Physical Science Energy Transformation Worksheet

					                             Energy Chains – Grade Seven

     Ohio Standards               Lesson Summary:
      Connection:                 In this lesson, students learn about energy transformations
Physical Science
                                  and will be able to trace them in a simple closed system.
                                  Students will build energy “chains,” of their own design.
Benchmark D                       Students will complete a hands-on project where they will
Describe that energy takes        attach the “links” in a "chain" connecting a battery
many forms, some forms            (chemical energy), wires (electrical energy), and a small
represent kinetic energy
and some forms represent
                                  motor (mechanical energy), and then add additional “links”
potential energy; and             of their choice. Students will complete a flowchart tracing
during energy                     the energy transformations in the finished project. The Pre-
transformations the total         Assessment will measure their knowledge of energy forms
amount of energy remains          and comprehension of energy transformations in familiar
constant.
                                  appliances. In the Post-Assessment, students will trace
Indicator 5                       energy transformations in a variety of electronic devices.
Trace energy
transformation in a simple        Estimated Duration: Two hours
closed system (e.g., a
flashlight).

Scientific Inquiry
                                  Commentary:
Benchmark A                       In a closed system, energy is neither gained nor lost, and
Explain that there are            may be transformed between potential and kinetic forms.
differing sets of procedures
                                  Most energy devices require this transformation in order for
for guiding scientific
investigations and                them to work, and often the goal of technological design is
procedures are determined         discovering new energy transformations. This lesson
by the nature of the              challenges students to design and build circuits that have the
investigation, safety             greatest number of energy transformations. Designing
considerations and
                                  models of these circuits helps students understand the nature
appropriate tools.
                                  of these transformations, and building the circuits aids in
Indicator 4                       retention of the concepts.
Choose the appropriate
tools and instruments and
use relevant safety
procedures to complete          Pre-Assessment:
scientific investigations.
                                Have students complete the exercise in Attachment A, Pre-
                                Assessment.

                                Scoring Guideline:
                                See Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Answers, for a list of
                                possible student answers.




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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

Post-Assessment:
See Attachment C, Post-Assessment, for a handout that students are to complete.

Scoring Guideline:
See Attachment D, Post-Assessment Answers, for a list of appropriate responses for the Post-
Assessment.

Instructional Procedures:
1. Following the pre-assessment, promote classroom discussion about energy forms,
   providing examples from the Scoring Guide or the students’ Pre-Assessments. Help
   students understand that there are many ways that a person can encounter energy in
   different forms.

Instructional Tip:
You should discuss devices and appliances that work because of multiple energy
transformations with the energy forms in different arrangements. It may be helpful to have
several battery-operated devices available (e.g., a flashlight or CD player) to help delineate
the transformations and provide a lead-in to the construction project.

2. Challenge student teams to design and build a device that has multiple energy
   transformations. Hand out Attachment E, Energy Chains Activity and help students
   understand the directions. Each student team will be responsible for handing in one
   worksheet. Directions on the worksheet follow in the instructional procedures printed
   below.
3. Students will begin by attaching a battery (chemical energy) to wires (electrical energy).
4. Next, have students attach wires to a small electric motor (mechanical energy).
5. Have teams prepare drawings on separate sheets of paper showing the energy
   transformations in the circuits they have built. On the drawing, students should indicate
   the form of energy that each part represents.
6. Have students design a larger circuit using add-on components that are available in the
   classroom, maximizing the number of energy transformations that are made. Instruct
   students to draw these on their diagrams, and to label all forms that energy takes as it
   travels through their circuit.

Instructional Tip:
It may be necessary to explain energy “bridging” or using the motor to close the circuit to
another battery, which in turn is attached to additional devices which provide energy
transformations.

7. On a separate piece of paper, have students draw flow charts that show the flow of energy
   through their systems.




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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

8. Review and approve all plans before students attempt to construct them. You should
    consider safety concerns (especially short-circuits and the use of thermal energy), and
    whether the energy chain will work properly.
9. Have teams build their proposed projects.
10. Have student teams demonstrate their invention to the class and trace the energy
    transformations.
11. Request team members to identify problems they experienced while building their
    “energy chain” project, adjustments they would make if they build a similar project, or
    advice they would give to other teams to complete this type of project in the future.

Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs to help all learners either meet the
intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the
specified indicator(s).
 For any student who finds the general directions difficult to follow or needs additional
    guidance with the construction phase of the project, a set of simple steps for creating an
    “Energy Chain” are found in Attachment F, Alternative Instructions. Depending on
    available resources, supplies and equipment, there are a large number of “chains” that
    could be developed using these steps.

Extensions:
 Have students take apart a broken or discarded battery operated toy or simple appliance
   and trace the components that transfer energy.
 Have students create a mobile showing the transfer of energy in a device or appliance.
 Have students look through catalogs or magazines to find examples of energy forms.
   Pictures could be cut out and included with a description of each energy form as a guide
   to other students, or a collage could be created and used to exemplify each energy form.

Homework Options and Home Connections:
Have students prepare a list of items in the home which depend on a transfer of energy for
proper operation and trace the transfer of energy. Parents, siblings and relatives can be
involved when students explain the energy transformations in a common appliance and give
family members a quiz to test their understanding. The success of this teaching experience
can then be shared with classmates.

Interdisciplinary Connections:
English Language Arts
 Research
   Benchmark C: Organize information in a systemic way.
   Indicator 4: Select an appropriate structure for organizing information in a systematic
   way (e.g., notes, outlines, charts, tables and graphic organizers).




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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of
Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of
its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does
not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main
page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information
required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes
over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related
to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For the teacher: Copies of attachments.

For the student:   Batteries (D-dry cell), battery clips, battery holders, #10 insulated bell
                   wire, electric motor, solar cell (use outdoors or w/incandescent light), bulb
                   holder, 2-volt miniature light bulb, wire stripper/cutter, screwdriver,
                   electric bell, construction materials such as wood, pipe cleaners and paper.

Vocabulary:
 acoustic energy
 chemical energy
 electrical energy
 energy
 energy transformations
 mechanical energy
 nuclear energy
 radiant energy
 thermal energy

Technology Connections:
 Have students brainstorm a list of new inventions or improvements to appliances and
   then attempt to list all of the energy transformations needed to make them work.

Research Connections:
Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for
Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 2001.
    Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. This
    includes the following:
     Creating graphic representations (organizers);
     Making physical models;
     Generating mental pictures;
     Drawing pictures and pictographs;
     Engaging in kinesthetic activity.

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                       Energy Chains – Grade Seven

   Cooperative learning groups have a powerful effect on student learning. This type of
   grouping includes the following elements:
    Positive interdependence;
    Face-to-face promotive interaction;
    Individual and group accountability;
    Interpersonal and small group skills;
    Group processing.

   Setting objectives and providing feedback establishes a direction for learning and a way
   to monitor progress. This provides focus on learning targets and specific information to
   allow the student to make needed adjustments during the learning process, resulting in the
   increase of student learning.

General Tips:
 Only a small selection of possible answers has been provided for the Pre-Assessment. If
   there is a question about the responses given, allow students the opportunity to explain
   their ideas and defend their understanding of energy forms and/or energy transformations.
   Possibly their responses are a unique way of defining a very complicated concept.
 The energy forms listed in this lesson may have different names than those used in older
   science texts. Radiant energy also has been described as light energy and heat energy.
   Acoustic energy used to be called sound energy. Magnetic energy is absent from the
   contemporary list, but is included under the listing of electrical energy. Although the
   words light, heat and sound are more familiar to most students, an effort should be made
   to use the new terminology and explain how these terms allow for a broader
   understanding of each energy form (i.e., radiant energy could include the entire
   electromagnetic spectrum, not just visible light and heat).
 Students should be encouraged to attempt creative or elaborate “energy chains” even at
   the expense of time and materials. “Energy chains” are the framework of invention. Even
   if they don’t work, they can become a springboard to discussion, problem-solving, and
   inspiration.
 It is important to note that the concept “energy transformations” will be revisited
   throughout the science curriculum (e.g.,“energy pyramid,” “energy convection under the
   Earth’s crust,” and the “energy exchange on a roller coaster ride”).


Attachments:
Attachment A, Pre-Assessment
Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Answers
Attachment C, Post-Assessment
Attachment D, Post-Assessment Answers
Attachment E, Energy Chains Activity
Attachment F, Alternative Instruction


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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

                                      Attachment A
                                     Pre-Assessment

For each of the following energy forms, provide two examples:

Energy Form                   Example #1                        Example #2

1. Electrical

2. Mechanical

3. Chemical

4. Thermal

5. Radiant

6. Nuclear

7. Acoustic

The “Principle of the Transformation of Energy” states that any form of energy can be
changed to any other form of energy. Identify a device which uses each of the following
transformations:

Energy Transformation                                     Device

1. Electrical to Radiant

2. Chemical to Thermal

3. Electrical to Mechanical

4. Radiant to Thermal

5. Mechanical to Acoustic




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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

                                          Attachment B
                                     Pre-Assessment Answers

The following are examples of likely responses. Students may give responses that are
associated with a particular energy form (e.g., writing “wires” for an example of electrical
energy), or they may provide an application of that energy form (e.g., writing TV for an
example of electrical energy). If there is not a direct connection, then they should be asked to
clarify their responses. For the purpose of scoring this Pre-Assessment and to indicate a
general understanding of each energy form, both examples should be directly associated with
that form or an application of that energy form. To indicate an understanding of the Principle
of Transformation, students should correctly identify four out of five devices.


Energy Form                 Example #1               Example #2

1. Electrical               Electric Circuit              Lightning

2. Mechanical               Motor                         Generator

3. Chemical                 Gasoline                       Firecracker

4. Thermal                  Furnace                       Campfire

5. Radiant                  Light bulb                    Light stick

6. Nuclear                  Power plant                   Atomic bomb

7. Acoustic                   Bell                        Voice


Energy Transformation                     Device

1. Electrical to Radiant                  Electric light bulb, television, video games

2. Chemical to Thermal                    Candle burning, gas water heater

3. Electrical to Mechanical               Electric motor, washing machine

4. Radiant to Thermal                     Solar water heater, light bulb

5. Mechanical to Acoustic                 Piano, lawn mower




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Energy Chains – Grade Seven

          Attachment C
         Post-Assessment




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Energy Chains – Grade Seven

           Attachment D
      Post-Assessment Answers




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                        Energy Chains – Grade Seven

                                        Attachment E
                                    Energy Chains Activity

Energy Chains

Materials:   2 – batteries (D)                         4 – battery clips
             2 – battery holders                      2ft − #10 insulated bell wire
             1 – electric motor                        1 – solar cell (use incandescent light)
             1 – bulb holder                           1 – electric bell
             1 – wire stripper/cutter                  1 – screw driver
             1 – 2-volt miniature light bulb
              Paper, glue, scissors, foil, cardboard, pipe cleaners


Directions:
Your team will be designing and constructing a device that uses a sequence or chain of
energy transformations to work properly. Part of this “energy chain” has been designed for
you, and part of the project will be invented by your team. Your team also will trace the
energy transformations throughout the device. After all projects are completed, your team
will demonstrate your invention to the class, explain how it works, and list the energy
transformations.

Begin by connecting two battery clips to a battery in a holder, and then run wires from the
battery clips to the connections on the electric motor. When complete, the motor should run.
Do not leave the wires connected to the motor very long or you’ll run down the battery. Your
team’s device has taken the chemical energy in the battery, transformed it to electric energy
in the wires, and finally to mechanical energy in the motor. Your team challenge is to take
the mechanical energy in the motor and transform it to radiant energy, acoustic energy or
thermal energy using only the materials provided. It may be necessary to construct an
“energy bridge” to complete this project. An “energy bridge” uses the electric motor to turn
on or off a separate energy chain that accomplishes the challenge. Before continuing this
project, follow these steps:
    1. Draw a diagram of the battery, wires and electric motor.
    2. On the diagram, label the form of energy each part represents.
    3. On the diagram, add the materials/equipment you’ll need to complete the project.
    4. Label all forms of energy included in the new plans.
    5. Trace the entire list of energy transformations using a flow chart.
    6. Have all plans approved by the teacher before construction.

Draw the diagram on a separate piece of paper.




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                         Energy Chains – Grade Seven

                                         Attachment F
                                    Alternative Instructions

1. Place a battery in the battery holder with clips.

2. Place the tip of one wire in one battery clip, place another wire in the other clip.

3. Hook the other end of one of the battery wires to one motor clip, hook the other
   wire to the other motor clip.

4. If the motor is working, pull one wire loose to stop the motor. If the motor doesn’t work
   or the wires become hot, quickly ask for the teacher’s help.

5. Place another battery in a battery holder with clips.

6. Place the tip of a new wire in one battery clip, place another new wire in the other clip.

7. Hook the other end of a new battery wire to one light socket clip, hook the other new
   battery wire to the other socket clip.

8. Place a light bulb in the socket.

9. If the light is working, pull one of the wires loose to turn the light out. If the light doesn’t
   work or wires become hot, quickly ask for the teacher’s help.

10. Using the other supplies, think of a way the turning motor could move or pull something
    to turn on the light.

11. Try your idea. Remember you will have to hook back the wires that you unattached from
    the motor and light bulb.

12. If it works, try to think of other energy “chains” you can build. If it doesn’t work, ask for
    the teacher’s help.




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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Physical Science Energy Transformation Worksheet document sample