Foreign Operations Appropriations General Provisions by 10a1c40823c0e297

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                                                            ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜

                                                                            Ÿ˜ œ›Œ     
                                                                                  
   Ž™˜› ˜› ˜—›Žœœ
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
                                                   œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜    œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž




ž––Š›¢
This report identifies the legislative origins of General Provisions that pertain to foreign aid in the
current Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009
(division J of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009; P.L. 111-8; 123 Stat. 524 at 831).

Foreign assistance law requires Congress to authorize funding for programs before appropriated
funds are spent. Through 1985, Congress regularly enacted new authorization legislation or
amended the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the foundation of U.S. foreign aid policy, to update
authorization time frames, and to incorporate newer programs and authorities. After 1986,
however, Congress turned more frequently to enacting freestanding authorities that did not amend
the 1961 Act, or included language in annual appropriations measures to waive the requirement to
keep authorizations current.

Over time, as enactment of foreign aid reauthorizations waned, the General Provisions of foreign
operations appropriations measures increasingly became the place for Congress to assert its views
on the role and use of U.S. foreign aid policy, put limits or conditions on assistance, or even
authorize new programs.




 ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                                         œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜                    œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž




    ˜—Ž—œ
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1
How to Read the Table .................................................................................................................... 1



Š‹•Žœ
Table 1. Foreign Operations Appropriations ................................................................................... 2



   ™™Ž—’¡Žœ
Appendix. Short Titles and Popular Names of Laws Cited in the Table (in chronological
 order) .......................................................................................................................................... 21



   ˜—ŠŒœ
Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 23




  ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                            œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜           œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž




—›˜žŒ’˜—
Foreign assistance law requires Congress to authorize funding for programs before appropriated
funds are spent.1 Through 1985, Congress regularly enacted new authorization legislation or
amended the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the foundation of U.S. foreign aid policy, to update
authorization time frames, and to incorporate newer programs and authorities. After 1986,
however, Congress turned more frequently to enacting freestanding authorities that did not amend
the 1961 Act, and waived the requirement to authorize funds before making them available in
appropriations.

The annual foreign operations appropriations bill funds foreign aid programs as they are defined
and authorized in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Arms Export Control Act, and other
related Acts.2 These annual measures, like all appropriations bills that fund executive branch
programs and operations, include General Provisions to guide how funds may be spent.

Over time, as enactment of foreign aid reauthorizations waned, the General Provisions of foreign
operations appropriations measures increasingly have become a legislative option for Congress to
assert its views on the role and use of U.S. foreign aid policy, put limits or conditions on
assistance, or even authorize new programs. As a result, some contend, General Provisions have
become more important and interesting to track.

This report identifies the legislative origins of General Provisions that pertain to foreign aid in the
current Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009
(division J of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009; P.L. 111-8; 123 Stat. 524 at 831).



˜  ˜ ŽŠ ‘Ž Š‹•Ž
The left column shows the General Provision section and heading, taken from P.L. 111-8.

The right column, in most instances, has two paragraphs per section. The first paragraph
identifies in which section the intent or language of the General Provision first appeared, and is
taken from annotations the Congressional Research Service prepares for the House Committee on
Foreign Affairs and Senate Committee on Foreign Relations for their joint committee print,
Legislation on Foreign Relations. The second paragraph establishes the more detailed legislative
history of each provision—where and how it first appears that first year (reported out of

1
  Section 10 of the Foreign Military Sales Amendments, 1971 (P.L. 91-672; 22 U.S.C. 2412), requires authorization
before appropriations, stating that “no money appropriated for foreign assistance (including foreign military sales) shall
be available for obligation or expenditure—(1) unless the appropriation thereof has been previously authorized by law;
or (2) in excess of an amount previously prescribed by law.” The requirement, however, is routinely waived, most
recently in sec. 7023 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009
(division J of P.L. 111-8; 123 Stat. 870), which states “Funds appropriated by this Act, except funds appropriated under
the heading ‘Trade and Development Agency’, may be obligated and expended notwithstanding section 10 of Public
Law 91-672, section 15 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, section 313 of the Foreign Relations
Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (P.L. 103-236), and section 504(a)(1) of the National Security Act of
1947 (50 U.S.C. 414(a)(1)).”
2
  CRS Report R40089, Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Authorizations and Corresponding Appropriations, by Dianne
E Rennack; CRS Report R40213, Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy, by Curt Tarnoff and
Marian Leonardo Lawson.




    ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                          œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜           œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž



committee, floor sponsor, or conference committee). Where available, report numbers are
included. In some years, detailed information about sponsorship is not available: there is nearly
no legislative history trail for new General Provisions introduced in FY2009, for example. Such
detailed information for those General Provisions that pertain only to funding for the Department
of State, however, is also not provided.

Very few of the General Provisions are codified as notes in the U.S. Code. Very few of the
General Provisions correspond with sections in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. When either
condition occurs, it is noted in the right column.

Most of the sections have changed over the years. The legislative histories in the right column
document the introduction of the concept or intent of the General Provision, not the subsequent
changes to that initial idea. Thus, an idea may be introduced and the right column identifies the
committee or Member who brought the idea forward, but legislative maps of subsequent
alterations, additions, changes in applicability, are not tracked. The goal is solely to identify the
emergence of the idea.

Frequently, once enacted, a General Provision is continued annually in subsequent foreign
operations appropriations measures. If some portion of a section is not carried forward annually, it
is noted in the right column.

The short titles or popular names of annual foreign operations appropriations have changed over
time. In keeping with current jargon, the table refers to each annual measure as a “Foreign
Operations Appropriations” with the fiscal year to which it applies. An appendix follows the
table, which provides true short titles and popular names, along with Public Law numbers.

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    noitibihorP“ a detcane tsrif ,8891 ,spO ngieroF fo 675 .ceS             ot ecnatsissA laretaliB no noitibihorP .2207 .ceS
                       .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)829 .tdmAS( 3991
    ,22 rebmetpeS ,smleH rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
               .noitalsigel ni snoitibihorp detaler-msirorret rehto       msirorreT lanoitanretnI gnitroppuS seirtnuoC ot
     erutpac ot 2002 dna 9991 sraey lacsif ni denedaorB .4991          tnempiuqE yratiliM lahteL tropxE tahT stnemnrevoG
      ,spO ngieroF fo 375 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS           ngieroF ot ecnatsissA no noitibihorP .1207 .ceS
            .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)5212 .tdmAS( 4991 ,92 enuJ
,royrP rotaneS rof yhaeL rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                           .0002 ,spO ngieroF fo 555 .ces ni dedda
 dnuF troppuS cimonocE dna ,ecnatsissA tnempoleveD ,dnuF
        margorP esaesiD dna lavivruS dlihC ot ecnerefer .5991                                                     sesnepxE
      ,spO ngieroF fo 975 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS               niatreC fo tnemyaP fo noitibihorP .0207 .ceS
                     tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                      noitceS
                    etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž       œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                 ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                        .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)3233 .tdmAS( 2991
     ,03 rebmetpeS ,yhaeL rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                     .swal ytefas dna ,tnemnorivne ,robal ,ffirat ,xat
   ni ycnapercsid ot ecnerefer a dedulcni 1002 hguorht 3991
sraey lacsif rof noitalsigel snoitairporppA .4991 ,spO ngieroF
          fo 745 .ces ni detcane tsrif )2( .arap ni noisivorP .3991
      ,spO ngieroF fo 995 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS               .S.U eht ni sboJ no tcapmI .9207 .ceS
                      .2991 ,32 rebmetpeS ,)914-201 .tpeR .S ;8635
    .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS yb tuo detropeR
                                                                  .3991
      ,spO ngieroF fo 265 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                 ecnatsissA rof ytilibigilE .8207 .ceS
                               .9891 ,91 yluJ ,)561-101 .tpeR .H ;9392
     .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                                   eton 2632 .C.S.U 22
                                                                  .0991
      ,spO ngieroF fo 295 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                      stnuoccA etarapeS .7207 .ceS
                                        .))c( .cesbus( 6891 ,2 rebotcO
          ,)659-99 .tpeR .H ;8455 .R.H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC
              ni deifidom ;6891 ,62 hcraM ,)372-99 .tpeR .S ;7422
         .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                          .))b( dna )a( .scesbus( 8791 ,1 enuJ ,)13921
     .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                     eton h262 .C.S.U 22 :)c( .cesbuS
                              ”.tcA siht ot tnausrup elbaliava edam ro
 detairporppa sdnuf htiw seitidommoc larutlucirga decudorp
              naciremA fo esahcrup eht troppus ot ... snoitutitsni
   laicnanif lanoitanretni fo srotcerid evitucexe setatS detinU
        eht tcurtsni“ ot yrusaerT eht fo yraterceS eht deriuqer
        hcihw ,noitces taht ot )b( .cesbus a dedulcni ,9991 ,spO
 ngieroF ehT .6891 fo stnemdnemA tcA knaB tropmI-tropxE
           eht fo 22 .ces sa detcane tsrif )c( .cesbus ni deniatnoc
            taht ot ralimis egaugnaL .stcudorp .S.U htiw etepmoc
           dluow taht stcudorp evitisnes-tropmi fo tnempoleved
   eht ot gnitaler ,)c( .cesbus a dedulcni osla 5991YF hguorht
           stca snoitairporppa dna ,tcA tahT .1991 ,spO ngieroF
  fo 125 .ces sa detcane tsrif )b( .cesbus ni deniatnoc taht ot
  ralimis egaugnaL .9791 ,spO ngieroF fo 806 .ces sa detcane                                        seitidommoC
             tsrif )a( .cesbus ni deniatnoc taht ot ralimis egaugnaL      sulpruS dna ,edarT ,ecremmoC .6207 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                             noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                          ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
  .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)2822 .tdmAS( 4991 ,41 yluJ ,smleH
   rotaneS rof llennoCcM rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                                                                .5991                                              ytirohtuA
        ,spO ngieroF fo 585 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS        nainitselaP eht gninrecnoC snoitcirtseR .7307 .ceS
 .2002 ,spO ngieroF fo 665 .ces sa raey suoiverp eht detcane
        saw egaugnal detaler taht troper sti ni deton eettimmoC
         ehT .2002 ,91 rebmetpeS ,)366-701 .tpeR .H ;0145.R.H(
              eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                                                .3002
        ,spO ngieroF fo 365 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                           doohetatS nainitselaP .6307 .ceS
                     .2991 ,32 rebmetpeS ,)914-201 .tpeR .S ;8635
      .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS yb tuo detropeR
                                                                .3991
  ,spO ngieroF fo )b(895 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                     learsI fo ttocyoB eugaeL barA .5307 .ceS
                                      .3991 ,01 enuJ ,)521-301 .tpeR
    .H( snoitairporppA no eettimmoC esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                              .lufgninaem ylralucitrap
   ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot rennam a ni dettimo dna dedda
    neeb sah egaugnal ,sraey tneuqesbus nI .4991 ,spO ngieroF
      fo 945 .ces sa detcane tsrif )a( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL                             seitirohtuA laicepS .4307 .ceS
                                    .3991 ,41 rebmetpeS ,)241-301
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                          .9991 ,spO ngieroF fo 955
        .ces ni dedda )3()a( .cesbuS .4991 ,spO ngieroF fo )a(075
    .ces sa detcane tsrif ,)3()a( .cesbus tpecxe ,egaugnal ralimiS             tserooP eht rof feileR tbeD laicepS .3307 .ceS
                                            .5991 ,62 rebotcO ,)592
         -401 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo tuo detropeR
                   .3002YF fo noitpecxe eht htiw deunitnoc ,6991                                                      selaS
        ,spO ngieroF fo 175 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS       ro skcabyuB tbeD ni egagnE ot ytirohtuA .2307 .ceS
                            .9891 ,91 yluJ ,)561-101 .tpeR .H ;9392
       .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                     .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo 825 .ces
ni dedda ”snoitairporppA no seettimmoC eht fo serudecorp
            noitacifiton raluger eht ot tcejbus“ ,esarhp ehT .0991
        ,spO ngieroF fo 485 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                         tnempoleveD-rof-tbeD .1307 .ceS
                              .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011 .R.H( etov
 nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB :)c( .cesbuS
        .0002 ,01 yluJ ,)027-601 .tpeR .H ;1184 .R.H( eettimmoC
              snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR :)b( .cesbuS
      .0991 ,12 enuJ ,)355-101 ,tpeR .H ;4115 .R.H( eettimmoC
 snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR :)d( dna )a( .scesbuS
                                         .9002YF ni wen )c( .cesbuS
                                          .1002 ,spO ngieroF fo 695
     .ces sa detcane tsrif )b( .cesbus fo taht ot ralimis egaugnaL
                                 .1991 ,spO ngieroF fo 875 .ces sa
    detcane tsrif )d( dna )a( .cesbus fo taht ot ralimis egaugnaL               snoitutitsnI laicnaniF lanoitanretnI .0307 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                      noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                         ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
        .I eltit rednu gnidnuf tnemtrapeD etatS ot ylno sniatreP                      ycnerapsnarT gnitsacdaorB .1407 .ceS
                                                              .7991
  ,21 rebmevoN ,)104-501 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC
                 ni gnitluser ,eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo
   tuo deifidoM .7991 ,41 yluJ ,)671-501 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC
    snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR :8991YF ,665 .ceS
     .4991 ,32 yaM ,)425-301 .tpeR .H ;6244 .R.H( eettimmoC
    snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR :5991YF ,565 .ceS
                                                  .4002YF ni dedda
     saw ,troper a gniriuqer ,tcA taht fo )d( .cesbus ;ytirohtuA
              nainitselaP eht ot ecnatsissa no stimil detcane 8991
      ,spO ngieroF fo 665 .ceS .desicrexe erew tcA noitatilicaF
    ecaeP tsaE elddiM eht ni seitirohtua sselnu azaG dna knaB
tseW rof noitazinagrO noitarebiL enitselaP eht ot ecnatsissa
 no stimil detcane 5991 ,spO ngieroF fo 565 .ceS .lufgninaem
        ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot hguone degnahc
 sah egaugnal eht tub ,stnemtcane reilrae owt ot pihsnoitaler                                                       ytirohtuA
          emos raeb tcA 9002YF eht fo )d( hguorht )a( .scesbuS        nainitselaP eht rof ecnatsissA no noitatimiL .0407 .ceS
                                               .9991 ,71 rebmevoN
                ,)4913 .R.H( erusaem snoitairporppa detadilosnoc
                 a otni detaroprocni yltneuqesbus dna )2243 .R.H(
   decudortnier saw spO ngieroF .tnediserP eht yb deotev eb
    ot ylno dessap dna ,9991 ,32 yluJ ,)452-601 .tpeR .H ;6062
     .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                                         .6002YF ni
   detcane tsrif )g( .cesbuS .9002YF ni detcane tsrif )f( .cesbuS
  .tnemdnema yb 5002YF ni detcane tsrif )e( .cesbuS .5002YF
ni detcane tsrif )c( .cesbuS .3002 ,spO ngieroF fo 865 .ces ni
 detcane tsrif )d( dna )b( .scesbuS .0002 ,spO ngieroF fo 785
    .ces sa detcane tsrif )a( .cesbus fo taht ot ralimis egaugnaL        azaG dna knaB tseW eht rof ecnatsissA .9307 .ceS
                                 .8991 ,91 rebotcO ,)528-801 .tpeR
       .H ;8234 .R.H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo tuo detropeR
                                                              .9991                                noitaroproC gnitsacdaorB
      ,spO ngieroF fo 485 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS      nainitselaP eht ot ecnatsissA no noitibihorP .8307 .ceS
                     tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                       noitceS
                    etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž       œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                          ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                       .1002 ,4 rebmetpeS ,)85-701
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                           .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc
                  a gnikam ,txen eht ot raey eno morf yllaitnatsbus
                  segnahc egaugnal eht ,llarevO .2002 ,spO ngieroF
 fo 765 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ;raey hcae detcane toN                          aibmoloC .6407 .ceS
                                                .4002 ,02 rebmevoN
          ,)297-801 .tpeR .H ;8184 .R.H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC
fo tuo detroper aciremA lartneC ot gnitaler egaugnal ralimiS
                                                        .6991 ,92 yaM
    ,)006-401 .tpeR .H ;0453 .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA
         esuoH fo tuo detroper itiaH ot gnitaler egaugnal ralimiS
                                              .8002 ,snoitairporppA
               latnemelppuS fo 7041 .ces sa detcane tsrif aciremA
       lartneC ot detaler egaugnal ralimiS .8002 ,snoitairporppA
                 latnemelppuS fo 6041 .ces sa detcane tsrif ocixeM
         ot detaler egaugnal ralimiS .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo )a(485
            .ces sa detcane tsrif aciremA lartneC ot dia ot detaler
     egaugnal ralimiS .7991 ,spO ngieroF fo 285 .ces sa detcane
tsrif itiaH ot gnitaler egaugnal ralimiS .lufgninaem ylralucitrap
  ton si nosirapmoc taht os yllaitnatsbus degnahc sah ,llarevO              erehpsimeH nretseW .5407 .ceS
                                          .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011
     .R.H( etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB
                                                     .9002YF ni weN                      nonabeL .4407 .ceS
                                          .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011
     .R.H( etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB
                                                     .9002YF ni weN      snoitcnaS narI no tropeR .3407 .ceS
                                    .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011 .R.H(
    etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB :9002
                                                           .etov eciov
         yb ot deerga ;7002 ,12 enuJ no )AI( gniK evitatneserpeR
                 yb decudortni ,963 .tdmAH yb deifidoM .7002 ,81
  enuJ ,)791-011 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH
         eht fo tuo detropeR—gnidnuf esab no snoitatimiL :8002
                                                 .7002 ,71 rebmeceD
   ,)794-011 .tpeR .H( srebmahc owt eht neewteb secnereffid
              gnivloser fo esruoc eht ni esuoH eht fo roolf eht no
      deifidoM .tnesnoC suominanU yb detpoda ;)8272 .tdmAS(
             7002 ,6 rebmetpeS ,ggerG rotaneS rof yhaeL rotaneS
            yb roolf eht no decudortnI—snoitatimil gnidnuf :8002
                    .9002YF ni wen )c( dna )b( .scesbuS .8002 ,spO
  ngierof fo 086 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,qarI ni sesab rof gnidnuf
        no snoitatimil ot gnitaler ,)d( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL
 .8002 ,spO ngieroF ,K996 .ces ot ytiralimis emos sraeb ,qarI
      ot ecnatsissa ngierof no snoitatimil ot gnitaler ,)a( .cesbuS                          qarI .2407 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                      noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                          ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                              .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)2212 .tdmAS(
        4991 ,92 enuJ ,yhaeL rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                                                            .8002YF ni
  gninnigeb snoitinum retsulc ot srefer gnidaeh noitceS .5991
        ,spO ngieroF fo 875 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS               snoitinuM retsulC dna senimdnaL .6507 .ceS
                         .etov eciov yb detpoda ;)929 tdmAS( 3991
    ,22 rebmetpeS ,smleH rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                                                       .sexat ytreporp
laer diapnu edulcni ot 5002YF ni dednapxE .1002YF ni dedda
  kroY weN ot dewo senif dna seitlanep ot secnerefeR .4991                                   stnemnrevoG ngieroF yb dewO
        ,spO ngieroF fo 475 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS          sexaT ytreporP laeR dna seniF gnikraP .5507 .ceS
          .I eltit rednu gnidnuf tnemtrapeD etatS ot ylno sniatreP               snoitageleD .N.U no snoitcirtseR .4507 .ceS
                                              .7002 ,01 yluJ ,)821-011
     .tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS tuo detropeR
                     .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 696 .ces sa detcane tsriF      secnerefnoC lanoitanretnI ta ecnadnettA .3507 .ceS
                           .7002 ,6 rebmetpeS ,tnesnoC suominanU
          yb detpoda ,)2172 .tdmAS( nameloC rotaneS rof yhaeL
    rotaneS yb decudortni lasoporp yb etaneS eht ni dednema
              ;7002 ,12 enuJ ,etov eciov yb detpoda ,)973 .tdmAH(
       ,nenitheL-soR evitatneserpeR yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                     .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 596 .ces sa detcane tsriF                  licnuoC sthgiR namuH .N.U .2507 .ceS
                                           .noitalsigel rehto sdnemA                     tnemssessA gnipeekecaeP .1507 .ceS
          .I eltit rednu gnidnuf tnemtrapeD etatS ot ylno sniatreP                          snoissiM gnipeekecaeP .0507 .ceS
                                      .3991 ,41 rebmetpeS ,)241-301
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                            .eton 6562
     .C.S.U 22 ta 0002 hguorht 4991 sraey lacsif morf deifidoC
          .4002YF ni dedda enoeL arreiS rof truoC laicepS eht ot
  gnitaler osivorP .3002YF ni dedda truoc ro lanubirt lanimirc
       lanoitanretni tnenamrep ro gnidnats yna fo tnemhsilbatse
     eht ot gnirrefer osivorP .4991 ,spO ngieroF fo )e(845 .ces
  ni detcane tsrif nwodward slanubirt semirc raw rof gnidnuF                    nwodwarD slanubirT semirC raW .9407 .ceS
                                                        .0401-88 .tpeR
     .H gniynapmocca eht ni ti ot edam si ecnerefer on hguoht
   ,3691 ,11 rebmeceD no eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH
         eht yb tuo detroper sa 9949 .R.H ni deraeppa srebmem
       .N.U ot stnemyap fo noitibihorp eht ot gnitaler egaugnaL
                          .0002 ,spO ngieroF fo 645 .ces ni detcane
             tsrif secnerefnoc lanoitanretni ni gnitapicitrap fo stsoc
      eht dna ,tcA ecnatsissA ngieroF eht fo I trap fo 1 retpahc
          tuo gniyrrac ot gnitaler egaugnaL .4691 ,spO ngieroF fo
   411 .ces sa detcane tsrif esualc tsrif eht ot ralimis egaugnaL        srebmeM .N.U ot stnemyaP fo noitibihorP .8407 .ceS
            .tnesnoC suominanU yb detpoda ;)4391 .tdmAS( 1002
          ,42 rebotcO ,yhaeL rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
    .deton era snoitces reilrae rehto dna ,eton 1512 .C.S.U 22
     ta deifidoc si noitareti 6002YF ehT .2002 ,spO ngieroF fo
  285 .ces sa detcane tsrif eussi emas eht ot detaler egaugnaL                ecnatsissA eciloP desaB-ytinummoC .7407 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                      noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                            ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                .eton 8493 .C.S.U 22 ta deifidoc ,saesrevo yolpme
         dna erih ot ytirohtua ot gnitaler ,)g( hguoht )a( .scesbuS
                                                .txen eht ot raey eno
    morf nosirapmoc lufgninaem yna rof wolla ot elbairav oot
       tub raey hcae detcane si ,tnemeganam DIASU ot gnitaler
   ,676 .ces ,llarevO .tcA 9002 eht fo )i( hguorht )a( .scesbus
            fo ecnatsbus eht smrof 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 676 .ceS
                                         .tcA 9002 eht ni )k( .cesbus
          fo ecnatsbus eht smrof ,nosirapmoc lufgninaem yna rof
   elbairav ot rennam a ni txen eht ot raey eno morf degnahc
              sah taht noitces a ,8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )c(436 .ceS
                            .6891 ,5 tsuguA ,)747-99 .tpeR .H ;9335
      .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
           .8002YF ni dedda gnidaeh ni htlaeh labolg ot ecnerefer
     ;semit wef a detatser neeb sah gnidaeh noitces ehT .sdnuf
    htlaeH dna lavivruS dlihC 5002YF-4002YF fo esu eht tidua
        ot lareneG rellortpmoC eht deriuqer noitces 6002 raey
  lacsiF .0002YF ni dedda saw stnemesrubmier dna ecnatsissa
tnempoleved ot gnirrefer osivorp ehT .7891 ,spO ngieroF fo
   155 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS :swollof sa tuoba
  emac seitivitcA lavivruS dlihC dna htlaeH labolG ot gnitaler
    ,226 .ces ,llarevO .tcA 9002 eht ni )j( .cesbus fo ecnatsbus
       eht mrof 8002 ,spO ngieroF ni 226 .ces fo sosivorp owT
                                                           .lufgninaem
         ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot rennam a ni raey
      ot raey morf degnahc evah ,nrut ni ,snoitces esohT .8002                                                    tnemeganaM
          ,spO ngieroF fo 676 dna ,)c(436 ,226 .sces morf delluC          tnempoleveD lanoitanretnI rof ycnegA .S.U .9507 .ceS
                                            .6791 ,81 hcraM ,)407-49
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                                  .6791
       ,spO ngieroF fo 311 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                 sesnepxE ecnediseR no noitatimiL .8507 .ceS
                                              .7002 ,01 yluJ ,)821-011
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                       .troper launna
      -imes eht ni ”stcapmoc gnitsixe ot segnahc citammargorp
             rojam“ no troper noitaroproC egnellahC muinnelliM
               eht fo reciffO evitucexE feihC eht taht tnemeriuqer
            a sdda noitces 9002 ehT .secruoser larutan fo esu dna
  tnemeganam elbaniatsus dna ytisrevidoib ot gnitaler airetirc
  ytilibigile na dda ot )noitalsigel gnizirohtua eht( 3002 fo tcA
   egnellahC muinnelliM eht dednema osla noitces tahT .8002
     ,spO ngieroF fo I996 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                  noitaroproC egnellahC muinnelliM .7507 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                        noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž         œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                              ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                      .5002 ,82 enuJ ,)251-901 .tpeR
    .H( snoitairporppA no eettimmoC esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                  .9002YF ni wen si )a( .cesbuS .6002 ,spO ngieroF
      fo 375 .ces sa detcane tsrif )b( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL             ecneloiV desaB-redneG .3607 .ceS
                                          .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011
     .R.H( etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB
                                                      .9002YF ni weN         tnempoleveD ni nemoW .2607 .ceS
                                              .7002 ,01 yluJ ,)821-011
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                     .margorP stnarG
 tnempoleveD eht dehsilbatse 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 476 .ceS               margorP stnarG tnempoleveD .1607 .ceS
                             .4002 ,31 yluJ ,)995-801 .tpeR .H ;8184
       .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                            .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc
      a gnikam ,raey ot raey morf yllaitnatsbus segnahc egaugnal
  ehT .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo 525 .ces sa ”,SDIA/VIH“ gnidaeh
  eht htiw ,detcane tsrif spO ngieroF rednu gnidnuf SDIA/VIH
     fo tnemeganam ot detaler egaugnaL .wen si )2()b( .cesbus
         .tcA 9002 eht fo )1()b( hguorht )b( .cesbus fo ecnatsbus
      eht mrof ,8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )1()a( hguorht )a(526 .ceS
                                                .6891 ,5 tsuguA ,)747
  -99 .tpeR .H ;9335 .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH
   fo tuo detropeR .8002YF ni dedda gnidaeh ni htlaeh labolg
  ot ecnerefer ;semit wef a detatser neeb sah gnidaeh noitces
            ehT .sdnuf htlaeH dna lavivruS dlihC 5002YF-4002YF
            fo esu eht tidua ot lareneG rellortpmoC eht deriuqer
 noitces 6002 raey lacsiF .raey lacsif eno devivrus noitpmexe
       tahT .egaraerra tbed ot gnitaler snoitcirtser morf gnidnuf
 gnitpmexe ,smargorp gninnalp ylimaf ot ecnerefer a dedulcni
      dna ,smargorp esaesid dna ,noitneverp ,sesaesid suoitcefni
   rehto ot refer ot noitces eht dednapxe ,9991 ,spO ngieroF
        .0002YF hguorht yllaunna detats dna ,3991 ,spO ngieroF
      fo 245 .ces ni dedda tbed lanretxe ro tluafed ot gniniatrep
   wal fo noitacilppa eht morf sdnuf gninnalp ylimaf gnitpmexe
              osivorp A .4002YF ni dedda 3002 fo tcA pihsredaeL
 .S.U eht ot gnirrefer osivorP .9891 ,spO ngieroF fo 545 .ces
    ni deraeppa tsrif yrtnuoc gnipoleved a ni )SDIA( emordnyS
           ycneicifeD enummI deriuqcA fo tnemtaert dna lortnoc
       ot gnitaler seitivitca ot secnerefeR .7891 ,spO ngieroF fo
    155 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS :swollof sa tuoba
   emac seitivitcA lavivruS dlihC dna htlaeH labolG ot gnitaler
   ,226 .ces ,llarevO .tcA 9002 eht ni )a( .cesbus fo ecnatsbus
        eht mrof 8002 ,spO ngieroF ni 226 .ces fo sosivorp owT
    .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot rennam
             a ni raey ot raey morf degnahc evah ,nrut ni ,snoitces
esohT .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 526 dna 226 .sces morf delluC                     seitivitcA htlaeH labolG .0607 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                          noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                   ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                    .7002 ,01 yluJ ,)821-011 .tpeR .S( ,eettimmoC
snoitairporppA etaneS yb deifidoM .7002 ,81 enuJ ,)791-011
    .R.H( ,eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                  .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 186 .ces sa detcane tsriF            erutroT fo esU no noitibihorP .9607 .ceS
                  .9002YF ni wen—noitibihorp siht ni dedulcni si
gnidnuf snoitarepO ngieroF ;puorG gnitarepO yciloP roineS
 ”eht fo seitilibisnopser gnitanidrooc etacilpud taht snoitcnuf
             mrofrep ot“ sdnuf fo desu eht stibihorp )b( .cesbuS
.I eltit rednu gnidnuf tnemtrapeD etatS ot yliramirp sniatreP               puorG gnitarepO yciloP roineS .8607 .ceS
                                              .5891 ,61 rebmeceD
 ,)344-99 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo tuo detropeR
                                                              .6891
      ,spO ngieroF fo 645 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                  stnemucoD rof stseuqeR .7607 .ceS
                                     .7002 ,01 yluJ ,)821-011 .tpeR
    .S( snoitairporppA no eettimmoC etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                  .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 336 .ces sa detcane tsriF      tropeR serutidnepxE evisneherpmoC .6607 .ceS
                                                                 .)3
   .oN llaC lloR( 4002 ,22 yraunaJ ,82-56 fo etov yb etaneS ni
   ot deerga ;)676 .oN llaC lloR( 3002 ,8 rebmeceD ,671-242
    fo etov yb esuoH ni ot deerga ;3002 ,52 rebmevoN ,)104
       -801 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo tuo detropeR
                                                              .4002
      ,spO ngieroF fo 585 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                  smargorP noitailicnoceR .5607 .ceS
                           .4002 ,31 yluJ ,)995-801 .tpeR .H ;8184
     .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH yb tuo detropeR
  .noitacude rehgih rof sdnuf setairporppa 9002 ,spO ngieroF
fo )b( .cesbuS .nalp raey-evif a tnemelpmi ot seirtnuoc eerht
        tegrat ot margorp tolip a sehsilbatse 9002 ,spO ngieroF
       fo )3()a( .cesbuS .eton a1562 .C.S.U 22 ta deifidoc ,etatS
        fo tnemtrapeD eht ni seirtnuoc gnipoleved ni ecnatsissa
       noitacude cisab edivorp ot seitivitca tnemnrevog .S.U fo
rotanidrooc a gnihsilbatse ,8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )b(466 .ceS
                                                 .raey ot raey morf
      yllaitnatsbus degnahc sah egaugnaL .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo
765 .ces sa detcane tsrif noitacude cisab ot detaler egaugnaL                                   noitacudE .4607 .ceS
                     tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                noitceS
                    etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž       œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                       ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                             .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011 .R.H( etov
       nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB .9002YF
        ni wen si ,elbaliava edam si ecnatsissa erofeb ewbabmiZ
        fo tnemnrevog lartnec eht htiw tsixe snoitidnoc niatrec
 enimreted ot etatS fo yraterceS eht gniriuqer ,)2()e( .cesbuS
                                            .eton 1512 .C.S.U 22 ta
   deifidoC .1002 ,4 rebmetpeS ,)85-701 .tpeR .S( eettimmoC
  snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR .2002 ,spO ngieroF
          fo 065 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,ewbabmiZ fo tnemnrevog
   eht ot snaol tsom no ”on“ etov ot srotcerid evitucexe .S.U
   gniriuqer ,)noitaicossa dna hceeps fo modeerf ot ecnerefer
     eht gnidulcni dna ot pu( )1()e( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL
                                                            .tnesnoC
   suominanU yb detpoda ;)0082 .R.H ;8691 .tdmAS( 3002,72
      rebotcO ,llennoCcM rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
          .4002 ,spO ngieroF fo 985 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,acirfA
       ni semirc raw ot gnitaler ,)d( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL
                                                 .9002 ,32 yraurbeF
          ,)5011 .R.H( etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht
   ot thguorB .9002YF ni wen si ,margorp msimertxe-retnuoc
            lehaS naP dna acirfA fo nroH ot gnitaler ,)c( .cesbuS
                                            .4002 ,31 yluJ ,)995-801
  .tpeR .H ;)8184 .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH yb
tuo detropeR .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo 965 .ces sa detcane tsrif
  ,naduS ot ecnatsissa gnitimil ,)b( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL
                                       .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton
 nosirapmoc a ekam ot raey ot raey morf segnahc ,seirtnuoc
   detangised dna ,egaugnal ehT .hpargarap VI eltit ni detcane
        ,smargorp gniniarT dna noitacudE yratiliM lanoitanretnI
            dednapxe ot gnitaler ,)a( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL
    .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot rennam
 a ni raey ot raey morf degnahc evah ,nrut ni ,snoitces esohT
    .8002 ,spO ngieroF fo 786 dna ,376 ,666 .sces morf delluC                         acirfA .0707 .ceS
                     tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                   noitceS
                    etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž       œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                         ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                 ).troper ecnerefnoc
                1184 .R.H eht ni dedulcni txet sti dna detaroprocni
saw ,snoitairporppA snoitarepO ngieroF 1002YF ,6255 .R.H(
         .0002 ,42 rebotcO ,decudortni sa 6255 .R.H ni dedulcnI
    .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a gnikam ,txen eht
   ot raey eno morf yllaitnatsbus segnahc egaugnal eht hguoht
        ,1002 ,spO ngieroF fo 495 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnaL                        aibreS .2707 .ceS
                     .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011 .R.H( etov nwod/pu
           rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB .snoitairporppA
                    tnemtrapeD etatS yb sraey suoiverp ni detcane
          neeb osla sah egaugnal wen eht fo emoS .dnuF troppuS
   cimonocE dna ,ecnatsissA tnempoleveD ,gnicnaniF yratiliM
 ngieroF ot gnitaler shpargarap ni ylralucitrap ,sraey suoiverp
        ni detcane neeb evah tnetni ralimis htiw snoitces hguoht
     ,9002YF ni wen era )h( manteiV dna ,)f( anihC fo cilbupeR
              s’elpoeP eht ,)e( aeroK htron ot gnitaler snoitcesbuS
    .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a gnikam ,tnereffid
   yllaitnatsbus si raey ot raey morf egaugnaL .seirtnuoc naisA
rehto dna senippilihP rof gnicnaniF yratiliM ngieroF dedivorp
 6002 ,spO ngieroF fo 195 .ces hguoht ,8002 ,spO ngieroF fo
  E996 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,senippilihP ot gnitaler ,)g( .cesbuS
                                                          .lufgninaem
       ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a ekam ot sa os raey ot raey
morf degnahc yllaitnatsbus sah noitceS .8991 ,spO ngieroF fo
    375 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,aidobmaC ot gnitaler ,)d( .cesbuS
                                               .9991 ,71 rebmevoN
                 ,)4913 .R.H( erusaem snoitairporppa detadilosnoc
  a otni detaroprocni yltneuqesbuS .noitces detaler-aisenodnI
               eht deniatnoc ,gnuoY evitatneserpeR yb decudortni
  ,2243 .R.H ,raey taht llib a hcus fo noitcudortni dnoces ehT
       .tnediserP eht yb deotev saw ssergnoC yb dessap yllaitini
            sa )6062 .R.H( 0002 ,spO ngieroF .0002 ,spO ngieroF
 fo 985 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,aisenodnI ot gnitaler ,)c( .cesbuS
                       .3002 ,12 yluJ ,)222-801 .tpeR .H ;0082 .R.H(
    snoitairporppA no eettimmoC etaneS eht fo tuo detroper
sa deifidom dna snoitairporppA no eettimmoC esuoH eht fo
 tuo detroper erew tebiT dna amruB ot gniniatrep serusaeM
                                                                 .eton
       1071 .C.S.U 05 ta deifidoc ,amruB ot gnitaler ,)b( .cesbuS
          .6991 ,spO ngieroF fo II eltit ni detcane tsrif ,ecnatsissa
      nairatinamuh dna seitivitca ycarcomed rof elbaliava sdnuF
           troppuS cimonocE gnikam rof smret ot sniatrep hcihw
  taht dna ,4002 ,spO ngieroF fo 135 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,)b(
      .cesbus ni ,snoitutitsni laicnanif lanoitanretni eht ni amruB
      fo gnidnats eht ot sniatrep hcihw taht ot ralimis egaugnaL
             .4002 ,spO ngieroF fo 755 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,)1()a(
        .cesbus ni ,snoitutitsni laicnanif lanoitanretni eht ni tebiT
      fo gnidnats eht ot sniatrep hcihw taht ot ralimis egaugnaL                          aisA .1707 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                    noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                           ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                     .8991 ,51 rebmetpeS ,)917-501 .tpeR .H ;9654
      .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                                               .9002YF
 ni wen si snoitairporppA no seettimmoC eht fo serudecorp
   noitacifiton raluger eht ot tcejbus eb sdnuf )b( .cesbus taht
 tnemeriuqer ehT .6002 ,spO ngieroF fo 035 .ces ni detcane
          tsrif )b( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL .9991 ,spO ngieroF
     fo 775 .ces sa detcane tsrif )a( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL                     snoitcirtseR dnuF esirpretnE .8707 .ceS
                     .2002 ,91 rebmetpeS ,)366-701 .tpeR .H ;0145
      .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                               .lufgninaem ylralucitrap
       ton nosirapmoc a gnikam ,raey ot raey morf yllaitnatsbus
        segnahc egaugnal ehT .)83-701 .L.P( 1002 ,81 rebmetpeS
          wal otni dengis ,setatS detinU eht no skcattA tsirorreT
       ot esnopseR dna morF yrevoceR rof tcA snoitairporppA
                      latnemelppuS ycnegremE 1002 htiw gninnigeb
  ,snoitairporppa latnemelppus ycnegreme reilrae ni dedulcni
             si natsinahgfA hguoht ,3002 ,spO ngieroF fo 325 .ces
    ni detcane tsrif natsinahgfA rof sdnuf ot gnitaler noitces A                                        natsinahgfA .7707 .ceS
                     .2002 ,91 rebmetpeS ,)366-701 .tpeR .H ;0145
      .R.H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                                                  .3002
 ,spO ngieroF fo )a(475 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                                          natsikebzU .6707 .ceS
                                   .3002 ,31 yraurbeF ,)01-801 .tpeR
        .H ;2 .seR .J.H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo tuo detropeR
                                         .dia rof deifilauq natshkazaK
         erofeb tem eb ot stnemeriuqer fo noitcesbus a dedulcni
           6002YF .”aisA lartneC“ gnidaeh eht rednu noitces eno
  otni denibmoc erew natshkazaK dna natsikebzU ot gnitaler
    snoitces ,4002 dna 3002 sraey lacsif nI .3002 ,spO ngieroF
    fo )e( hguorht )b(475 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                                      aisA lartneC .5707 .ceS
                                                                   .etov
          eciov yb detpoda tnemdnema eerged tsrif ;4-59 fo etov
  yb detpoda tnemdnema eerged dnoceS .7991 ,61 yluJ ,)988
       .tdmAS( lasoporp htimS yb dednema ;)888 .tdmAS( 7991
         ,61 yluJ ,)RO( htimS rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                                .3002YF fo noitpecxe eht htiw ,8991
       ,spO ngieroF fo 775 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS             noitaredeF naissuR eht ni noisserpeR .4707 .ceS
                            .lufgninaem ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc
     a gnikam ,txen eht ot raey eno morf yllaitnatsbus segnahc
            egaugnal eht ,noiger eht ot gnitaler snoisivorp lareneg
 ni noitces a dedulcni evah snoitairporppa launna tneuqesbus
             hguohT .9991 ,spO ngieroF fo 715 .ces sa snoisivorp
         lareneg ni detcane tsrif spO ngieroF ’sraey suoirav morf
 smreT .)115-201 .L.P ;tcA troppuS MODEERF yb dedda ,11
retpahC( tcA ecnatsissA ngieroF eht ot dedda noitazirohtuA
   .3991 ,spO ngieroF fo II eltit ni detcane tsrif ”noinU teivoS                                                       noinU
     remrof eht fo setats tnednepedni weN“ eht ot ecnatsissA               teivoS remroF eht fo setatS tnednepednI .3707 .ceS
                       tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                      noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž         œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                         ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                  .7002 ,71 rebmeceD
         ,)794-011 .tpeR .H( yebO evitatneserpeR yb esuoH eht
fo roolf eht no detroper ,eettimmoC ecnerefnoC yb deddA
                                     .)sraey reilrae ni snoitairporppa
                  ’stnemtraped rehto ni detcane tnetni ralimis htiw
    egaugnal( 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo N996 .ces sa detcane tsriF              occaboT fo noitomorP no noitibihorP .4807 .ceS
                                                              .2002 ,42
  yluJ ,)912-701 .tpeR .S ;9772 .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA
        etaneS fo tuo detroper ytisrevidoib ot gnitaler egaugnaL
                                                     .8991 ,91 rebotcO
     ,)528-501 .tpeR .H ;8234 .R.H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC fo
 tuo detroper snoissime sag esuohneerg ot gnitaler egaugnaL
                                                                .9002YF
              ni wen ))c( .cesbus( dnuF seicepS evisavnI sogapalaG
             dna ))b( .cesbus( dnuF seirtnuoC depoleveD tsaeL ot
 ecnerefeR .nisaB nozamA desserdda tsrif 4002 ,spO ngieroF
    fo 555 .ceS .ytisrevidoib desserdda tsrif 3002 ,spO ngieroF
          fo 455 .ceS .8991 ,spO ngieroF fo 085 .ces yb deriuqer
           tsrif tropeR .9991 ,spO ngieroF fo 375 .ces sa detcane
            tsrif snoissime sag esuohneerg ot gniniatrep egaugnaL                        tnemnorivnE dna ygrenE .3807 .ceS
                                                    .)333 .on llaC lloR(
  231-492 fo etov a yb detpoda ;)283 .tdmAH( 5002 ,82 enuJ
      ,laeD evitatneserpeR yb roolf eht no decudortni 385 .ceS
                                          .)033 .oN llaC lloR( 89-723
fo etov a yb detpoda ;)873 .tdmAH( 5002 ,82 enuJ ,zerpuaeB
               evitatneserpeR yb roolf eht no decudortni 185 .ceS
                                       .6002 ,spO ngieroF fo 385 dna
      185 .sces ni detcane tsrif noitidartxe ot gnitaler egaugnaL                                     noitidartxE .2807 .ceS
                                       .5002 ,42 enuJ ,)251-901 .tpeR
         .H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
                                             ).1691 fo tcA ecnatsissA
              ngieroF eht sdnema )a( .cesbuS( .6002 ,spO ngieroF
      fo 975 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ot ralimis )b( .cesbuS                                         CIPO .1807 .ceS
                                   .etov eciov yb detpoda ;7591 ,51
   tsuguA ,redaeM evitatneserpeR yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                      .6991YF ni detcane tsrif osivorp eht ot ralimis
  egaugnaL .8591 ,tcA snoitairporppA ytiruceS lautuM fo 201
  .ces sa detcane tsrif ,osivorp eht gnidulcxe ,egaugnal ralimiS           adnagaporP ro yticilbuP no noitibihorP .0807 .ceS
                                                     .5991 ,62 rebotcO
,)592-401 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC ni tnemeergasid
          ni detroper ,8681 .R.H ot 511 .oN tnemdnemA etaneS
           fo ueil ni dessap saw sihT .6991 ,52 yraunaJ ,notsgniviL
  evitatneserpeR yb decudortni ,I ,tcA tnemyapnwoD tegduB
  decnalaB eht ,99-401 .L.P fo 203 .ces ni devorppa egaugnaL
                                               .lufgninaem ylralucitrap
            ton nosirapmoc a gnikam ,sraey eht revo yllaitnatsbus
                degnahc sah egaugnaL .6991 .spO ngieroF fo A815
         .ces sa detcane tsrif eussi emas eht ot detaler egaugnaL                dnuF noitalupoP snoitaN detinU .9707 .ceS
                       tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                    noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž         œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                        ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                                                 .5002
    ,2 rebmevoN ,)562-901 .tpeR .H( eettimmoC ecnerefnoC
                    fo tuo deifidom detropeR .5002 ,03 enuJ ,)69-901
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                                 .6002                                          nerdlihC
      ,spO ngieroF fo 495 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS             denodnabA dna decalpsiD ,snahprO .0907 .ceS
                        .4002 ,61 rebmetpeS ,)643-801 .tpeR .S ;2182
           .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                             .5002 ,spO ngieroF fo 975
  .ces sa detcane tsrif smargorp ytilibasid ot detaler egaugnaL                              smargorP ytilibasiD .9807 .ceS
           .tnesnoC suominanU yb ot deerga ;7002 ,6 rebmetpeS
           no ,nameloC rotaneS rof yhaeL rotaneS yb decudortni
                  ,0172 .tdmAS yb deifidoM .7002 ,22 enuJ ,)821-011
.tpeR .S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                    .)3002 ,spO ngieroF fo )b(585 .ces
      sa detcane tsrif ycnerapsnart no tnemeriuqer gnitroper a
  deunitnoc rettal eht tpecxe ,8002 fo taht ot lacitnedi ylraen
  tcA 9002( 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )e(866 .ces sa detcane tsrif
  ycnerapsnart tegdub lanoitan ot gnitaler egaugnaL .)sdnema
                tcA 9002 eht hcihw( 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )1()c(866
              .ces sa detcane tsrif knaB dlroW ot gnitaler egaugnaL
         .))a( .cesbus( snoitaN detinU ot yllareneg erom sniatrep
  tcA 9002( 8002 ,spO ngieroF fo )b(866 .ces sa detcane tsrif
  margorP tnempoleveD snoitaN detinU ot gnitaler egaugnaL                       ytilibatnuoccA dna ycnerapsnarT .8807 .ceS
                                        .7002 ,81 enuJ ,)791-011 .tpeR
          .H( eettimmoC snoitairporppA esuoH fo tuo detropeR
               .)6142 .C.S.U 22( 1691 fo tcA ecnatsissA ngieroF eht
     fo 656 .ces ta wal tnenamrep otni deifidoc troper detaleR
                                              .9002YF ni wen smargorp
ecnatsissa ngierof cificeps rednu elbaliava edam ,ecnanetniam
         dna noitarepo htiw detaicossa stsoc eht dna ,tnempiuqe
    no troper lanoitidda nA .8991 ,spO ngieroF fo 185 .ces sa
 detcane stnemeriuqer gnitroper detaleR .8002 ,spO ngieroF
         fo 256 .ces sa detcane tsrif ,emarfemit deificeps a nihtiw
       delif eb ot ,etatS dna esnefeD fo seiraterceS eht ot 1691
       fo tcA ecnatsissA ngieroF eht fo 656 .ces ni tnemeriuqer
            gnitroper eht gningissa ,)a( .cesbus ot ralimis egaugnaL            stropeR tnempiuqE dna gniniarT .7807 .ceS
            .tnesnoC suominanU yb detpoda ;)6672 .tdmAS( 7002
        ,6 rebmetpeS ,yhaeL rotaneS yb roolf eht no decudortnI
                                                    eton 2811 .C.S.U 8
                                                                 .8002
     ,spO ngieroF ni L996 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                               ycarcotpelK-itnA .6807 .ceS
                               .4002 ,61 rebmetpeS ,)643-801 .tpeR .S
 ;2182.S( eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS fo tuo detropeR
                                                                 .9891
      ,spO ngieroF fo 085 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS         selcitrA esnefeD fo gnisaeL laicremmoC .5807 .ceS
                      tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                    noitceS
                     etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž        œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                                                                       ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
   .sraey suoirav ,stroper etaneS dna esuoH ;sraey suoirav ,droceR lanoissergnoC ;sraey suoirav ,I emulov ,snoitaleR
        ngieroF no noitalsigeL ni seton detatonna ;9002 hcraM ,4391-6291 .pp ,E-A snoisiviD – 2 fo 1 koob ,]tnemetatS
         yrotanalpxE dna txeT evitalsigeL[ 8-111 waL cilbuP / 5011 .R.H no sevitatneserpeR fo esuoH .S.U snoitairporppA
             no eettimmoC eht fo tnirP eettimmoC ,9002 ,tcA snoitairporppA subinmO ;8-111 .L.P fo J noisiviD :ecruoS
                                     .9002 ,32 yraurbeF ,)5011
  .R.H( etov nwod/pu rof esuoH eht fo roolf eht ot thguorB
                               .)raey ot raey morf elbarapmoc
         ton tub ,lausunu ton era snoissicser( 9002 ot euqinU                   noissicseR knaB tropmI-tropxE .2907 .ceS
                               .)7002 ,71 rebmeceD ,)794-011
  .tpeR .H( srebmahc owt eht neewteb secnereffid gnivloser
          fo esruoc eht ni esuoH eht fo roolf eht no deifidoM
          .7002 ,2 yluJ ,)821-011 .tpeR .S( ”ecnatsissA yratiliM
gnirotinoM“ sa eettimmoC snoitairporppA etaneS yb deddA
                                                     .lufgninaem
      ylralucitrap ton nosirapmoc a gnikam ,tnemtcane 6002
    eht morf tnereffid yllaitnatsbus si egaugnal ehT .seirtnuoc
     naisA rehto dna aknaL irS rof gnicnaniF yratiliM ngieroF
        dedivorp 6002 ,spO ngieroF fo 195 .ces hguoht ,8002
  ,spO ngieroF fo G996 .ces sa detcane tsrif egaugnal ralimiS                                          aknaL irS .1907 .ceS
                    tnelaviuqe ro CSU                                                      noitceS
                   etoV/rosnopS/nigirO
œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž      œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜
                                               œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜   œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž




  ™™Ž—’¡ ‘˜› ’•Žœ Š— ˜™ž•Š› Š–Žœ ˜ Š œ
  ’Ž ’— ‘Ž Š‹•Ž ’— Œ‘›˜—˜•˜’ŒŠ• ˜›Ž›
Mutual Security Appropriations Act, 1958 (P.L. 85-853; 72 Stat. 1100)

Foreign Assistance and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1967 (P.L. 89-691; 80 Stat. 1018)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriation Act, 1974 (P.L. 93-240; 87 Stat. 1048)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1976 (P.L. 94-11; 89 Stat. 17)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1976 [transitional quarter] (P.L. 94-
330; 90 Stat. 771)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1977 (P.L. 94-441; 90 Stat. 1465)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1978 (P.L. 95-148; 91 Stat. 1230)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1979 (P.L. 95-481; 92 Stat. 1591)

Continuing Appropriations, 1980 (P.L. 96-86; 93 Stat. 656)

Continuing Appropriations, 1981 (P.L. 96-536; 94 Stat. 3166)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-121; 95 Stat. 1647)

Urgent Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-216; 96 Stat. 180)

Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 1983 (P.L. 97-377; 96 Stat. 1830)

Continuing Resolution, 1984 (P.L. 98-151; 97 Stat. 964)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1985 (in Continuing
Appropriations Act, 1985) (P.L. 98-473; 98 Stat. 1837 at 1884)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1986 (in Continuing
Appropriations Act, 1986) (P.L. 99-190; 99 Stat. 1185 at 1291)

Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1987 (in Continuing
Appropriations, 1987) (P.L. 99-591; 100 Stat. 3341 at 3341-214)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1988 (sec.
101(e)) in Continuing Appropriations, 1988) (P.L. 100-202; 101 Stat. 1329 at 1329-131)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1989 (P.L. 100-
461; 102 Stat. 2268)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 (P.L. 101-
167; 103 Stat. 1195 )



 ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                               œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜   œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž



Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act 1991 (P.L. 101-
513; 104 Stat. 1979)

Continuing Appropriations, 1992 (P.L. 102-145; 105 Stat. 968)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1993 (P.L. 102-
391; 106 Stat. 1633)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1994 (P.L. 103-
87; 107 Stat. 931)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1995 (P.L. 103-
306; 108 Stat. 1608)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1996 (P.L. 104-
107; 110 Stat. 704)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Supplemental Appropriations Act,
1997 (title I, sec. 101(c)) in Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act, 1997) (P.L. 104-208; 110
Stat. 3009 at 3009-121)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1998 (P.L. 105-
118; 111 Stat. 2386)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1999 (in
Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999) (P.L. 105-277;
112 Stat. 2681 at 2681-150)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000 (H.R.
3422, enacted by reference in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000) (P.L. 106-113; 113 Stat.
1501)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (P.L. 106-
429)

Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations
Act, 2002 (P.L. 107-115; 115 Stat. 2118)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003 (division
E in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2003) (P.L. 108-7; 117 Stat. 11 at 159)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2004 (division
D in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004) (P.L. 108-199; 118 Stat. 3 at 143)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (division
D in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005) (P.L. 108-447; 118 Stat. 2809 at 2968)

Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (P.L. 109-
102; 119 Stat. 2172)

2007: none (2006 continues)


 ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜
                                              œ—˜’Š’›™˜›™™ œ—˜’Š›Ž™ —’Ž›˜     œ—˜’œ’Ÿ˜› •Š›Ž—Ž



Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (division
J in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008) (P.L. 110-161; 121 Stat. 1844 at 2277)

Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009
(division J in Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009) (P.L. 111-8; 123 Stat. 524 at 831)



  ž‘˜› ˜—ŠŒ —˜›–Š’˜—

Dianne E. Rennack                               Susan G. Chesser
Specialist in Foreign Policy Legislation        Information Research Specialist
drennack@crs.loc.gov, 7-7608                    schesser@crs.loc.gov, 7-9547
Lisa Mages
Information Research Specialist
lmages@crs.loc.gov, 7-7452




 ŽŒ’Ÿ›Ž ‘Œ›ŠŽœŽ •Š—˜’œœŽ›—˜

								
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