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Iranian peoples

Iranian peoples
branch of the ancient Indo-European Aryans known as the Iranians or Proto-Iranians. Archaeological finds in Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East have elucidated some scant information about the way of life of these early people. The Iranian people have played an important role throughout history: the Achaemenid Persians established one of the world’s first multi-national states and the Scythian-Sarmatian nomads dominated the vast expanses of Russia and western Siberia for centuries with a group of Sarmatian warrior women possibly being the inspiration for the Greek legend of the Amazons.[6][7] In addition, the various religions of the Iranian people, including Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, are believed by some scholars to be important early philosophical influences on Judeo-Christianity.[8] Early Iranian tribes are the ancestors of many modern Iranian peoples.

Etymology and usage
Iranian girl in rural Iran The Iranian peoples[1] are an ethnic and linguistic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly on the Iranian plateau and beyond in central, southern, and southwestern Asia and southeastern Europe. As a group of people, they are predominantly defined along linguistic lines as speaking the Iranian languages,[2] a major branch of the IndoEuropean language family. They are spread across the Iranian plateau, stretching from the Hindu Kush to central Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf - a region that is sometimes termed Greater Iran.[3] Speakers of Iranian languages, however, were once found throughout Eurasia, from the Balkans to western China.[4][5] As Iranian people are not confined to the borders of the current state of Iran, the term Iranic people is sometimes used to avoid confusion with the citizens of Iran. The series of ethnic groups which comprise the Iranian people are traced to a The term Iranian is derived from Iran (from Aryānām, (lit: "[Land] of the Aryans").[9][10] The old Proto-Indo-Iranian term Arya, per Thieme meaning "hospitable", is believed to have been one of the self-referential terms used by the Aryans, at least in the areas populated by Aryans who migrated south from Central Asia. Another meaning for Aryan is noble. In the late part of the Avesta (Vendidad 1) one of their homelands was referred to as Airyanem Vaejah. The homeland varied in its geographic range, the area around Herat (Pliny’s view) and even the entire expanse of the Iranian plateau (Strabo’s designation).[11] From a linguistic standpoint, the term Iranian people is similar in its usage to the term Germanic people, which includes various people who speak Germanic languages such as German, English and Dutch, Norwegian, or the term Slavic people, which includes various speakers of Slavic languages including Russians, Poles, Croats or Serbs.[12] Thus, along similar lines, the Iranian people include not only the Persians and Tajiks (or eastern Persians) of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan, but also the


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Pashtuns, Baloch (Pakistan), Kurds, Lurs, Zazas, Ossetians and others. The academic usage of the term Iranian people or Iranic people is distinct from the state of Iran and its various citizens (who are all Iranian by nationality and thus popularly referred to as Iranians) in the same way that Germanic people is distinct from Germans. Many citizens of Iran are not necessarily "Iranian people" by virtue of not being speakers of Iranian languages and may not have discernible ties to ancient Iranian tribes.

Iranian peoples
Xinjiang. The Kushan Empire, with Bactrian roots/connections, once controlled much of present-day Pakistan, some of Afghanistan and Tajikistan and much of northern India. The Kushan elite (who the Chinese called the Yuezhi) were either a Tocharian-speaking (another Indo-European branch) people or an Eastern Iranian language-speaking people. The division into an "Eastern" and a "Western" group by the early 1st millennium is visible in Avestan vs. Old Persian, the two oldest known Iranian languages. The Old Avestan texts known as the Gathas are believed to have been composed by Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, with the Yaz culture (ca. 1500–1100 BCE) as a candidate for the development of Eastern Iranian culture. Old Persian appears to have been established in written form by 519 BCE, following the creation of the Old Persian script, inspired by the cuneiform script of the Assyrians.[15]

History and settlement

Western Iranians

The extent of the BMAC (according to the EIEC). Having descended from the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the Proto-Iranians separated from the Indo-Aryans, Dards (variously considered as Indo-Iranian or within the Indo-Aryan branch),[13] and the Nuristanis in the early 2nd millennium BCE, in Central Asia. The area between northern Afghanistan, the Aral Sea and the Urals is hypothesized to have been the region where the Proto-Iranians first emerged, following the separation of the Indo-Iranians,[14] in the area of the previous, non-Indo-European Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia. By the early 1st millennium, Ancient Iranian peoples such as Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau, while others such as the Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea. The Saka, Scythian, and Tocharian tribes spread as far west as the Balkans and as far east as

Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.

Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent. During the first centuries of the first millennium BCE, the ancient Persians established


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Iranian peoples
stem from Iranic populations that mixed with Caucasian people such as the Hurrians, due to some unique qualities found in the Kurdish language that mirror those found in Caucasian languages.[20] The Baloch who speak a west Iranian language relate an oral tradition regarding their migration from Aleppo, Syria around the year 1000 AD, whereas linguistic evidence links Balochi to Kurdish and Zazaki.[21]

Eastern Iranians

Bronze Statue of General Surena Hero of carrhae, National Museum of Iran. themselves in the western portion of the Iranian plateau and appear to have interacted considerably with the Elamites and Babylonians, while the Medes also entered in contact with the Assyrians.[16] Remnants of the Median language and Old Persian show their common Proto-Iranian roots, emphasized in Strabo and Herodotus’ description of their languages as very similar to the languages spoken by the Bactrians and Soghdians in the east.[17][10] Following the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire, the Persian language spread from Pars or Fars Province to various regions of the Empire, with the modern dialects of Iran, Afghanistan (also known as Dari) and Central-Asia (known as Tajiki) descending from Old Persian. Old Persian is attested in the Behistun Inscription (ca. 519 BCE), recording a proclamation by Darius the Great. In southwestern Iran, the Achaemenid kings usually wrote their inscriptions in trilingual form (Elamite, Babylonian and Old Persian)[18] while elsewhere other languages were used. The administrative languages were Elamite in the early period, and later Imperial Aramaic.[19] The early inhabitants of the Achaemenid Empire appear to have adopted the religion of Zoroastrianism. Other prominent Iranian people, such as the Kurds, are surmised to

Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II (r.c. 35–12 BCE). Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse. While the Iranian tribes of the south are better known through their texts and modern counterparts, the tribes which remained largely in the vast Eurasian expanse are known through the references made to them by the ancient Greeks, Persians, Indo-Aryans as well as by archaeological finds. Many ancient Sanskrit texts make references to tribes like Sakas, Paradas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Uttaramadras, Madras, Lohas, Parama Kambojas, Rishikas, Tukharas or Tusharas etc and locate them in the (Uttarapatha) (northwest) division, in Central Asia, around Hindukush range in northern Pakistan. The Greek chronicler, Herodotus (5th century BCE) makes references to a nomadic people, the Scythians; he describes as having dwelt in what is today southern Russia. It is believed that these Scythians were conquered by their eastern cousins, the Sarmatians, who are mentioned by Strabo as the dominant tribe which controlled the southern Russian steppe in the 1st millennium AD. These Sarmatians were also known to the Romans, who conquered the western tribes in the Balkans and sent Sarmatian conscripts, as part of Roman legions, as far west as Roman Britain. The Sarmatians of the east became the Alans, who also ventured far and wide, with a branch ending up in Western Europe and


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Iranian peoples
Balochistan province of Pakistan, from which they began to spread until they reached as far west as Herat, north to areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan; and as eastward towards the Indus as well as adjacent areas of the Panjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. The Pashto language shows affinities to the Avestan and Bactrian. The modern Sariqoli in southern Xinjiang and the Ossetes of the Caucasus are remnants of the various Saka tribes. The modern Ossetians claim to be the descendants of the Alano-Sarmatians and their claims are supported by their Northeast Iranian language, while culturally the Ossetians resemble their Caucasian neighbors, the Kabardians, Circassians and Georgians.[22] Various extinct Iranian people existed in the eastern Caucasus, including the Azaris, while some Iranian people remain in the region, including the Talysh[25] and the Tats[26] (including the Judeo-Tats,[27] who have relocated to Israel), found in Azerbaijan and as far north as the Russian republic of Dagestan. A remnant of the Sogdians is found in the Yaghnobi speaking population in parts of the Zeravshan valley in Uzbekistan.

Scythian Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. 300 BCE. North Africa, as they accompanied the Germanic Vandals during their migrations. The modern Ossetians are believed to be the sole direct descendants of the Alans, as other remnants of the Alans disappeared following Germanic, Hunnic and ultimately Slavic migrations and invasions.[22] Another group of Alans allied with Goths to defeat the Romans and ultimately settled in what is now called Catalonia (Goth-Alania). [23] Some of the Saka-Scythian tribes in Central Asia would later move further south and invade the Iranian plateau and northwestern South Asia into what is now Pakistan (see Indo-Scythians). Another Iranian tribe related to the Saka-Scythians were the Parni in Central Asia, and who later become indistinguishable from the Parthians, speakers of a northwest-Iranian language. Many Iranian tribes, including the Khwarazmians, Massagetae and Sogdians, were assimilated and/ or displaced in Central Asia by the migrations of Turkic tribes emanating out of Xinjiang and Siberia.[24] The most dominant surviving Eastern Iranians are represented by the Pashtuns, whose origins are generally believed to be from the Suleiman mountains in the

Later developments
See also: History of Central Asia, History of the Middle East, History of South Asia, History of Iran, Persian Empire, History of the Kurds, History of Afghanistan, History of Tajikistan, History of Uzbekistan, History of Turkmenistan, History of Pakistan, History of Russia, History of the Balkans, History of India, and History of Azerbaijan Starting with the reign of Omar in 634 CE, Muslim Arabs began a conquest of the Iranian plateau. The Arabs conquered the Sassanid Empire of the Persians and seized much of the Byzantine Empire populated by the Kurds and others. Ultimately, the various Iranian people, including the Persians, Azaries, Kurds and Pashtuns, converted to Islam. The Iranian people would later split along sectarian lines as the Persians (and later the Hazara) adopted the Shi’a sect. As ancient tribes and identities changed, so did the Iranian people, many of whom assimilated foreign cultures and people.[28] Later, during the 2nd millennium CE, the Iranian people would play a prominent role during the age of Islamic expansion and empire. Saladin, a noted adversary of the


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Iranian peoples
are often associated with the Iranian people (see Origin of Azerbaijani people and the Iranian theory regarding the origin of the Azerbaijanis for more details).[32] • Uzbeks: The modern Uzbek people are believed to have both Iranian and Turkic ancestry. "Uzbek" and "Tajik" are modern designations given to the culturally homogeneous, sedentary population of Central Asia. The local ancestors of both groups - the Turkicspeaking Uzbeks and the Iranianspeaking Tajiks - were known as "Sarts" ("sedentary merchants") prior to the Russian conquest of Central Asia, while "Uzbek" or "Turk" were the names given to the nomadic and seminomadic populations of the area. Still today, modern Uzbeks and Tajiks are known as "Sarts" to their Turkic neighbours, the Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz. The ancient Iranic Soghdians and Bactrians are among their ancestors. Culturally, the Uzbeks are closer to their sedentary Iranianspeaking neighbours rather than to their nomadic and semi-nomadic Turkic neighbours. Some Uzbek Scholars e.g. Ahmadov and Askarov maximize the Iranian roots while minimize the Turkic roots of Uzbeks[33] • Slavic-speakers: • A few linguists suggest that the names of the South Slavic people, the Serbs and Croats, are not of Slavic origin, but rather Iranic. Those who entertain such a connection propose that the Sarmatian Serboi and Horouthos tribes might have migrated from the Eurasian steppe lands to eastern Europe, and assimilated with the numerically superior Slavs, passing on their name. See also: Theories on the origin of Serbs and Theories on the origin of Croats). Certainly, Iranic-speaking people did inhabit parts of the Balkans in late classical times, and would have been encountered by the Slavs. However, direct linguistic, historical or archaeological proof for such a theory is lacking.

A statue of Saladin "king of Egypt" at the Damascus citadel. Crusaders, was an ethnic Kurd, while various empires centered in Iran (including the Safavids) re-established a modern dialect of Persian as the official language spoken throughout much of what is today Iran and adjacent parts of Central Asia. Iranian influence spread to the Ottoman Empire, where Persian was often spoken at court, as well as in the Mughal Empire, which began in Afghanistan and shifted to South Asia encompassing various regions which make up parts of Pakistan and India. All of the major Iranian people reasserted their use of Iranian languages following the decline of Arab rule, but would not begin to form modern national identities until the 19th and early 20th centuries (just as Germans and Italians were beginning to formulate national identities of their own). The following either partially descend from Iranian people or are sometimes regarded as possible descendants of ancient Iranian people: Further information: Turkification, Slavicisation, and Sarmatism • Turkic-speakers: • Azeris: Although Azeris speak a Turkic language (modern Azerbaijani language), they are believed to be primarily descendants of ancient Iranians[29] and Caucasians.[30] Thus, due to their historical ties with various ancient Iranians, as well as their cultural ties to Persians,[31] the Azeris


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Iranian peoples

See also: Iranian plateau, Demographics of Iran, Ethnic minorities in Iran, Demographics of Afghanistan, Demographics of Tajikistan, Kurdistan, and Ossetia Further information: Iranian citizens abroad and Kurdish diaspora

Although Azeris speak a Turkic language (modern Azerbaijani language), they are believed to be primarily descendants of ancient Iranians[35] and Caucasians.[36] Thus, due to their historical ties with various ancient Iranians, as well as their cultural ties to Persians,[37] the Azeris are often associated with the Iranian peoples (see Origin of Azerbaijani people and the Iranian theory regarding the origin of the Azerbaijanis for more details).[38] ² The modern Uzbek people are believed to have both Iranian and Turkic ancestry. "Uzbek" and "Tajik" are modern designations given to the culturally homogeneous, sedentary population of Central Asia. The local ancestors of both groups - the Turkic-speaking Uzbeks and the Iranian-speaking Tajiks - were known as "Sarts" ("sedentary merchants") prior to the Russian conquest of Central Asia, while "Uzbek" or "Turk" were the names given to the nomadic and semi-nomadic populations of the area. Still today, modern Uzbeks and Tajiks are known as "Sarts" to their Turkic neighbours, the Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz. The ancient Iranic Soghdians and Bactrians are among their ancestors. Culturally, the Uzbeks are closer to their sedentary Iranian-speaking neighbours rather than to their nomadic and semi-nomadic Turkic neighbours. Some Uzbek Scholars e.g. Ahmadov and Askarov maximize the Iranian roots while minimize the Turkic roots of Uzbeks[39] ³ Modern day Bulgarians are definitely, in part, descended from the ancient Bulgars. Scholars debate as to whether the latter were originally Turkic speaking or turkized Iranian speaking warriors. See also: Mount Imeon and Kingdom of Balhara.

Geographic distribution of the Iranian languages: Persian (green), Pashto (purple) and Kurdish (turquoise), Lurish (red), Baloch (Yellow), as well as smaller communities of other Iranian languages There are an estimated 150 to 200 million native speakers of Iranian languages, the five major groups of Persians, Lurs, Pashtuns, Kurds and Baloch accounting for about 90% of this number.[34] Currently, most of these Iranian people live in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, parts of Uzbekistan (especially Samarkand and Bukhara), the Caucasus (Ossetia and Azerbaijan) and the Kurdish areas (referred to as Kurdistan) of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. Smaller groups of Iranian people can also be found in western China, southern Pakistan and a few in western India. Due to recent migrations, there are also large communities of speakers of Iranian languages in Europe, the Americas, and Israel. The following is a list of Iranian people with the respective groups’s core areas of settlements and their estimated sizes (in million): The following either partially descend from Iranian peoples or are sometimes regarded as possible descendants of ancient Iranian peoples 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Azeris1 Uzbeks² Bulgarians³ Serbs4 Croats4

The names of the South Slavic peoples, the Serbs and Croats, are theorised to be derived from certain ancient Iranian peoples, specifically the Sarmatians. The theory mostly stems from linguistic analysis, suggesting that the names ’Serb’ and ’Croat’ derive from the Sarmatian tribes of Serboi and Horouthos. These tribes might have


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People region

Iranian peoples
population 60 50 to 70 M

Persians Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan • Aimaqs Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Russia (Dagestan), • Farsiwans Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE • Hazaras • Tajiks • Tats • Ajams Pashtuns Kurds Baloch Mazanderanis & Gilakis Zazas Lurs and Bakhtiaris Laks Pamiri • • • people Sariqoli Wakhi "Tajiks of China" • Shughni Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Lebanon. Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Oman, UAE Iran Turkey Iran Iran Tajikistan, China (Xinjiang), Pakistan and Afghanistan

32 45 M 32 27 to 33 M 15 15 M 07 5 to 10 M 03 1 to 2 M 026 3.6 M 010 1M 009 0.9 M

Talysh Ossetians • Jasz Yaghnobi Parsis & Iranis

Azerbaijan, Iran Russia (North Ossetia), Georgia (South Ossetia and Georgia proper), Hungary on the Zerafshan River, Uzbekistan India, Pakistan,

009 1.1 M 007 0.7 M 007 001 0.1 M

migrated from the Eurasian steppelands to southern Poland (the postulated homeland of Serbs and Croats), assimilated with the numerically superior Slavs, and might have given their name to them (might have been a ruling core). See also: Theories on the origin of Serbs and Theories on the origin of Croats).

It is largely through linguistic similarities that the Iranian people have been linked, as many non-Iranian people have adopted Iranian languages and cultures. However, other common traits have been identified as well and a stream of common historical events have often linked the southern Iranian people, including Hellenistic conquests, the various empires based in Persia, Arab Caliphates and Turkic invasions.


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Although most of the Iranian people settled in the Iranian plateau region, many expanded into the periphery, ranging from the Caucasus and Anatolia to the Indus. The Iranian people have often mingled with other populations, with the notable example being the Hazaras, who display a distinct TurkoMongol background that contrasts with most other Iranian people.[40] Similarly, the Baloch have mingled with the Dravidian-speaking Brahui (who have been strongly modified by Iranian immigrants themselves), while the Ossetians have invariably mixed with Georgians and other Caucasian people. The Pashtuns vary with some having mingled with fellow Iranian groups such as the Tajiks and Turkic people and those to the east who have mingled with Dardic and Nuristani people. Moreover, the Kurds are an eclectic Iranian people who, although displaying some ethnolinguistic ties to other Iranian people (in particular their Iranian language and some cultural traits), are believed to have mixed with other groups, for example peoples from the Caucasus.[41][20] Modern Persians themselves are also a heterogeneous and eclectic group of people descended from various ancient Iranian, Semitic, Turkic, and indigenous people of the Iranian plateau, including the Elamites.[42] Thus, not unlike the aforementioned example of Germanic people including the English, who are both of Germanic and Celtic origin, Iranians are an ethno-linguistic group and the Iranian people display varying degrees of common ancestry and cultural traits that denote their respective identities.

Iranian peoples
region. Its origins are traced to Zoroastrianism and pre-historic times. Some Iranian people exhibit distinct traits that are unique unto themselves. The Pashtuns adhere to a code of honor and culture known as Pashtunwali, which has a similar counterpart among the Baloch, called Mayar, that is more hierarchical.[43]

See also: Islam in Iran, Islam in Afghanistan, and Islam in Tajikistan The early Iranian people worshipped various deities found throughout other cultures where Indo-European immigrants established themselves.[44] The earliest major religion of the Iranian people was Zoroastrianism, which spread to nearly all of the Iranian people living in the Iranian plateau. Other religions that had their origins in the Iranian world were Mithraism, Manichaeism, and Mazdakism, among others.

See also: Proto-Indo-European society, IndoIranian mythology, and Iranian philosophy Many of the cultural traits of the ancient Iranians were similar to other Proto-IndoEuropean societies. Like other IndoEuropeans, the early Iranians practiced ritual sacrifice, had a social hierarchy consisting of warriors, clerics and farmers and poetic hymns and sagas to recount their deeds.[12] Following the Iranian split from the IndoIranians, the Iranians developed an increasingly distinct culture. Various common traits can be discerned among the Iranian people. For example, the social event Norouz is an Iranian festival that is practiced by nearly all of the Iranian people as well as others in the

Mazari Sharif’s Blue Mosque in Afghanistan is a structure of cobalt blue and turquoise minarets, attracting visitors and pilgrims from all over the world. Many such Muslim architectural monuments can be attributed to the efforts of the Iranian people who are predominantly followers of Islam today. Modern speakers of Iranian languages mainly follow Islam. Some follow Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and the Bahá’í Faith, with an unknown number showing no religious affiliation. Overall the numbers of Sunni and Shia among the Iranian people are equally distributed. Most Kurds, Tajiks, Pashtuns, and Baluchis are Sunni Muslims, while the remainder are mainly Shi’a, comprising mostly of Persians in Iran, Zazas in Turkey, Hazaras in Afghanistan, and Pamiri peoples in Tajikistan and China. The Christian community is largely represented by the Russian


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Orthodox and Georgian Orthodox Ossetians followed by Nestorians. Judaism is followed mainly by Persian Jews, Jews of Afghanistan, Jews in Pakistan, Kurdish Jews and Mountain Jews (of the Caucasus), most of which are now found in Israel. The historical religion of the Persian Empire was Zoroastrianism and it still has a few thousand followers, mostly in Yazd and Kerman. They are known as the Parsis in the Indian subcontinent, or Zoroastrians in Iran.

Iranian peoples

Further information: Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup and Haplogroup R1a1 (YDNA) Some genetic testings of Iranian people have revealed many common genes for most of the Iranian people, but with numerous exceptions and regional variations. Other genetic scholars claim that the high-resolution Ychromosome genotyping of their study allowed for an in-depth analysis unattained in previous studies of the area. The study reveals important migratory and demographic events that shaped the contemporary genetic landscape of the Iranians. Genetic studies conducted by CavalliSforza have revealed that Iranians cluster closely with Near Eastern groups and more distantly from European groups. Preliminary genetic tests suggest common origins for most of the Iranian people. [48] This study is partially supported by another one, based on Y-Chromosome haplogroups.[49] The findings of this study reveal many common genetic markers found among the Iranian people from the Tigris to the areas west of the Indus. This correlates with the Iranian languages spoken from the Caucasus to Kurdish areas in the Zagros region and eastwards to western Pakistan and Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The extensive gene flow is perhaps an indication of the spread of Iranian-speaking people, whose languages are now spoken mainly on the Iranian plateau and adjacent regions. These results relate the relationships of Iranian people with each other, while other comparative testing reveals some varied origins for Iranian people such as the Kurds, who show genetic ties to the Caucasus at considerably higher levels than any other Iranian people except the Ossetians, as well as links to Europe and Semitic populations that live in close proximity such as the Arab and Jews.[41][50][51][52] Another recent study of the genetic landscape of Iran was completed by a team of Cambridge geneticists led by Dr. Maziar Ashrafian Bonab (an Iranian Azarbaijani).[53] Bonab remarked that his group had done extensive DNA testing on different language groups, including Indo-European and non Indo-European speakers, in Iran.[47] The study found that the Azerbaijanis of Iran do not have a similar FSt and other genetic

Cultural assimilation
See also: Persianization, Persianate society, Turko-Persian tradition, Turco-Persian, Turkification, Islamic conquest of Persia, and Arabization In matters relating to culture, the various Turkic-speaking minorities of Iran (notably the Azerbaijani people) and Afghanistan (Uzbeks and Turkmen) are often conversant in Iranian languages, in addition to their own Turkic languages and also have Iranian culture to the extent that the term Turko-Iranian can be applied.[45] The usage applies to various circumstances that involve historic interaction, intermarriage, cultural assimilation, bilingualism and cultural overlap or commonalities. Notable among this synthesis of Turko-Iranian culture are the Azeris, whose culture, religion and significant periods of history are linked to the Persians.[46] Certain theories and genetic tests[47] suggest that the Azeris are descendants of ancient Iranian peoples who lost their Iranian language (see Ancient Azari language) following the Turkic invasions of Azerbaijan in the 11th century CE. In fact, throughout much of the expanse of Central Asia and the Middle East, Iranian and Turkic culture has merged in many cases to form various hybrid populations and cultures, as evident from various ruling dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Mughals. Iranian cultural influences have also been significant in Central Asia, where Turkic invaders are believed to have largely mixed with native Iranian people of which only the Tajik remain, in terms of language usage. The areas of the former Soviet Union adjacent to Iran (such as Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan) have gone through the prism of decades of Russian and Soviet rule that has reshaped the Turko-Iranian cultures there to some degree.


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markers found in Anatolian and European Turks. However, the genetic Fst and other genetic traits like MRca and mtDNA of Iranian Azeris were identical to Persians in Iran. Ultimately, genetic tests reveal that while the Iranian people show numerous common genetic markers overall, there are also indications of interaction with other groups, regional variations and cases of genetic drift. In addition, indigenous populations may have survived the waves of early Aryan migrations as cultural assimilation led to large-scale language replacement (as with some Kurds, Hazaras and west Iranian Persians and others). Further testing will ultimately be required and may further elucidate the relationship of the Iranian people with each other and various neighboring populations.

Iranian peoples
common Non-Indo-European ancestors (see Paleolithic Continuity Theory) who were later linguistically Indo-Europeanized (q.v.). The results of tests focused on Y-chromosome haplogroups give a more detailed picture of the events which may have taken place in Iranian-speaking lands in the past 7000-5000 years. Haplogroup M17, also known as R1a1, has proven to be a diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker.[54] The highest R1a1 frequencies are detected in the Central Asian populations of Ishkashemi Tajiks (68%) and Pamiri Tajiks (64%), both groups being remnants of the original Eastern Iranian population of the region.[54][55] Apart from these two groups, the eastern parts of the Iranian Highlands generally reveal the highest frequency of R1a1, up to 35%, similar to Northern India[56], making it higher than South and West Europe and Scandinavia, while Western Iran appears to have had little genetic influence from the R1a1-carrying Indo-Iranians, about 10%, attributed to language replacement through the "elite-dominance" model in a similar manner which occurred in Europe and India. In this regard, it is likely that the Kavir and Lut deserts in the center of Iran have acted as significant barriers to gene flow.[54]

Indo-European roots
Indo-European topics Indo-European languages Albanian · Armenian · Baltic Celtic · Germanic · Greek Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian) Italic · Slavic extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian, Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian Indo-European peoples Albanians · Armenians Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples Greeks · Indo-Aryans Iranians · Latins · Slavs historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians) Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes Illyrians · Italics · Cimmerians · Sarmatians Scythians · Thracians · Tocharians Indo-Iranians (Rigvedic tribes, Iranian tribes) Proto-Indo-Europeans Language · Society · Religion Urheimat hypotheses Kurgan hypothesis Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT Indo-European studies

See also
• Airyanem Vaejah • Ancient Iranian peoples • Bulgars • Caspian people • IndoIranians • Iranian Kuwaitis • Greater Iran • TurkoIranian • Ajam (Bahrain)

Literature and further reading
• Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron (eds.). The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East), Syracuse University Press (August, 1988). ISBN 0-8156-2448-4. • Canfield, Robert (ed.). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002). ISBN 0-5.... • Curzon, R. The Iranian People of the Caucasus. ISBN 0-7007-0649-6.

A large-scale research by Cavalli-Sforza reveals genetical similarities between all Eurasian speakers of Indo-European languages, including speakers of European, Iranian and Indo-Aryan languages; but this does not necessarily prove a common Indo-European origin for these populations and may be due to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Derakhshani, Jahanshah. Die Arier in den nahöstlichen Quellen des 3. und 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr., 2nd edition (1999). ISBN 964-90368-6-5. • Frye, Richard, Greater Iran, Mazda Publishers (2005). ISBN 1-56859-177-2. • Frye, Richard. Persia, Schocken Books, Zurich (1963). ASIN B0006BYXHY. • Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates, Longman, New York, NY (2004). ISBN 0-58.... • Khoury, Philip S. & Kostiner, Joseph. Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East, University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07080-1. • Littleton, C. & Malcor, L. From Scythia to Camelot, Garland Publishing, New York, NY, (2000). ISBN 0-8153-3566-0. • Mallory, J.P. In Search of the IndoEuropeans, Thames and Hudson, London (1991). ISBN 0-500-27616-1. • McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds, I.B. Tauris, 3rd Rev edition (2004). ISBN 1-85043-416-6. • Nassim, J. Afghanistan: A Nation of Minorities, Minority Rights Group, London (1992). ISBN 0-946690-76-6. • Riasanovsky, Nicholas. A History of Russia, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2004). ISBN 0-19-515394-4. • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. Indo-Iranian Languages and People, British Academy (2003). ISBN 0-19-726285-6.

Iranian peoples
Ossetian: Irynoau Adem, Mazandarani: Iranijş Benevarün or Heranaysi Adəmün, Zazaki: Iryanıco mılletê [2] J. Harmatta in "History of Civilizations of Central Asia", Chapter 14, The Emergence of Indo-Iranians: The IndoIranian Languages, ed. by A.H. Dani & V.N. Masson, 1999, p. 357 [3] Frye, Richard Nelson, Greater Iran, ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p.xi: "... Iran means all lands and people where Iranian languages were and are spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed. ..." [4] "Iranian languages" — Encyclopedia Britannica (retrieved 4 June 2006) [5] "Scope of Iranian languages" — Encyclopedia Iranica (retrieved 4 June 2006) [6] Amazons in the Scythia: new finds at the Middle Don, Southern Russia [7] Secrets of the Dead, Casefile: Amazon Warrior Women [8] Runciman, Steven (1982). The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28926-2. [9] "Farsi-Persian language" — (retrieved 4 June 2006) [10] ^ "Iran" — The 1911 Encyclopedia (retrieved 4 June 2006) [11] Ibid. [12] ^ In Search of the Indo-Europeans, by J.P. Mallory, p. 22–23, ISBN 0-500-27616-1 (retrieved 10 June 2006) [13] "Dardic languages" Students’ Britannica India (retrieved 26 February 2008) [14] "The Paleolithic Indo-Europeans" — (retrieved 4 June 2006) [15] "Avestan xᵛarǝnah-, etymology and concept by Alexander Lubotsky" — Sprache und Kultur. Akten der X. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 22.-28. September 1996, ed. W. Meid, Innsbruck (IBS) 1998, 479–488. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [16] M. Liverani, "The Medes at Esarhaddon’s Court", in Journal of Cuneiform Studies 47 (1995), pp. 57-62. [17] "The Geography of Strabo" — University of Chicago. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [18] R. G. Kent, Old Persian: Grammar, texts and lexicon. [19] R. Hallock (1969), Persepolis Fortification Tablets; A. L. Driver (1954), Aramaic Documents of the V Century BC.

External links
• H. Bailey, "ARYA: Philology of ethnic epithet of Iranian people", v, pp. 681–683, Online-Edition in Encyclopaedia Iranica • Shahbazi, A. Shapur. Iraj: the eponymous hero of the Iranians in their traditional history, Online-Edition in Encyclopaedia Iranica • Encyclopedia Britannica: Iranian languages • Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 74:827–845, 2004

[1] local names - Old Iranian: Arya, Middle Iranian: Eran, Modern Iranian languages: Persian: Iraniyan or Irani-ha, Kurdish: Êraniyekan or gelên Êranî,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[20] ^ "Kurdish: An Indo-European Language By Siamak Rezaei Durroei" — University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [21] "The Iranian Language Family, Khodadad Rezakhani" — Iranologie. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [22] ^ A History of Russia by Nicholas Riasanovsky, pp. 11–18, Russia before the Russians, ISBN 0-19-515394-4 (retrieved 4 June 2006) [23] The Sarmatians: 600 BC-AD 450 (Men-atArms) by Richard Brzezinski and Gerry Embleton, Aug 19, 2002 [24] "Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Archaeologist" — Thirteen WNET New York. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [25] "Report for Talysh" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [26] "Report for Tats" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [27] "Report for Judeo-Tats" — Ethnologue. (retrieved 4 June 2006) [28] Ibid. p. 135 [29] * Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "(Azarbaijan). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill [1][1] R.N. Frye, People of Iran in Encyclopaedia Iranica [1] [2] X.D. Planhol, LANDS OF IRAN in Encyclopedia Iranica [2] [30] Encyclopædia Britannica. Azerbaijani [31] The Columbia Encyclopedia: Azerbaijan [32] The Iranian: Who are the Azeris? by Aylinah Jurabchi [33] Askarov, A. & B.Ahmadov, O’zbek Xalqning Kilib Chiqishi Torixi. O’zbekiston Ovozi, 20 January 1994. [34] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Dallas: SIL International). show_family.asp?subid=90019. [35] [1] Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "(Azarbaijan). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill [2] R.N. Frye, Peoples of Iran in Encyclopaedia Iranica [3] [3] X.D. Planhol, LANDS OF IRAN in Encyclopedia Iranica [4] [36] Encyclopædia Britannica. Azerbaijani

Iranian peoples
[37] The Columbia Encyclopedia: Azerbaijan [38] The Iranian: Who are the Azeris? by Aylinah Jurabchi [39] Askarov, A. & B.Ahmadov, O’zbek Xalqning Kilib Chiqishi Torixi. O’zbekiston Ovozi, 20 January 1994. [40] "Afghanistan — Hazara" — Library of Congress Country Studies (retrieved 4 June 2006) [41] ^ "MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups" — Annals of Human Genetics (retrieved 4 June 2006) [42] The Golden Age of Persia, by Richard Frye, ISBN 1-84212-011-5 (retrieved 11 June 2006) [43] "Pakistan — Baloch" — Library of Congress Country Studies (retrieved 4 June 2006) [44] "History of Iran-Chapter 2 IndoEuropeans and Indo-Iranians" — Iranologie (retrieved 4 June 2006) [45] Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, edited by Robert Canfield, ISBN 0-521-... (retrieved 4 June 2006) [46] "Azerbaijan-Iran Relations: Challenges and Prospects" — Harvard University, Belfer Center, Caspian Studies Program (retrieved 4 June 2006) [47] ^ "Cambridge Genetic Study of Iran" — ISNA (Iranian Students News Agency), 06-12-2006, news-code: 8503-06068 (retrieved 9 June 2006) [48] "Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor" — University of Chicago, American Journal of Human Genetics (retrieved 4 June 2006 [49] Iran: tricontinental nexus for Ychromosome driven migration - Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, OE 304, Miami, FL 33199, USA, National Center for Biotechnology Information [50] "Georgian and Kurd mtDNA sequence analysis shows a lack of correlation between languages and female genetic lineages" — American Journal of Physical Anthropology(retrieved 14 June 2006) [51] "Comparing DNA Patterns of Sephardi, Ashkenazi & Kurdish jews" — Society For Crypto Judaic Studies (retrieved 14 June 2006) [52] "Genes and people in the caspian littoral: A population genetic study in northern


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Iran" — American Journal of Physical Anthropology (retrieved 14 June 2006) [53] "Maziar Ashrafian Bonab" — Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge (retrieved 9 June 2006) [54] ^ Wells, RS; Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, Blue-Smith J, Jin L, Su B, Pitchappan R, Shanmugalakshmi S, Balakrishnan K, Read M, Pearson NM, Zerjal T, Webster MT, Zholoshvili I, Jamarjashvili E, Gambarov S, Nikbin B, Dostiev A, Aknazarov O, Zalloua P, Tsoy I, Kitaev M, Mirrakhimov M, Chariev A, Bodmer WF (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-

Iranian peoples
chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98 (18): 10244–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMID 11526236. content/full/98/18/10244. [55] Zerjal, T; Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Tyler-Smith C. (2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71 (2): 466–482. doi:10.1086/342096. 12145751. pii/S0002929707603280. [56] Genetic Atlas by National Geographic

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