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Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
 Against Refugees, Returnees, and
  Internally Displaced Persons:

  Guidelines for Prevention and

                (UNHCR: May 2003)

   Gender-Based Violence Global Technical Support Project
    RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                        June 2004

Introduction                                               Family members are often dispersed
                                                           during flight, leaving children sepa-
The 2003 updated UNHCR Guide-
                                                           rated from the rest of their families
lines offer practical advice on how
                                                           and women solely responsible for
to design strategies and carry out
                                                           protecting and maintaining their
activities aimed at preventing and re-
sponding to sexual and gender-based
                                                              The root causes of SGBV lie in a
violence. The following is a synop-
                                                           society’s attitudes toward and prac-
sis of the guidelines, intended to give
                                                           tices of gender discrimination, which
an overview of the guidance provid-
                                                           place women in a subordinate posi-
ed but not to replace the Guidelines
                                                           tion in relation to men. The lack of
themselves. The full Guidelines are
                                                           social and economic value for wom-
available through UNHCR offices
                                                           en and women’s work and accepted
worldwide, in hard copy and CD-
                                                           gender roles perpetuate and rein-
ROM, and are also downloadable
                                                           force the assumption that men have
from the Reproductive Health Re-
                                                           decision-making power and control
sponse in Conflict (RHRC) Consor-
                                                           over women. Through acts of SGBV,
tium website, at
                                                           whether individual or collective, per-
                                                           petrators seek to maintain privileg-
Overview (Chapter 1)                                       es, power, and control over others.
Sexual and gender-based violence
(SGBV) is a violation of human rights
                                                                 There are serious, long term,
and includes sexual violence, physi-
                                                             and life threatening after-effects
cal violence, emotional and psycho-
                                                             and consequences to all forms of
logical abuse, harmful traditional
                                                             SGBV. Some of the potential con-
practices, and socio-economic abus-
                                                             sequences are as follows:
es. SGBV involves the use of force,
                                                                 Health: Homicide, suicide, mater-
which includes physical force,
                                                             nal mortality, infant mortality, AIDS-
threats, coercion, or manipulation.
                                                             related mortality. Includes non-fatal
The overwhelming majority of the
                                                             outcomes such as injury, disease, in-
victims/survivors of sexual and
                                                             fection, shock, disability, alcohol/drug
gender-based violence are women
                                                             abuse, somatic complaints, eating and
and girls.
                                                             sleep disorders, miscarriage, unwant-
   Sex refers to the biological char-
                                                             ed pregnancy, unsafe abortion, sexu-
acteristics of males and females.
                                                             ally transmitted infections including
Gender is the term used to denote
                                                             HIV/AIDS, sexual disorders, gyneco-
the social characteristics assigned
                                                             logical disorders, and pregnancy com-
to men and women. Gender is not
static or innate, but is learned
                                                                 Psychological and Social: Post
through socialization and varies
                                                             traumatic stress, depression, anxiety,
widely among cultures.
                                                             fear, anger, shame, insecurity, mental ill-
   Women and children face addi-
                                                             ness, and suicidal thoughts and behav-
tional risks of being subjected to
                                                             ior. Loss of function in society, social
SGBV when fleeing fighting and
                                                             rejection and isolation, blaming the vic-
seeking asylum. During armed con-
                                                             tim, and social stigma.
flict, social structures are disrupted.

            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                                                SYNOPSIS OF UNHCR SGBV GUIDELINES: MAY 2003              3
   All programs serving displaced
populations must ensure protection                           Specific Forms of SGBV
from SGBV. Programs should estab-                            Used Against Children
lish preventive strategies as well as                        (Chapter 5)
treatment services for victims/
survivors. Given its complexities,                              Harmful Traditional Practices
SGBV is best addressed when mul-                             including female genital mutilation,
tiple sectors, organizations, and dis-                       child marriage, son preference,
ciplines work together, identifying                          dowry-related violence, forced
and designing joint strategies to ad-                        marriages.
dress this human rights violation.                              Trafficking, the recruitment,
                                                             transportation, transfer, harboring
                                                             or receipt of a child for the pur-
Guiding Principles for All                                   pose of exploitation.
(Chapter 2)                                                     Child Prostitution, a form of
All actors involved in developing pre-                       sexual exploitation.
vention and response strategies                                 Sexual Violence Occurring
should agree to adhere to a set of                           Within the Family Sexual vio-
Guiding Principles and understand                            lence within the family is almost al-
that SGBV is a human rights viola-                           ways seen as a private matter that
tion.                                                        should not involve outsiders; as a
                                                             result, an abused child may be
Guiding Principles for Working with                          blamed for the incident and be fur-
                                                             ther victimized.
                                                                Sexual Exploitation, Abuse,
1. Ensure the safety of the victim/                          and Violence by Persons Hav-
   survivor and her family at all                            ing Unhindered Access to
   times. Ensure that both she and                           Children Such people might in-
   those helping her, such as family                         clude teachers, religious instructors,
   or health care workers, are not at                        care takers, humanitarian aid work-
   risk of further harm by the assail-                       ers, etc.
   ant or by other members of the
2. Ensure confidentiality of the af-                           should be conducted in private set-
   fected person(s) and their fami-                            tings with staff, including transla-
   lies. Share only the necessary                              tors, that are the same sex as the
   information, as requested and                               survivor. One should always be a
   agreed upon by the survivor in                              non-judgmental, patient, and good
   explicit written consent, with                              listener. Ask survivors only rele-
   those actors involved in provid-                            vant questions (the status of the
   ing assistance. Also respect the                            virginity of the survivor is not an
   confidentiality of the perpetrator.                         issue), and avoid forcing the sur-
   Staff dealing with SGBV cases                               vivor to tell her story multiple
   should sign confidentiality oaths.                          times.
3. At all times, respect the dignity and
   choices of the survivor. Interviews

            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute

                                                             Prevention (Chapter 3)
    Groups of Refugee
                                                            Effective prevention involves first
    Children at Particular                                  identifying the factors in the setting
    Risk of SGBV (Chapter 5)                                that contribute to and influence the
     Unaccompanied and separated                            type and extent of SGBV. Once these
     children                                               are understood, the interagency mul-
     Children in detention                                  tisectoral team can develop appropri-
     Child soldiers                                         ate and effective prevention strategies.
     Adolescents                                            Activities must target the refugee pop-
     Mentally and physically disabled                       ulation, humanitarian aid staff, host
     children                                               country nationals, and government
     Working children                                       authorities. Prevention is most effec-
     Girl mothers                                           tive when all sectors, and the refugees,
     Children born to rape victims/                         are involved in designing, implement-
     survivors                                              ing and evaluating them.
     Boy victims/survivors                                     The following are some examples
     Child perpetrators of SGBV                             of prevention strategies based on the
                                                            most common causes and contrib-
                                                            uting factors that influence the type
                                                            and extent of SGBV in many settings.
Guiding Principles for Developing
SGBV Programs                                               Influence Changes in
    Engage the refugee community                            Socio-Cultural Norms
    fully; the community should be                          Prevention activities targeting socio-
    central to all activities that ad-                      cultural norms seek to influence
    dress SGBV. Ensure equal partic-                        changes in knowledge, attitudes, and
    ipation by women and men, girls                         behavior. Because they have been
    and boys in planning, implement-                        displaced and their daily routines
    ing, monitoring, and evaluating                         disrupted, most refugees have al-
    programs.                                               ready begun to experience changes
    Integrate and mainstream actions                        in traditional gender roles. SGBV
    into existing programs and sec-                         prevention programs can support
    tors.                                                   positive transformations in gender
    Ensure accountability at all levels                     relations with a community over the
    for action by all who are involved                      long-term.
    in programs targeting SGBV.
    Ensure coordinated multisectoral                             Develop information, education,
    action by all actors. The multisec-                          communication campaigns to pro-
    toral approach is the framework                              mote changes in community atti-
    upon which actions to prevent and                            tudes, knowledge, and behavior
    respond to SGBV are built.                                   concerning gender and human
                                                                 Strengthen community networks
                                                                 of helpers and crisis responders
                                                                 through training and support.

              GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                                                SYNOPSIS OF UNHCR SGBV GUIDELINES: MAY 2003              5
   Ensure gender balance and equal       Ensure compliance with stan-
   participation in the leadership       dards of accountability and codes
   structures and decision making.       of conduct.
   Empower women by offering
   activities that promote their inde- Design Effective Services
   pendence, self-reliance, leader- and Facilities
   ship, and decision-making ability.
                                         Register all refugees individually
   Get men involved; men must take
                                         and provide every individual with
   a decisive stand against SGBV
   before real progress can be made.     a registration card.
                                         Inform refugees about their rights,
   Engage children and youth; en-
                                         entitlements, and benefits, includ-
   courage their participation in
   developing and implementing           ing ways to access services, nation-
                                         al laws, existing UNHCR policies
   programs on sexual exploitation,
                                         and guidelines, and legal proce-
   abuse and violence.
                                         dures and administrative mecha-
                                         nisms for reporting complaints
Rebuild Family and Community             about or incidents of SGBV.
Support Systems                          Include the community when plan-
It is important to try to reestablish    ning, designing, and implementing
those structures that uphold respect     activities. Action to prevent SGBV
for the equal rights of all members      will only be successful when the
of the community.                        community is actively involved in
                                         all stages of their development.
   Develop social and recreational       Create gender-balanced distribu-
   programs. During site planning,       tion systems for food and non-
   allocate space and work with ref-     food items; plan and monitor
   ugees, particularly women, to de-     distributions carefully.
   velop recreational and social         Implement reproductive health
   activities.                           programs.
   Encourage resumption of religious     Implement security and safety
   and spiritual activities. During site programs to reduce security risks
   planning, allocate space for reli-    and respond to emergencies.
   gious centers; target religious lead- Be sensitive to the host popula-
   ers as partners for dissemination     tion and whenever possible, ex-
   of messages on women’s and chil-      tend programs and services to the
   dren’s rights and on prevention of    local population, as well.
   SGBV.                                 Mainstream gender issues into all
                                         stages of program planning and
Create Conditions to Improve             implementation.
  Raise awareness of staff of all or-                     Influence the Formal and
  ganizations about human rights,                         Informal Legal Framework
  gender, relevant national and in-                       Become familiar with both the for-
  ternational law and policies, and                       mal and traditional or customary
  guidelines on prevention of SGBV.                       legal systems in the host country.

            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute

    Additional Considerations for Prevention with Children
    (Chapter 5)
      Information, Education, Communication (IEC) Campaigns. Public
      health campaigns about “safer sex” could help dispel myths, such as hav-
      ing sex with a virgin cures HIV/AIDS. Strategies to prevent harmful tra-
      ditional practices should include education and information that focuses
      on the detrimental effects on the health and development of children
      rather than on the legal or human rights aspects of the practice.
      Work with Boys. Working with boys is essential to ensure that they
      are aware of and understand the equal rights of girls.
      Ensure Access to Education. Ensure that all refugee children have
      access to primary education and, where possible, secondary and voca-
      tional education. This will help reduce the risk of exploitation. Pro-
      mote the recruitment of female teachers.
      Assess Persons with Access to Refugee Children. Assessing the
      knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of all people who have access to
      refugees may reveal exploitation in unexpected situations, such as
      schools and child-care centers.
      Register Each Child. This is especially important for unaccompanied
      and separated children, as it is a prerequisite for securing rights and
      access to services.
      Ensure Access to Services. Ensure that children have access to the
      same food rations and services as the rest of the population and con-
      sider additional support as required, for example, by building special
      shelters to accommodate child-headed households.
      Trace Families. The needs of unaccompanied and separated chil-
      dren should be promptly addressed through family tracing, securing
      appropriate and monitored forms of temporary care, and family reuni-
      fication, if it is in the best interests of the child.
      Include Children When Planning, Designing, and Implement-
      ing Activities. Refugee children, especially adolescents, should be con-
      sulted in planning the camp/settlement, including the location of schools
      and recreational facilities, and in planning housing allocations and oth-
      er relevant programs and activities.

    Work with traditional/customary                              local magistrates, judges, and
    legal systems and provide aware-                             courts and offer training programs
    ness raising and training pro-                               on human rights and gender.
    grams on human rights and                                    Strengthen national laws and pol-
    gender.                                                      icies that protect human rights
    Work with national justice sys-                              and include appropriate sanctions
    tems. Establish relations with                               for perpetrators.

              GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                                                 SYNOPSIS OF UNHCR SGBV GUIDELINES: MAY 2003              7
Monitor and Document                                            ting so the victim/survivor knows
Incidents of SGBV                                               where to go to receive help in a
By closely monitoring cases of SGBV                             timely, respectful, and confidential
you will be able to evaluate the suc-                           manner. Referral systems among
cess of your prevention strategies,                             organizations should be developed
consolidate learning; inform advoca-                            that minimize delays and stress on
cy efforts; and gather reliable, con-                           the survivor and maximize confi-
sistent, statistical data to help                               dentiality. One important element
monitor trends and produce com-                                 of an effective reporting system is
parative analyses.                                              the use of a common SGBV Inci-
                                                                dent Report Form, which should
                                                                be translated as needed and all ac-
Services for Victims/Survivors                                  tors should be trained in how to
(Chapter 4)                                                     use it. (A recommended Incident
Response involves establishing di-                              Report Form is included in the ap-
rect services to assist survivors and                           pendices of the Guidelines.)
their families that reduce or elimi-                            Empower Refugee Communi-
nate the harmful after-effects of                                        Respond.
                                                                ties to Respond Humanitarian
SGBV. As with all aspects of SGBV                               actors should coordinate with the
programming, response must be                                   refugee community to promote
well coordinated and involve the                                effective prevention and response
refugee community and the inter-                                activities; involve refugees in de-
agency multisectoral team.                                      ciding what services should be
                                                                provided, at what location, by
                                                                whom, and in what language(s);
Develop Community Education and
                                                                and advocate for culturally sensi-
Awareness Activities
                                                                tive services.
Information should include where/                               Respond to Health/Medical
how to report incidents, the impor-                             Needs.
                                                                Needs Medical examination and
tance of reporting, clear information                           treatment should be performed
about services available, and the rel-                          by trained staff (ideally of the
evant laws and penalties associated                             same sex as those needing servic-
with acts of SGBV.                                              es) in order to prevent disease
                                                                and unwanted pregnancy, treat
Establish Direct Services to Assist and                         injuries, collect forensic evi-
Support Victims/Survivors:                                      dence, and provide counseling
                                                                and treatment for psychological
  Train Actors in How to Respond                                trauma. All health staff should
  to the Needs of Victims/Survi-                                collaborate and include tradition-
  vors Staff in all sectors must be
  vors.                                                         al health practitioners and the
  trained in proper response, in-                               community in training and sen-
  cluding the guiding principles.                               sitization.
  Set up Referral, Reporting, Mon-                                                      Needs.
                                                                Meet Psycho-Social Needs Vol-
  itoring and Evaluation Mecha-                                 unteers and/or staff should offer
  nisms A clear reporting point
  nisms.                                                        crisis counseling, information,
  should be established in each set-                            and support, as well as advocate

             GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute

    Special Considerations for Helping Child Victims
    Chapter 5: Special Considerations for Refugee Children
      The person interviewing the child should be well trained and experi-
      enced in enabling children to talk about extremely difficult issues. Be
      aware that there are other ways to collect information, including games,
      storytelling and drawing pictures. It may be preferable to have the par-
      ent or guardian wait outside during the interview and examination and
      have an independent, trusted person present instead.
      Never coerce, restrain, or force a frightened, resistant child to complete
      an interview or examination.
      A child should not be separated from family and/or community for treat-
      ment, unless it is done to protect the child from abuse or neglect.
      Workers must use patience and special care with SGBV reports. Inap-
      propriate or insensitive intervention can cause further distress to the
      child and discourage others from seeking help.
      It will sometimes be necessary to counsel the family as well, in order to
      ensure that the child is believed, supported, and assisted in returning to
      a normal life. Extreme care must be taken not to stigmatize the child

    on behalf of the survivor with                               moving forward with prosecution,
    health care providers, police/                               police/security action includes
    security forces, the legal/justice                           interviewing the victim and any
    system, and other service provid-                            witnesses in a private space, ar-
    ers. It has proven useful to estab-                          resting the accused person, con-
    lish centers where survivors can                             ducting investigations, preparing
    walk in and receive confidential                             charges, and serving summons to
    and compassionate care, infor-                               and ensuring that all potential wit-
    mation, and support; often these                             nesses appear in court.
    centers are in or near the repro-                                     Timely
                                                                 Ensure Timely and Appropriate
    ductive health center.                                       Legal Justice. Establish a system
    Provide Security and Safety.                                 with local authorities so that those
    Maintain an effective law enforce-                           victims/survivors who wish to
    ment presence. Police and secu-                              seek legal redress for the crimes
    rity must be sensitive to the                                committed against them can do so
    survivor’s needs for privacy, con-                           in a timely manner. Actors should
    fidentiality, and respect and par-                           also recognize the rights of the
    ticipate in training and awareness                           accused, know applicable sen-
    programs. In the case of a child,                            tences and punishments as well
    or an adult victim who consents                              as compensation, and know alter-
    to informing security/police and                             native ways of resolving disputes,

              GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                                                SYNOPSIS OF UNHCR SGBV GUIDELINES: MAY 2003              9
  such as within traditional or cus-                         tant for all actors to reach a com-
  tomary resolution mechanisms.                              mon understanding of SGBV con-
                                                             cepts and terminology and to agree
 – National Courts: Prepare week-                            on standard reporting mecha-
   ly case register, administer le-                          nisms.
   gal proceedings in cases of                            3. Conduct a Situation Analysis A
   SGBV in accordance with stan-                             situation analysis is the basis for
   dard procedures with minimal                              defining problems, needs, and avail-
   delays, and participate in work-                          ability of resources and for speci-
   shops and awareness raising in-                           fying a goal, objectives, activities
   itiatives.                                                and intended outcomes. Multiple
 – Traditional/Customary Sys-                                organizations and individuals
   tems: Programs should involve                             should be involved in developing
   refugee elders in assisting vic-                          the situation analysis. Methods for
   tims/survivors, provide training                          gathering information could in-
   and awareness raising, and en-                            clude individual interviews, sur-
   suring the rule of law prevails.                          veys, focus groups, and site visits
                                                             and tours.
Planning Action to Address                                4. Agree on a Set of Guiding Prin-
                                                             ciples. See Chapter 2 for recom-
SGBV (Chapter 6)
                                                             mended guiding principles. All
This chapter describes the steps rec-                        actors must agree on and under-
ommended to establish the inter-                             stand how these principles affect
agency, multisectoral team and                               their work.
develop prevention and response                           5. Define the Roles and Responsi-
strategies. Successful programs are                          bilities for All Actors The team
those that have been designed with                           should clearly identify the person
the refugee community, especially                            who is ultimately responsible for
with women and adolescents, and                              carrying out a task, reporting on
those that are based on multisectoral                        it and being held accountable if
and inter-agency collaboration.                              the task is not completed. Respon-
                                                             sibilities for each sector and or-
1. Identify and Engage Actors Be-                            ganization must be agreed on and
   gin the process by identifying the                        clearly understood by all. It is use-
   relevant actors and inviting them                         ful to put these roles and respon-
   to a discussion meeting or a se-                          sibilities in writing into some sort
   ries of meetings. Key actors should                       of protocol or guideline document
   include refugee leaders, refugee                          that can then be shared with any
   women’s and youth groups, health                          new staff rotating into the field
   care providers, host government                           site.
   authorities, counseling groups,                        6. Agree on Monitoring and Eval-
   national and international NGOs,                          uation Systems, Including Co-
   UNHCR staff, UN agencies.                                 ordinated Reporting and
2. Develop a Common Under-    Under-                         Referral Mechanisms. It is im-
   standing of SGBV and Agree on                             portant for all actors to agree on
   the Scope of Action. It is impor-                         the purpose of monitoring and

            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute

   evaluation mechanisms; to iden-                         Designing Monitoring and
   tify the objectives, outputs and in-                    Evaluation Systems for
   dicators for each intervention;
   and to commit to ongoing partic-                        Programs Targeting SGBV
   ipation in monitoring and evalu-                        (Chapter 7)
   ating programs and activities.                              Action 1: Determine the purpos-
7. Create Mechanisms for Report-                               es of the monitoring and evalua-
   ing, Referrals, and Coordina-                               tion mechanisms and assess
   tion. This includes developing a                            information needs. This will de-
   common SGBV Incident Report                                 termine what reporting systems
   Form. Common referral systems                               are needed, how often these mech-
   must be developed for health care,                          anisms are used, and how they will
   counseling, security, and legal                             influence ongoing prevention and
   needs. Written information should                           response planning.
   be shared among actors while re-                            Action 2: Ensure prevention
   specting the principle of confiden-                         and response interventions
   tiality.                                                    have clearly defined objectives,
8. Maintain the Well-Being of Staff                            outputs, and indicators. Each
   and Volunteers                                              intervention should have clear
  – Safety and Security. Anyone                                objectives which should be oper-
      receiving a report of SGBV and                           ationalized in outputs, impact
      attempting to assist the victim/                         and performance indicators.
      survivor is at risk of retaliation                       Action 3: Establish coordinated
      by the perpetrator and, some-                            and common reporting tools   tools.
      times, by the community. Man-                            Reporting tools provide systemat-
      agers and supervisors must                               ic and consistent ways of gather-
      monitor staff security and take                          ing information on the above
      prompt action to protect staff                           indicators. All reporting tools dis-
      in the event of threats and acts                         cussing the protection impact of
      of violence.                                             prevention and response mecha-
  – Secondary Trauma and Burn-                                 nisms should be gender- and age
      out. Secondary trauma refers to                          sensitive. Reporting tools include
      the emotional stress experi-                             the Incident Report Form and the
      enced by those who are repeat-                           Monthly SGBV Form, samples of
      edly exposed to descriptions of                          which can be found in appendices
      severe psychological and phys-                           2 and 3 of the Guidelines.
      ical abuse. Burnout is emotion-                          Action 4: Determine methods
      al exhaustion. The best way to                           for obtaining information on in-
      address these issues is through                          dicators. Quantitative data can be
      prevention, such as discussions                          obtained through surveys and gov-
      and debriefings after particular-                        ernment/implementing partner’s
      ly serious or disturbing cases,                          records. Qualitative data can be
      training workshops to improve                            obtained through interviews, fo-
      skills and build confidence, and                         cus groups, and by using partici-
      peer stress counseling.                                  patory methods during field
            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
                                              SYNOPSIS OF UNHCR SGBV GUIDELINES: MAY 2003                11
  Action 5: Assign responsibilities                       Appendices
  for information gathering, deter-
                                                          The four appendices are recom-
  mine time frame and frequency
                                                          mended documents and forms:
  of data collection, and allocate
  resources Time frames should be
                                                               Appendix 1: UNHCR Code of Con-
  developed for all monitoring and
  evaluation mechanisms. It is im-
                                                               Appendix 1.1: Core Principles of
  portant to determine how much
                                                               a Code of Conduct
  staffing time is required to keep
                                                               Appendix 2: Incident Report
  the reporting up to date and to
  conduct the analysis required.
                                                               Appendix 3: Monthly Reporting
  Action 6: Establish mechanisms
                                                               Form—SGBV Program
  for sharing information and in-
                                                               Appendix 4: Medical History and
  corporating results into preven-
  tion and response planning.
  Meetings should occur regularly
  at the camp/community level, the
  field office/sub-office/district lev-
  el, and at the country level.

SGBV and Refugee Status
Determination (Chapter 8)
SGBV may bear on the refugee sta-
tus determination process both for
the applicant who is a victim or sur-
vivor, and for the applicant or refu-
gee status holder who is a perpetrator.
When rape or other forms of sexual
violence are committed for reasons
of race, religion, nationality, politi-
cal opinion or membership in a par-
ticular social group, it may be
considered persecution under the
definition of the term refugee in the
1951 Convention relating to Status
of Refugees and the Statute of the
Office of UNHCR. Protection officers,
interviewers or decision makers
should be aware that no documenta-
ry proof as such is required to prove
that an individual may have suffered
persecution on grounds of gender.

            GBV Global Technical Support Project ~ RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
Produced by The Gender-Based Violence Global Technical Sup-
port Project of the RHRC Consortium. The GBV Technical Sup-
port Project provides a wide range of information, training, and
support to field programs. Through on- and off-site consulta-
tions, resource distribution, newsletters, and other activities,
the GBV Global Technical Support Project assists humanitar-
ian aid programs to strengthen action to address gender-based
violence in populations affected by armed conflict.
              Contact us:


     RHRC Consortium/JSI Research and Training Institute
            1616 N. Fort Myer Drive, 11th Floor
              Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
                Telephone: 703-528-7474

Description: synopsis pdf