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Icelandic language

Icelandic language
Icelandic íslenska Pronunciation Spoken in Total speakers Language family [ˈislɛnska] Iceland, Denmark, Norway, USA[1] and Canada[2] +320,000 Indo-European Germanic North Germanic West Scandinavian Icelandic Latin (Icelandic variant)

Classification
Icelandic is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. It is the closest living relative of Faroese and along with this and Norwegian it forms the West Scandinavian languages, the descendant of the western dialects of Old Norse. Danish and Swedish make up the other branch, called the East Scandinavian languages. More recent analysis divides the North Germanic languages into insular Scandinavian and continental Scandinavian languages, grouping Norwegian with Danish and Swedish based on mutual intelligibility and the fact that Norwegian has been heavily influenced by East Scandinavian (particularly Danish) during the last millennium and has diverged considerably from both Faroese and Icelandic.

Writing system Official status Official language in Regulated by Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3

Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies

Geographic distribution
The vast majority of Icelandic speakers live in Iceland. There are about 8,165 speakers of Icelandic living in Denmark,[3] of whom approximately 3,000 are students[4]. The language is also spoken by 5,655 people in the USA[1] and by 2,385 in Canada[2] (mostly in Gimli, Manitoba). 97% of the population of Iceland consider Icelandic their mother tongue[5], but in communities outside Iceland the usage of the language is declining. Extant Icelandic speakers outside Iceland represent recent emigration in almost all cases except Gimli, which was settled from the 1880s onwards. The Icelandic constitution does not mention the language as the official language of the country. Though Iceland is a member of the Nordic Council, the Council uses only Danish, Norwegian and Swedish as its working languages, though it publishes material in Icelandic [6]. Under the Nordic Language Convention, since 1987, citizens of Iceland have the opportunity to use Icelandic when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable for any interpretation or translation costs. The Convention covers visits to hospitals, job centres, the

is ice (B) isl isl (T)

Icelandic ( íslenska ) is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland. Its closest relative is Faroese and Norwegian dialects such as Telemark dialect and Sognamål. While most West European languages have greatly reduced levels of inflection, particularly in regards to noun declension, Icelandic retains an inflectional grammar comparable to that of Latin or, more closely, Old Norse and Old English. The main difference between Icelandic and Latin lies in the treatment of the verb. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes are handled in a similar way. In particular it may be mentioned that Icelandic possesses quite a few instances of oblique cases without any governing word, much like Latin (e.g., many of the various Latin ablatives have a corresponding Icelandic dative).

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police and social security offices,[7][8] however the Convention is not very well known and is mostly a recommendation. The countries have committed themselves to providing services in various languages, but citizens have no absolute rights except for criminal and court matters.[9][10] The state-funded Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies serves as a centre for preserving the medieval Icelandic manuscripts and studying the language and its literature. The Icelandic Language Council, made up of representatives of universities, the arts, journalists, teachers, and the Ministry of Culture, Science and Education, advises the authorities on language policy. The Icelandic Language Fund supports activities intended to promote the Icelandic language. Since 1995 November 16 each year, the birthday of 19th century poet Jónas Hallgrímsson is celebrated as Icelandic Language Day[11][5].

Icelandic language
written down. The most famous of these, which were written in Iceland from the 12th century onward, are without doubt the Icelandic Sagas, the historical writings of Snorri Sturluson and eddaic poems. The language of the era of the sagas is called Old Icelandic, a western dialect of Old Norse, the common Scandinavian language of the Viking era. The Danish rule of Iceland from 1380 to 1918 has had little effect on the evolution of Icelandic, which remained in daily use among the general population except for a short period between 1700 and 1900 where the use of Danish by common Icelanders became popular. The same applied to the U.S. occupation of Iceland during World War II. Though Icelandic is considered more archaic than other living Germanic languages, important changes have occurred. The pronunciation, for instance, changed considerably from the 12th to the 16th century, especially of vowels (in particular, á, æ, au, and y/ý). The modern Icelandic alphabet has developed from a standard established in the 19th century, by the Danish linguist Rasmus Rask primarily. It is ultimately based heavily on an orthographic standard created in the early 12th century by a mysterious document referred to as The First Grammatical Treatise by an anonymous author who has later been referred to as the First Grammarian. The later Rasmus Rask standard was basically a re-creation of the old treatise, with some changes to fit concurrent Germanic conventions, such as the exclusive use of k rather than c. Various old features, like ð, had actually not seen much use in the later centuries, so Rask’s standard constituted a major change in practice. Later 20th century changes are most notably the adoption of é, which had previously been written as je (reflecting the modern pronunciation), and the abolition of z in 1974. Written Icelandic has, thus, changed relatively little since the 13th century. As a result of this, and of the similarity between the modern and ancient grammar, modern speakers can still understand, more or less, the original sagas and Eddas that were written some eight hundred years ago. This ability is sometimes mildly overstated by Icelanders themselves, most of whom actually read the Sagas with updated modern spelling and footnotes — though otherwise intact (much

History

A page from the Landnámabók. The oldest preserved texts in Icelandic were written around 1100. Many of them are actually based on material like poetry and laws, preserved orally for generations before being

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Consonant phonemes Bilabial Nasal Plosive Fricative Approximant Trill m̥ pʰ m p f v Labiodental Dental n̥ tʰ θ n t ð s l̥ ɫ̥ r̥ Monophthongs Front
plain round

Icelandic language

Alveolar

Palatal ɲ̊ cʰ ç ɲ c j

Velar ŋ̊ kʰ x ŋ k ɣ

Glottal

ʔ h

lɫ r

Back u ʏ œ ɔ

Close Near-close Open-mid Open

i ɪ ɛ a Diphthongs Front offglide Back offglide ou au

Mid Open

ei • øy ai

as with modern English readers of Shakespeare). Many Icelanders can also understand the original manuscripts, with a little effort.

The voiced fricatives /v/, /ð/, /j/ and /ɣ/ are not completely constrictive and are often closer to approximants than fricatives.

Phonology
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Vowels

Grammar

Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds. The language has both monophthongs and diphthongs, and consonants can be voiced or unvoiced. Voice plays a big role in the pronunciation of many consonants. For most Icelandic consonants, there are voiced and unvoiced counterparts. However, b, d, and g are never voiced in Icelandic (as in Latin transcriptions of Mandarin, Cantonese, or Korean). These letters only differ from p, t and k because p, t and k become aspirated when they are the first letter of a word; b, d and g do not.

A sample extract Icelandic retains many grammatical features of other ancient Germanic languages, and resembles Old Norwegian before its inflection was greatly simplified. Modern Icelandic is

Consonants
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still a heavily inflected language with four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. Icelandic nouns can have one of three grammatical genders —masculine, feminine or neuter. There are two main declension paradigms for each gender: strong and weak nouns, which are furthermore divided in sub-classes of nouns, based primarily on the genitive singular and nominative plural ending of a particular noun. For example, within the masculine nouns that have a strong declension, there is a sub-class (class 1) that declines with a -s (Hests) in the genitive singular and -ar (Hestar) in the nominitive plural. However there is another sub-class (class 3) that with strong masculine nouns that always declines with -ar (Hlutar) in the genitive singular and -ir (Hlutir) in the nominative plural. Additionally, Icelandic permits a Quirky subject, which is a phenomenon whereby certain verbs specify that their subjects are to be in a case other than the nominative. Nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declined in the four cases, and for number in the singular and plural. T-V distinction ("þérun") in modern Icelandic seems on the verge of extinction, yet can still be found, especially in structured official address and traditional phrases. Verbs are conjugated for tense, mood, person, number and voice. There are three voices: active, passive and middle (or medial); but it may be debated whether the middle voice is a voice or simply an independent class of verbs of its own. (Due to the fact that every middle voice verb has an active ancestor but concomitant are (sometimes drastic) changes in meaning and the fact that they form a conjugation group of their own). Examples might be koma (come) vs. komast (get there), drepa (kill) vs. drepast (perish ignonomously) and taka (take) vs. takast (manage to). In every case mentioned the meaning has been so altered, that one can hardly see them as the same verb in different voices. They have up to ten tenses, but Icelandic, like English, forms most of these with auxiliary verbs. There are three or four main groups of weak verbs in Icelandic, depending on whther one takes a historical or formalistic view.: -a, -i, and -ur, referring to the endings that these verbs take when conjugated in the first person singular present. Some Icelandic infinitives end with the -ja suffix, some with á, two with u (munu, skulu) one

Icelandic language
with o (þvo-wash) and one with e (the Danish borrowing ske which is probably withdrawing its presence). For many verbs that require an object, a reflexive pronoun can be used instead. The case of the pronoun depends on the case that the verb governs. As for further classification of verbs, Icelandic behaves much like other Germanic languages, with a main division between weak verbs and strong, and the class of strong verbs, few as they may be (ca. 150-200) is divided into six plus reduplicative verbs. They still make up some of the most frequently used verbs. (Að vera, to be is the example par excellence, possessing two subjunctives and two imperatives in addition to being made up of different stems.) There is also a class of auxiliary verbs, a class called the -ri verbs (4-5 depending who is counting) and then the oddity að valda (to cause), called the only totally irregular verb in Icelandic, although each and every form of it is caused by common and regular sound changes. The basic word order in Icelandic is subject-verb-object. However, as words are heavily inflected, the word order is fairly flexible and every combination may occur in poetry, i.e. SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OSV and OVS are all allowed for metrical purposes. However like German, the conjugated verb in Icelandic usually appears second in the sentence, preceded by the word or phrase being emphasized. For example: • Ég veit það ekki. (I don´t know that.) • Ekki veit ég það. (I do not know that.) • Það veit ég ekki. (That I don´t know.) • Ég fór til Bandaríkjanna þegar ég var eins árs. (I went to the US when I was one year old.) • Til Bandaríkjanna fór ég þegar ég var eins árs. (I went to the US when I was one year old.) • Þegar ég var eins árs fór ég til Bandaríkjanna. (When I was one year old, I went to the US.) In the above examples, the conjugated verbs veit and fór are always the second element in their respective sentences.

Vocabulary
Early Icelandic vocabulary was largely Norse. The introduction of Christianity to land in the 11th century brought with need to describe new religious concepts. Old Iceit a The

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Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)

Icelandic language

A Á B D Ð E É F G H I Í J K L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú V X Y Ý Þ Æ Ö Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters) a á b d ð e é f g h i í j k l m n o ó p r s t u ú v x y ý þ æ ö

A simple family tree showing the Icelandic patronymic naming system. majority of new words were taken from other Scandinavian languages; kirkja (‘church’) and biskup (‘bishop’), for example. Numerous other languages have had their influence on Icelandic: French for example brought many words related to the court and knightship; words in the semantic field of trade and commerce have been borrowed from Low German because of trade connections. In the late 18th century, language purism began to gain noticeable ground in Iceland; since the early 19th century, language purism has been the linguistic policy in the country (see linguistic purism in Icelandic). Nowadays, it is common practice to coin new compound words from Icelandic derivatives. Icelandic names differ from most Western family name systems by being patronymic (and sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father (or mother) of the child and not the historic family lineage. Iceland shares a common cultural heritage with the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Icelanders, unlike other Scandinavians, have generally continued to use their traditional name system, which was formerly used in all of Scandinavia.

neologisms as in many other languages. Many old words that had fallen into disuse were recycled and given new senses in the modern language, and neologisms were created from Old Norse roots. For example, the word rafmagn ("electricity"), literally means "amber power" from Greek elektron ("amber"), similarly the word sími ("telephone") originally meant "cord" and tölva ("computer") combines tala ("digit; number") and völva ("seeress").

Writing system
The Icelandic alphabet is notable for its retention of two old letters which no longer exist in the English alphabet: Þ,þ (þorn, anglicized as "thorn") and Ð,ð (eð, anglicized as "eth" or "edh"), representing the voiceless and voiced "th" sounds as in English thin and this respectively. The complete Icelandic alphabet is: It should be noted that letters with diacritics, such as á and ö, are considered to be separate letters and not variants of their derivative vowels. The letter é was officially adopted in 1929 replacing je,[12] and z was officially abolished in 1974.

Cognates with English
As Icelandic shares its ancestry with English, there are many cognate words in both languages; each have the same or a similar meaning and are derived from a common root. Phonological and orthographical changes in each of the languages will have changed spelling and pronunciation. But a few examples are given below.

Linguistic purism
During the 18th century, a movement was started by writers and other educated people of the country to rid the language of foreign words as much as possible and to create a new vocabulary and adapt the Icelandic language to the evolution of new concepts, and thus not having to resort to borrowed

Examples
The following is an extract from Kvennafræðarinn (Elín Briem, 1889); a recipe book (page pictured right): “ Smjörið er brætt og hveitið smátt og smátt hrært út í það, þangað til það er gengið upp í smjörið. Síðan er mjólkinni smáhellt út í, og hrært ”

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English word apple book high/hair house mother night stone that word Icelandic word epli bók hár hús móðir nótt steinn það orð

Icelandic language
Spoken comparison listen listen listen listen listen listen listen listen listen borin saftblanda eða mjólk, einnig steyttur sykur og kanel. Which translates approximately as: “ The butter is melted and the flour stirred into it slowly but surely, until it has blended with the butter. Then the milk is slowly poured in, and stirred constantly, so it doesn’t get lumpy. When the milk has blended well and the porridge has become steady and salt has been added, it should be taken off. It is served with a fruit juice mixture or milk, even ground sugar and cinnamon. ”

See also
• Icelandic exonyms • Icelandic name • Icelandic literature

References
[1] ^ "MLA Language Map Data Center: Icelandic". Modern Language Association. undated. http://www.mla.org/ map_data_states&mode=lang_tops&lang_id=617. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. Based on 2000 US census data. [2] ^ Canadian census 2001 [3] Statbank Danish statistics [4] Official Iceland website [5] ^ "Icelandic: At Once Ancient And Modern" (PDF). Icelandic Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. 2001. http://www.iceland.is/media/Utgafa/ Icelandic.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. [6] "Norden". http://www.norden.org/. Retrieved on 2007-04-27.

Page 49 from Kvennafræðarinn. stöðugt í, til þess ekki fari í kekki. Þegar mjólkin er gengin upp og grauturinn orðinn vel jafn og saltið komið í, skal taka hann ofan. Með honum er

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[7] "Nordic Language Convention". http://www.norden.org/avtal/sprak/sk/ sprak_sprak.asp?lang=6. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. [8] "Nordic Language Convention". http://www.norden.org/webb/news/ news.asp?id=6795&lang=6. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. [9] Language Convention not working properly, Nordic news, March 3, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2007. [10] Helge Niska, Community interpreting in Sweden: A short presentation, International Federation of Translators, 2004. Retrieved on April 25, 2007. [11] "Menntamálaráðuneyti". http://www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/ malaflokkar/Menning/dit/. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. [12] (Icelandic) Hvenær var bókstafurinn ’é’ tekinn upp í íslensku í stað ’je’ og af hverju er ’je’ enn notað í ýmsum orðum? (retrieved on 2007-06-20)

Icelandic language

External links
General
• The Icelandic Language, an overview of the language from the Icelandic Ministry for Foreign Affairs. • BBC Languages - Icelandic, with audio samples • Icelandic: at once ancient and modern, a 16-page pamphlet with an overview of the language from the Icelandic Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, 2001. • Icelandic language at Ethnologue • Icelandic language at Language Museum • Icelandic language at The Rosetta Project • Icelandic language at Omniglot • University of Iceland (English) (Icelandic) • Íslensk málstöð (The Icelandic Language Institute) • (Icelandic) Lexicographical Institute of Háskóli Íslands / Orðabók Háskóla Íslands • (Icelandic) Íslenskuskor Háskóla Íslands • (English) Icelandic Online a free beginner’s and intermediate course in Icelandic from the University of Iceland • An Icelandic minigrammar • (Icelandic) Iðunn - Poetry society • (Icelandic) Bragfræði og Háttatal • (Icelandic) Daily spoken Icelandic - a little help • (Icelandic) Mannamál, Some tricky points of daily spoken Icelandic • Mimir - Online Icelandic grammar notebook • Thorn and eth: how to get them right • Verbix - an online Icelandic verb conjugator

Bibliography
• Árnason, Kristján; Sigrún Helgadóttir (1991). "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy". Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet. Nordterm 5. Nordterm-symposium: pp. 7-21. • Halldórsson, Halldór (1979). "Icelandic Purism and its History". Word 30: 76–86. • Kvaran, Guðrún; Höskuldur Þráinsson; Kristján Árnason; et al. (2005). Íslensk tunga I–III. Reykjavík: Almenna bókafélagið. ISBN 9979-2-1900-9. OCLC 71365446. • Orešnik, Janez, and Magnús Pétursson (1977). "Quantity in Modern Icelandic". Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi 92: 155–71. • Rögnvaldsson, Eiríkur (1993). Íslensk hljóðkerfisfræði. Reykjavík: Málvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands. ISBN 9979-853-14-X. • Scholten, Daniel (2000). Einführung in die isländische Grammatik. Munich: Philyra Verlag. ISBN 3-935267-00-2. OCLC 76178278. • Vikør, Lars S. (1993). The Nordic Languages. Their Status and Interrelations. Oslo: Novus Press. pp. pp. 55–59, 168–169, 209–214.

Dictionaries
• Icelandic-English Dictionary / Íslensk-ensk orðabók Sverrir Hólmarsson, Christopher Sanders, John Tucker. Searchable dictionary from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries • Icelandic - English Dictionary: from Webster’s Rosetta Edition. • Collection of Icelandic bilingual dictionaries • Old Icelandic-English Dictionary by Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson • Icelandic dictionary

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• Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings from University of Wisconsin Digital Collections

Icelandic language

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_language" Categories: Icelandic language, North Germanic languages, Languages of Iceland This page was last modified on 13 May 2009, at 09:56 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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