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Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar Consul/Dictator of the Roman Republic

Bust of Julius Caesar Reign October 49 BC – 15 March 44 BC (as dictator and/ or consul) Gaius Julius Caesar 13 July 100 BC or 102 BC Subura, Rome 15 March 44 BC Curia of Pompey, Rome Cornelia Cinna minor 84–68 BC Pompeia 68–63 BC Calpurnia Pisonis 59–44 BC Julia Caesaris 85/84–54 BC Caesarion 47–30 BC Augustus 63 BC–AD 14 (grandnephew, posthumously adopted as Caesar’s son in 44 BC) Julio-Claudian Gaius Julius Caesar Aurelia Cotta

Full name Born Birthplace Died Place of death Consort


Royal House Father Mother

These articles cover the Ancient Roman Comitium of the Republican era StructuresPoliticiansAssembliesRostra, Curia Hostilia, Curia Julia, Lapis Niger Cicero, Gaius Gracchus, Julius Caesar Roman Senate, comitia curiata

English), (13 July 100 BC[2] – 15 March 44 BC[3]), was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, opposed in the Roman Senate by optimates including Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. The collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a stand-off with Pompey and the Senate. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the master of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He heavily centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity" (dictator perpetuo). A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar’s adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Much of Caesar’s life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo.

Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (pronounced [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaɪsar] in Classical Latin; conventionally pronounced [ˈgajəs ˈdʒuːliəs ˈsiːzɚ] in

Early life
Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus,


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son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.[4] The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere, caes-).[5] The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle.[6] Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favoured this interpretation of his name.[7] Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, having produced only three consuls. Caesar’s father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, reached the rank of praetor, the second highest of the Republic’s elected magistracies, and governed the province of Asia, perhaps through the influence of his prominent brother-in-law Gaius Marius.[8] His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family which had produced several consuls. Marcus Antonius Gnipho, an orator and grammarian of Gaulish origin, was employed as Caesar’s tutor.[9] Caesar had two sisters, both called Julia. Little else is recorded of Caesar’s childhood. Suetonius and Plutarch’s biographies of him both begin abruptly in Caesar’s teens; the opening paragraphs of both appear to be lost.[10] Caesar’s formative years were a time of turmoil. The Social War was fought from 91 to 88 BC between Rome and her Italian allies over the issue of Roman citizenship, while Mithridates of Pontus threatened Rome’s eastern provinces. Domestically, Roman politics was divided between politicians known as optimates and populares, neither of which had a common agenda and so cannot be considered a political party or even a faction. The optimates were those politicians who pursued their agendas through traditional, constitutional routes in the Senate; the populares those who preferred to bypass traditional procedure and pursue their agendas by appealing directly to the electorate. Caesar’s uncle Marius was a popularis, Marius’ protégé Lucius Cornelius Sulla was an optimas, and in Caesar’s youth their rivalry led to civil war. Both Marius and Sulla distinguished themselves in the Social War, and both wanted command of the war against Mithridates,

Julius Caesar
which was initially given to Sulla; but when Sulla left the city to take command of his army, a tribune passed a law transferring the appointment to Marius. Sulla responded by marching on Rome, reclaiming his command and forcing Marius into exile, but when he left on campaign Marius returned at the head of a makeshift army. He and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna seized the city and declared Sulla a public enemy, and Marius’s troops took violent revenge on Sulla’s supporters. Marius died early in 86 BC, but his followers remained in power.[11] In 85 BC Caesar’s father died suddenly while putting on his shoes one morning, without any apparent cause,[12] and at sixteen, Caesar was the head of the family. The following year he was nominated to be the new Flamen Dialis, high priest of Jupiter, as Merula, the previous incumbent, had died in Marius’s purges.[13] Since the holder of that position not only had to be a patrician but also be married to a patrician, he broke off his engagement to Cossutia, a plebeian girl of wealthy equestrian family he had been betrothed to since boyhood, and married Cinna’s daughter Cornelia.[14] Then, having brought Mithridates to terms, Sulla returned to finish the civil war against Marius’ followers. After a campaign throughout Italy he seized Rome at the Battle of the Colline Gate in November 82 BC and had himself appointed to the revived office of dictator; but whereas a dictator was traditionally appointed for six months at a time, Sulla’s appointment had no term limit. Statues of Marius were destroyed and Marius’ body was exhumed and thrown in the Tiber. Cinna was already dead, killed by his own soldiers in a mutiny.[15] Sulla’s proscriptions saw hundreds of his political enemies killed or exiled. Caesar, as the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was targeted. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife’s dowry and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother’s family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.[10]


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Julius Caesar
demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves,[29] but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised to when in captivity[30]—a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus. On his return to Rome he was elected military tribune, a first step on the cursus honorum of Roman politics. The war against Spartacus took place around this time (73–71 BC), but it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC,[31] and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, widow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His own wife Cornelia also died that year.[32] After her funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC, Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Hispania under Antistius Vetus.[33] While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realised with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics. On his return in 67 BC,[34] he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla.[35] He was elected aedile and restored the trophies of Marius’s victories; a controversial move given the Sullan regime was still in place. He also brought prosecutions against men who had benefited from Sulla’s proscriptions, and spent a great deal of borrowed money on public works and games, outshining his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts.[36]

Early career
Rather than returning to Rome, Caesar joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the siege of Mytilene. On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes’s fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumours of an affair with the king arose, which would persist for the rest of his life.[16] Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army.[17] In 80 BC, after two years in office, Sulla resigned his dictatorship, re-established consular government and, after serving as consul, retired to private life.[18] Caesar later ridiculed Sulla’s relinquishing of the dictatorship—"Sulla did not know his political ABC’s".[19] He died two years later in 78 BC and was accorded a state funeral.[20] Hearing of Sulla’s death, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in the Subura, a lower class neighbourhood of Rome.[21] His return coincided with an attempted anti-Sullan coup by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus but Caesar, lacking confidence in Lepidus’s leadership, did not participate.[22] Instead he turned to legal advocacy. He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Even Cicero praised him: "Come now, what orator would you rank above him...?"[23] Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar travelled to Rhodes in 75 BC to study under Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught Cicero.[24] On the way across the Aegean Sea,[25] Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa.[26] He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of silver, he insisted they ask for fifty.[27][28] After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon. Marcus Junctus, the governor of Asia, refused to execute them as Caesar

Coming to prominence
63 BC was an eventful year for Caesar. He persuaded a tribune, Titus Labienus, to prosecute the optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the political murder, 37 years previously, of the tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, and had himself appointed as one of the two judges to try the case. Rabirius was defended by both Cicero and Quintus Hortensius, but was convicted of perduellio (treason). While he was exercising his right of appeal to the


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Julius Caesar
When Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed Catiline’s conspiracy to seize control of the republic, Catulus and others accused Caesar of involvement in the plot.[39] Caesar, who had been elected praetor for the following year, took part in the debate in the Senate on how to deal with the conspirators. During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. Marcus Porcius Cato, who would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud. Caesar passed him the note, which, embarrassingly, turned out to be a love letter from Cato’s half-sister Servilia. Caesar argued persuasively against the death penalty for the conspirators, proposing life imprisonment instead, but a speech by Cato proved decisive, and the conspirators were executed.[40] The following year a commission was set up to investigate the conspiracy, and Caesar was again accused of complicity. On Cicero’s evidence that he had reported what he knew of the plot voluntarily, however, he was cleared, and one of his accusers, and also one of the commissioners, were sent to prison.[41] While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Celer, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation, and the pair were so obstinate they were suspended from office by the Senate. Caesar attempted to continue to perform his duties, only giving way when violence was threatened. The Senate was persuaded to reinstate him after he quelled public demonstrations in his favour.[42] That year the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess") was held at Caesar’s house. No men were permitted to attend, but a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Caesar’s wife Pompeia. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, careful not to offend one of the most powerful patrician families of Rome, and Clodius was acquitted after rampant bribery and intimidation. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion."[43] After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia), but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to Marcus Licinius

His bust in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. people, the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer adjourned the assembly by taking down the military flag from the Janiculum hill. Labienus could have resumed the prosecution at a later session, but did not do so: Caesar’s point had been made, and the matter was allowed to drop.[37] Labienus would remain an important ally of Caesar over the next decade. The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been appointed to the post by Sulla. He ran against two powerful optimates, the former consuls Quintus Lutatius Catulus and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign. In any event he won comfortably, despite his opponents’ greater experience and standing, possibly because the two older men split their votes.[38] The post came with an official residence on the Via Sacra.[21]


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Crassus, one of Rome’s richest men. In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey, Crassus paid some of Caesar’s debts and acted as guarantor for others. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Hispania he conquered the Callaici and Lusitani, being hailed as imperator by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem.[44] Being hailed as imperator entitled Caesar to a triumph. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship.[45]

Julius Caesar
of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter Julia.[47] Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, who was elected to the consulship for the following year.[48] Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate’s opponents were intimidated. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar’s armed supporters. His lictors had their fasces broken, two tribunes accompanying him were wounded, and Bibulus himself had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts to obstruct Caesar’s legislation proved ineffective. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar".[49] When Caesar and Bibulus were first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit Caesar’s future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than governorship of a province, as their proconsular duties after their year of office was over.[50] With the help of Piso and Pompey, Caesar later had this overturned, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (the western Balkans), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions. The term of his proconsulship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one.[51] When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province.[52]

First consulship and triumvirate
Three candidates stood for the consulship: Caesar, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who had been aedile with Caesar several years earlier, and Lucius Lucceius. The election was dirty. Caesar canvassed Cicero for support, and made an alliance with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment threw its financial weight behind the conservative Bibulus, and even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in his favour. Caesar and Bibulus were elected as consuls for 59 BC.[46] Caesar was already in Crassus’s political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey, who was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for ratification of his eastern settlements and farmland for his veterans. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70 BC, and Caesar knew if he allied himself with one he would lose the support of the other, so he endeavoured to reconcile them. Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule

Conquest of Gaul
Caesar was still deeply in debt, and there was money to be made as a provincial governor, whether by extortion[53] or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces, Illyricum and Gallia Narbonensis, bordered on unconquered territory, and independent Gaul was known to be unstable. Rome’s allies the


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Aedui had been defeated by their Gallic rivals, with the help of a contingent of Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus, who had settled in conquered Aeduan land, and the Helvetii were mobilising for a mass migration, which the Romans feared had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated first the Helvetii, then Ariovistus, and left his army in winter quarters in the territory of the Sequani, signaling that his interest in the lands outside Gallia Narbonensis would not be temporary.[54]

Julius Caesar
proconsulship for another five years. Crassus and Pompey would be consuls again, with similarly long-term proconsulships to follow: Syria for Crassus, the Hispanian provinces for Pompey.[56] The conquest of Armorica was completed when Caesar defeated the Veneti in a naval battle, while young Crassus conquered the Aquitani of the south-west. By the end of campaigning in 56 BC only the Morini and Menapii of the coastal Low Countries still held out.[57] In 55 BC Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. Late that summer, having subdued the Morini and Menapii, he crossed to Britain, claiming that the Britons had aided the Veneti against him the previous year. His intelligence was poor, and although he gained a beachhead on the Kent coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul for the winter.[58] He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, establishing Mandubracius of the Trinovantes as a friendly king and bringing his rival, Cassivellaunus, to terms. But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, led by Ambiorix of the Eburones, forcing Caesar to campaign through the winter and into the following year. With the defeat of Ambiorix, Caesar believed Gaul was now pacified.[59] While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey’s wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to resecure Pompey’s support by offering him his great-niece Octavia in marriage, alienating Octavia’s husband Gaius Marcellus, but Pompey declined. In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of Parthia. Rome was on the edge of violence. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married Cornelia, daughter of Caesar’s political opponent Quintus Metellus Scipio, whom he invited to become his consular colleague once order was restored. The Triumvirate was dead.[60] In 52 BC another, larger revolt erupted in Gaul, led by Vercingetorix of the Arverni. Vercingetorix managed to unite the Gallic tribes and proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements including the Battle of Gergovia, but Caesar’s elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia

Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BC, following the campaigns of Caesar He began his second year with double the military strength he had begun with, having raised another two legions in Cisalpine Gaul during the winter. The legality of this was dubious, as the Cisalpine Gauls were not Roman citizens. In response to Caesar’s activities the previous year, the Belgic tribes of north-eastern Gaul had begun to arm themselves. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move, and, after an inconclusive engagement against a united Belgic army, conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one legion, commanded by Crassus’ son Publius, began the conquest of the tribes of the Armorican peninsula.[55] During the spring of 56 BC the Triumvirate held a conference at Luca (modern Lucca) in Cisalpine Gaul. Rome was in turmoil, and Clodius’ populist campaigns had been undermining relations between Crassus and Pompey. The meeting renewed the Triumvirate and extended Caesar’s


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Julius Caesar

Military career
Historians place the generalship of Caesar as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived, along with Alexander the Great, Sun Tzu, Hannibal, Genghis Khan, and Napoleon Bonaparte. Caesar suffered occasional tactical defeats, such as Battle of Gergovia during the Gallic War and the Battle of Dyrrhachium during the Civil War. However, his tactical brilliance was highlighted by such feats as his circumvallation of Alesia during the Gallic War, the rout of Pompey’s numerically superior forces at Pharsalus during the Civil War, and the complete destruction of Pharnaces’ army at Battle of Zela. Caesar’s successful campaigning in any terrain and under all weather conditions owes much to the strict but fair discipline of his legionaries, whose admiration and devotion to him were proverbial due to his promotion of those of skill over those of nobility. Caesar’s infantry and cavalry were first rate, and he made heavy use of formidable Roman artillery and his army’s superlative engineering abilities. There was also the legendary speed with which he manoeuvred his troops; Caesar’s army sometimes marched as many as 40 miles (64 km) a day. His Commentaries on the Gallic Wars describe how, during the siege of one Gallic city built on a very steep and high plateau, his engineers tunnelled through solid rock, found the source of the spring from which the town was drawing its water supply, and diverted it to the use of the army. The town, cut off from their water supply, capitulated at once. Caesar also used a cipher system to communicate with his generals which has now come to be known as the Caesar cipher.

Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar , by Lionel Royer finally forced his surrender.[61] Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year,[62] Gaul was effectively conquered. Titus Labienus was Caesar’s most senior legate during his Gallic campaigns, having the status of propraetor.[63] Other prominent men who served under him included his relative Lucius Julius Caesar,[64] Crassus’ sons Marcus[65] and Publius,[66] Cicero’s brother Quintus,[67] Decimus Brutus,[68] and Mark Antony.[69] Plutarch claimed that the army had fought against three million men in the course of the Gallic Wars, of whom 1 million died, and another million were enslaved. 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed.[70] Almost the entire population of the city of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.[71] Julius Caesar reports that 368,000 of the Helvetii left home, of whom 92,000 could bear arms, and only 110,000 returned after the campaign.[72] However, in view of the difficulty of finding accurate counts in the first place, Caesar’s propagandistic purposes, and the common gross exaggeration of numbers in ancient texts, the totals of enemy combatants in particular are likely to be far too high. Furger-Gunti considers an army of more than 60,000 fighting Helvetii extremely unlikely in the view of the tactics described, and assumes the actual numbers to have been around 40,000 warriors out of a total of 160,000 emigrants.[73] Delbrück suggests an even lower number of 100,000 people, out of which only 16,000 were fighters, which would make the Celtic force about half the size of the Roman body of ca. 30,000 men.[74]

Civil war
In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as Proconsul had finished.[75] Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia.[75] Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and politically marginalised if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his army. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. On January 10, 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon river (the frontier


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Julius Caesar
lieutenants. He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greece where on July 10, 48 BC at Dyrrhachium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat when the line of fortification was broken. He decisively defeated Pompey, despite Pompey’s numerical advantage (nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry), at Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC.[79] In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictat[80] with Mark Antony as his Master of the or, Horse; Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulate (with Publius Servilius Vatia as his colleague) and then, after eleven days, resigned this dictatorate.[80][81]

An engraving depicting Gaius Julius Caesar. boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. Upon crossing the Rubicon, Plutarch reports that Caesar quoted the Athenian playwright Menander in Greek, saying ἀνερρίφθω κύβος (let the die be thrown).[76] Suetonius gives the Latin approximation alea iacta est (the die is thrown).[77] The Optimates, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, fled to the south, having little confidence in the newly raised troops especially since so many cities in northern Italy had voluntarily surrendered. An attempted stand by a consulate legion in Samarium resulted in the consul being handed over by the defenders and the legion surrendering without significant fighting. Despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, Pompey had no intention of fighting. Caesar pursued Pompey to Brindisium, hoping to capture Pompey before the trapped Senate and their legions could escape.[78] Pompey managed to elude him, sailing out of the harbour before Caesar could break the barricades. Lacking a naval force since Pompey had already scoured the coasts of all ships for evacuation of his forces, Caesar decided to head for Hispania saying "I set forth to fight an army without a leader, so as later to fight a leader without an army." Leaving Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as prefect of Rome, and the rest of Italy under Mark Antony as tribune, Caesar made an astonishing 27-day routemarch to Hispania, rejoining two of his Gallic legions, where he defeated Pompey’s

Cleopatra Before Caesar by the artist JeanLéon Gérôme, 1866. He pursued Pompey to Alexandria, where Pompey was murdered by a former Roman officer serving in the court of King Ptolemy XIII.[82] Caesar then became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy’s role in Pompey’s murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey’s head,[83] which


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was offered to him by Ptolemy’s chamberlain Pothinus as a gift. In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces in 47 BC in the Battle of the Nile and installed Cleopatra as ruler. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory of the Alexandrine civil war with a triumphant procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 B.C. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, introducing Caesar to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Caesar and Cleopatra never married, as Roman Law only recognised between two Roman citizens. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted 14 years – in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery – and possibly fathered a son called Caesarion. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar’s villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed Dictator, with a term of one year.[81] After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated King Pharnaces II of Pontus in the Battle of Zela; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey’s previous victories over such poor enemies.[84] Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey’s senatorial supporters. He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio (who died in the battle) and Cato the Younger (who committed suicide).[85] After this victory, he was appointed Dictator for ten years.[86] Nevertheless, Pompey’s sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar’s former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania. Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC.[87] During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (without colleague).

Julius Caesar
almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him. Great games and celebrations were held on April 21 to honour Caesar’s victory at Munda. Plutarch writes that many Romans found the triumph held following Caesar’s victory to be in poor taste, as those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead fellow Romans.[88]

Caesar was the first to print his own bust on a Roman minted coin. On Caesar’s return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as the heir to everything, including his name. Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would be the next heir in succession. Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain and reduced the number of recipients to a fixed number, all of whom were entered into a special register.[89] From 47 to 44 he made plans for the distribution of land to about 15,000 of his veterans.[90] In 63 BC Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus, and one of his roles as such was settling the calendar. A complete overhaul of the old Roman calendar proved to be one of his most long lasting and influential reforms. In 46 BC, Caesar established a 365-day year with a leap year every fourth year.[91] (This Julian calendar was subsequently modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 into the modern Gregorian calendar.) As a result of this reform, a certain Roman year (mostly equivalent to 46 BC in the modern calendar) was made 445 days long, to bring the calendar into line with the seasons.[91] The month of July is named after Julius in his honour.[92] The Forum of Caesar, with its Temple of Venus Genetrix, was built among many other public works.

Aftermath of the civil war
While he was still campaigning in Hispania, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar in absentia. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning


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Julius Caesar
Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?"[96] Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother!" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει!", "adelphe, boethei!"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around sixty or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.[97] According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal.[98] The dictator’s last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar’s last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;"[99] (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius himself says Caesar said nothing.[95] Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators.[100] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus");[101][102] this derives from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." It has no basis in historical fact and Shakespeare’s use of Latin here is not from any assumption that Caesar would have been using the language, but because the phrase was already popular at the time the play was written.[103] According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.[104] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!". They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had amassed there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark

See also: Assassination of Julius Caesar On the Ides of March (March 15; see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, a group of senators called Caesar to the forum for the purpose of reading a petition, written by the senators, asking him to hand power back to the Senate. However, the petition was a fake.[93] Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off at the steps of the forum. However, the group of senators intercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theatre of Pompey, located in the Campus Martius, and directed him to a room adjoining the east portico.[94]

A diabase bust of Caesar. As Caesar began to read the false petition, Tillius Cimber, who had handed him the petition, pulled down Caesar’s tunic. According to Suetonius, Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!").[95] At the same time, the aforementioned Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator’s neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught


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Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire.

Julius Caesar
In order to combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar’s war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar’s name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on November 27, 43 BC,[107] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, comprised of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar’s loyal cavalry commander Lepidus.[108] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god").[109] Seeing that Caesar’s clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate brought back the horror of proscription, abandoned since Sulla.[110] It engaged in the legallysanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents in order to secure funding for its forty-five legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius.[111] Antony and Octavius defeated them at Philippi.[112] Afterward, Mark Antony married Caesar’s lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter’s defeat at Actium, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to status of a deity.[113] Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus and Scythia, and then swing back onto Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination.[114] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Aftermath of the assassination

Deification of Julius Caesar as represented in a 16th-century engraving. The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar’s death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic.[105] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of high-browed aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony did not give the speech that Shakespeare penned for him more than 1600 years later ("Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears..."), but he did give a dramatic eulogy that appealed to the common people, a reflection of public opinion following Caesar’s murder. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. But, to his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name as well as making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic.[106] Gaius Octavian became, for all intents and purposes, the son of the great Caesar, and consequently also inherited the loyalty of much of the Roman populace. Octavian, aged only 19 at the time of Caesar’s death, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

Based on remarks by Plutarch,[115] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is "sharply divided" on the subject, and it is more certain that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s.[116] Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after


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Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures.[117][118][119]

Julius Caesar
actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front". Apparently simple and direct in style—to the point that Caesar’s Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students—they are in fact highly sophisticated and subtly slanted advertisements for his political agenda, aimed most particularly at the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats in Rome, Italy, and the provinces.

Literary works
Caesar was considered during his lifetime to be one of the best orators and authors of prose in Rome—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar’s rhetoric and style.[120] Among his most famous works were his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to blacken Cato’s reputation and respond to Cicero’s Cato memorial. Unfortunately, the majority of his works and speeches have been lost.

Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Caesar (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar’s name is properly rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR". The form "CAIVS" is also attested using the old Roman pronunciation of letter C as G; it is an antique form of the more common "GAIVS". It is often seen abbreviated to "C. IVLIVS CAESAR". (The letterform "Æ" is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae".) In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈgaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaisar].[121] In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar’s principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar’s time, his family name was written Καίσαρ, reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. This German name was phonemically but not phonetically derived from the Middle Ages Ecclesiastical Latin, in which the familiar part "Caesar" is [ˈtʃeːsar], from which the modern English pronunciation is derived, as well as the title of Tsar. His name is also remembered in Norse mythology, where he is manifested as the legendary king Kjárr.[122]


Commentarii de Bello Gallico, an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul • The Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War), campaigns in Gallia and Britannia during his term as proconsul; and • The Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), events of the Civil War until immediately after Pompey’s death in Egypt. Other works historically attributed to Caesar, but whose authorship is doubted, are: • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria; • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa; and • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian peninsula. These narratives were written and published on a yearly basis during or just after the



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Julius Caesar

• Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder • Mother Aurelia (related to the Aurelia Cottae)

Political rivals and rumours of homosexual activity
Roman society viewed the passive role during sex, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar’s Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar."[125] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar’s enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate and degrade him. It is possible that the rumors were spread only as a form of character assassination. Caesar himself, according to Cassius Dio, denied the accusations under oath.[126] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek and Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than in Roman tradition. Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,[127] but later apologised.[128] Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours. Suetonius described Antony’s accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. The boy Octavian was to become the first Roman emperor following Caesar’s death.[129]

• Julia Caesaris "Maior" (the elder) • Julia Caesaris "Minor" (the younger)

• First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla, from 83 BC until her death in childbirth in 69 or 68 BC • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC • Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis, from 59 BC until Caesar’s death

• Julia with Cornelia Cinnilla, born in 83 or 82 BC • Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC. He was killed at age 17 by Caesar’s adopted son Octavianus. • adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood, who later became Emperor Augustus. • Marcus Junius Brutus: The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar’s lover during their youth.[123]

• Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed.

• Cleopatra VII • Servilia Caepionis mother of Brutus • Eunoë, queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes

Notable relatives
• • • • Gaius Marius (married to his Aunt Julia) Mark Antony Lucius Julius Caesar Julius Sabinus, a Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD 69, claimed to be the great-grandson of Caesar on the grounds that his greatgrandmother had been Caesar’s lover during the Gallic war.[124]


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Julius Caesar
decree of the Roman Senate on the 1 January 42 BC. Mark Antony had been appointed as flamen (priest) to Caesar shortly before the latter was assassinated.[130] Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be deified. The cult of Divus Iulius was promoted by both Octavian and Mark Antony. After the death of Antony, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (son of a god). Caesar’s cognomen would itself become a title; it was greatly promulgated by the Bible, by the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s". The title became the German Kaiser and Slavic Tsar/Czar. The last tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria whose reign ended in 1946; for two thousand years after Julius Caesar’s assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.

Chronology of his life

For the marble bust from Arles discovered in 2007–8 alleged to be Caesar’s likeness, and the ensuing controversy, see Arles portrait bust.

Honours and titles
As a young man he was awarded the Corona Civica (civic crown) for valour while fighting in Asia Minor and went on to receive many honours. These included titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), and Dictator. He was also elected Pontifex Maximus in 63 BC. The many titles bestowed on him by the Senate are sometimes cited as a cause of his assassination, as it seemed inappropriate to many contemporaries for a man to be awarded so many honours. Divus Iulius or Divus Julius (the divine Julius or the deified Julius) was the official title that was given to Caesar posthumously by

Bust of Julius Caesar from the Bust in Naples NaBritish tional ArchaeoloMuseum gical Museum, photograph published in 1902

Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy

[1] Fully, Caius Iulius Caii filius Caii nepos Caesar Imperator ("Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius, Imperator"). Official name after deification in 42 BC: Divus Iulius ("The Divine Julius").


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[2] There is some dispute over the date of Caesar’s birth. The day is sometimes stated to be be 12 July when his feastday was celebrated after deification, but this was because his true birthday clashed with the Ludi Apollinares. Some scholars, based on the dates he held certain magistracies, have made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year of his birth, but scholarly consensus favours 100 BC. Goldsworthy, 30 [3] After Caesar’s death the leap years were not inserted according to his intent and there is uncertainty about when leap years were observed between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive; the dates in this article between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive are those observed in Rome and there is an uncertainty of about a day as to where those dates would be on the proleptic Julian calendar. See Blackburn, B and Holford-Strevens, L. (1999 corrected 2003). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0192142313 [4] Froude, James Anthony (1879). Life of Caesar. Project Gutenberg e-text. p. 67. http://www.mirrorservice.org/sites/ ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/ etext05/8cesr10.txt. See also: Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars: Julius 6; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41; Virgil, Aeneid [5] Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.7. The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century (Suda kappa 1199). Julius wasn’t the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar’s mother, Aurelia, lived long after he was born. [6] Historia Augusta: Aelius 2. [7] "Coins of Julius Caesar". http://members.aol.com/dkaplan888/ jcae.htm. [8] Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1, Marius 6; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54; Inscriptiones Italiae, 13.3.51–52 [9] Suetonius, Lives of Eminent Grammarians 7 [10] ^ Plutarch, Caesar 1; Suetonius, Julius 1 [11] Appian, Civil Wars 1.34–75; Plutarch, Marius 32–46, Sulla 6–10; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.15–20;

Julius Caesar
Eutropius 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.6, 2.9 [12] Suetonius, Julius 1; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54 [13] Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.22; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9 [14] Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41 [15] Appian, Civil Wars 1.76–102; Plutarch, Sulla 24–33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.23–28; Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9 [16] Suetonius, Julius 2–3; Plutarch, Caesar 2–3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20 [17] William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: Flamen [18] Appian. Civil Wars 1.103 [19] Suetonius, Julius 77. [20] Plutarch, Sulla 36–38 [21] ^ Suetonius, Julius 46 [22] Suetonius, Julius 3; Appian, Civil Wars 1.107 [23] Suetonius, Julius 55 [24] Suetonius, Julius 4. Plutarch (Caesar 3–4) reports the same events but follows a different chronology. [25] Again, according to Suetonius’s chronology (Julius 4). Plutarch (Caesar 1.8–2) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes’s court. Velleius Paterculus (Roman History 2:41.3–42 says merely that it happened when he was a young man. [26] Plutarch, Caesar 1–2 [27] Thorne, James (2003). Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 15. [28] Freeman, 39 [29] Freeman, 39–40 [30] Freeman, 40 [31] Freeman, 51 [32] Freeman, 52 [33] Goldsworthy, 100 [34] Goldsworthy, 101 [35] Suetonius, Julius 5–8; Plutarch, Caesar 5; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43 [36] Suetonius, Julius 9–11; Plutarch, Caesar 5.6–6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.8, 10 [37] Cicero, For Gaius Rabirius; Cassius Dio, Roman History 26–28 [38] Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43; Plutarch, Caesar 7; Suetonius, Julius 13 [39] Sallust, Catiline War 49


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[40] Cicero, Against Catiline 4.7–9; Sallust, Catiline War 50–55; Plutarch, Caesar 7.5–8.3, Cicero 20–21, Cato the Younger 22–24; Suetonius, Julius 14 [41] Suetonius, Julius 17 [42] Suetonius, Julius 16 [43] Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.12, 1.13, 1.14; Plutarch, Caesar 9–10; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.45 [44] Plutarch, Caesar 11–12; Suetonius, Julius 18.1 [45] Plutarch, Julius 13; Suetonius, Julius 18.2 [46] Plutarch, Caesar 13–14; Suetonius 19 [47] Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.1, 2.3, 2.17; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.44; Plutarch, Caesar 13–14, Pompey 47, Crassus 14; Suetonius, Julius 19.2; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.54–58 [48] Suetonius, Julius 21 [49] Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14, Pompey 47–48, Cato the Younger 32–33; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.1–8 [50] Suetonius, Julius 19.2 [51] Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2:44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14.10, Crassus 14.3, Pompey 48, Cato the Younger 33.3; Suetonius, Julius 22; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38:8.5 [52] Suetonius, Julius 23 [53] See Cicero’s speeches against Verres for an example of a former provincial governor successfully prosecuted for illegally enriching himself at his province’s expense. [54] Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.19; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 1; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.31–50 [55] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 2; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.1–5 [56] Cicero, Letters to his brother Quintus 2.3; Suetonius, Julius 24; Plutarch, Caesar 21, Crassus 14–15, Pompey 51 [57] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.40–46 [58] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 4; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 47–53

Julius Caesar
[59] Cicero, Letters to friends 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.10, 7.17; Letters to his brother Quintus 2.13, 2.15, 3.1; Letters to Atticus 4.15, 4.17, 4.18; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 5–6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.1–11 [60] Suetonius, Julius [1]; Plutarch, Caesar 23.5, Pompey 53–55, Crassus 16–33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 46–47 [61] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 7; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.33–42 [62] Aulus Hirtius, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 8 [63] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 1.21 [64] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.65 [65] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.6 [66] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 2.34 [67] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.32f. [68] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 3.11 [69] Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.81f. [70] "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, by Plutarch (chapter48)". http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/p/ plutarch/lives/chapter48.html. [71] "Chapter 28". "De Bello Gallico" & Other Commentaries of Caius Julius Caesar (Translated by Thomas de Quincey ed.). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10657/ 10657.txt. [72] "Chapter 29". "De Bello Gallico" & Other Commentaries of Caius Julius Caesar (Translated by Thomas de Quincey ed.). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10657/ 10657.txt. [73] Furger-Gunti, 102. [74] H. Delbrück Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte, Vol. 1, 1900, pp. 428 and 459f. [75] ^ Suetonius, Julius 28 [76] Plutarch, Caesar 60.2 [77] Suetonius, Julius 32 [78] Plutarch, Caesar 35.2 [79] Plutarch, Caesar 42–45 [80] ^ Plutarch, Caesar 37.2 [81] ^ Martin Jehne, Der Staat des Dicators Caesar, Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15-38. [82] Plutarch, Pompey 77–79


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[83] Plutarch, Pompey 80.5 [84] Suetonius, Julius 35.2 [85] Plutarch, Caesar 52–54 [86] Martin Jehne, Der Staat des Dicators Caesar, Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15-38. Technically, Caesar was not appointed Dictator with a term of ten years but he was appointed annual dictator for the next ten years in advance. [87] Plutarch, Caesar 56 [88] Plutarch, Caesar 56.7–56.8 [89] Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge University Press. p. 254. [90] Campbell, J. B. (1994). The Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 337. Routledge. p. 10. [91] ^ Suetonius, Julius 40 [92] Suetonius, Julius 76 [93] "Petition effectiveness: improving citizens’ direct access to parliament" (PDF). Parliament of Western Australia. http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/web/ webpages.nsf/WebFiles/ASPG+2007++Palmieri/$FILE/Palmieri.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-08-28. [94] "Theatrum Pompei". Oxford University Press. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/ Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/ Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/ Theatrum_Pompei.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-28. [95] ^ Suetonius, Life of the Caesars, Julius trans. J C Rolfe [2] [96] Plutarch, Life of Caesar, ch. 66: "ὁ μεν πληγείς, Ῥωμαιστί· ’Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς;’" [97] Woolf Greg (2006), Et Tu Brute? – The Murder of Caesar and Political Assassination, 199 pages – ISBN 1-8619-7741-7 [98] Suetonius, Julius, c. 82. [99] Suetonius, Julius 82.2 [100] lutarch, Caesar 66.9 P [101] tone, Jon R. (2005). The Routledge S Dictionary of Latin Quotations. London: Routledge. pp. 250. ISBN 0415969093. [102] orwood, James (1994). The Pocket M Oxford Latin Dictionary (Latin-English). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198602839. [103]t appears, for example, in Richard I Eedes’ Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke &tc of 1595, Shakespeare’s source work for other plays. Dyce, Alexander; (quoting Malone)

Julius Caesar
(1866). The Works of William Shakespeare. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. p 648. [104] lutarch, Caesar, 67 P [105] lorus, Epitome 2.7.1 F [106] uetonius, Julius 83.2 S [107] sgood, Josiah (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: O Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. [108] uetonius, Augustus 13.1; Florus, S Epitome 2.6 [109] arrior, Valerie M. (2006). Roman W Religion. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521825113. [110] lorus, Epitome 2.6.3 F [111] och, Paul A. (200). Ancient Rome: An Z Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 217–218. ISBN 0806132876. [112] lorus, Epitome 2.7.11–14; Appian, The F Civil Wars 5.3 [113] lorus, Epitome 2.34.66 F [114] lutarch, Caesar 58.6 P [115] lutarch, Caesar 17, 45, 60; see also P Suetonius, Julius 45. [116] onald T. Ridley, "The Dictator’s R Mistake: Caesar’s Escape from Sulla," Historia 49 (2000), pp. 225–226, citing doubters of epilepsy: F. Kanngiesser, "Notes on the Pathology of the Julian Dynasty," Glasgow Medical Journal 77 (1912) 428–432; T. Cawthorne, "Julius Caesar and the Falling Sickness,” Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 51 (1957) 27–30, who prefers Ménière’s disease; and O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness: A History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Baltimore 1971), p 162. [117] ughes J (2004). "Dictator Perpetuus: H Julius Caesar—did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?". Epilepsy Behav 5 (5): 756–64. doi:10.1016/ j.yebeh.2004.05.006. PMID 5380131. [118] omez J, Kotler J, Long J (1995). "Was G Julius Caesar’s epilepsy due to a brain tumor?". The Journal of the Florida Medical Association 82 (3): 199–201. PMID 7738524. [119] . Schneble (2003-01-01). "Gaius Julius H Caesar". German Epilepsy Museum. http://www.epilepsiemuseum.de/alt/ caesaren.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-28. [120] icero, Brutus, 252. C


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[121] ote that the first name, like the second, N is properly pronounced in three syllables, not two. See Latin spelling and pronunciation. [122] nderson, Carl Edlund. (1999). A Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 44.PDF (308 KB) [123]Considering that Brutus was born about " that time in which their loves were at the highest, Caesar had a belief that he was his own child": Plutarch; Translated A. H. Clough (1996). "Marcus Brutus". The Project Gutenberg Etext of Plutarch’s Lives. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext96/ plivs10.txt. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. [124] acitus, Histories 4.55 T [125] uetonius, Julius 49 S [126] uetonius, Julius 49; Cassius Dio, Roman S History 43.20 [127] atullus, Carmina 29, 57 C [128] uetonius, Julius 73 S [129] uetonius, Augustus 68, 71 S [130] ccording to Dio Cassius, 44.6.4. A

Julius Caesar

Secondary sources
• Canfora, Luciano (2006). Julius Caesar: The People’s Dictator. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-748-61936-4. • Freeman, Philip (2008). Julius Caesar. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-743-28953-6. • Goldsworthy, Adrian (2006). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12048-6. • Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: The Last Years Of The Roman Republic. Anchor Books. ISBN 1-4000-7897-0. • Jiménez, Ramon L. (2000). Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96620-8. • Kleiner, Diana E. E. (2005). Cleopatra and Rome. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01905-9. • Meier, Christian (1996). Caesar: A Biography. Fontana Press. ISBN 0-006-86349-3. • Weinstock, Stefan (1971). Divus Julius. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198142874.

External links
• Julius Caesar at Find A Grave • C. Julius Caesar Jona Lendering’s in‑depth history of Caesar (Livius. Org) • Guide to online resources • Julius Caesar in the German National Library catalogue (German) • History of Julius Caesar • Julius Caesar at BBC History

Primary sources
Own writings
• Forum Romanum Index to Caesar’s works online in Latin and translation • omnia munda mundis Hypertext of Caesar’s De Bello Gallico • Works by Julius Caesar at Project Gutenberg

Ancient historians’ writings
• Appian, Book 13 (English translation) • Cassius Dio, Books 37–44 (English translation) • Plutarch on Antony (English translation, Dryden edition) • Plutarch: The Life of Julius Caesar (English translation) • Plutarch: The Life of Mark Antony (English translation) • Suetonius: The Life of Julius Caesar. (Latin and English, cross-linked: the English translation by J. C. Rolfe) • Suetonius: The Life of Julius Caesar (J. C. Rolfe English translation, modified)

Succession table
Caesar was acclaimed Imperator in 60 and 45 BC. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, an army’s troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph. After being acclaimed imperator, the victorious general had a right to use the title after his name until the time of his triumph, where he would relinquish the title as well as his imperium.

Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES Caesar, Gaius Julius Julius Caesar


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Political offices Preceded by Consul of the Roman Republic Lucius Afranius and with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus Quintus Caecilius Metel- 59 BC lus Celer Dictator 49 BC office last held by Sulla in 81 (eleven days) Preceded by none

Julius Caesar

Succeeded by Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius Succeeded by none
office next held by himself in 48 BC

Preceded by Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior Preceded by none
office last held by himself in 49 BC

Consul of the Roman Republic with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus 48 BC Dictator 48 - 47 BC

Succeeded by Quintus Fufius Calenus and Publius Vatinius Succeeded by none
office next held by himself in 46 BC

Preceded by Quintus Fufius Calenus and Publius Vatinius Preceded by none
office last held by himself in 47 BC

Consul of the Roman Republic with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 46 BC Dictator for ten years 46-44 BC

Succeeded by Gaius Julius Caesar alone without colleague Succeeded by himself
as Dictator in perpetuity

Preceded by Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus Preceded by Gaius Julius Caesar alone without colleague’’’ Preceded by himself
as Dictator for ten years

Consul of the Roman Republic alone without colleague 45 BC Consuls of the Roman Republic with Marcus Antonius 44 BC Dictator in perpetuity 44 BC

Succeeded by Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius Succeeded by Publius Cornelius Dolabella (with Marcus Antonius) Succeeded by none, office abolished

Religious titles Preceded by Pontifex Maximus Quintus Caecilius Metel- 63-44 BC lus Pius SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH Roman dictator July 12, 100 BC Rome, Roman Republic March 15, 44 BC Succeeded by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus PLACE OF DEATH Rome, Roman Republic

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar"


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Julius Caesar

Categories: Julius Caesar, 100s BC births, 44 BC deaths, Ancient Roman generals, Ancient Roman politicians, Characters in Book VI of the Aeneid, Correspondents of Cicero, Deaths by stabbing, Golden Age Latin writers, Iulii, Latin writers, People from Rome (city), Republican holders of the role of pontifex maximus, Roman military writers, Roman Republican consuls, Roman governors of Hispania, Assassinated military personnel, 1st-century BC Romans, 1stcentury BC clergy, 1st-century BC writers, 1st-century BC historians, 1st-century BC rulers, Assassinated Roman politicians This page was last modified on 16 May 2009, at 01:44 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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