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International Space Station

International Space Station
International Space Station[a] Atmospheric pressure: Perigee: 101.3 kPa (29.91 inHg) 347 km altitude (188.5 nmi)
(19 April 2009)


358 km altitude (193.3 nmi)
(19 April 2009)

Orbit inclination: Average speed:

51.6419 degrees 27,743.8 km/h (17,239.2 mph, 7706.6 m/s) c.91 minutes 3833 (19 May 2009) 3122 (19 May 2009) c.60493 (19 May 2009) 2 km/month

The International Space Station as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-119.

Orbital period: Days in orbit: Days occupied: Number of orbits: Orbital decay:

Statistics as of 28 March 2009 (unless noted otherwise). References: [1][2][3][4][5] Configuration

ISS Insignia Station statistics NSSDC ID: Call sign: Crew: Launch: Launch pad: 1998-067A Alpha 6 1998–2011 KSC LC-39, Baikonur LC-1/5 & LC-81/23 303,663 kg (669,461 lb) 73 m (240 ft)
from Harmony to Zvezda

Station elements as of March 2009 (exploded view). International Space Station[a]

Mass: Length: Width: Living volume:

108.5 m (356 ft)
along truss, arrays extended

358 m³ (12,626 ft³)

The International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility currently being assembled in Low Earth Orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998, and is scheduled to be complete by 2011, with operations continuing until around 2015.[6] As of 2009, the ISS is the largest artificial satellite in Earth orbit, larger than any previous space stations.[7] The ISS programme is a joint project among the space agencies of the United


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States (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - NASA), Russia (Russian Federal Space Agency - RKA), Japan (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency - JAXA), Canada (Canadian Space Agency - CSA) and ten European nations (European Space Agency - ESA).[8][b] The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) participates through a separate contract with NASA.[9] The Italian Space Agency (ASI) similarly has separate contracts for various activities not done within the framework of ESA’s ISS projects (where Italy also fully participates).[10] China has reportedly expressed interest in the project, especially if it would be able to work with the RKA, although as of 2009 it is not involved.[11][12] The space station is in a Low Earth Orbit, and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. It orbits at an altitude of approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi; 190 nmi) above the surface of the Earth,[13][14][15] travelling at an average speed of 27,724 kilometres (17,227 mi) per hour, completing 15.7 orbits per day.[13] The ISS has been continuously staffed since the first resident crew, Expedition 1, entered the station on 2 November 2000. This has provided a permanent human presence in space for the last &0000000000000008.0000008 years, &0000000000000198.000000198 days.[16] At present, the station has the capacity for a crew of three. However, to fulfil an active research programme, it will be staffed by a resident crew of six beginning with Expedition 20. The crew of Expedition 19 is currently aboard.[17][18] Early crew members all came from the Russian and American space programmes until German ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter joined the Expedition 13 crew in July 2006, becoming the first crew member from another space agency. The station has been visited by astronauts from 16 different nations, and it was the destination of the first six space tourists.[19]

International Space Station
allowing long-duration studies to be performed, both on specific experiments and on the human crews that operate them. Longterm expedition crews conduct science daily (approximately 160 man-hours a week),[20] across a wide variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, physical sciences, and Earth observation, as well as education and technology demonstrations.[21] As of June 2006, 90 science investigations had been conducted on the ISS over 64 months of continuous research. In addition, there have been nine research racks and more than 7,700 kg (17,000 lb) of research equipment and facilities launched to the station. Scientific findings, in fields ranging from basic science to exploration research, are being published every month.[22] The ISS also provides a testing location for efficient, reliable spacecraft systems that will be required for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars, allowing for equipment to be evaluated in the relatively safe location of Low Earth Orbit. This provides experience in maintaining, repairing, and replacing systems on-orbit, which will be essential in operating spacecraft further from Earth. This aspect of ISS operations reduces mission risks, and advances the capabilities of interplanetary spacecraft.[22] Finally, in addition to the scientific and research aspects of the station, there are numerous opportunities for educational outreach and international cooperation. The crews of the ISS provide educational opportunities for students back home on Earth, including student-developed experiments, educational demonstrations, student participation in classroom versions of ISS experiments, NASA investigator experiments, and ISS engineering activities. The ISS programme itself, and the international cooperation that it represents, allows 14 nations to live and work together in space, providing important lessons that can be taken forward into future multi-national missions.[23]

The International Space Station serves primarily as a research laboratory and is the largest ever launched into orbit.[7] The station offers an advantage over spacecraft such as NASA’s Space Shuttle because it is a longterm platform in the space environment,

Scientific research
One of the main goals of the ISS is to provide a place to conduct experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present on the station. The main fields of research include biology, physics, astronomy, and meteorology.[24][25] The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment


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of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with a goal to increase the utilisation of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector.[26]

International Space Station
temperatures, scientists also hope to gain new insight regarding superconductivity.[24] Other areas of interest include the effect of the low gravity environment on combustion, studying the efficiency of burning and the creation of by-products from certain materials. These findings may improve our understanding of energy production, and in turn have an economic and environmental impact. There are also plans to use the ISS to examine aerosols, ozone, water vapour, and oxides in Earth’s atmosphere, as well as cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter, and dark matter in the universe.[24] One component assisting in these various studies is the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). Developed by NASA, there are currently 4 of these units set to be launched to the ISS. As currently envisioned, the ELCs will be delivered on two separate Space Shuttle missions. They will allow experiments to be deployed and conducted in the vacuum of space, and will provide the necessary electricity and computing to process experimental data locally. Delivery is currently scheduled for STS-129 in November 2009, and STS-133 in May 2010.[28] The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), a particle physics experiment, is also scheduled to be added to the station. This device will be launched on STS-134 in 2010, and will be mounted externally on the Integrated Truss Structure. The AMS will search for various types of unusual matter by measuring cosmic rays. The experiments conducted will help researchers study the formation of the universe, and search for evidence of dark matter and antimatter.[29]

A comparison between fire on Earth (left) and fire in a microgravity environment, such as that found on the ISS (right). One research goal is to improve the understanding of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects currently being studied include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shifts. The data obtained from these studies will be used to make space colonisation and lengthy space travel feasible. At the present time, current levels of bone loss and muscular atrophy would pose a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet following a lengthy space cruise.[27] The effect of near-weightlessness on nonhuman subjects is being considered as well. Researchers are investigating the relation of the near-weightless environment of outer space to evolution, development and growth, and the internal processes of plants and animals. In response to some of this data, NASA wants to investigate microgravity’s effects on the growth of three-dimensional, human-like tissues, and the unusual protein crystals that can be formed in space.[24] Researchers are investigating the physics of fluids in microgravity, enabling them to better model the behaviour of fluids in the future. Due to the ability to almost completely combine fluids in microgravity, physicists are interested in investigating the combinations of fluids that will not normally mix well on Earth. In addition, by examining reactions that are slowed down by low gravity and

See also: Space Station Freedom and Mir-2 Originating during the Cold War, the International Space Station represents a union of several space station projects from various nations. During the early 1980s, NASA had planned to launch a modular space station called Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. In addition, the Soviets were planning a replacement for Mir to be constructed during the 1990s called Mir-2.[30] Due to budgetary and design constraints, however, Freedom never progressed past mock-ups and minor component tests.


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International Space Station
an agreement that later became the ShuttleMir Programme.[32] The ISS programme was planned to combine the proposed space stations of all participating space agencies, including Freedom, Mir-2 (with DOS-8 later becoming Zvezda), ESA’s Columbus, and the Japanese Kibō laboratory. When the first module, Zarya, was launched in 1998, the station was expected to be completed by 2003. Due to delays, however, the estimated completion date has been moved forward to 2011.[28]

Space station
Space Shuttle Atlantis docked to Mir on STS-71, during the Shuttle-Mir Programme. With the fall of the Soviet Union ending the Cold War and Space Race, Freedom was nearly canceled by the United States House of Representatives. The post-Soviet economic chaos in Russia also led to the eventual cancellation of Mir-2, with only the base block of that station, DOS-8, having been constructed.[30] Similar difficulties were being faced by the U.S. and other nations with plans for space stations. This prompted U.S. administration officials to start negotiations with partners in Europe, Russia, Japan, and Canada in the early 1990s to begin a collaborative, multi-national, space station project.[30] In June 1992, U.S. president George H. W. Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin agreed to cooperate on space exploration by signing the ’Agreement between the United States of America and the Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes’. This agreement called for setting up a short, joint space programme, during which one U.S. astronaut would board the Russian space station Mir and two Russian cosmonauts would board a space shuttle.[30] In September 1993, U.S. Vice-president Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin announced plans for a new space station, which eventually became the International Space Station.[31] They also agreed, in preparation for this new project, that the US would be heavily involved in the Mir programme in the years ahead, as part of

Assembly and structure

Astronaut Ron Garan during an ISS assembly spacewalk on STS-124. The assembly of the International Space Station, a major aerospace engineering endeavour, began in November 1998. As of March 2009 the station is approximately 81% complete.[3] The first segment of the ISS, Zarya, was launched into orbit on 20 November 1998 on a Russian Proton rocket, followed two weeks later by the first of three ’node’ modules, Unity, launched aboard STS-88. This bare 2-module core of the ISS remained unmanned for the next one and a half years until the Russian module Zvezda was added in July 2000, allowing a maximum crew of three people to occupy the ISS continuously. The first resident crew, Expedition 1, was sent later that year in November. The year 2000 also saw the arrival of two segments of the station’s Integrated Truss Structure, the Z1 and P6 trusses, providing the embryonic station with communications, guidance,


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electrical grounding (on Z1), and power via a pair of solar array wings, located on the P6 truss.[33] Over the next two years the station continued to expand with a Soyuz rocket delivering the Pirs docking compartment. Space Shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour delivered the Destiny laboratory and Quest airlock to orbit, in addition to the station’s robot arm Canadarm2, and several more segments of the truss structure.[33] The expansion schedule was brought to an abrupt halt, however, following the destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-107 in 2003. The resulting hiatus in the Space Shuttle programme halted station assembly until the launch of Discovery on STS-114 in 2005.[34]

International Space Station
Integrated Truss Structure. Awaiting launch is the final section of Kibō, the third and final American node, Tranquility, the European Robotic Arm and several Russian modules. Also awaiting launch is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is scheduled for launch on what is currently manifested as the final space shuttle flight, STS-134, in September 2010. Assembly is expected to be completed by 2011, by which point the station will have a mass in excess of 400 metric tons (440 short tons).[3][28]

Pressurised modules
When completed, the ISS will consist of fourteen pressurised modules with a combined volume of around 1,000 m³. These modules include laboratories, docking compartments, airlocks, nodes and living quarters. Ten of these components are already in orbit, with the remaining four awaiting launch. Each module was or will be launched either by the Space Shuttle, Proton rocket or Soyuz rocket.[33]

Cancelled modules
Several planned pressurised modules have been cancelled, including the Centrifuge Accommodations Module,[52] for producing varying levels of artificial gravity, the Habitation Module, which was to serve as the station’s living quarters (sleep stations are now spread throughout the station),[53] and several Russian modules, including two Russian Research Modules, planned to be used for general experimentation.[54]

Play video A video tour of the habitable part of the ISS from January 2009. The official return to assembly was marked by the arrival of Atlantis, flying STS-115, delivering the station’s second set of solar arrays. These were later followed by several more truss segments and a third set of arrays on STS-116, STS-117, and STS-118. This major expansion of the station’s power generating capabilities meant that more pressurised modules could be accommodated, and as a result the Harmony node and Columbus European laboratory were added. These were followed shortly after by the first two components of Kibō, the Japanese Experiment Module. In March 2009, STS-119 marked the completion of the Integrated Truss Structure with the installation of the last and fourth set of solar arrays.[33] As of March 2009, the station consisted of ten pressurised modules and the complete

Power supply
The source of electrical power for the ISS is the Sun. Light is converted into electricity through the use of solar arrays. Before assembly flight 4A (space shuttle mission STS-97, launched 30 November 2000) the only power sources were the Russian solar panels attached to the Zarya and Zvezda modules. The Russian segment of the station uses 28 volts DC, as does the space shuttle. In the remainder of the station, electricity is provided by the solar arrays attached to the truss at a voltage ranging from 130 to 180 volts DC. These arrays are arranged as four pairs of wings, and each pair is capable of generating nearly 32.8 kW of DC power.[55] Power is stabilised and distributed at 160 volts DC before being converted to the


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Module Zarya (FGB) Assembly Launch mission date 1A/R Launch system Nation Russia

International Space Station
Isolated View Station View

20 Novem- Proton-K ber 1998

US (Financier) Provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance during initial assembly. Now serves as a storage module, both inside the pressurised section and in the externally mounted fuel tanks.[35] Unity (Node 1) 2A 4 December 1998 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-88 US

The first ’node’ module, connecting the American section of the station to the Russian section (via PMA-1), and providing berthing locations for the Z1 truss, Quest airlock, Destiny laboratory and Tranquility.[36] Zvezda (Service Module)


12 July 2000



The station’s service module, which provides the main living quarters for resident crews, environmental systems and attitude and orbit control. It also provides docking locations for Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft and the Automated Transfer Vehicle. The addition of the module rendered the ISS permanently habitable for the first time.[37] Destiny (US


7 February 2001

Space Shuttle At- US lantis, STS-98

The primary research facility for US payloads aboard the ISS. Destiny provides a research facility for general experiments with space for 24 International Standard Payload Racks, some of which are used for environmental systems and living equipment. Destiny features a 20-inch (51 cm) optically perfect window, the largest such window ever produced for use in space, and serves as the mounting point for most of the station’s Integrated Truss Structure.[38][39] Quest (Joint


12 July 2001

Space Shuttle At- US lantis, STS-104

The primary airlock for the ISS, hosting spacewalks with both US EMU and Russian Orlan spacesuits. Quest consists of two segments, the equipment lock that stores spacesuits and equipment, and the crew lock from which astronauts can exit into space.[40] Pirs (Docking


14 Soyuz-U September 2001


Pirs provides the ISS with additional docking ports for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and allows egress and ingress for spacewalks by cosmonauts using Russian


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Orlan spacesuits, in addition to providing storage space for these spacesuits.[41] Harmony
(Node 2)

International Space Station


23 October 2007

Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-120


US (Financier)

The second of the station’s node modules, Harmony is the utility hub of the ISS. The module contains four racks that provide electrical power, bus electronic data, and acts as a central connecting point for several other components via its six Common Berthing Mechanisms (CBMs). The European Columbus and Japanese Kibō laboratories are permanently berthed to the module, and US Space Shuttle Orbiters dock to the ISS via PMA-2, attached to Harmony’s front port. In addition, the module serves as a berthing port for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules during logistics flights.[42] Columbus
(European Laboratory)


7 February 2008[43]

Space Shuttle At- Europe lantis, STS-122

The primary research facility for European payloads aboard the ISS, Columbus provides a generic laboratory as well as facilities specifically designed for biology, biomedical research and fluid physics. Several mounting locations are affixed to the exterior of the module, which provide power and data to external experiments such as the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF), Solar Monitoring Observatory, Materials International Space Station Experiment, and Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. A number of expansions are planned to study quantum physics and cosmology.[44] Experiment 1J/A Logistics Module (JEMELM)

11 March 2008

Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-123


Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the ELM provides storage and transportation facilities to the laboratory, with a pressurised section to serve internal payloads and an unpressurised section to serve external payloads.[45] 31 May 2008 Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-124 Japan

Japanese 1J Pressurised Module (JEMPM)

Part of the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module laboratory, the PM is the core module of Kibō to which the ELM and Exposed Facility are berthed. The laboratory is the largest single ISS module and contains a total of 23 racks, including 10 experiment racks. The module is used to carry out research in space medicine, biology, Earth observations, materials production, biotechnology, and communications research. The PM also serves as the mounting location for an external platform, the Exposed Facility (EF), that allows


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International Space Station

payloads to be directly exposed to the harsh space environment. The EF is serviced by the module’s own robotic arm, the JEM-RMS, which is also mounted on the PM.[45][46] Scheduled to be launched Module Assembly Launch mission date Launch system Nation Isolated View Station View

Mini-Re5R 10 Novem- Soyuz-FG Russia search Modber 2009 ule 2 This Russian component of the ISS, MRM2 will be used for docking of Soyuz and Progress ships, as an airlock for spacewalks and as an interface for scientific experiments.[47] Tranquility
(Node 3)


c. February 2010

Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-130


US (Financier)

The last of the station’s US nodes, Tranquility will contain an advanced life support system to recycle wastewater for crew use and generate oxygen for the crew to breathe. The node also provides four berthing locations for more attached pressurised modules or crew transportation vehicles, in addition to the permanent berthing location for the station’s Cupola.[48][49] Cupola 20A c. February 2010 Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-130 Europe

US (Financier)

The Cupola is an observatory module that will provide ISS crew members with a direct view of robotic operations and docked spacecraft, as well as an observation point for watching the Earth. The module will come equipped with robotic workstations for operating the SSRMS and shutters to prevent its windows from being damaged by micrometeorites.[50] Mini-ReULF4 c. May Space Shuttle At- Russia search Mod2010 lantis, STS-132 ule 1 MRM1 will be used for docking and cargo storage aboard the station.[28] Multipurpose 3R c. Decem- Proton-M Russia Laboratory ber 2011 Module The MLM will be Russia’s primary research module as part of the ISS and will be used for general microgravity experiments, docking, and cargo logistics. The module provides a crew work and rest area, and will be equipped with a backup attitude control system that can be used to control the station’s attitude.[28][51] user-required 124 volts DC. This high-voltage distribution line allows for smaller power lines, thus reducing weight. Power can be shared between the two segments of the


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International Space Station
becomes saturated—a situation whereby a CMG exceeds its operational range or cannot track a series of rapid movements—it can lose its ability to control station attitude.[58] In this event, the Russian attitude control system is designed to take over automatically, using thrusters to maintain station attitude, allowing the CMG system to desaturate. This scenario has only occurred once, during Expedition 10.[59] When a space shuttle is docked to the station, it can also be used to maintain station attitude. This procedure was used during STS-117 as the S3/S4 truss was being installed.[60]

Altitude control
The ISS in 2001, showing the solar panels on Zarya and Zvezda, in addition to the US P6 solar arrays. station using converters. This feature has become essential since the cancellation of the Russian Science Power Platform, because the Russian segment now depends on the USbuilt solar arrays for power.[56] The solar arrays normally track the Sun to maximise the amount of solar power. Each array is about 375 m² (450 yd²) in area and 58 metres (190 ft) long. In the complete configuration, the solar arrays track the sun in each orbit by rotating the alpha gimbal, while the beta gimbal adjusts for the angle of the sun from the orbital plane. Until the main truss structure arrived, the arrays were in a temporary position perpendicular to the final orientation. In this configuration, as shown in the image to the right, the beta gimbal was used for the main solar tracking. Another tracking option, the Night Glider mode, can be used to reduce the effects of drag produced by the tenuous upper atmosphere, through which the station flies, by orienting the solar arrays edgewise to the velocity vector.[57]

Altitude graph of ISS from 1998 through to early 2006. The ISS is maintained at an orbit from a minimum altitude of 278 km (173 mi) to a maximum of 460 km (286 mi). The normal maximum limit is 425 km (264 mi) to allow Soyuz rendezvous missions. As the ISS constantly loses altitude because of slight atmospheric drag, it needs to be boosted to a higher altitude several times each year.[61] These effects vary from day-to-day, however, because of changes in the density of the outer atmosphere caused by changes in solar activity.[2] This reboost can be performed by the station’s two main engines on the Zvezda service module, a docked space shuttle, a Progress resupply vessel, or by ESA’s ATV. It takes approximately two orbits (three hours) to be boosted several kilometres higher.[61]

Attitude control
The attitude (orientation) of the station is maintained by either of two mechanisms. Normally, a system using several control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) keeps the station oriented, with Destiny forward of Unity, the P truss on the port side, and Pirs on the earthfacing (nadir) side. When the CMG system

At the station’s orbital altitude, the gravity from the Earth is 88% of that at sea level. The state of weightlessness is caused by the constant free fall of the ISS. Due to the equivalence principle, free fall is indiscernible from a state of zero gravity. The environment


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on the station is instead often described as microgravity, due to four effects:[62] • The drag resulting from the residual atmosphere. • Vibratory acceleration caused by mechanical systems and the crew on board the ISS. • Orbital corrections by the on-board gyroscopes (or thrusters). • The spatial separation from the real centre of mass of the ISS—any part of the ISS not at the exact centre of mass will tend to follow its own orbit. However, as each point is physically part of the station, this is impossible, and so each component is subject to small accelerations from the forces which keep them attached to the station as it orbits.[62]

International Space Station
methane from the intestines and ammonia from sweat, are removed by activated charcoal filters.[64] The atmosphere on board the ISS is maintained to have a composition similar to that of the Earth’s atmosphere.[65] Normal air pressure on the ISS is 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi),[66] the same as at sea level on Earth.


Life support

July 2007 sighting of the International Space Station Because of the size of the International Space Station (about that of an American football field) and the large reflective area offered by its solar panels, ground based observation of the station is possible with the naked eye if the observer is in the right location at the right time—in many cases, the station is one of the brightest naked-eye objects in the sky, although it is visible only for brief periods of time.[67] In order to view the station, the following conditions need to be fulfilled, assuming the weather is clear: The station must be above the observer’s horizon, and it must pass within about 2000 km of the observing site (the closer the better); it must be dark enough at the observer’s location for stars to be visible; and the station must be in sunlight rather than in the Earth’s shadow. It is common for the third condition to begin or end during what would otherwise be a good viewing opportunity. In the evening, this will cause the station to suddenly fade and disappear as it moves further from the dusk, going from west to east. In the reverse situation, it may suddenly appear in the sky as it approaches the dawn.[67][68]

Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides or controls elements such as atmospheric pressure, fire detection and suppression, oxygen levels, and water supply. The highest priority for the ECLSS is the ISS atmosphere, but the system also collects, processes, and stores waste and water produced and used by the crew. This process includes recycling fluid from the sink, shower, toilet, and condensation from the air. The Elektron system aboard Zvezda and a similar oxygen generation system in Destiny generate oxygen aboard the station.[63] If required, the crew has a backup option in the form of bottled oxygen and Solid Fuel Oxygen Generation (SFOG) canisters.[64] Carbon dioxide is removed from the air by the Vozdukh system in Zvezda. Other by-products of human metabolism, such as


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International Space Station

Politics and financing

Primary contributing nations. contracted nations.

NASA Allocation of ISS hardware between nations (Russian modules are 100% owned and operated by Russia). one Brazilian to the station during the ISS programme.[9] Italy also has a separate contract with NASA to provide similar services, although Italy also takes part in the programme directly via its membership in the ESA.[10] The most cited figure of an overall cost estimate for the ISS ranges from 35 billion to 100 billion USD.[73] ESA, the only agency actually stating potential overall costs, estimates €100 billion for the entire station over a period of 30 years.[74] Giving a precise cost estimate for the ISS is not straightforward, as it is difficult to determine which costs should actually be attributed to the ISS programme, or how the Russian contribution should be measured.[73]

As a multinational project, the legal and financial aspects of the ISS are complex. Issues of concern include the ownership of modules, station utilisation by participating nations, and responsibilities for station resupply. The main legal document establishing obligations and rights between the ISS partners is the Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA). This international treaty was signed on 28 January 1998 by the primary nations involved in the Space Station project: the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.[69] This set the stage for a second layer of agreements, called Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), between NASA and ESA, CSA, RKA and JAXA. These agreements are then further split, such as for the contractual obligations between nations, and trading of partners rights and obligations.[69] Use of the Russian Orbital Segment is also negotiated at this level.[70] Hardware allocation within the other sections of the station has been assigned as follows: • Columbus: 51% for ESA, 46.7% for NASA and 2.3% for CSA.[69] • Kibō: 51% for JAXA, 46.7% for NASA and 2.3% for CSA.[71] • Destiny: 97.7% for NASA and 2.3% for CSA.[72] • Crew time, electrical power and rights to purchase supporting services (such as data upload and download and communications) are divided 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA, and 2.3% for CSA.[69][71][72] In addition to these main intergovernmental agreements, Brazil has a contract with NASA to supply hardware. In return, NASA will fly

Life on board
See also: List of International Space Station Expeditions Each permanent station crew is given a sequential Expedition number: Expedition 1, Expedition 2, and so on. Expeditions have an average duration of half a year, and they commence following the official handover of the station from one Expedition commander to another. Expeditions 1 through 6 consisted of three person crews, but the Columbia accident led to a reduction to two crew members from Expeditions 7 to 12. Expedition 13 saw the restoration of the station crew to three, and the station has been permanently staffed as such since. Whilst only three crew members are permanently on the station,


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however, several expeditions, such as Expedition 16, have consisted of up to six individual astronauts or cosmonauts, with individuals being flown up and down to the station on various individual flights.[75][76] As of 26 March 2009 (2009 -03-26), the current expedition to ISS is Expedition 19, which is planned to be the final three member expedition to the station. Following the arrival of Expedition 20, the station will be staffed by a resident crew of six, following expansion of the station’s living volume and capabilities from STS-115 onwards.[75][76] The International Space Station is the most-visited spacecraft in the history of space flight. As of 17 November 2008 (2008 -11-17), it has had 213 non-distinct visitors comprising of 167 individual people.[7] Mir had 137 non-distinct visitors.[30]

International Space Station
impression of darkness because the station experiences 16 sunrises and sunsets a day. During visiting space shuttle missions, the ISS crew will mostly follow the shuttle’s Mission Elapsed Time (MET), which is a flexible time zone based on the launch time of the shuttle mission.[77][78] Because the sleeping periods between the UTC time zone and the MET usually differ, the ISS crew often has to adjust its sleeping pattern before the space shuttle arrives and after it leaves to shift from one time zone to the other in a practice known as sleep shifting.[79] A typical day for the crew begins with a wake-up at 06:00, followed by post-sleep activities and a morning inspection of the station. The crew then breakfasts and takes part in a daily planning conference with Mission Control on the ground before starting work at around 08:10. The first scheduled exercise of the day follows, after which the crew continues work until 13:05. Following a one-hour lunch break, the afternoon consists of more exercise and work before the crew carries out its pre-sleep activities beginning at 19:30, including dinner and a crew conference. The scheduled sleep period begins at 21:30, when the daily schedule is complete. In general, the crew works 10 hours per day on a weekday, and 5 hours on Saturdays, with the rest of the time being their own for relaxation, games or work catch-up.[80]

Crew schedule

Station operations
Mission control centres
See also: Mission Control Center As an international project, the various components of the ISS are operated and monitored by their respective space agencies at various control centres across the globe, including: • NASA’s Mission Control Center at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, serves as the primary control facility for the US segment of the ISS, and also controls the various Space Shuttle missions that visit the station.[81] • NASA’s Payload Operations and Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, serves as the centre that coordinates all payload operations in the US Segment.[81] • Roskosmos’s TsUP at Korolyov, Moscow, controls the Russian Orbital Segment of

Astronaut Peggy Whitson in the doorway of a sleeping rack in the Destiny laboratory The time zone used on board the ISS is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, sometimes informally called GMT). The windows are covered at night hours to give the


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the ISS, in addition to individual Soyuz and Progress missions.[81] ESA’s Columbus Control Centre at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, controls the European Columbus research laboratory.[81] ESA’s ATV Control Centre, at the Toulouse Space Centre (CST) in Toulouse, France, controls flights of the unmanned European Automated Transfer Vehicle.[81] JAXA’s JEM Control Centre and HTV Control Centre at Tsukuba Space Centre (TKSC) in Tsukuba, Japan, are responsible for operating the Japanese Experiment Module complex and all flights of the unmanned Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle respectively.[81] CSA’s MSS Control at Saint-Hubert, Quebec, Canada, controls and monitors the Mobile Servicing System, or Canadarm2.[81]

International Space Station
resupply missions, assembly and logistics flights, and crew rotation. As of 28 March 2009 (2009 -03-28), there have been 18 Soyuz, 32 Progress, 1 ATV and 28 Space Shuttle flights to the station.[1] Expeditions require, on average, 2,722 kg of supplies, and as of 28 March 2009 (2009 -03-28), crews have consumed a total of 19,000 meals.[1] Soyuz crew rotation flights and Progress resupply flights visit the station on average twice three times annually respectively,[82] with the ATV planned to visit annually from 2010 onwards. As of 6 May 2009 (2009 -05-06),[82] there is one spacecraft docked with the ISS: • Soyuz TMA-14 is at the Zvezda Service Module’s aft docking port. The spacecraft has brought two members of Expedition 19, Russian Commander Gennady Padalka and American Flight Engineer Michael Barratt, to the station, in addition to Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi.[83] Throughout the remainder of the station’s operating life, a variety of spacecraft by various ISS program members are planned with the intent to service the ISS. Currently under construction and planned for operation in 2009, is the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), which is intended as a resupply vehicle for the JAXA Kibō modules.[28] Still in initial funding stages is the Russian Kliper spacecraft, which, if it comes to fruition in 2012 as planned, is intended as a replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft. Being designed at this moment is the American Orion spacecraft, with plans to launch starting from 2014 as another resupply spacecraft and provide crew rotation. In hopes of bridging the gap between the Space Shuttle and Orion, NASA has started the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program to develop commercial spacecraft services dedicated to the station.[84][85]





Visiting spacecraft
See also: List of manned spaceflights to the ISS and List of unmanned spaceflights to the ISS

The Space Shuttle Endeavour approaching the ISS during STS-118. Spacecraft from three different space agencies visit the International Space Station, serving a variety of purposes. The Automated Transfer Vehicle from the European Space Agency has provided resupply services to the station. Also serving the station in this capacity is the Russian Roskosmos Progress spacecraft. In addition, Russia also supplies a Soyuz spacecraft, used for crew rotation and emergency evacuation, which is replaced every six months. Finally, the United States services the ISS through its Space Shuttle programme. Space shuttle missions provide

Space tourism
As of 2008, six space tourists have visited the ISS, each paying around US $25 million. The tourists, or Spaceflight participants, were launched and returned via Russian crew rotation missions on Soyuz spacecraft. In addition, the ISS was the location for the first space wedding, during which Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, flying Expedition 7, married Ekaterina Dmitrieva, who was in Texas at the time. The last space tourist


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

International Space Station
space agency adopted it for feasibility studies.[89]

Major incidents
Since construction started, the space station programme has had to deal with several major unexpected problems and failures. These incidents have impacted the assembly timeline, led to periods of reduced capabilities of the station and in some cases could have forced the crew to abandon the space station for safety reasons, had these problems not been resolved.

2003 – Columbia disaster

Yuri Malenchenko was the first person to be married in space. flight to the ISS took place in April 2009. After that, the station will be upgraded to a 6-person permanent crew, meaning that no more Soyuz seats will be available to Space Adventures, the company which runs the visits.[86]

Columbia breaks up over Texas at the end of STS-107. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on 1 February 2003 (during STS-107) resulted in a two-and-a-half-year suspension of the US Space Shuttle programme. Another one-year suspension following STS-114 (because of continued foam shedding on the external tank) led to some uncertainty about the future of the International Space Station. All crew exchanges between February 2003 and July 2006 were carried out using the Russian Soyuz spacecraft; a STS-114 visit in July 2005 was purely logistical. Starting with Expedition 7, caretaker crews of just two astronauts were launched, in contrast to the previously launched crews of three. Because the ISS had not been visited by a space shuttle for over three years, more waste had accumulated than anticipated, which temporarily hindered station operations in 2004. Automated Progress transports and the STS-114 mission were able to eliminate this waste build-up.[38]

ISS golf event
During an EVA in Expedition 14, a special golf ball equipped with a tracking device was hit from the station and sent into its own low Earth orbit. The stunt was paid for by a Canadian golf equipment manufacturer.[87]

Paper aeroplane launch
Japanese scientists and origami masters propose to launch a flotilla of paper planes from the ISS in early 2009. The mission will take place during STS-127.[88] Around 30 planes will make the descent, each gliding downward over what is expected to be the course of several months. If one of the planes survives to Earth, it will have made the longest flight ever by a paper plane, traversing some 400 km (250 mi), and will have demonstrated the feasibility of slow-speed, low-friction atmospheric reentry. A prototype of the origami aeroplane passed a durability test in a wind tunnel in March 2008, and Japan’s


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

International Space Station
ISS crew found that the root cause was condensation inside the electrical connectors, which led to a short-circuit that triggered the power off command to all three of the redundant processing units.[96] This was initially a concern because the European Space Agency uses the same computer systems, supplied by EADS Astrium Space Transportation, for the Columbus laboratory module and the Automated Transfer Vehicle.[97] Once the cause of the malfunction was understood, plans were implemented to avoid the problem in the future.

2006 – Smoke problem
On 18 September 2006, the Expedition 13 crew activated a smoke alarm in the Russian segment of the International Space Station when fumes from one of the three oxygen generators triggered momentary fear about a possible fire. The crew initially reported smoke in the cabin, as well as a smell. The alarm was later found to be caused by a leak of potassium hydroxide from an oxygen vent. The associated equipment was turned off, and officials said there was no fire and the crew was not in any danger. The station’s ventilation system was shut down to prevent the spread of smoke or contaminants through the rest of the complex. A charcoal air filter was put in place to scrub the atmosphere of any lingering potassium hydroxide fumes. The space station’s programme manager said the crew never donned gas masks, but as a precaution put on surgical gloves and masks to prevent contact with any contaminants.[90] On 2 November 2006, the payload brought by the Russian Progress M-58 allowed the crew to repair the Elektron using spare parts.[91]

2007 – Torn solar panel

2007 – Computer failure
On 14 June 2007, during Expedition 15 and flight day 7 of STS-117’s visit to ISS, a computer malfunction on the Russian segments at 06:30 UTC left the station without thrusters, oxygen generation, carbon dioxide scrubber, and other environmental control systems, causing the temperature on the station to rise. A successful restart of the computers resulted in a false fire alarm that woke the crew at 11:43 UTC.[92][93] By June 15, the primary Russian computers were back online, and communicating with the US side of the station by bypassing a circuit, but secondary systems remained offline.[94] NASA reported that without the computer that controls the oxygen levels, the station had 56 days of oxygen available.[95] By the afternoon of June 16, ISS Programme Manager Michael Suffredini confirmed that all six computers governing command and navigation systems for Russian segments of the station, including two thought to have failed, were back online and would be tested over several days. The cooling system was the first system brought back online. Troubleshooting of the failure by the

Damage to the 4B wing of the P6 solar array found when it was redeployed after being moved to its final position on STS-120. On 30 October 2007, during Expedition 16 and flight day 7 of STS-120’s visit to ISS, following the repositioning of the P6 truss segment, ISS and Space Shuttle Discovery crew members began the deployment of the two solar arrays on the truss. The first array deployed without incident, and the second array deployed about 80% before astronauts noticed a 76-centimetre (2.5 ft) tear. The arrays had been deployed in earlier phases of the space station’s construction, and the retraction necessary to move the truss to its final position had gone less smoothly than planned.[98] A second, smaller tear was noticed upon further inspection, and the mission’s spacewalks were replanned in order to devise a repair. Normally, such spacewalks take several months to plan and are settled upon well in advance. On November 3, spacewalker Scott Parazynski, assisted by Douglas Wheelock, fixed the torn panels using makeshift cufflinks and riding on the end of the Space Shuttle’s OBSS inspection arm. Parazynski was the first ever spacewalker to use the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
robotic arm in this way. The spacewalk was regarded as significantly more dangerous than most because of the possibility of shock from the electricity generating solar arrays, the unprecedented usage of the OBSS, and the lack of spacewalk planning and training for the impromptu procedure. Parazynski was, however, able to repair the damage as planned, and the repaired array was fully deployed.[99]

International Space Station
servicing EVAs by resident station crews. Nevertheless, the data from the SARJ will require some time to fully analyse before a decision as to the future of the joint is made.[104]

2009 – Excessive vibration during reboost
On 14 January 2009, an incorrect command sequence caused the Zvezda service module orbital altitude maintenance rocket propulsion control system to misfire during an altitude re-boost manoeuvre. This resulted in resonant vibrations into the station structure which persisted for over two minutes.[105] While no damage to the station was immediately reported, some components may have been stressed beyond their design limits. Further analysis confirmed that the station was unlikely to have suffered any structural damage, and it appears that "structures will still meet their normal lifetime capability". Further evaluations are under way.[106]

2007 – Damaged starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint
During STS-120, a problem was detected in the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). This joint, together with a similar device on the port side of the station’s truss structure, rotates the large solar arrays to keep them facing the Sun. Excessive vibration and high-current spikes in the array drive motor were noted, resulting in a decision to substantially curtail motion of the starboard SARJ until the cause was understood. Inspections during EVAs on STS-120 and STS-123 showed extensive contamination from metallic shavings and debris in the large drive gear and confirmed damage to the large metallic race ring at the heart of the joint.[100] The station had sufficient operating power to carry out its near-term programme with only modest impacts on operations, so to prevent further damage, the joint was locked in place.[100] On 25 September 2008, NASA announced significant progress in diagnosing the source of the starboard SARJ problem and a programme to repair it on orbit. The repair programme began with the flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-126. The crew carried out servicing of both the starboard and port SARJs, lubricating both joints and replacing 11 of 12 trundle bearings on the starboard SARJ.[101][102] It was hoped that this servicing would provide a temporary solution to the problem. A long-term solution is a 10-EVA plan called ’SARJ-XL’, which calls for the installation of structural supports between the two segments of the SARJ and a new race ring to be inserted between them to completely replace the failed joint.[103] However, following the cleaning and lubrication of the joint, the results that have been noted so far have been extremely encouraging, to the point that it is now believed that the joint could be maintained by occasional

2009 – Potential ammonia leak from S1 radiator due to damaged panel

The damaged S1 radiator on the ISS starboard truss. The S1 radiator has a damaged cooling panel that may require on-orbit repair or replacement, as the damage may have the potential to create a leak in the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) of the station, possibly leading to unacceptable loss of the ammonia coolant.[107]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There are two such radiators, one on the starboard truss, and one on the port truss, each consisting of 3 panels. They appear as the large white pleated objects extending in the aft direction from the trusses, between the central habitable modules and the large solar panel arrays at the ends of the truss structure, and control the temperature of the ISS by dumping excess heat to space. The panels are double-sided, and radiate from both sides, with ammonia circulating between the top and bottom surfaces.[107] The problem was first noticed in Soyuz imagery in September 2008, but was not thought to be serious.[108] The imagery showed that the surface of one sub-panel has peeled back from the underlying central structure, possibly due to micro-meteoroid or debris impact. It was known that a Service Module thruster cover, jettisoned during a spacewalk in 2008, had struck the S1 radiator, and this is thought to be the most likely cause. Further imagery during the recent flyaround from STS-119 has raised concerns that structural fatigue, due to thermal cycling stress, could cause a serious leak to develop in the ammonia cooling loop, although there is as yet no evidence of a leak or of degradation in the thermal performance of the panel. Various options for repair are under consideration, including replacement of the entire S1 radiator in a future flight, possibly with return of the damaged unit to ground for detailed study.[107]

International Space Station
a. ^ Name of the ISS in the languages of participating countries: • Danish: Den Internationale Rumstation • Dutch: Internationaal ruimtestation • English: International Space Station • Esperanto: Internacia Kosmastacio • French: Station spatiale internationale • German: Internationale Raumstation • Italian: Stazione Spaziale Internazionale • Japanese: ?????????? (Kokusai uchū sutēshon) • Norwegian: Den internasjonale romstasjonen • Portuguese: Estação Espacial Internacional • Russian: Международная космическая станция (Myezhdunarodnaya kosmichyeskaya stantsiya) • Spanish: Estación Espacial Internacional • Swedish: Internationella rymdstationen • Serbian: Међународна свемирска станица (Međunarodna svemirska stanica) b. ^ Ten of Europe’s member states are participating: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Austria, Finland, and Ireland chose not to participate, the United Kingdom withdrew from the preliminary agreement, and Portugal, Greece, Luxembourg and the Czech Republic joined ESA after the agreement had been signed.[8]

[1] ^ NASA (April 24, 2009). "The ISS to Date". NASA. station/isstodate.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. [2] ^ "ISS Height Profile". Retrieved on 2007-10-15. [3] ^ NASA (November 06, 2008). "On-Orbit Elements". NASA. externalflash/ISSRG/pdfs/on_orbit.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-09. [4] Peat, Chris (April 19, 2009). "ISS - Orbit Data". orbit.aspx?satid=25544. Retrieved on 2008-12-09. [5] Siceloff, Steven (February 1, 2001). "NASA Yields to Use of Alpha Name for Station".


The ISS against the blackness of space and the thin line of Earth’s atmosphere, taken from the Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their separation.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
missions/fl_alpha_010201.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-18. [6] Rand Simberg (July 29, 2008). "The Uncertain Future of the International Space Station: Analysis". Popular Mechanics. science/air_space/4275571.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-06. [7] ^ "Nations Around the World Mark 10th Anniversary of International Space Station". NASA. November 17, 2008. station/main/10th_anniversary.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-06. [8] ^ "Human Spaceflight and Exploration European Participating States". European Space Agency (ESA). 2009. partstates.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-17. [9] ^ "NASA Signs International Space Station Agreement With Brazil". NASA. October 14, 1997. centers/johnson/news/releases/ 1996_1998/h97-233.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-18. [10] ^ "International Space Station (ISS)". Italian Space Agency. January 18, 2009. the_international_space_station_iss. Retrieved on 2009-01-18. [11] "China wants role in space station". Associated Press. CNN. October 16, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14. 20080314104006/ 2007/TECH/space/10/16/ index.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. [12] James Oberg (October 26, 2001). "China takes aim at the space station". MSNBC. Retrieved on 2009-01-30. [13] ^ NASA (December 15, 2008). "Current ISS Tracking data". NASA. tracking/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-28. [14] Atkins, Williams (March 17, 2007). "International Space Station needs boost to higher orbit". iTWire. 10527/1066/. Retrieved on 2008-10-26. [15] Oberg, James (2005). "International Space Station". World Book Online Reference Center. World Book, Inc..

International Space Station intspacestation_worldbook.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-14. [16] "We’ve Only Just Begun". NASA. June 26, 2008. mission_pages/station/main/ 5_year_anniversary.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-06. [17] Halvorson, Todd (August 31, 2001). "International Space Station Approaches Key Turning Point". (Imaginova Corp). iss_update_010831.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. [18] Trinidad, Katherine; Nicole CloutierLemasters (November 21, 2008). "NASA Assigns Space Station Crews, Updates Expedition Numbering". NASA. nov/HQ_08-306_Expedition_crews.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-22. [19] "Space Station Crews". NASA. station/expeditions/index.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-06. [20] "The International Space Station: life in space". Science in School. December 10, 2008. 2008/issue10/iss. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [21] "International Space Station Overview". June 3, 1999. ISS_OVR/index.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [22] ^ "ISS Research Program". NASA. Advanced/ISSResearch/. Retrieved on 2009-02-27. [23] "What Is ISS: International Space Station?". Astronomy Expert. September 24, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. [24] ^ "Fields of Research". NASA. June 26, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. 20080123150641/ [25] "Getting on Board". NASA. June 26, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. 20071208091537/


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[46] "About Kibo". JAXA. September 25, 2008. November 2, 2006. Retrieved on 2009-03-06. space/spacestation/systems/ [47] "Docking Compartment-1 and 2". solar_arrays.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-28. iss_dc.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-26. [57] Landis, G & Lu, C-Y (1991). "Solar Array [48] Robert Z. Pearlman (April 15, 2009). Orientation Options for a Space Station "NASA Names Space Module After Moon in Low Earth Orbit". Journal of Base, Not Stephen Colbert". Propulsion and Power 7 (1): 123–125. doi:10.2514/3.23302. [58] Roithmayr, Carlos (2003). Dynamics and 090414-colbert-space-station-node.html. Control of Attitude, Power, and [49] "Node 3: Connecting Module". ESA. Momentum for a Spacecraft Using February 23, 2009. Flywheels and Control Moment esaHS/ESAFQL0VMOC_iss_0.html. Gyroscopes. Langley Research Center: Retrieved on 2009-03-28. NASA. [50] "Cupola". ESA. January 16, 2009. Dynamics-Attitude-Spacecraft-Flywheels Gyroscopes/dp/B0018V9YG6/ ESA65K0VMOC_iss_0.html. Retrieved on ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1236365448&s 2009-03-28. [59] "International Space Station Status [51] "FGB-based Multipurpose Lab Module Report #05-7". NASA. February 11, (MLM)". Khrunichev State Research and 2005. Production Space Centre. Archived from spacenews/reports/issreports/2005/ the original on 2007-09-27. iss05-7.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-23. [60] Chris Bergin (June 14, 2007). "Atlantis 20070927002737/ ready to support ISS troubleshooting". khrunichev_eng/live/ full_mks.asp?id=13190. Retrieved on 06/atlantis-ready-to-support-iss2008-10-31. troubleshooting/. Retrieved on [52] "Where is the Centrifuge Accommodation 2009-03-06. Module (CAM)?". [61] ^ "ISS Environment". Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on thread2008-02-13. view.asp?tid=12560&mid=269666#M269666. 20080213164432/ Retrieved on 2009-03-06.[53] "NASA Recycles Former ISS Module for aboutiss/D6.html. Retrieved on Life Support Research". 2007-10-15. February 14, 2006. [62] ^ "European Users Guide to Low Gravity Platforms" (PDF). European Space 060214_iss_module.html. Retrieved on Agency. December 6, 2005. 2009-03-11. [54] "Russian Research Module". Absolute downloads/userguides/physenv.pdf. Astronomy. Retrieved on 2006-05-16. [63] Malik, Tariq (February 15, 2006). "Air topics/Russian_Research_Module. Apparent: New Oxygen Systems for the Retrieved on 2009-03-06. ISS". (Imaginova Corp). [55] "Spread Your Wings, It’s Time to Fly". NASA. July 26, 2006. businesstechnology/ 060215_techwed_iss_oxygen.html. station/behindscenes/ Retrieved on 2008-11-21. truss_segment.html. Retrieved on [64] ^ Barry, Patrick L. (November 13, 2000). 2006=09-21. "Breathing Easy on the Space Station". [56] "Boeing: Integrated Defense Systems NASA. NASA Systems - International Space y2000/ast13nov_1.htm. Retrieved on Station - Solar Power". Boeing. 2008-11-21.


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[65] Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig (November 20, station/structure/elements/ 2000). "How Space Stations Work". nasa_csa.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. Howstuffworks. [73] ^ Boyle, Alan (August 25, 2006). "What’s cost of the space station?". MSNBC. station2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-23. [66] "5-8: The Air Up There". NASAexplores. 14505278/. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. NASA. Archived from the original on [74] "How Much Does It Cost?". ESA. August 2006-11-14. 9, 2005. 20061114010931/ ESAQHA0VMOC_iss_0.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. show2_5_8a.php?id=04-032&gl=58. [75] ^ "International Space Station Retrieved on 2008-10-31. Expeditions". NASA. April 10, 2009. [67] ^ NASA (July 2, 2008). "International Space Station Sighting Opportunities". station/expeditions/index.html. Retrieved NASA. on 2009-04-13. realdata/sightings/index.html. Retrieved [76] ^ NASA (2008). "International Space on 2009-01-28. Station". NASA. [68] European Space Agency (January 7, mission_pages/station/main/index.html. 2009). "See the ISS from your home Retrieved on 2008-10-22. town". European Space Agency. [77] "Mission Elapsed Time explained". NASA. September 13, 1995. ESA0I6KE43D_iss_0.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. Rocket_Sci/clocks/time-met.html. [69] ^ "ISS Intergovernmental Agreement". Retrieved on 2007-11-09. ESA. April 19, 2009. [78] "Ask the STS-113 crew: Question 14". NASA. December 7, 2002. index.cfm? Retrieved on 2009-04-19. expert/answer/crew/sts-113/ [70] "Memorandum of Understanding index_2.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-09. Between the National Aeronautics and [79] "STS-113 Mission and Expedition Crew Space Administration of the United Question and Answer Board". NASA. States of America and the Russian Space November 2002. Agency Concerning Cooperation on the missions/highlights/webcasts/shuttle/ Civil International Space Station". NASA. sts113/mission-crew-qa.html. Retrieved January 29, 1998. on 2009-02-24. mission_pages/station/structure/ [80] "ISS Crew Timeline" (PDF). NASA. elements/nasa_rsa.html. Retrieved on November 5, 2008. 2009-04-19. pdf/287386main_110508_tl.pdf. [71] ^ "Memorandum of Understanding Retrieved on 2008-11-05. Between the National Aeronautics and [81] ^ Kitmacher, Gary (2006). Reference Space Administration of the United Guide to the International Space Station. States of America and the Government of Canada: Apogee Books. pp. 71-80. ISBN Japan Concerning Cooperation on the 978-1-894959-34-6. Civil International Space Station". NASA. 24, 1998. Guide-International-Station-Apogee/dp/ mission_pages/station/structure/ 1894959345/ elements/nasa_japan.html. Retrieved on ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1241019359&s 2009-04-19. [82] ^ "Live listing of spacecraft operations". [72] ^ "Memorandum of Understanding NASA. Between the National Aeronautics and mission_pages/station/resupply/ Space Administration of the United index.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-13. States of America and the Canadian [83] Chris Bergin (March 26, 2009). "Soyuz Space Agency Concerning Cooperation TMA-14 launches towards the on the Civil International Space Station". International Space Station". NASA. January 29, 1998.


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External links
Official International Space Station webpages of the participating space agencies • NASA • Roskosmos (in Russian) • RKK Energia (in English) • Canadian Space Agency • European Space Agency • Japanese Space Agency • Italian Space Agency • Brazilian Space Agency Interactive/Multimedia • NASA’s ISS interactive reference guide • NASA’s ISS image gallery search page • Current position of the ISS • ISS WebCam

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