania               1010       7.4        27.9         19          20.5        2.4        22.8
        SEX
        Male                  3842       4.6        31.3        23.6         24.1        2.3         14.1
        Female                4212       5.4        37.9         17.5        20           2          17.3
        AGE
        15 - 24               1398       7.1        44.7        13.9         22          0.8         11.4
        25 - 39               2140       5.5        37.8        20.7         23.1         1.7        11.3
        40 - 54               1780       4.7         34         22.5         22.1        2.4         14.4
        55 +                  2671       3.9        27.7        22.2         20.9        2.6         22.7
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of
        age                   871        5.9         26         13.6         11.8        5.4         37.4
        16 - 20               3922       5.2        36.1        20.2         22.3         2          14.3
        20 +                  2152       4.3        33.4        25.5         26           1.2        9.6
        Still in education    879        6.1        44.3        16.8         21.2        0.8         10.8
        LOCALITY
        TYPE
        Metropolitan
        area                  1683       3.7        35.9        20.8         24.3        0.9         14.3
        Other towns           3723       6          34.7        21.3         23.7         2.1        12.4
        Rural zones           2585       4.7        34.6         19.1        17.8        2.6         21.2
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed         696        5.9        35.7        23.8         22.7         2          9.9
        Employee              2148       4.8        32.5         25          25.7         1.5        10.5
        Manual worker         888        6.5        36.9        18.9         21.7         1.7        14.4
        Not working           4250       4.8        35.4         17.9        20.1        2.3         19.5




                                                                                                      page 71
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                   Annex


Table 12. Evolution of self-perceived information level regarding the euro
QUESTION: Q6. To what extent do you feel informed about the euro? Do you feel..:


                                                         % Rather      % Not very   % Not at all
                                         % Very well        well          well          well
                              Total N     informed       informed      informed      informed      % DK/NA
      NMS8                     8054            6            33.6           43.1         16           1.4
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                 1002           8.4           30.6          39.9         19.6          1.4
      Czech Republic           1001           7.2           45.1          32.8         12.6          2.2
      Estonia                  1008           5.1           38.7          43.7          11.5         1.1
      Latvia                   1004           5.7           33.5          43.5          16.1         1.3
      Lithuania                1003           3.7           36.4          44.7         12.8          2.4
      Hungary                  1010           2.6           35.3          43.5         18.2          0.3
      Poland                   1016           4.5           32.3           47.7         14           1.5
      Romania                  1010            9            29.8          40.5         19.5          1.2
      SEX
      Male                     3842           8.8           39.4           39           11.7          1
      Female                   4212           3.3           28.3          46.7         19.9          1.8
      AGE
      15 - 24                  1398            5            40.7           44.1         9.2           1
      25 - 39                  2140           7.3           35.6           45.1        10.3          1.6
      40 - 54                  1780           6.8           36.9          45.2         10.5          0.6
      55 +                     2671           4.5           26.1          39.8         27.6           2
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age     871           0.9           15.1          38.2         43.2          2.5
      16 - 20                  3922           5.4           31.4           47           15           1.3
      20 +                     2152           8.6            44           37.6          8.6          1.2
      Still in education        879           4.2           39.1          48.6          7.6          0.5
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area        1683           6.2           39.3          42.9         10.1          1.5
      Other towns              3723           6.7           35.3          43.4         13.2          1.5
      Rural zones              2585           4.7           27.1          43.3         23.7          1.2
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed             696          14.6           39.9          38.6           6           0.9
      Employee                 2148           6.9           41.9           42           8.2          0.9
      Manual worker             888           7.3            30            49          12.6           1
      Not working              4250           3.8            29           43.4          22           1.8




page 72
Annex                                          Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


Table 13. Desired timeframe for being informed on the euro
QUESTION: Q7. When would you like to be informed about the introduction of euro in [COUNTRY]?
Base: those who are not rather or very well informed about the euro

                                                                 % A few     % A few     % A few
                                                 % As soon        years      months       weeks
                                    Total N      as possible     before      before      before      % DK/NA
        NMS8                         4758            32               24.5    29.5         8.2          5.9
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                      597           29.8              15.9    32.7         6.9          14.7
        Czech Republic                456           32.4              20.7    32.5         9.8          4.6
        Estonia                       556           35.2              27.7    27.5         3.6           6
        Latvia                        598            19.1             34.7    33.8         6.4           6
        Lithuania                     577           23.6              34.4    30.7         4.2           7.1
        Hungary                       623            20               21.9     44          10.5         3.6
        Poland                        627           29.6              28.3    31.1         8.4           2.7
        Romania                       606           45.1              20.5    16.7         7.4          10.2
        SEX
        Male                         1950           32.2              25.2    27.4          8            7.2
        Female                       2808           31.8              23.9    30.9         8.3           5.1
        AGE
        15 - 24                       745           34.2              24.6    31.9         7.9           1.4
        25 - 39                      1188            37               23      28.9         8.3           2.7
        40 - 54                       992           32.2              23.7    33.3         4.1           6.7
        55 +                         1799           27.9              26      26.6         10.5          9
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age         710           27.2              19.7    28.2         12.8         12.2
        16 - 20                      2432           30.6              25.1    30.7         8.3           5.3
        20 +                          995           35.2              25.5    30.1          5           4.2
        Still in education            493           37.8              26.3    27.4         6.9           1.6
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area             893           33.3              25.4    31.8         5.6          3.8
        Other towns                  2104           30.4              26.6    30.2         7.9          4.9
        Rural zones                  1732           33.6              21.6    27.4         9.8           7.7
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                 310           30.5              27       30          6.9          5.6
        Employee                     1081           33.5              26.4    32.1          6            2
        Manual worker                 547            38               23.4     29          4.3           5.3
        Not working                  2777           30.7              23.9    28.6         9.7           7.2




                                                                                                             page 73
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                                         Annex


Table 14. Trusted distributors of information and campaigns
QUESTION: Q8_A-H. For each of the following institutions or groups, please tell me if you would trust information
they provide on the changeover to the euro, or not?

% of “Trust” shown




                                                                                                                                                                                            Consumer associations
                                           or regional authorities




                                                                                      National Central Bank


                                                                                                              European Institutions
                                           Government, national




                                                                                                                                      Commercial banks




                                                                                                                                                                       organisations, etc
                                                                     administration




                                                                                                                                                                       Trade unions,
                                                                                                                                                                       professional
                                                                                                                                                         Journalists
                                                                     Tax, fiscal
                                 Total N




      NMS8                     8054              45                   47.3            76.1                    69.2                    44.6               38.6             34.5              43.4
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                  1002        59.3                      45.2            75.2                    68.3                    48.7               43.3             25.6              31.8
      Czech Republic            1001        54.2                      63.4            84.7                    72                      73                 27.3             42.5              43.1
      Estonia                  1008          51.9                     61.9            77.5                    68.8                    39.2               21.7             34.2              36.3
      Latvia                   1004              32                   29.1            61.9                    59.4                    34.3               32.2                33             23.5
      Lithuania                 1003        36.6                        45            57.9                    68.4                    30.3               36.7             36.6              39.4
      Hungary                   1010        50.5                      57.7            80.5                    72                      44                 19.7              31.8             42.4
      Poland                    1016            39                    38.7              71                    64.5                    30.1               40.3              31.9             47.1
      Romania                   1010        45.8                        52            83.7                    76.4                    59.1               50.3             39.4              44.8
      SEX
      Male                     3842         45.2                      46.2            76.9                    70.5                    46.1               38.2             32.9              43.6
      Female                    4212        44.9                      48.3            75.5                    68                      43.4               39               35.9              43.2
      AGE
      15 - 24                   1398         51.4                     56.2            83.8                    84.2                    59.3               32.6             48.2              51.4
      25 - 39                   2140        48.2                      52.6            79.7                    74                      49.7               36                34.1             45.3
      40 - 54                   1780        44.4                      49.1            76.3                    67                      44.2               41.2             33.6              46.6
      55 +                      2671        39.8                      37.6            69.6                    59.1                    33.6               42.5             28.3              35.8
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age     871         39.3                     40.8             65                      55.4                    40.3               47.3             34.8              37.8
      16 - 20                  3922         44.5                      48.1             75                     66.9                    45.1               40                35.2             41.7
      20 +                      2152         47.5                     48.3            80.7                    74.1                    43.8               35               28.6              46.2
      Still in education        879         48.8                      52.4            83.1                    83.3                    50.5               30.2              41.7             48.2
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area         1683        43.8                      43.2            76.6                    71.7                    42.4               32.9             28.2              44.9
      Other towns               3723         47.6                     51.3            78.7                    70.4                    45.6               38.5                36             44.4
      Rural zones               2585        42.5                        45            72.9                    66                      44.6               42.8              36.1             41.4
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed             696         44.9                      47.2            78.2                    72.2                    48.4               36.4              27.3             46
      Employee                  2148        48.6                      54.5            81.3                     75                     51.7               36.5              34.1              47
      Manual worker             888         46.3                         51           78.8                    72.6                    49.7               37.6                37             42.6
      Not working              4250         43.4                      43.3            73.2                    65.5                    39.6               40.4             35.4              41.6




page 74
Annex                                       Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 15. Preferred channels for information and campaigns
QUESTION: Q9_A-J. Where would you like to receive useful information on the euro and the changeover?

% of “Yes” shown




                                                                                                     In schools and other places of
                                                      In supermarkets and shops




                                                                                                                                                                                        In newspapers, magazines
                                                                                                     education and training




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In your letter box
                                                                                                                                      In the workplace
                                                                                  In public places




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          On the Internet
                                                                                                                                                                        On television
                                                                                                                                                         On the radio
                                           In banks
                                 Total N




      NMS8                      8054       78.4       47.2                        58                    64.1                          52.7               76.3           89.1            78.5                       56.1                  74.2
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                1002       69.8       40.1                        49.1                 45.2                           42.3               62.4           87.5            69.6                       55.3                   59
        Czech Republic          1001       78.3       36.6                        53.5                      46                        44.5               70             81.3            71.6                       47.5                  78.5
        Estonia                 1008       80.8       30.7                        41.1                 48.9                           44.7               70.9           79.5            71.5                       50.8                  69.5
        Latvia                  1004       83.5       50.4                        56.8                 62.7                           53.6               78.5           90.5            85.3                       63.6                  75.7
        Lithuania               1003       74.4       48.8                        49                   50.3                           43.6               73.7           88.7            81.7                       59.2                  67.5
        Hungary                 1010       62         27.1                        28.5                      42                        34.8               59.4           77.5            54.1                       41.3                  57.9
        Poland                  1016       88.4       56.9                        73.1                 79.8                           62.9               88.4           95.8            91.5                       58.7                  87.8
        Romania                 1010       71.8       47.6                        53.1                 65.9                           52.6               71.6           87.8            72.9                       62.1                  62.6
      SEX
      Male                      3842       79         46.4                        58.8                  64.1                          50.3               77.1           89.3            80.7                       53.1                  76.2
      Female                    4212       77.9       47.9                        57.3                  64.1                          54.8               75.6           89              76.5                       58.9                  72.5
      AGE
      15 - 24                   1398       86.7       47.4                        62.3                  74.7                          60.1               71.7           89.5            81.2                       53.5                  89.6
      25 - 39                   2140       82.5       47                          60.3                  67.1                          53.8               74.9           88              77.1                       53.3                  85.5
      40 - 54                   1780       81.8       47                          60.9                 66.3                           58                 80.2           88.9            81.4                       58.3                  78.7
      55 +                      2671       68.7       47.4                        51.8                 54.5                           43.9               77.5           90.4            76.4                       58.2                  54.4
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age     871        59.3       50.9                        48.7                  51.8                          47.1               74.3           89.5            70.5                       59.7                  40.7
      16 - 20                   3922       79.2       48.3                        58                    61.7                          53.8                77            89.9            78.1                       58.6                  72.3
      20 +                      2152       82.6       43.4                        60.1                 68.5                           51.4               79             88.6            81.3                       53.6                  85.1
      Still in education        879        84.5       44.4                        60.5                  72.1                          57.7               70.4           87.4            80.6                       48.7                  90.8
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area         1683       81.1       44.3                        60                   65.4                           50.1               80             89.9            83.5                       50.6                  82.5
      Other towns               3723       79.4       45.1                        56.9                 63.7                           51.8               74.8           88.8            77.8                       57.6                  76.6
      Rural zones               2585       75.4       51.8                        58.6                  64.1                          55.3               76.9           89.5            76.5                       58                    65.6
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed             696        82.7       39.7                        59.3                 67.9                           52.8               76.9           85.3            79.5                       54.7                  85.2
        Employee                2148       83.9       43.8                        59.9                 66.8                           54.6               77.5           88.9             81                        52.7                  87.5
        Manual worker           888        83.3       51.3                        58.6                 66.9                            61                75.2           87.6            78.5                       59.1                  76.3
        Not working             4250       74.1       49.4                        56.7                  61.4                          49.9               76             90.4            77.2                       57.9                  65.4



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        page 75
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                            Annex



Table 16. Preferred topics for information and campaigns
QUESTION: Q10_A-F. In your view, which of the following issues about the euro are essential to be covered in
priority by the information campaign?
% of ”Essential” shown




                                                                                                                                           implications of the euro




                                                                                                                                                                      political implications of
                                                                                                                                                                      The social, economic or
                                                                                                                  How to ensure that the




                                                                                                                                           regarding your salary,
                                           The way how the euro




                                                                                           What notes and coins
                                                                   The value of one euro




                                                                                                                  conversion into euro
                                           will be introduced in




                                                                                                                                           your bank account
                                                                                                                  rules for currency
                                                                                           in euros look like
                                                                   in [CURRENCY]




                                                                                                                  are respected

                                                                                                                                           The practical
                                           [COUNTRY]




                                                                                                                                                                      the euro
                                 Total N




      NMS8                      8054           89.4                     92                  79.9                          85                     83.9                      83.1
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                  1002              88                92.3                    78.8                        88.9                      85.6                     83.5
      Czech Republic            1001            91.2                 91.6                   78.8                        87.7                      87.2                     85.9
      Estonia                   1008           88.7                 88.1                    62.6                        84.9                      86.7                      81.5
      Latvia                    1004           88.5                 92.2                     72.1                       87.6                     82.6                      85.9
      Lithuania                 1003            91.2                93.4                    64.3                        90.6                     80.8                      79.3
      Hungary                   1010           89.3                     96                  79.6                        82.6                     88.3                         83
      Poland                    1016           92.4                     94                  82.5                          84                        87                      87.1
      Romania                   1010           83.7                 86.7                    80.5                          84                      74.6                        75
      SEX
      Male                      3842           89.1                  91.5                    77.7                       85.4                     82.8                      84.3
      Female                    4212           89.7                 92.4                    81.8                        84.6                     84.9                      82.1
      AGE
      15 - 24                   1398           87.8                 89.6                     71.9                       84.9                     85.8                      85.4
      25 - 39                   2140           92.7                  93.1                       78                      87.7                     88.2                      85.3
      40 - 54                   1780            91.6                 91.6                   81.6                        87.8                     88.8                      86.1
      55 +                      2671           86.2                 92.6                    84.3                        81.1                      76.1                      78.1
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age      871           78.6                 89.8                     82.1                       74.2                      67.5                     69.6
      16 - 20                   3922            91.2                93.5                    82.7                          86                      85.5                     82.8
      20 +                      2152            91.9                92.2                     76.1                       88.7                     88.2                      89.8
      Still in education         879           88.8                 89.2                    74.2                        84.2                     83.6                      84.9
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area         1683           92.8                 92.8                    78.4                        86.5                        90                     88.5
      Other towns               3723           90.1                 92.2                        79                      86.4                      84.5                        84
      Rural zones               2585           86.5                  91.5                    82.1                       82.2                      79.2                     78.4
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed              696           90.6                  91.4                   79.3                        86.4                      85.7                     87.6
      Employee                  2148              92                92.8                     77.7                       88.7                      91.1                     89.3
      Manual worker              888           88.9                 89.7                     81.5                       84.3                      87.8                     78.8
      Not working               4250              88                 92.1                   80.8                          83                      79.2                     80.1




page 76
Annex                                           Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 17. Preferred tools of the information campaigns
QUESTION: Q11_A-G. Here is a list of various information campaign actions. Could you tell me for each of them
whether you would find it essential or not essential to prepare yourself for the euro?
% of ”Essential” shown




                                                                     bills (electricity,


                                                                                           Dual display on




                                                                                                                          advertisements


                                                                                                                                           advertisements


                                                                                                                                                            advertisements
                                                   Dual display of


                                                                     Dual display of
                                                   prices in shops


                                                                     the amount on




                                                                                           your pay slip




                                                                                                                                                            Newspaper
                                                                                                             Brochures
                                                                                                             Leaflets /
                                      Total N




                                                                     gas, ..)




                                                                                                                                           Radio
                                                                                                                          TV
        NMS8                         8054           86.8                  79.6              74.5             63.2          72.5            66.8              71.6
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                     1002           82.7                  79.7              72.6             60.7          71.6               62             67.5
        Czech Republic               1001           86.9                  77.7              71.4             60.5          65.9             62.8             64.7
        Estonia                      1008           83.7                  80.6              72.1             56.4          53.2             51.5             56.3
        Latvia                       1004           88.6                  75.4              69.6             47.4          72.3               64                71
        Lithuania                    1003           82.5                  73.9              64.7             44.3          70.1            60.9              72.9
        Hungary                      1010             95                  87.9              85.2             54.5          67.4            60.6              63.2
        Poland                       1016           85.1                  75.1              70.2             64.3            73             69.2             75.8
        Romania                      1010           88.2                  85.8              81.7             72.8          79.1             71.5             73.8
        SEX
        Male                         3842           87.2                    78              72.3              61.9         71.9             66.6             71.7
        Female                       4212           86.5                   81.1             76.6             64.5          73.1             67.1             71.5
        AGE
        15 - 24                      1398           81.2                  79.3              74.5              56.1         65.5             59.7             66.2
        25 - 39                      2140           88.6                    80              77.7             64.7          70.6             64.1             70.8
        40 - 54                      1780           87.8                  79.6              73.7             63.3           71.1              67             71.8
        55 +                         2671           87.6                  79.2              72.5             65.3          78.6             72.4             74.9
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age         871           84.6                  82.5              74.6             66.3          81.6             71.7               73
        16 - 20                      3922           86.9                  79.6              75.3             64.7          72.8             68.3               72
        20 +                         2152           89.1                  78.5              73.6             63.5          71.7             65.9             72.9
        Still in education            879           83.8                  79.4              73.2             54.2          64.2             56.7             65.3
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area            1683           89.4                  78.9              76.8             63.8          72.4             67.3             73.2
        Other towns                  3723           86.3                    80              73.1             62.8          70.8             64.1             69.5
        Rural zones                  2585           86.1                  79.2              75.1             63.5          75.1             70.2             73.8
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                 696           86.7                    79              68.1               61          68.2             64.2             71.3
        Employee                     2148           89.5                  79.9              75.1             63.9          69.7             63.7             70.3
        Manual worker                888            85.4                  80.2                 79            65.2          72.8               67             72.3
        Not working                  4250             86                  79.4              74.3             62.8          74.7            68.9              72.4




                                                                                                                                                                  page 77
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                              Annex



Table 18. Are people happy that the euro will replace their national currency?
QUESTION: Q12. Are you personally happy or not that the euro could replace the [CURRENCY]?


                                             % Very      % Rather     % Rather      % Very
                                Total N      happy        happy       unhappy      unhappy   % DK/NA
      NMS8                       8054           11         37.5         26.7         11.8      13
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                    1002         8.5         40.1         22.5         8.3      20.6
      Czech Republic              1001         7.9         29.4         33.5         20.4      8.8
      Estonia                     1008         8.4         29.8         29.3         19.4      13.1
      Latvia                      1004         4.6         27.8         28.4          22       17.3
      Lithuania                   1003         7.4          41          26.3         10.6      14.7
      Hungary                     1010         8.8         45.2         26.1         12.2      7.7
      Poland                      1016          9          36.2         31.2         12.6       11
      Romania                     1010         19.5        40.1         17.1         5.9       17.3
      SEX
      Male                        3842         14.2        41.9          23          11.1      9.7
      Female                      4212         8.1         33.5         30.1         12.4      16
      AGE
      15 - 24                     1398         12.3        44.7         23.7         11.3       8
      25 - 39                     2140         12.1        42.3         28.3         8.3       9.1
      40 - 54                     1780         11.9        37.6         28.6          9        12.9
      55 +                        2671         8.5         30.4          26          16.2     18.8
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age       871          7.8          21.7        26.4         18.2     25.9
      16 - 20                     3922         9.4         35.4         29.5         12.7      12.9
      20 +                        2152         14.6         45          23.1          7.5      9.8
      Still in education          879          10.9        47.7         22.6         10.6      8.3
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area           1683         10.4        42.2         26.4         10.2     10.8
      Other towns                 3723         11.5        39.3         24.9          12       12.4
      Rural zones                 2585         10.9        32.5         29.5         12.3      14.9
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed               696          20.6        38.8         20.9          7.1      12.6
      Employee                    2148         12.2         43          25.9         8.6       10.3
      Manual worker               888           11         39.9         25.1         12.8      11.1
      Not working                 4250         8.9         34.3         28.2         13.7      14.9




page 78
Annex                                      Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 19. Consequences of the euro’s introduction on national level
QUESTION: Q13. Do you think the introduction of the euro would have positive or negative consequences for
[COUNTRY]..?


                                          % Very        % Rather        % Rather      % Very
                                          positive       positive       negative     negative           %
                             Total N   consequences   consequences    consequences consequences       DK/NA
        NMS8                  8054          14            37.8            25.2             10           12.9
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria              1002          7              39.1            25.1           10.1          18.7
        Czech Republic        1001         6.3             35              31.1           14.9          12.7
        Estonia               1008         7.4             39.1           30.5             11           11.9
        Latvia                1004         4.4            36.9             32             10.9          15.8
        Lithuania             1003         3.6             40.1           33.9             9.8          12.5
        Hungary               1010         4.1             45             30.5             6.1          14.3
        Poland                1016         7.9            44.4             28              8.7              11
        Romania               1010         38.6            23.5            12.7           11.8          13.5
        SEX
        Male                  3842         17.6            39             23.3            10.8          9.3
        Female                4212         10.6           36.8             27              9.3          16.2
        AGE
        15 - 24               1398         12.7           46.6             21.9            11.1             7.6
        25 - 39               2140         13.2           40.8             26.1           10.8              9.1
        40 - 54               1780         17.2            36.7           26.7             7.9          11.5
        55 +                  2671         12.9            31.9           25.5            10.4          19.4
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of
        age                   871          10.3           23.2            23.8            13.4          29.3
        16 - 20               3922         14.9            34.7           27.8            10.4          12.2
        20 +                  2152         15.7            45             22.3             7.7          9.3
        Still in education    879          9.4            49.4            22.4            10.1          8.8
        LOCALITY
        TYPE
        Metropolitan area     1683         12.1           43.4             24.1            9.6          10.8
        Other towns           3723         14.1           39.3            24.4            10.1          12.2
        Rural zones           2585         14.9           32.2            27.6            10.3          15.1
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed         696          17.8           43.2             22.1            9.1          7.8
        Employee              2148         15.9            41.7           24.2             8.6          9.6
        Manual worker         888          16.5            31.5           28.6            12.2          11.2
        Not working           4250         11.8           36.9            25.3            10.4          15.7




                                                                                                             page 79
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                         Annex



Table 20. Consequences of the euro’s introduction on personal level
QUESTION: Q14. And for you personally, do you think that it would be positive or negative if the euro would be
introduced?


                                                 % Very       % Rather     % Rather      % Very
                                   Total N       positive     positive     negative      negative     % DK/NA
      NMS8                          8054          14.6          33.1           26           12.2          14
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                      1002           8.5          39.4          22.9          8.9          20.3
      Czech Republic                1001            6            31           35.2          18.4          9.4
      Estonia                       1008            9           33.8          29.7          12.6          15
      Latvia                        1004           6.6          38.1          29.5          12.8         12.9
      Lithuania                     1003           6.1          36.1           26           10.5         21.3
      Hungary                       1010           4.9          41.3           31           6.4          16.3
      Poland                        1016           5.5          37.2          31.6          13.6          12
      Romania                       1010          44.2          19.5          9.9            11          15.3
      SEX
      Male                          3842           18           36.5          22.2          11.8         11.5
      Female                        4212           11.6         29.9          29.5          12.7         16.3
      AGE
      15 - 24                       1398          16.5          43.7          21.2          10.2          8.3
      25 - 39                       2140          16.3          34.7          29.3          9.4          10.3
      40 - 54                       1780          15.6          35.8          25.4          11.3         11.8
      55 +                          2671           11.2         24.6          26.4          16.1         21.7
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age          871           9.4          19.7          27.1          16.2         27.6
      16 - 20                       3922          14.7          30.3          27.5          13.9         13.6
      20 +                          2152          16.9          38.4          23.5          8.6          12.5
      Still in education             879          13.2           47           23.6          8.7           7.5
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area             1683          10.8          40.9          24.5          11.7         12.1
      Other towns                   3723           15.5         33.8          24.5          12.3         13.9
      Rural zones                   2585          15.6          27.5           29           12.8         15.2
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                  696           21.7         39.3          21.9          7.5           9.6
      Employee                      2148           16.1         38.7          25.6          8.8          10.8
      Manual worker                  888           16.1          34           24.8          15.7          9.5
      Not working                   4250          12.2          29.4          27.1          13.9         17.5




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Annex                                      Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 21. Climate of opinion regarding the euro introduction
QUESTION: Q15. Generally speaking, are most people you personally know more in favour or against the idea of
introducing the euro in [COUNTRY]?


                                                                                              % Very
                                               % Very                                          much
                                              much in        % Rather in       % Rather      against its
                                            favour of its    favour of its    against its   introductio
                                Total N    introduction     introduction     introduction        n         % DK/NA
        NMS8                     8054           9.5             33.9             27.7           9.3          19.5
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                 1002           5.7             33.2            22.8           10.9         27.4
        Czech Republic           1001           4.8             27.8            40.6           11.2          15.7
        Estonia                  1008           6.2             33.1             31            12.7           17
        Latvia                   1004           3.6              25             34.2           13.1          24.1
        Lithuania                1003           3.3             31.3            36.2           11.2          18
        Hungary                  1010           3.9             44.8            27.6            3.1         20.6
        Poland                   1016           6.2             33.8            34.3            11.5         14.2
        Romania                  1010          23.5             33.7             9.4            6.1         27.3
        SEX
        Male                     3842           11.1            38.3            23.4            8.9          18.3
        Female                   4212           8.1             29.9             31.6           9.7         20.6
        AGE
        15 - 24                  1398          11.9              40             28.2            8.2          11.8
        25 - 39                  2140          10.6             34.6            28.6            8.4          17.8
        40 - 54                  1780           9.4             35.7            28.5            8.3          18.1
        55 +                     2671           7.6             29.2            26.4            11.5        25.2
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age     871           7.9             23.4            22.3            11.5         35
        16 - 20                  3922          10.1             31.2            30.1           10.6          18
        20 +                     2152           10              40.5            25.2            7.2           17
        Still in education       879            7.5             43.9            28.6            7.9          12
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area        1683           9.1             36.5            27.3            9.1          18
        Other towns              3723           9.2             36.2            28.2            8.6          17.7
        Rural zones              2585          10.4             29.2            27.2           10.6         22.5
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed            696           12.9             38.1            24.9            7.9          16.2
        Employee                 2148          10.4              40             28.2            6.3          15.1
        Manual worker            888            13              31.8            25.5           12.5          17.2
        Not working              4250           7.9              31             28.1           10.4         22.6




                                                                                                             page 81
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                 Annex



Table 22. Desired timeframe for adopting the euro
QUESTION: Q16. When would you like the euro to become your currency?


                                               % As soon as     % After a     % As late as
                                   Total N       possible      certain time    possible      % DK/NA
      NMS8                          8054           25.1           36.1           32.8          5.9
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                      1002           19.7           38.5           28.2          13.6
      Czech Republic                1001            14.1          34.8           46.8          4.3
      Estonia                       1008           22.8           36.3           35.8          5.1
      Latvia                        1004            16.1           35             43           5.8
      Lithuania                     1003           19.8           36.8           34.5          8.9
      Hungary                       1010           34.2           39.9           23.7          2.3
      Poland                        1016           17.6           40.5           38.9           3
      Romania                       1010           43.2           26.5           19.8          10.4
      SEX
      Male                          3842            31.1          33.9           29.1          5.9
      Female                        4212           19.6           38.2           36.2           6
      AGE
      15 - 24                       1398           25.2           45.3            26           3.5
      25 - 39                       2140           27.6           38.5           30.7          3.2
      40 - 54                       1780            27            36.8           30.9          5.3
      55 +                          2671           21.7           29.5            39           9.8
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age         871             18.1          28.4           39.1          14.4
      16 - 20                       3922           24.1           33.8           36.1           6
      20 +                          2152           29.9           38.8           27.8          3.4
      Still in education            879            25.4           50.1           20.9          3.6
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area             1683           25.6           38.6           31.7          4.2
      Other towns                   3723           26.6           35.9           32.5           5
      Rural zones                   2585           22.7           35.5           33.6          8.2
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                 696            34.7           38.7           22.9          3.7
      Employee                      2148           27.9           39.6           28.6          3.9
      Manual worker                 888            24.8           33.3           37.5          4.3
      Not working                   4250           22.2            35             35           7.8




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Annex                                      Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 23. Consequences of the introduction of the euro in those countries that are
using the euro already
QUESTION: Q17. Do you think the introduction of the euro has had positive or negative consequences in those
countries that are using the euro already?


                                            % Very
                                            positive    % Rather     % Rather      % Very
                                          consequence    positive    negative     negative                 %
                                Total N        s      consequences consequences consequences             DK/NA
        NMS8                     8054         13.8            37.7           24.1             6.4             18.1
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                 1002           6             35.2           24.4             6.9         27.6
        Czech Republic           1001          4.5            34.6           35.2             9.3         16.4
        Estonia                  1008          5.2            42.4           25.5             5.3         21.6
        Latvia                   1004          4.9            40.1           17.5             5.1         32.5
        Lithuania                1003          4.5            38.3            31              4           22.2
        Hungary                  1010          3.4            48.2           22.6             3           22.8
        Poland                   1016          5.8            45.2           30.1             5.2         13.7
        Romania                  1010          43             21.2            8.2             9           18.6
        SEX
        Male                     3842         15.7            40.6            24              6.2         13.5
        Female                   4212          12.1            35            24.1             6.5         22.3
        AGE
        15 - 24                  1398          18             45.8           18.7             5.6             11.9
        25 - 39                  2140         14.7            41.1            25              5.5         13.7
        40 - 54                  1780          13              38            24.1             5.2         19.8
        55 +                     2671          11.4           30.7           26.6             8           23.4
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age    871          12.4            26.7           22.7             7.6         30.7
        16 - 20                  3922          14             34.5           26.1             7.1         18.2
        20 +                     2152         14.2             44             23              4.4         14.5
        Still in education       879           14             49.9           19.5             5.2             11.4
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area        1683          9.7            43.9           24.1             7.3             15
        Other towns              3723         13.9            39.4           24.5             6.3             16
        Rural zones              2585          16.1           31.6           23.4             5.6         23.2
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed            696           14             45.1           24.2             5               11.6
        Employee                 2148         14.7            41.9           22.9             4.9         15.5
        Manual worker            888          16.8            35.3           23.8             7.8         16.3
        Not working              4250         12.6            35.3           24.6             6.7         20.7




                                                                                                              page 83
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                          Annex



Table 24. Expected consequences of the changeover to the euro on prices
QUESTION: Q18. Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or, on the
contrary, it will contribute to price stability?


                                                    % Will          % Will
                                                   increase     contribute to
                                    Total N         prices      price stability   % No impact       % DK/NA
      NMS8                           8054            67.7            22.4              2.2             7.7
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                        1002           70.8            16.3              3.1             9.8
      Czech Republic                  1001           74.5            14.8              3.7              7
      Estonia                        1008            78.2            14.4              3               4.4
      Latvia                          1004           58.6            26.3              4.5            10.6
      Lithuania                       1003           71.7            18.8              1.6              8
      Hungary                         1010           65.8            25.2              1.5             7.5
      Poland                          1016           78.2            14.4              1.8             5.6
      Romania                         1010           45.5            41.6              1.8              11
      SEX
      Male                           3842            66.7            24.8              2.1             6.4
      Female                          4212           68.6            20.2              2.2              9
      AGE
      15 - 24                         1398           65.6            24.8             2.6               7
      25 - 39                         2140           68.3            24.7              2.2             4.8
      40 - 54                         1780           68.8            22.8              1.6             6.8
      55 +                            2671           67.5            18.9              2.3             11.3
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age           871            65.9            16.7              3.2            14.2
      16 - 20                         3922           67.2            22.2              2.1             8.5
      20 +                            2152           70.5            23.7              1.6             4.2
      Still in education              879            67.1            22.3             2.9              7.6
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area               1683           74.7            17.5              2               5.8
      Other towns                     3723           66.6             24               1.7             7.6
      Rural zones                     2585           64.6            23.3             2.8              9.3
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                   696             68             22.6              3.5             5.9
      Employee                        2148           67.2            25.8              2.2             4.8
      Manual worker                   888            64.3            26.9              1.5             7.3
      Not working                    4250            68.5            19.7              2.1             9.7




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Annex                                      Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 25. Status of the euro as an international currency
QUESTION: Q19. Do you think that the euro is an international currency like the US dollar or the Japanese Yen?


                                             Total N             % Yes              % No            % DK/NA
        NMS8                                  8054                75.1               17.5               7.4
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                               1002               76.9               13.8               9.4
        Czech Republic                         1001               71.1              22.9                6.1
        Estonia                                1008               83.5               9.5                 7
        Latvia                                 1004               79.5               13.7               6.8
        Lithuania                              1003               80.9               12.6               6.5
        Hungary                                1010               61.5               27                 11.5
        Poland                                 1016               73.6               19.7               6.7
        Romania                                1010               83.4               9.7                6.9
        SEX
        Male                                   3842               77.6               18.3                4
        Female                                 4212               72.7               16.8              10.5
        AGE
        15 - 24                                1398               82.4               14.5               3.1
        25 - 39                                2140               77.6                17                5.4
        40 - 54                                1780               79.4               17.2               3.4
        55 +                                   2671               66.1               20                13.9
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age                  871                61.9               15.7              22.4
        16 - 20                                3922               73.2               19.7               7.1
        20 +                                   2152                81                15.7               3.3
        Still in education                     879                 82                15.2               2.7
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area                      1683                77                18.3               4.7
        Other towns                            3723               76.4               16.8               6.8
        Rural zones                            2585               71.5               18.4              10.1
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed                          696                83.2               13.6               3.2
        Employee                               2148               80.9               15.1               3.9
        Manual worker                          888                75.6               20.1               4.3
        Not working                            4250               70.8               18.9              10.3




                                                                                                             page 85
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                          Annex



Table 26. Expected positive effects of joining the eurozone
QUESTION: Q20_A-E. Do you think that the euro..?
% of ”Yes” shown




                                                                                                                                                      Will protect [COUNTRY]
                                                                                                                           Will be more convenient
                                           other countries that use




                                                                                                other countries that use




                                                                                                                           other countries that use
                                                                      shop in other countries
                                           Will allow you to easily




                                                                                                                           for those who travel in
                                                                                                currency exchange in
                                                                      Will make it easier to
                                           compare prices with




                                                                                                                                                      international crises
                                                                                                Will save money by
                                                                                                eliminating fees of




                                                                                                                                                      from the effects of
                                                                      that use the euro?
                                           the euro?




                                                                                                the euro?




                                                                                                                           the euro?
                                 Total N



      NMS8                      8054             82.4                      86.7                         78.5                      91.8                     41.2
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                  1002              79.7                    84.9                          77.3                     90.3                      43.7
      Czech Republic            1001             82.6                      87.1                           77                     90.8                     33.6
      Estonia                   1008             80.6                      85.4                         79.8                     93.6                     46.6
      Latvia                    1004                83                    86.9                          79.4                      91.9                       33
      Lithuania                 1003              76.8                       80                         62.5                      91.9                    35.6
      Hungary                   1010             90.6                      89.5                        82.6                       94.5                    40.2
      Poland                    1016             82.9                      89.1                        83.6                       93.3                     41.9
      Romania                   1010              79.3                    82.8                            71                     88.8                     44.6
      SEX
      Male                      3842              84.1                    88.3                          81.1                      92.7                    42.3
      Female                    4212             80.8                      85.3                         76.1                     90.9                      40.1
      AGE
      15 - 24                   1398                91                     92.7                          86                      94.4                     42.3
      25 - 39                   2140                87                     89.3                         83.1                     93.4                      39.7
      40 - 54                   1780              85.2                    88.9                          79.4                      93.3                    42.9
      55 +                      2671              72.3                     79.9                         70.4                       88                      40.1
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age      871              62.3                     69.5                         58.7                      81.7                    34.6
      16 - 20                   3922              82.5                       87                         77.7                     92.3                      41.1
      20 +                      2152              88.1                        91                        85.4                     94.6                        43
      Still in education         879              93.1                     92.9                         86.7                      95.3                       42
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area         1683              87.7                    89.9                         84.3                       94.5                    43.5
      Other towns               3723                83                     87.3                         78.2                      91.8                       42
      Rural zones               2585              78.5                     83.7                         75.3                     90.2                     38.2
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed              696              90.7                     93.5                        84.2                       95.1                    44.2
      Employee                  2148             89.3                      91.4                         84.7                        96                     41.2
      Manual worker              888             80.7                     88.4                           78                       93.7                    39.8
      Not working               4250              77.7                     82.9                         74.7                     88.7                        41




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Annex                                     Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Table 27. Potential political and economic advantages of adopting the euro
QUESTION: Q21_A-E. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?
% of ”Yes” shown

                                                                          Will
                                          Will ensure        Will      reinforce                     Will
                                             lower         ensure      the place       Will         ensure
                                            interest      sounder      of Europe     improve          low
                                           rates, less      public       in the      growth,       inflation
                                Total N   debt charges    finances       world     employment        rates
        NMS8                     8054         41.3          46.7         63.8          40.6          44.6
        COUNTRY
        Bulgaria                 1002         33.9           43          54.5          35.4          36.6
        Czech Republic           1001          24           30.2          56           22.5           27
        Estonia                  1008         30.8          46.8         56.5          38.8          40.8
        Latvia                   1004         36.1          41.8         59.1          34.1          40.2
        Lithuania                1003         47.9          51.4         60.5          48.6          47.7
        Hungary                  1010         43.4          61.6         59.8          43.2          48.5
        Poland                   1016         38.6          43.9         66.3          40.9          44.4
        Romania                  1010         56.1          53.7         69.8          49.1          54.7
        SEX
        Male                     3842          46           50.4         65.8          42.1          49.1
        Female                   4212         36.9          43.3         61.9          39.2          40.5
        AGE
        15 - 24                  1398         42.6          52.5         71.9          49.6          50.1
        25 - 39                  2140         44.7          46.4         64.7          38.5          46.1
        40 - 54                  1780         43.7          48.9         64.2          42.4          47.1
        55 +                     2671         35.6          41.9         58.5          36.1          38.5
        EDUCATION
        until 15 years of age    871          32.2          28.8         48.6          29.1          28.9
        16 - 20                  3922         40.8           46          62.5          38.7          41.6
        20 +                     2152         47.2          53.1         68.4          43.9          53.7
        Still in education       879          36.9          52.3         73.4          50.8          51.2
        LOCALITY TYPE
        Metropolitan area        1683         42.7          50.2         65.5          41.3          49.5
        Other towns              3723         42.2          47.9         65.6          42.3          46.2
        Rural zones              2585         38.6          42.8         60.6          37.5          39.2
        OCCUPATION
        Self-employed            696          44.2          46.4         70.9          40.7          48.3
        Employee                 2148         46.9          50.9          67            43           51.2
        Manual worker            888          44.1          49.9         64.4          39.1           42
        Not working              4250         37.3          44.1         60.8          39.7          41.3




                                                                                                      page 87
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                                                              Annex



Table 28. Fears regarding the adoption of the euro
QUESTION: Q22_A-E. Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree..?
% of ”Agree” shown




                                                                                                          Adopting the euro will mean




                                                                                                                                        Adopting the euro will mean
                                                                           You are afraid of abuses and




                                                                                                                                                                      instead of the [CURRENCY]
                                                                                                                                        that [COUNTRY] will lose a
                                             will cause you personally a
                                             [CURRENCY] by the euro




                                                                                                          that [COUNTRY] will lose
                                                                           cheating on prices during




                                                                                                          control over its economic




                                                                                                                                        great deal of its identity
                                             The replacement of the




                                                                                                                                                                      will make us feel more
                                                                                                                                                                      The usage of the euro
                                             lot of inconvenience




                                                                                                                                                                      European than now
                                                                           the changeover
                                   Total N




                                                                                                          policy
      NMS8                        8054              36.6                         72.8                            29.6                         35.4                           54.9
      COUNTRY
      Bulgaria                    1002              38.7                         76.2                            29.5                         36.1                           47.6
      Czech Republic              1001              49.2                         72.1                             37.2                        53.4                           67.3
      Estonia                     1008                 38                        66.9                            34.8                         41.9                           42.5
      Latvia                      1004              38.3                            75                           49.8                         63.7                           53.6
      Lithuania                   1003               33.1                        72.9                             32.7                       48.4                            44.6
      Hungary                     1010              43.9                         76.9                            25.8                        24.2                            30.4
      Poland                      1016               36.7                        79.8                            29.6                        34.3                            58.8
      Romania                     1010              26.6                         57.9                             24.7                        28.1                           58.7
      SEX
      Male                        3842               31.1                        69.9                            29.9                         35.4                           56.4
      Female                      4212               41.6                        75.4                            29.3                         35.4                           53.6
      AGE
      15 - 24                     1398               31.8                       68.8                                29                        40.1                           63.4
      25 - 39                     2140              30.8                         70.8                            28.6                        33.6                              50
      40 - 54                     1780              34.6                         73.3                            28.6                         32.1                           58.2
      55 +                        2671                 45                           76                           30.7                         35.9                           52.1
      EDUCATION
      until 15 years of age        871              56.8                         74.3                            29.3                        34.4                            39.9
      16 - 20                     3922               39.1                        74.1                            32.9                         36.5                           54.8
      20 +                        2152               25.5                        70.5                            23.9                        29.8                              56
      Still in education           879               31.6                        69.9                            24.8                        38.9                              67
      LOCALITY TYPE
      Metropolitan area           1683               31.5                        76.6                            29.2                         35.7                           55.1
      Other towns                 3723              35.8                         72.4                            28.7                         35.1                             56
      Rural zones                 2585              40.8                         70.8                            30.4                         35.2                           53.1
      OCCUPATION
      Self-employed                696                 24                        67.7                            26.9                         35.2                           59.9
      Employee                    2148              28.7                         71.2                               26                       32.8                            53.5
      Manual worker                888              36.3                         73.5                            33.9                         36.5                           54.7
      Not working                 4250              42.4                         74.3                            30.6                        36.2                            54.8




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Annex                                  Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




Survey details

This survey on the "Introduction of the euro in the New Member States, Wave 9" was conducted for
the European Commission, Directorate-General Economic and Financial Affairs.

Both telephone and F2F interviews were conducted in each country (700 webCATI and 300 F2F
interviews). The interviews were conducted between the 21/09/2009 and the 25/09/2009 by these
Institutes:

Bulgaria                BG      Vitosha                 (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Czech Republic          CZ      Focus Agency            (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Estonia                 EE      Saar Poll               (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Latvia                  LV      Latvian Facts           (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Lithuania               LT      Baltic Survey           (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Hungary                 HU      Gallup Hungary          (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Poland                  PL      Gallup Poland           (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)
Romania                 RO      Gallup Romania          (Interviews : 21/09/2009 – 25/09/2009)

Representativeness of the results

Each national sample is representative of the population aged 15 years and above.

Sizes of the sample

The sample sizes amount to approximately 1000 respondents in each country.

A weighting factor was applied to the national results in order to compute a marginal total where each
country contributes to the European Union result in proportion to its population.

The table below presents, for each of the
10 Member States:
(1) the number of interviews actually carried out in each country
(2) the population-weighted total number of interviews for each Member State




                                                                                                   page 89
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                Annex


TOTAL INTERVIEWS

                                                          Total Interviews
                                                                                    % on Total
                                       Conducted      % of Total      Weighted
                                                                                    ( weighted)
          Total                           8054            100           8054            100
          Bulgaria                        1002            12.4          667             8.3
          Czech Republic                  1001            12.4          883            11.0
          Estonia                         1008            12.5          115             1.4
          Latvia                          1004            12.5          197             2.4
          Lithuania                       1003            12.5          286             3.5
          Hungary                         1010            12.5          856            10.6
          Poland                          1016            12.6          3220           40.0
          Romania                         1010            12.5          1830           22.7


Questionnaires

1. The questionnaire prepared for this survey is reproduced at the end of this results volume, in
   English (see hereafter).
2. The institutes listed above translated the questionnaire in their respective national language(s).
3. One copy of each national questionnaire is annexed to the data tables‟ results volumes.


Tables of results

VOLUME A : COUNTRY BY COUNTRY
The VOLUME A presents the European Union results country by country.

VOLUME B : RESPONDENTS‟ DEMOGRAPHICS
The VOLUME B presents the European Union results with the following socio-demographic
characteristics of respondents as breakdowns:

Volume B :
Sex (Male, Female)
Age (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55 +)
Education (15-, 16-20, 21+, Still in full time education)
Subjective urbanisation (Metropolitan zone, Other town/urban centre, Rural zone)
Occupation (Self-employed, Employee, Manual worker, Not working)




page 90
Annex                                     Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



Sampling error

The results in a survey are valid only between the limits of a statistical margin caused by the sampling
process. This margin varies with three factors:

1. The sample size (or the size of the analysed part in the sample): the greater the number of
respondents is, the smaller the statistical margin will be;
2. The result in itself: the closer the result approaches 50%, the wider the statistical margin will be;
3. The desired degree of confidence: the more "strict" we are, the wider
the statistical margin will be.

As an example, examine this illustrative case:
1. One question has been answered by 500 people;
2. The analysed result is around 50%;
3. We choose a significance level of 95 % (it is the level most often used by the statisticians, and it is
the one chosen for the Table hereafter);

In this illustrative case the statistical margin is: (+/- 4.4%) around the observed 50%. And as a
conclusion: the result for the whole population lies between 45.6% and 54.4 %.
Hereafter, the statistical margins computed for various observed results are shown, on various sample
sizes, at the 95% significance level.

STATISTICAL MARGINS DUE TO THE SAMPLING PROCESS (AT THE 95 % LEVEL OF
CONFIDENCE)

Various sample sizes are in rows;
Various observed results are in columns:

                  5%      10%      15%      20%      25%      30%     35%      40%      45%      50%
      N=50        6,0      8,3      9,9     11,1     12,0     12,7    13,2     13,6     13,8     13,9
     N=500        1,9      2,6      3,1      3,5      3,8      4,0     4,2      4,3      4,4      4,4
     N=1000       1,4      1,9      2,2      2,5      2,7      2,8     3,0      3,0      3,1      3,1
     N=1500       1,1      1,5      1,8      2,0      2,2      2,3     2,4      2,5      2,5      2,5
     N=2000       1,0      1,3      1,6      1,8      1,9      2,0     2,1      2,1      2,2      2,2
     N=3000       0,8      1,1      1,3      1,4      1,5      1,6     1,7      1,8      1,8      1,8
     N=4000       0,7      0,9      1,1      1,2      1,3      1,4     1,5      1,5      1,5      1,5
     N=5000       0,6      0,8      1,0      1,1      1,2      1,3     1,3      1,4      1,4      1,4
     N=6000       0,6      0,8      0,9      1,0      1,1      1,2     1,2      1,2      1,3      1,3




                                                                                                        page 91
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                        Annex



Survey questionnaire

Autumn 2009 - Introduction of the Euro in the New Member States - QUESTIONNAIRE


Q1.           Have you already seen..?

                                         [READ OUT – ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                            -     yes ............................................................................. 1
                            -     no .............................................................................. 2
                            -     [DK/NA] ................................................................... 9

          a) euro banknotes ............................................................................................ 1 2 9
          b) euro coins.................................................................................................... 1 2 9


[ASK IF THE RESPONDENT HAS SEEN EURO, Q1=1]

Q2.           Have you already used..?

                                         [READ OUT – ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                            -     yes ............................................................................. 1
                            -     no .............................................................................. 2
                            -     [DK/NA] ................................................................... 9

          a) euro banknotes ............................................................................................ 1 2 9
          b) euro coins.................................................................................................... 1 2 9


[IF THE RESPONDENT ALREADY USED EURO BANK NOTES Q2a=1]

Q2 bis. You said you already used euro banknotes. Was it..?

                                                  [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -     In [COUNTRY] ................................................................................................. 1
          -     Abroad ............................................................................................................... 2
          -     In [COUNTRY] and abroad .............................................................................. 3
          -     [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


[IF THE RESPONDENT ALREADY USED EURO COINS Q2b=1]

Q2 ter. You said you already used euro coins. Was it..?

                                                  [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -     In [COUNTRY] ................................................................................................. 1
          -     Abroad ............................................................................................................... 2
          -     In [COUNTRY] and abroad .............................................................................. 3
          -     [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9

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Annex                                                           Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States




[TO ALL]

Q3.             What do you think, which of the following statements is correct?

                                                       [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -           The euro banknotes look exactly the same in all countries that use the euro, or1
        -           The euro banknotes have partly different designs from country to country. .... 2
        -           [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q4.             And what do you think, which of the following statements is correct?

                                                       [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -           The euro coins look exactly the same in all countries that use the euro, or ...... 1
        -           The euro coins have partly different designs from country to country. ............. 2
        -           [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q5.     According to you, how many EU countries have already introduced the euro?

                                                       [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

                -    6 ....................................................................................................................... 1
                -    13 ..................................................................................................................... 2
                -    16 ..................................................................................................................... 3
                -    27 ..................................................................................................................... 4
                -    [DK/NA] .......................................................................................................... 9


Q5 bis Can [COUNTRY] choose whether or not to introduce the euro?

                                                       [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -           yes ...................................................................................................................... 1
        -           no ....................................................................................................................... 2
        -           [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q5 ter When, in which year do you think the euro will be introduced in [COUNTRY]?

                                                 [READ OUT – RECORD EXACT YEAR]

            year:..................................

            -        [Never] ....................................................................................................... 9998
            -        [DK/NA] .................................................................................................... 9999




                                                                                                                                                   page 93
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                      Annex



INFORMATION CHANNELS

Q6.           To what extent do you feel informed about the euro? Do you feel..:

                                                  [READ OUT– ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -     Very well informed ............................................................................................ 1
          -     Rather well informed ......................................................................................... 2
          -     Not very well informed...................................................................................... 3
          -     Not at all well informed ..................................................................................... 4
          -     [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


[IF THE RESPONDENT IS NOT RATHER OR VERY WELL INFORMED, Q6=3 OR 4]

Q7.           When would you like to be informed about the introduction of euro in [COUNTRY]?

                                                  [READ OUT– ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -     As soon as possible ............................................................................................ 1
          -     a few years before .............................................................................................. 2
          -     a few months before .......................................................................................... 3
          -     a few weeks before ............................................................................................ 4
          -     [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


[TO ALL]

Q8.            For each of the following institutions or groups, please tell me if you would trust
               information they provide on the changeover to the euro, or not?

                                 [ROTATE - READ OUT– ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                             -    trust ........................................................................... 1
                             -    doesn‟t trust ............................................................... 2
                             -    [DK/NA] ................................................................... 9

               a)   Government, national or regional authorities .......................................... 1 2 9
               b)   Tax/fiscal administrations ....................................................................... 1 2 9
               c)   National Central Bank ............................................................................. 1 2 9
               d)   European Institutions............................................................................... 1 2 9
               e)   Commercial banks ................................................................................... 1 2 9
               f)   Journalists ................................................................................................ 1 2 9
               g)   Trade unions, professional organisations, etc.......................................... 1 2 9
               h)   Consumer associations ............................................................................ 1 2 9


Q9.            Where would you like to receive useful information on the euro and the changeover?

                                 [ROTATE - READ OUT– ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                             -    yes ............................................................................. 1
                             -    no .............................................................................. 2
                             -    [DK/NA] ................................................................... 9

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Annex                                                    Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



         a)     In banks .................................................................................................... 1 2 9
         b)     In supermarkets and shops ....................................................................... 1 2 9
         c)     In public places ......................................................................................... 1 2 9
         d)     In schools and other places of education and training .............................. 1 2 9
         e)     In the workplace ....................................................................................... 1 2 9
         f)     On the radio.............................................................................................. 1 2 9
         g)     On television ............................................................................................ 1 2 9
         h)     In newspapers, magazines ........................................................................ 1 2 9
         i)     In your letter box ...................................................................................... 1 2 9
         j)     On the Internet.......................................................................................... 1 2 9


Q10.     In your view, which of the following issues about the euro are essential to be covered in
         priority by the information campaign?

                             [ROTATE - READ OUT– ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                         -       Essential .................................................................... 1
                         -       Not essential .............................................................. 2
                         -       [DK/NA] ................................................................... 9

         a) The way how the euro will be introduced in [COUNTRY] .................... 1 2 9
         b) The value of one euro in [CURRENCY] ................................................ 1 2 9
         c) What notes and coins in euros look like .................................................. 1 2 9
         d) How to ensure that the rules for currency conversion into euro are respected
             ................................................................................................................ 1 2 9
         e)    The practical implications of the euro regarding your salary, your bank
             account…................................................................................................ 1 2 9
         f) The social, economic or political implications of the euro ...................... 1 2 9


Q11.     Here is a list of various information campaign actions. Could you tell me for each of
         them whether you would find it essential or not essential to prepare yourself for the
         euro?

                                       [READ OUT - ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                             -      Essential ................................................................. 1
                             -      Not essential........................................................... 2
                             -      [DK/NA] ................................................................ 9

        a)    Dual display of prices in shops ................................................................... 1 2 9
        b)    Dual display of the amount on bills (electricity, gas, ..) ............................. 1 2 9
        c)    Dual display on your pay slip ..................................................................... 1 2 9
        d)    Leaflets / Brochures .................................................................................... 1 2 9
        e)    TV advertisements ...................................................................................... 1 2 9
        f)    Radio advertisements ................................................................................. 1 2 9
        g)    Newspaper advertisements ......................................................................... 1 2 9


PERCEPTION AND SUPPORT FOR THE SINGLE CURRENCY

Q12.    Are you personally happy or not that the euro could replace the [CURRENCY]?


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Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                    Annex

                                               [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -   Very happy ........................................................................................................ 1
          -   Rather happy...................................................................................................... 2
          -   Rather unhappy .................................................................................................. 3
          -   Very unhappy .................................................................................................... 4
          -   [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q13.      Do you think the introduction of the euro would have positive or negative consequences
          for [COUNTRY]..?

                                                [READ OUT– ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -   Very positive consequences............................................................................... 1
          -   Rather positive consequences ............................................................................ 2
          -   Rather negative consequences ........................................................................... 3
          -   Very negative consequences .............................................................................. 4
          -   [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q14.      And for you personally, do you think that it would be positive or negative if the euro
          would be introduced?

                                               [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -   Very positive ..................................................................................................... 1
          -   Rather positive ................................................................................................... 2
          -   Rather negative .................................................................................................. 3
          -   Very negative..................................................................................................... 4
          -   [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q15.      Generally speaking, are most people you personally know more in favour or against the
          idea of introducing the euro in [COUNTRY]?

                                               [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -   Very much in favour of its introduction ............................................................ 1
          -   Rather in favour of its introduction ................................................................... 2
          -   Rather against its introduction ........................................................................... 3
          -   Very much against its introduction .................................................................... 4
          -   [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q16.      When would you like the euro to become your currency?

                                               [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

          -   As soon as possible ............................................................................................ 1
          -   After a certain time ............................................................................................ 2
          -   As late as possible ............................................................................................. 3
          -   [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9




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Annex                                                       Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States



Q17.    Do you think the introduction of the euro has had positive or negative consequences in
        those countries that are using the euro already?

                                                   [READ OUT – ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -       Very positive consequences............................................................................... 1
        -       Rather positive consequences ............................................................................ 2
        -       Rather negative consequences ........................................................................... 3
        -       Very negative consequences .............................................................................. 4
        -       [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9



EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF THE EURO


Q18.    Do you think the euro will increase prices in [COUNTRY] when it is first introduced or,
        on the contrary, it will contribute to price stability?

                                                   [READ OUT– ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -       Will increase prices ........................................................................................... 1
        -       Will contribute to price stability ........................................................................ 2
        -       [No impact] ........................................................................................................ 3
        -       [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q19.    Do you think that the euro is an international currency like the US dollar or the
        Japanese Yen?

                                                   [READ OUT– ONLY ONE ANSWER]

        -       yes ...................................................................................................................... 1
        -       no ....................................................................................................................... 2
        -       [DK/NA] ............................................................................................................ 9


Q20.    Do you think that the euro..?

                                          [READ OUT – ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                              -      yes ........................................................................... 1
                              -      no ............................................................................. 2
                              -      [DK/NA] ................................................................. 9

            a) Will allow you to easily compare prices with other countries that use
               the euro?..................................................................................................... 1 2 9
            b) Will make it easier to shop in other countries that use the euro? ............... 1 2 9
            c) Will save money by eliminating fees of currency exchange in other
               countries that use the euro? ........................................................................ 1 2 9
            d) Will be more convenient for those who travel in other countries that
               use the euro? .............................................................................................. 1 2 9
            e) Will protect [COUNTRY] from the effects of international crises ............ 1 2 9


                                                                                                                                               page 97
Flash EB No 270 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States                                                                  Annex

Q21.       In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for
           [COUNTRY]?

                                      [READ OUT– ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                                 -     yes ........................................................................ 1
                                 -     no .......................................................................... 2
                                 -     [DK/NA] .............................................................. 9

           a)   Will ensure lower interest rates, less debt charges ..................................... 1 2 9
           b)   Will ensure sounder public finances .......................................................... 1 2 9
           c)   Will reinforce the place of Europe in the world ......................................... 1 2 9
           d)   Will improve growth, employment ............................................................ 1 2 9
           e)   Will ensure low inflation rates ................................................................... 1 2 9


Q22.       Could you tell me for each of the following statements if you agree or disagree..?

                                 [ROTATE– READ OUT– ONE ANSWER PER LINE ONLY]

                             -       agree ........................................................................ 1
                             -       disagree ................................................................... 2
                             -       [DK/NA] ................................................................. 9

           a) The replacement of the [CURRENCY] by the euro will cause you
              personally a lot of inconvenience .............................................................. 1 2 9
           b) You are afraid of abuses and cheating on prices during the changeover .. 1 2 9
           c) Adopting the euro will mean that [COUNTRY] will lose control over its
              economic policy ......................................................................................... 1 2 9
           d) Adopting the euro will mean that [COUNTRY] will lose a great deal of
              its identity ................................................................................................. 1 2 9
           e) The usage of the euro instead of the [CURRENCY] will make us feel
              more European than now ........................................................................... 1 2 9


D1.       Gender [DO NOT ASK - MARK APPROPRIATE]
                   [1]   Male
                   [2]   Female


D2.       How old are you?
                     [_][_] years old
                     [ 0 0 ] [REFUSAL/NO ANSWER]


D3.       How old were you when you stopped full-time education?
          [Write in THE AGE WHEN EDUCATION WAS TERMINATED]
                      [_][_] years old
                      [ 0 0 ] [STILL IN FULL TIME EDUCATION]
                      [ 0 1 ] [NEVER BEEN IN FULL TIME EDUCATION]
                      [ 9 9 ] [REFUSAL/NO ANSWER]




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Annex                                                    Flash EB No 280 – Introduction of the euro in the New Member States


D4. As far as your current occupation is concerned, would you say you are self-employed, an
    employee, a manual worker or would you say that you are without a professional activity?
    Does it mean that you are a(n)...
    [IF A RESPONSE TO THE MAIN CATEGORY IS GIVEN, READ OUT THE RESPECTIVE
    SUB-CATEGORIES - ONE ANSWER ONLY]

        - Self-employed
         i.e. :       - farmer, forester, fisherman............................................................................ 11
                       - owner of a shop, craftsman ........................................................................... 12
                       - professional (lawyer, medical practitioner, accountant, architect,...) .......... 13
                       - manager of a company .................................................................................. 14
                       - other ............................................................................................................... 15
        - Employee
         i.e. :        - professional (employed doctor, lawyer, accountant, architect) .................. 21
                       - general management, director or top management ...................................... 22
                       - middle management ...................................................................................... 23
                       - Civil servant .................................................................................................. 24
                       - office clerk..................................................................................................... 25
                       - other employee (salesman, nurse, etc...)....................................................... 26
                       - other ............................................................................................................... 27
        - Manual worker
         i.e. :        - supervisor / foreman (team manager, etc...) ................................................ 31
                       - Manual worker .............................................................................................. 32
                       - unskilled manual worker ............................................................................... 33
                       - other ............................................................................................................... 34
          - Without a professional activity
         i.e. :       - looking after the home .................................................................................. 41
                       - student (full time) .......................................................................................... 42
                       - retired ............................................................................................................ 43
                       - seeking a job .................................................................................................. 44
                       - other ............................................................................................................... 45
          - [Refusal] ........................................................................................................................... 99


D6. Would you say you live in a ...?

           - metropolitan zone ........................................................................................ 1
           - other town/urban centre .............................................................................. 2
           - rural zone / zone with less than 10.000 inhabitants.................................... 3
           - [Refusal] ...................................................................................................... 9




                                                                                                                                                       page 99

								
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