BIO 120 – Exam III Review Sheet Dr. Laurie Host Chapter 14 Be able to do one trait crosses (monohybrid) and two trait crosses (dihybrid). Know the difference between completely dominant, incompletely dominant, and co- dominant and be able to complete genetics problems for each. What type of genetic disorder is Huntington’s disease? Is the disease lethal? What are autosomal recessive disorders? Autosomal dominant disorders? Give examples of each. How are they inherited? What is an allele? What is epistasis? Who is Mendel and what did he discover? What did he work with? Define phenotype and genotype. Define homozygous and heterozygous. Define the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. What is the most common lethal genetic disease in the US? Define pleiotropic. Define polygenic. Know the symbols for males and females and normal and affected in a pedigree. Chapter 15 Why did Morgan work with fruit flies? What does it mean to say two genes are linked? What is a parental versus a recombinant phenotype? How do linked genes become unlinked? (what process occurs) Name some differences between the X and Y chromosome. What is a Barr body? What is nondisjunction? How are sex-linked alleles inherited? Be able to complete genetics problems involving sex-linked alleles. Why are sex-linked disorders more abundant in males? What is Kleinfelter’s? Turner syndrome? What is Down syndrome? What is a duplication? Inversion? Deletion? Translocation of chromosome piece? What is an aneuploid? Polyploid? Chapter 16 What are the four bases in DNA? How are they paired together? What holds a base pair together? Who discovered the structure of DNA? What does it mean to say that DNA is antiparallel? Who is Griffith and what did he discover? Describe his experiment. Describe the Hershey and Chase experiment. What three things compose a nucleotide? What is a replication bubble? What is found at the end of each bubble? Where does replication begin? Know the functions of all the enzymes involved in DNA replication. Describe how DNA polymerase functions. What does it require? Does it only work in a certain way? What are the differences between the leading and lagging strand? What are telomeres? During what phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? Why is DNA replication called semi-conservative? What are Chargaff’s rules? Chapter 17 Define transcription and translation. Where does each take place in prokaryotes? Eukaryotes? What are the differences between RNA and DNA? Given a sequence of DNA – be able to tell what the mRNA sequence would be. Describe the different mutations – nonsense, frameshift, missense, etc. What does tRNA look like? What is an anticodon? What does tRNA do? What is mRNA? What is a codon? What are the three steps of transcription? Translation? Describe each. What gets added to mRNA during processing? What are introns and exons? What are the functions of the E, P, and A sites on the ribosome? What is a start codon? What amino acid does it code for? What is a stop codon? What amino acid does it code for? How many amino acids are in the human body? What is a polyribosome? Spliceosome? What does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase do?
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