Project Management Basics

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					  Project
Management
  Basics


   Version 1.0
  March 15, 2006




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                                                          Table of Contents
    CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................3
      1.1    The PMBOK Guide® ............................................................................................................................3
      1.2    What is a Project? .................................................................................................................................3
      1.3    What is Project Management? ..............................................................................................................3
      1.4    Areas of Expertise Necessary for Project Management ........................................................................3
      1.5    Project Management Context................................................................................................................4
    CHAPTER 2 – PROJECT LIFE CYCLE AND ORGANIZATION ........................................................................................5
      2.1    The Project Life Cycle ..........................................................................................................................5
           2.1.1       Characteristics of the Project Life Cycle .......................................................................................................... 5
           2.1.2       Characteristics of Project Phases ...................................................................................................................... 5
           2.1.3       Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle Relationships ................................................................................. 5
       2.2         Project Stakeholders .............................................................................................................................6
       2.3         Organizational Influences .....................................................................................................................6
           2.3.1       Organizational Systems .................................................................................................................................... 6
           2.3.2       Organizational Cultures and Styles ................................................................................................................... 7
           2.3.3       Organizational Structure ................................................................................................................................... 7
           2.3.4       The Role of the PMO in Organizational Structures .......................................................................................... 7
           2.3.5       Project Management System ............................................................................................................................ 7
    CHAPTER 3 – PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES FOR A PROJECT .........................................................................8
      3.1    Project Management Processes ............................................................................................................8
      3.2    Project Management Process Groups ..................................................................................................8
           3.2.1       Initiating Process Group ................................................................................................................................... 8
           3.2.2       Planning Process Group .................................................................................................................................. 10
           3.2.3       Executing Process Group ................................................................................................................................ 28
           3.2.4       Monitoring and Controlling Process Group .................................................................................................... 34
           3.2.5       Closing Process Group ................................................................................................................................... 45
APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................................................... 47
    APPENDIX A – PROJECT CHARTER TEMPLATE ...................................................................................................... 47
    APPENDIX B – PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE ..................................................................................... 48
    APPENDIX C – PROJECT CLOSURE REPORT TEMPLATE ......................................................................................... 49
    APPENDIX D – GRO PROCEDURES MAPPED TO THE PMBOK® GUIDE ................................................................ 50
    APPENDIX E – PMBOK PROCESSES AND KNOWLEDGE AREAS ............................................................................. 52




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Chapter 1 – Introduction
  1.1   The PMBOK Guide®
        As previously mentioned, the GRO PM Procedures and Project Management
        Basics outlined in the GRO PM Handbook are based on the PMBOK® Guide.

        The PMBOK® Guide identifies the subset of project management knowledge
        that is generally recognized as good practice. This standard provides a
        foundational reference for anyone interested in the profession of project
        management.



  1.2   What is a Project?
        A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product,
        service, or result.

        Projects and operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and
        repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique. Projects are often utilized
        as a means of achieving an organization’s strategic plan.


  1.3   What is Project Management?
        Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques
        to project activities to meet project requirements.


  1.4   Areas of Expertise Necessary for Project Management
        Effective project management requires that the project management team
        understand and use knowledge and skills from at least five areas of expertise:
             Project Management Body of Knowledge – the knowledge unique to the
                project management field
             Application Area Knowledge, Standards and Regulations – the type or
                category of project, usually defined in terms of functional or technical
                disciplines
             Understanding the Project Environment – the cultural, social,
                international, political, and physical environmental contexts
             General Management Knowledge and Skills – the disciplines such as
                financial, purchasing, marketing, contracts, strategic planning, tactical
                planning, operational planning, organization structures/behavior,
                personnel administration and information technology management
             Interpersonal Skills – effective communication, influencing the
                organization, leadership, motivation, negotiation/conflict management
                and problem solving.




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1.5   Project Management Context
      Project management exists in a broader context that includes program
      management, portfolio management and the project management office.
      Frequently, there is a hierarchy of strategic plan, portfolio, program, project and
      subproject.

      A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way.
      Program management is the centralized, coordinated management of a group of
      projects to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.

      A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are
      grouped together to facilitate effective management of resources and
      organizational priorities.

      Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or
      subprojects.

      A project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit whose purpose
      is to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain.




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Chapter 2 – Project Life Cycle and Organization
Projects and project management are carried out in an environment broader than that of
the project itself. The project management team must understand this broader context so
it can select the life cycle phases, processes, and tools and techniques that appropriately
fit the project.

   2.1    The Project Life Cycle
          Project managers or other stakeholders divide projects into phases, collectively
          known as the project life cycle. Many organizations identify a specific set of life
          cycles for use on all of their projects.

          2.1.1    Characteristics of the Project Life Cycle
                   There is no single best way to define an ideal project lifecycle and few
                   are identical. Some have four or five phases, but others may have nine
                   or more phases.

          2.1.2    Characteristics of Project Phases
                   The completion and approval of one or more deliverables characterizes
                   a project phase. A deliverable is a measurable, verifiable work
                   product, such as detailed design document

          2.1.3    Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle Relationships
                   The project life cycle goes through a series of phases to create the
                   product. Care should be taken to distinguish the project life cycle from
                   the product life cycle. For example, a project undertaken to bring a new
                   desktop computer to market is only one aspect of the product life cycle.

                   In some application areas, such as new product development or
                   software development, organizations consider the project life cycle as
                   part of the product life cycle.

           Figure 2-1 – Relationship Between the Product and the Project Life Cycles


                                            Upgrade




              Product                       Idea
                             Business                                    Operations    Development
             Life Cycle        Plan



                               Project
                                 Life     INITIAL   INTERMEDIATE    FINAL
                                Cycle




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2.2   Project Stakeholders
      Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved
      in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution
      or project completion. Stakeholder expectations must be managed carefully due
      to different or conflicting objectives.

        Figure 2-2 – The Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Project




      Key stakeholders on every project include:
          Project manager – the person responsible for managing the project
          Customer/user – the person or organization that will use the project’s
             product
          Performing organization – the enterprise whose employees are most
             directly involved in doing the work of the project
          Project team members – the group that is performing the work of the
             project
          Project management team – the members of the project team who are
             directly involved in project management activities
          Sponsor – the person or group that provides the financial resources, in
             cash or in-kind, for the project
          Influencers – people or groups that are not directly related to the use of
             the project’s product, but can influence the course of the project
          PMO – if it exists in the performing organization and has direct or indirect
             responsibility for the outcome of the project.


2.3   Organizational Influences

      2.3.1    Organizational Systems
               Project-based organizations are those whose operations consist
               primarily of projects (architectural firms, consultants, etc.) and non-
               project based organizations, those who often lack management
               systems designed to support project needs efficiently and effectively.




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2.3.2   Organizational Cultures and Styles
        Organizational cultures (shared values, policies, work ethic and hours,
        etc.) often have a direct influence on the project.

2.3.3   Organizational Structure
        The structure of the performing organization often constrains the
        availability of resources in a spectrum from functional to “projectized,”
        with a variety of matrix structures in between.

        Most modern organizations involve a mixture of structures at various
        levels, as shown in Figure 2-3.

        Figure 2-3 – Composite Organization




2.3.4   The Role of the PMO in Organizational Structures
        Many organizations realize the benefit of developing and implementing
        a PMO. A PMO’s function in an organization may range from an
        advisory influence to a formal grant of authority from executive
        management. Project team members will report either directly to the
        project manager or, if shared, to the PMO.

2.3.5   Project Management System
        The project management system is the set of tools, techniques,
        methodologies, resources, and procedures used to manage a project.
        The system is a set of processes and the related control functions that
        are consolidated and combined into a functioning, unified whole.




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Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes for a Project
This chapter identifies the project management processes that have been recognized as
good practice on most projects most of the time.

   3.1   Project Management Processes
         A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities that are performed to
         achieve a pre-specified set of products, results, or services. The project
         management processes common to most projects are initiating, planning,
         executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing processes. The PMBOK®
         Guide calls these Process Groups.

         Refer to Appendix E for a diagram that shows the relationships between project
         management knowledge areas and the Process Groups.

   3.2   Project Management Process Groups
         The project manager and the project team are responsible for determining what
         processes from the Process Groups will be employed, by whom, and the degree
         of rigor that will be applied to the execution of those processes, based on the
         complexity of the project.

         Important: the Process Groups are not project phases. Project phases include
         the work/tasks to deliver a product (collectively known as the project life cycle).
         The Process Groups include sets of actions and activities primarily for the
         project management team to perform as the project phases are executed.

         3.2.1    Initiating Process Group
                  The Initiating Process Group consists of the processes that facilitate the
                  formal authorization to start a new project or a project phase.

                  The initial scope description and the resources that the organization is
                  willing to invest are further refined during the initiation process. If not
                  already assigned, the project manager will be selected.

                  Involving the customers and other stakeholders during initiation
                  generally improves the probability of shared ownership, deliverable
                  acceptance, and customer satisfaction.

                  The Initiating Process       Group    includes    the   following   project
                  management processes:

                  3.2.1.1   Develop Project Charter
                            (Integration Management)
                            Developing the Project Charter involves documenting the
                            business needs and the new product, service, or other result
                            that is intended to satisfy those requirements.
                            Inputs
                             Contract: if the project is being done for an external
                                customer



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            Project Statement of Work (SOW): the SOW may include
             the business need, product scope description, and/or
             strategic plan alignment.
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: any and all of the
             organization’s environmental factors and systems that
             influence the project’s success must be considered.
           Organizational Process Assets: any and all of the
             organizations involved in the project can have formal and
             informal policies, procedures, plans, and guidelines
             whose effects must be considered.
          Tools and Techniques
           Project Selection Methods: used to determine which
             project the organization will select.
           Project Management Methodology: can be either a formal
             mature process or an informal technique that aids the
             project management team.
           Project Management Information System (PMIS): a
             standardized set of automated tools, used by the project
             management team. In most areas, the PMIS also
             includes the change control system.
           Expert Judgment: often used to assess the inputs and
             provided by any group or individual with specialized
             knowledge or training
          Outputs
           Project Charter: The project charter formally authorizes a
             project and is usually issued by the project sponsor.
             Refer to Appendix A for an example.

3.2.1.2   Develop Preliminary Scope Statement (Integration
          Management)
          Developing the preliminary project scope is necessary for
          producing a high-level definition of the project. This process
          addresses and documents the project and product
          requirements.
          Inputs
           Project Charter: described in Section 3.2.1.1
           Project Statement of Work: described in Section 3.2.1.1
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1
          Tools and Techniques
           Project Management Methodology: described in Section
             3.2.1.1
           Project Management Information System (PMIS):
             described in Section 3.2.1.1
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment is
             applied to any technical and management details to be
             included in the preliminary project scope statement.




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                  Outputs
                   Preliminary Project Scope Statement: this document is
                     the definition of the project (what needs to be
                     accomplished in terms of the project and the product).
                     The product scope is the features and functions that
                     characterize a product, service or result. The project
                     scope is the work that needs to be accomplished to
                     deliver a product, service, or result with the specified
                     features and functions.

3.2.2   Planning Process Group
        The Planning Process Group consists of the processes necessary to
        plan and manage a successful project for the organization. Ultimately,
        these planning processes result in the project management plan.

        The progressive detailing of the project management plan is sometimes
        called “rolling wave planning.” While planning the project, the project
        team should involve all appropriate stakeholders.

        3.2.2.1   Develop Project Management Plan
                  (Integration Management)
                  This process includes the actions necessary to define,
                  integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a project
                  management plan.
                  Inputs
                   Preliminary Project Scope Statement: described in
                      Section 3.2.1.2.
                   Outputs of all Project Management Processes: described
                      in Sections 3.2.2.2 – 3.2.2.21 below.
                   Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1.
                   Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1.
                  Tools and Techniques
                   Project Management Methodology: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1.
                   Project Management Information System (PMIS):
                      described in Section 3.2.1.1.
                   Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment is
                      applied to any technical and management details to be
                      included in the project management plan.
                  Outputs
                   Project Management Plan: the plan defines how the
                      project is executed, monitored and controlled, and
                      closed. The plan will be an outline at first, and then
                      progressively elaborated as each of the planning
                      processes below is completed. The plan can either be
                      summary level or detailed. Refer to Appendix B for an
                      example.




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3.2.2.2   Scope Planning
          (Scope Management)
          This is the process necessary for creating a scope
          management plan, which documents how the project and
          product scope will be defined and controlled.
          Inputs
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Project Charter: described in Section 3.2.1.1.
           Preliminary project scope statement: described in Section
             3.2.1.2.
           Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment is
             applied to how equivalent projects have managed scope.
          Outputs
           Project Scope Management Plan: the scope
             management plan provides guidance on how project
             scope will be defined, documented, verified, managed,
             and controlled by the project management team. It is
             contained within the project management plan.

3.2.2.3   Scope Definition
          (Scope Management)
          This is the process necessary for developing a detailed
          project scope statement as a basis for future project
          decisions.
          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.
           Project Charter: described in Section 3.2.1.1.
           Preliminary Project Scope Statement: described in
              Section 3.2.1.2.
           Project Scope Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.2.
           Approved Change Requests: these can occur while the
              work of the project is underway, causing a change to the
              project scope statement.
          Tools and Techniques
           Product Analysis: techniques such as product
              breakdown, system engineering, value engineering, value
              analysis, functional analysis.
           Alternatives Identification: a technique used to generate
              different approaches to perform the work of the project
              (brainstorming, lateral thinking, etc.).
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment is
              applied to develop portions of the detailed project scope
              statement.


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            Stakeholder Analysis: identifies the influence and
             interests of the various stakeholders and documents their
             needs, wants, and expectations and turn them into
             requirements.
          Outputs
           Project Scope Statement: the project scope statement
             describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the
             work required to create those deliverables. It is contained
             within the project management plan.
           Requested Changes: requested changes may surface
             and should be processed for review.
           Project Scope Management Plan (updates): this may
             need to be updated to include approved change requests
             resulting from the project’s Scope Definition process.

3.2.2.4   Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
          (Scope Management)
          The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the
          project. Creating the WBS involves subdividing the project
          work into smaller, more manageable pieces.
          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Project Scope Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.2.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
          Tools and Techniques
           WBS Templates: a WBS from a previous project can
              often be used as a template for a new project.
           Decomposition: the subdivision of project deliverables
              into smaller, more manageable components until the
              work and deliverables are defined to the work package
              level.    Decomposition may not be possible for a
              deliverable or subproject that will be accomplished far
              into the future.
          Outputs
           Project Scope Statement (updates): if approved change
              requests result from the Create WBS process, then the
              project scope statement is updated to include those
              approved changes.
           Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): the WBS is a
              deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the
              work to be executed by the project team. The planned
              work contained within the lowest-level WBS components,
              called work packages, can be scheduled, cost estimated,
              monitored, and controlled.        Refer to the Project
              Management Plan in Appendix B for an example.
           WBS Dictionary: this is a companion document to the
              WBS and includes the detailed content of the WBS


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              components (e.g. code, responsible organization, list of
              schedule milestones).
             Scope Baseline: the approved detailed project scope
              statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
              are the scope baseline for the project.
             Project Scope Management Plan (updates): if approved
              change requests result from the Create WBS process,
              then the project scope management plan may need to be
              updated to include approved changes.
             Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

3.2.2.5   Activity Definition
          (Time Management)
          The Activity Definition process involves decomposing the
          work further into schedule activities.
          Inputs
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): described in Section
             3.2.2.4.
           Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Decomposition: as it applies to Activity Definition,
             involves subdividing the project work into schedule
             activities (an activity list). It can occur at the same time
             as the creation of the WBS, but the WBS is the basis.
           Templates: a standard activity list or a portion of an
             activity list from a previous project is often usable as a
             template.
           Rolling Wave Planning: the work to be accomplished in
             the near term is planned in detail, while the work far in
             the future is planned a high level. Schedule activities can
             exist at various levels of detail.
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment for
             developing project schedules can be beneficial.
           Planning Component: when insufficient definition of the
             project scope is available, a planning component can be
             used to develop a high-level project schedule for that
             branch of the WBS.
          Outputs
           Activity List: a comprehensive list including all schedule
             activities that are to be performed on the project.
           Activity Attributes: include the activity identifier, activity
             codes, etc., used for project schedule development and
             for sorting of activities and reports.
           Milestone List: identifies all milestones (a significant point
             or event in the project).
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

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3.2.2.6   Activity Sequencing
          (Time Management)
          The Activity Sequencing process involves identifying and
          documenting the logical relationships among schedule
          activities.
          Inputs
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Activity List: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Activity Attributes: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Milestone List: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
          Tools and Techniques
           Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM): a tool that
              uses nodes to represent activities and connects them
              with arrows that show the dependencies.
           Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM): a tool that uses
              arrows to represent activities and connects them at
              nodes to show their dependencies. It is not as common
              as PDM.
           Schedule Network Templates: project schedule network
              diagram templates can be used to expedite the
              preparation of networks of project schedule activities.
           Dependency Determination: three types of dependencies
              are used to define the sequence among the activities:
              mandatory, discretionary, external.
           Applying Leads and Lags: a lead allows an acceleration
              of the successor activity and a lag directs a delay in the
              successor activity.
          Outputs
           Project Schedule Network Diagrams: displays of the
              project’s schedule activities and the logical relationships
              among them (dependencies).
           Activity List (Updates): if approved change requests
              result from the Activity Sequencing process, then the
              activity list is updated to include those changes.
           Activity Attributes (Updates): the activity attributes are
              updated to include the dependencies, leads, lags and
              approved change requests.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

3.2.2.7   Activity Resource Estimating
          (Time Management)
          Estimating schedule activity resources involves determining
          what resources (persons, equipment, or material) and what
          quantities of each resource will be used and when.
          Inputs
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.

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            Activity List: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
            Activity Attributes: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
            Resource Availability: information on which resources are
             potentially available is used for estimating the resource
             types.
           Project Management Plan: the schedule management
             plan is a component of the project management plan
             used in Activity Resource Estimating. It explains how the
             schedule will be managed.
          Tools and Techniques
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment
             related to resource planning and estimating can be
             beneficial.
           Alternatives Analysis: many schedule activities have
             alternative methods of accomplishment (e.g. resource
             capabilities).
           Published Estimating Data: several companies routinely
             publish updated production rates and unit costs of
             resources.
           Project Management Software: this software has the
             capability to help plan, organize, and manage resource
             pools and develop resource estimates.
           Bottom-up Estimating: when a schedule activity cannot
             be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the
             resource needs of each lower piece of work are
             estimated and then aggregated.
          Outputs
           Activity Resource Requirements: the description of the
             types and quantities of resources required for each
             schedule activity in a work package. The Schedule
             Development process determines when the resources
             are needed.
           Activity Attributes (updates): the activity attributes are
             updated to include the types and quantities of resources
             required and approved change requests.
           Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS): a hierarchical
             structure of the identified resources by resource category
             and resource type.
           Resource Calendar (updates): the resource calendar
             typically identifies resource-specific holidays and
             resource availability periods.
           Requested changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

3.2.2.8   Activity Duration Estimating
          (Time Management)
          Activity Duration Estimating involves the estimation of the
          amount of effort required for each schedule activity.
          Inputs
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.



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            Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Activity List: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Activity Attributes: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Activity Resource Requirements: described in Section
             3.2.2.7.
           Resource Calendar: described in Section 3.2.2.7.
           Project Management Plan: two components from the
             project management plan are primarily used:
                 o Risk register: the risk register has information on
                      identified risks to be considered when producing
                      estimates.
                 o Activity cost estimates: the cost estimates can
                      provide estimated resource quantities for each
                      activity.
          Tools and Techniques
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment
             related to estimation can be beneficial.
           Analogous Estimating: using the actual duration of a
             previous, similar schedule activity as the basis for
             estimating the duration of a future schedule activity.
           Parametric Estimating: multiplying the quantity of work to
             be performed by the productivity rate.
           Three-Point Estimates: based on the average of three
             estimates: most likely, optimistic, and pessimistic
             estimates.
           Reserve Analysis: choosing how to incorporate additional
             time, referred to as contingency reserves (used
             completely, partially, etc.).
          Outputs
           Activity duration estimates: quantitative assessments of
             the likely number of work periods that will be required to
             complete a schedule activity (e.g. 2 weeks +/- 2 days).
           Activity attributes (updates): the activity attributes are
             updated to include the durations for each schedule
             activity.

3.2.2.9   Schedule Development
          (Time Management)
          Project Schedule Development determines planned start and
          finish dates for project activities. Schedule Development
          continues throughout the project as work progresses.
          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
               3.2.1.1.
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Activity List: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Activity Attributes: described in Section 3.2.2.5.
           Project Schedule Network Diagrams: described in
               Section 3.2.2.6.

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      Activity Resource Requirements: described in Section
       3.2.2.7.
     Resource Calendars: described in Section 3.2.2.7.
     Activity Duration Estimates: described in Section 3.2.2.8.
     Project Management Plan: contains the schedule, cost,
       scope, and risk management plans, which guide the
       schedule development.
           o Risk Register: the risk register has information on
                identified risks to be considered when developing
                the schedule.
    Tools and Techniques
     Schedule Network Analysis: this technique employs a
       schedule model and various analytical techniques.
     Critical Path Method: a technique that uses the schedule
       model, calculating early start and finish dates, and late
       start and finish dates.
     Schedule Comparison: techniques to shorten the project
       schedule without changing the project scope or schedule
       objectives.
           o Crashing: analysis of cost and schedule tradeoffs
                for the greatest amount of compression for the
                least cost.
           o Fast Tracking: phases or activities normally done
                in sequence are performed in parallel.
     What-If Scenario Analysis: an analysis of the question
       “what if scenario X happens?” The Monte Carlo Analysis
       is most common.
     Resource Leveling: a technique applied after the critical
       path method, producing a resource-limited schedule.
     Critical Chain Method: a technique that adds duration
       buffers that are non-work schedule activities to maintain
       focus on the planned activity durations.
     Project Management Software: automates calculations
       and used to print or display the schedules.
     Applying Calendars: identifies periods when work is
       allowed.
     Adjusting Leads and Lags: leads or lags are adjusted to
       develop a viable project schedule.
     Schedule Model: schedule data and information are
       compiled into the schedule model for the project.
    Outputs
     Project Schedule: the project schedule includes the
       planned start date and planned finish date for each
       activity. It can be presented graphically as:
           o Project Schedule Network Diagrams: described in
                Section 3.2.2.6.
           o Bar Charts: charts with bars representing
                activities.
           o Milestone Charts: similar to bar charts, but only
                identify major activities and deliverables.



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             Schedule Model Data: supporting data for the project
              schedule.
             Schedule Baseline: a specific version of the project
              schedule that is accepted and approved as the schedule
              baseline.
             Resource Requirements (Updates): if the resource-
              leveling analysis changes the project resource
              requirements, then updates are necessary.
             Activity Attributes (Updates): activity attributes are
              updated if there are any revised resource requirements.
             Project Calendar (Updates): a project calendar is a
              calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those
              dates on which schedule activities are worked.
             Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
             Project Management Plan (Updates): the plan is updated
              to reflect any approved changes in how the project
              schedule will be managed.
                  o Schedule Management Plan (Updates): the
                      schedule management plan establishes criteria
                      and activities for developing and controlling the
                      project schedule. If approved change requests
                      result, then the schedule management plan
                      component may need to be updated.

3.2.2.10 Cost Estimating
         (Cost Management)
         Cost Estimating is developing an approximation of the costs
         of the resources needed to complete project activities. The
         estimator considers the possible causes of variation of the
         cost estimates, including risks.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1 Project scope statement.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): described in Section
             3.2.2.4.
          WBS Dictionary: described in Section 3.2.2.4.
          Project Management Plan: three components from the
             project management plan are primarily used:
                 o Schedule Management Plan: establishes criteria
                     and activities for developing and controlling the
                     project schedule.
                 o Staffing Management Plan: describes when and
                     how human resource requirements will be met.
                 o Risk Register: the risk register has information on
                     identified risks to be considered




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         Tools and Techniques
          Analogous Estimating: using the actual cost of previous,
            similar projects as the basis for estimating the cost of the
            current project.
          Determine Resource Cost Rates: unit cost rates, such as
            staff cost per hour and bulk material cost per cubic yard,
            for each resource to estimate schedule activity costs.
          Bottom-up Estimating: estimating the cost of individual
            work packages or individual schedule activities with the
            lowest level of detail and “rolling up” into higher levels.
          Parametric Estimating: uses a statistical relationship
            between historical data and other variables to calculate a
            cost estimate.
          Project Management Software: tools such as cost
            estimating, spreadsheets, and simulation and statistical
            applications.
          Vendor Bid Analysis: additional cost estimating used to
            examine the price of what individual deliverables should
            cost.
          Reserve Analysis: establishes contingency reserves that
            are allowances for unplanned, but potentially required,
            changes.
          Cost of Quality: the total costs incurred when preventing
            nonconformance to requirements. It can be used to
            prepare the estimate.
         Outputs
          Activity Cost Estimates: a quantitative assessment of the
            likely costs of the resources required to complete
            schedule activities.
          Activity Cost Estimate Supporting Detail: supporting
            documentation used to develop the cost estimate.
          Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Cost Management Plan (Updates): the cost management
            plan sets out the format and establishes the activities and
            criteria for planning, structuring, and controlling the
            project costs. If approved change requests result, then
            the schedule management plan component may need to
            be updated.

3.2.2.11 Cost Budgeting
         (Cost Management)
         Cost Budgeting is aggregating the estimated costs of
         individual activities or work packages to establish a cost
         baseline.
         Inputs
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): described in Section
             3.2.2.4.
          WBS Dictionary: described in Section 3.2.2.4.
          Activity Cost Estimates: described in Section 3.2.2.11.



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            Activity Cost Estimates Supporting Detail: described in
             Section 3.2.2.11.
           Project Schedule: described in Section 3.2.2.9.
           Resource Calendars: described in Section 3.2.2.7.
           Contract: information related to what products, services,
             or results have been purchased – and their costs.
           Cost Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.10.
          Tools and Techniques
           Cost Aggregation: schedule activity cost estimates are
             aggregated by work packages in accordance with the
             WBS. The work package cost estimates are then
             aggregated.
           Reserve Analysis: described in Section 3.2.2.10.
           Parametric Estimating: described in Section 3.2.2.10.
           Funding Limit Reconciliation: the reconciliation of fund
             expenditures to funding limits that are preset.
          Outputs
           Cost Baseline: the cost baseline is a time-phased budget
             that is used as a basis against which to measure,
             monitor, and control overall cost performance on the
             project.
           Project Funding Requirements: derived from the cost
             baseline and can be established to exceed to allow for
             either early progress or cost overruns.
           Cost Management Plan (Updates): described in Section
             3.2.2.10.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

3.2.2.12 Quality Planning
         (Quality Management)
         Quality Planning is the identification of which quality
         standards are relevant to the project and determining how to
         satisfy them.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
         Tools and Techniques
          Cost-Benefit Analysis: quality planning must include the
             consideration of cost-benefits tradeoffs, such as meeting
             quality requirements which means lower costs.
          Benchmarking: comparing actual or planned project
             practices to those of other projects.
          Design of Experiments: a statistical method that helps
             identify which factors may influence specific variables of
             a product.



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            Cost of Quality: the total costs incurred by investment in
             preventing nonconformance to requirements.
           Additional Quality Planning Tools: quality planning tools
             such as brainstorming, nominal group techniques, and
             prioritization matrices.
          Outputs
           Quality Management Plan: describes how the project
             management team will implement the performing
             organization’s quality policy. It is a component of the
             project management plan.
           Quality Metrics: an operational definition that describes
             what something is and how the quality control process
             measures it.
           Quality Checklists: a structured tool, usually component-
             specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has
             been performed.
           Process Improvement Plan: details the steps for
             analyzing processes that will facilitate the identification of
             waste and non-value added activity.
           Quality Baseline: records the quality objectives of the
             project and is the baseline for measuring quality
             performance.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated through the inclusion
             of a subsidiary quality management plan and process
             improvement plan.

3.2.2.13 Human Resource Planning
         (Human Resource Management)
         Human Resource Planning is the identification and
         documentation of project roles, responsibilities, and reporting
         relationships.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1;
             one component from the project management plan is
             primarily used
                 o Activity Resource Requirements: described in
                     Section 3.2.2.7.
         Tools and Techniques
          Organization Charts and Position Descriptions:
             documenting team member roles and responsibilities in
             one of the following formats:
                 o Hierarchical-Type Charts: traditional organization
                     chart structure.
                 o Matrix-Based Charts: a responsibility assignment
                     matrix illustrates the connections between work
                     and team members.


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                 o  Text-Oriented       Formats:       team      member
                    responsibilities that require detailed descriptions
                o Other Sections of the Project Management Plan:
                    some responsibilities are listed and explained in
                    other sections of the plan.
          Networking: informal interaction with others in an
            organization or industry
          Organizational Theory: provides information regarding
            the ways that people, teams, and organizational units
            behave.
         Outputs
          Roles and Responsibilities: the following items should be
            addressed:
                o Role: the portion of the project for which a person
                    is accountable (coordinator, analyst).
                o Authority: the right to apply resources, make
                    decisions, etc.
                o Responsibility: the work that is expected to be
                    performed.
                o Competency: the skill and capacity required to
                    complete project activities.
          Project Organization Charts: a graphic display of project
            team members and their reporting relationships.
          Staffing Management Plan: describes when and how
            human resource requirements will be met. It can also
            include information such as a timetable, release criteria,
            training needs, recognition and rewards, compliance, and
            safety.

3.2.2.14 Communications Planning
         (Communications Management)
         Communications Planning is the determination of the
         information and communications needs of the project
         stakeholders (who needs what when).
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1
         Tools and Techniques
          Communications Requirements Analysis: requirements
             are defined by combining the type and format of
             information needed with an analysis of the value of that
             information.
         Outputs
          Communications Management Plan: a document that
             describes communications needs and expectations and
             how communications will occur; it is contained in the
             project management plan.


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3.2.2.15 Risk Management Planning
         (Risk Management)
         Risk Management Planning is deciding how to approach,
         plan, and execute the risk management activities for a
         project. A risk is an uncertain event that, if it occurs, has a
         positive or negative effect on the project.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1
         Tools and Techniques
          Planning Meetings and Analysis: basic plans for
             conducting the risk management activities are defined in
             these meetings.
         Outputs
          Risk Management Plan: describes how risk management
             will be structured and performed on the project and is a
             subset of the project management plan.

3.2.2.16 Risk Identification
         (Risk Management)
         Risk Identification determines which risks might affect the
         project and documents their characteristics.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Risk Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.15
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1
         Tools and Techniques
          Documentation Reviews: a structured review of project
             documentation, including plans, assumptions, prior
             project files, and other information.
          Information Gathering Techniques: techniques such as
             brainstorming, delphi technique, interviewing, root cause
             identification, and SWOT analysis.
          Checklist Analysis: a risk identification checklist can be
             developed based on historical information and knowledge
             that has been accumulated from similar projects.
          Assumptions Analysis: a tool that explores the validity of
             assumptions as they apply to the project.
          Diagramming Techniques: cause-and-effect diagrams,
             system or process flow charts, influence diagrams.




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          Outputs
           Risk Register: this document details all identified risks,
             including description, probability, impact, etc. and is a
             component of the project management plan.

3.2.2.17 Qualitative Risk Analysis
         (Risk Management)
         Qualitative Risk Analysis includes methods for prioritizing the
         identified risks for further action.
         Inputs
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Risk Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.15.
          Risk Register: described in Section 3.2.2.16.
         Tools and Techniques
          Risk Probability and Impact Assessment: investigation of
             the likelihood and effect of each risk.
          Probability and Impact Matrix: specifies combinations of
             probability and impact that lead to rating the risks as low,
             moderate, or high priority.
          Risk Data Quality Assessment: a technique used to
             evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is
             useful for risk management.
          Risk Categorization: grouping risks into common areas
             such as sources, the area affected, etc.
          Risk Urgency Assessment: review of risks for those
             requiring near-term responses.
         Outputs
          Risk Register (Updates): the risk register is updated with
             information from Qualitative Risk Analysis.

3.2.2.18 Quantitative Risk Analysis
         (Risk Management)
         The Quantitative Risk Analysis process analyzes the effect of
         prioritized risks and assigns a numerical rating to those risks.
         Inputs
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Risk Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.15.
          Risk Register: described in Section 3.2.2.16.
          Project Management Plan: two components from the
             project management plan are primarily used:
             o Schedule Management Plan: described in Section
                  3.2.2.9.
             o Cost Management Plan: described in Section
                  3.2.2.10.




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          Tools and Techniques
           Data Gathering and Representation Techniques:
             interviewing, probability distributions, and expert
             judgment.
           Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques:
             sensitivity analysis, expected monetary value analysis,
             decision tree analysis, and modeling and simulation.
          Outputs
           Risk Register (Updates): the risk register is updated with
             information from Quantitative Risk Analysis.

3.2.2.19 Risk Response Planning
         (Risk Management)
         Risk Response Planning is the process of developing
         options, and determining actions to enhance opportunities
         and reduce threats to the project.
         Inputs
          Risk Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.15.
          Risk Register: described in Section 3.2.2.16.
         Tools and Techniques
          Strategies for Negative Risks or Threats: three strategies
             typically deal with negative risks: avoid, transfer, or
             mitigate.
          Strategies for Positive Risks or Opportunities: three
             strategies typically deal with positive risks: exploit, share,
             and enhance.
          Strategy for Both Threats and Opportunities: one
             strategy, acceptance, is used when the team decides not
             to change the project management plan.
          Contingent Response Strategy: responses that are
             designed for use only if certain events occur.
         Outputs
          Risk Register (Updates): the risk register is updated with
             information from Risk Response Planning.
          Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated as response activities
             are added after the Change Control process.
          Risk-Related Contractual Agreements: agreements that
             are prepared to specify each party’s responsibility for
             specific risks, should they occur.

3.2.2.20 Plan Purchases and Acquisitions
         (Procurement Management)
         The Plan Purchases and Acquisitions process identifies
         which project needs can best be met by purchasing or
         acquiring products, services, or results and considers how,
         what, how much, and when.
         Inputs
          Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
            3.2.1.1.



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           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
            3.2.1.1.
          Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
          Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): described in Section
            3.2.2.4.
          WBS Dictionary: described in Section 3.2.2.4.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1;
            the components that are primarily used include the risk
            register, risk-related contractual agreements, resource
            requirements, project schedule, activity cost estimates,
            and the cost baseline
         Tools and Techniques
          Make-or-Buy Analysis: a general management technique
            used to determine whether a product or service can be
            produced internally or purchased.
          Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment
            related to purchasing, legal, business and technical
            expertise can be beneficial.
          Contract Types: the type of contract used sets the degree
            of risk being assumed by both the buyer and seller: fixed
            price, cost-reimbursable, time and material.
         Outputs
          Procurement Management Plan: this plan describes how
            the procurement processes will be managed from
            developing documentation through contract closure.
          Contract Statement of Work: the statement of work for
            each contract is developed from the project scope
            statement and WBS.
          Make-or-Buy Decisions: the documented decisions of
            what project products, services, or results will be either
            purchased or developed internally.
          Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.2.3.

3.2.2.21 Plan Contracting
         (Procurement Management)
         The Plan Contracting process prepares the documents
         needed to support the Request Seller Responses process
         and Select Sellers process.
         Inputs
          Procurement Management Plan: described in Section
            3.2.2.20
          Make-or-Buy Decisions: described in Section 3.2.2.20
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1;
            the components that are primarily used include the risk
            register, risk-related contractual agreements, resource
            requirements, project schedule, activity cost estimates,
            and the cost baseline.
         Tools and Techniques
          Standard       Forms:    includes   standard   contracts,
            descriptions of procurement items, non-disclosure
            agreements, etc.

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     Expert Judgment: described in Section 3.2.20.
    Outputs
     Procurement Documents: used to seek proposals from
       prospective sellers, such as a bid or request for proposal.
     Evaluation Criteria: used to rate or score proposals.
     Contract Statement of Work (Updates): modifications to
       one or more contract statements of work can be identified
       during procurement documentation development.




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3.2.3   Executing Process Group
         The Executing Process Group consists of the processes used to
         complete the work defined in the project management plan to
         accomplish the project’s requirements.

         This Process Group involves coordinating people and resources, as
         well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in
         accordance with the project management plan.

        3.2.3.1   Direct and Manage Project Execution
                  (Integration Management)
                  This process requires the project manager and project team
                  to perform multiple actions to execute the project
                  management plan to accomplish the work defined in the
                  project scope statement.
                  Inputs
                   Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1
                   Approved Corrective Actions: documented, authorized
                      directions required to bring expected future project
                      performance into conformance with the project
                      management plan.
                   Approved Preventive Actions: documented, authorized
                      directions that reduce the probability of negative
                      consequences associated with project risks.
                   Approved Change Requests: documented, authorized
                      changes to expand or contract project scope.
                   Approved Defect Repair: documented, authorized
                      request for product correction of a defect found during the
                      quality inspection or audit process.
                   Validated Defect Repair: notification that re-inspected
                      repaired items have either been accepted or rejected.
                   Administrative Closure Procedure: a procedure that
                      documents all the activities, interactions, and related
                      roles and responsibilities needed in executing the
                      administrative closure for the project.
                  Outputs
                   Deliverable: a unique and verifiable product, result or
                      capability.
                   Requested Changes: changes requested to expand or
                      reduce project scope, modify policies, modify project cost
                      or budget, or to revise the project schedule.
                   Implemented Change Requests: approved change
                      requests that have been implemented by the project
                      management team during project execution.
                   Implemented Corrective Actions: approved corrective
                      actions that have been implemented by the project
                      management team to bring expected future performance
                      into conformance with the project management plan.



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             Implemented Preventive Actions: approved preventive
              actions that have been implemented by the project
              management team to reduce the consequences of
              project risks.
             Implemented Defect Repair: during project execution, the
              project management team has implemented approved
              product defect corrections.
             Work Performance Information: information on the status
              of the project activities being performed to accomplish the
              project work.

3.2.3.2   Perform Quality Assurance
          (Quality Management)
          Quality assurance is the application of planned, systematic
          quality activities to ensure that the project will employ all
          processes needed to meet requirements.
          Inputs
           Quality Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Quality Metrics: described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Process Improvement Plan: described in Section
             3.2.2.12.
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
             3.2.3.1
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section 3.2.3.1
           Quality Control Measurements: described in Section
             3.2.2.12.
           Implemented Change Requests: described in Section
             3.2.3.1.
           Implemented Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.1.
           Implemented Defect Repair: described in Section 3.2.3.1
           Implemented Preventive Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.1
          Tools and Techniques
           Quality Planning Tools and Techniques: the tools and
             techniques described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Quality Audits: a structured, independent review to
             determine whether project activities comply with
             organizational and project policies, processes, and
             procedures.
           Process Analysis: follows the steps outlined in the
             process improvement plan to identify needed
             improvements from an organizational and technical
             standpoint.
           Quality Control Tools and Techniques: the tools and
             techniques described in Section 3.2.4.7.
          Outputs
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1
           Recommended Corrective Actions: actions to increase
             effectiveness and efficiency of the performing
             organization.

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             Organizational Process Assets (Updates): updated
              quality standards, which provide validation of the
              effectiveness and efficiency of the performing
              organization’s standards and processes.
             Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
              management plan will be updated from changes to the
              quality management plan.

3.2.3.3   Acquire Project Team
          (Human Resource Management)
          Acquire Project Team is the process of obtaining the human
          resources needed to complete the project. The project team
          may or may not have control over team members selected.
          Inputs
           Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Roles and Responsibilities: described in Section 3.2.2.13.
           Project Organization Charts: described in Section
             3.2.2.13.
           Staffing Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.13.
          Tools and Techniques
           Pre-Assignment: project team members are pre-
             assigned.
           Negotiation: staff assignments may be negotiated with
             functional managers and other project management
             teams.
           Acquisition: when in-house staff are lacking, the
             resources can be acquired from outside sources.
           Virtual Teams: groups of people with a shared goal, who
             spend little face to face time.
          Outputs
           Project Staff Assignments: identify the people who are on
             the team.
           Resource Availability: documents the time periods each
             project team member is available.
           Staffing Management Plan (Updates): changes in the
             staffing management plan may be needed because
             people seldom fit the exact planned staffing
             requirements.

3.2.3.4   Develop Project Team
          (Human Resource Management)
          Develop Project Team are the processes used to improve
          the competencies and interaction of team members to
          enhance project performance.
          Inputs
           Project Staff Assignments: described in Section 3.2.3.3.
           Staffing Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.13.
           Resource Availability: described in Section 3.2.3.3.

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          Tools and Techniques
           General Management Skills: Interpersonal skills are
             particularly important to team development.
           Training: includes all activities designed to enhance the
             competencies of the project team members.
           Team-Building Activities: group activities that increase
             team cohesiveness.
           Ground Rules: establish clear expectations regarding
             acceptable behavior by project team members.
           Co-Location: placing many or all of the most active
             project team members in the same physical location to
             enhance their ability to perform as a team.
           Recognition and Rewards: part of the team development
             process involving recognizing and rewarding desirable
             behavior.
          Outputs
           Team Performance Assessment: the evaluation of a
             team’s effectiveness.

3.2.3.5   Information Distribution
          (Communications Management)
          Information Distribution involves making information available
          to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
          Inputs
           Communications Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.14.
          Tools and Techniques
           Communications Skills: a part of general management
              skills and are used to exchange information.
           Information Gathering and Retrieval Systems: the media
              used for gathering and retrieving information, such as
              manual filing systems, databases, etc.
           Information Distribution Methods: the methods to
              distribute information, such as project meetings, email,
              etc.
           Lessons Learned Process: a session that focuses on
              identifying project successes and project failures,
              including recommendations for future improvements.
          Outputs
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): updates to
              lessons learned documentation, project records, reports,
              and presentations.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1

3.2.3.6   Request Seller Responses
          (Procurement Management)
          The Request Seller Responses process obtains responses,
          such as bids and proposals, from prospective sellers on how
          project requirements can be met.


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          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Procurement Management Plan: described in Section
             3.2.2.20.
           Procurement Documents: described in Section 3.2.2.21.
          Tools and Techniques
           Bidder Conferences: meetings with prospective sellers
             prior to preparation of a bid or proposal, used to ensure
             the prospective sellers understand the procurement.
           Advertising: placing advertisements in general circulation
             publications.
           Develop Qualified Sellers List: developed from the
             organizational assets if available, or from the team’s own
             sources.
          Outputs
           Qualified Sellers List: the sellers who are asked to submit
             a proposal or quotation.
           Procurement Document Package: a buyer-prepared
             formal request sent to each seller and is the basis upon
             which a seller prepares a bid.
           Proposals: self-prepared documents that describe the
             seller’s ability and willingness to provide the requested
             products, services, or results.

3.2.3.7   Select Sellers
          (Procurement Management)
          The Select Sellers process receives bids or proposals and
          applies evaluation criteria, as applicable, to select one or
          more sellers.
          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Procurement Management Plan: described in Section
             3.2.2.20.
           Evaluation Criteria: described in Section 3.2.2.21.
           Procurement Document Package: described in Section
             3.2.3.6.
           Proposals: described in Section 3.2.3.6.
           Qualified Sellers List: described in Section 3.2.3.6.
           Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
             the components that are primarily used include the risk
             register and risk-related contractual agreements
          Tools and Techniques
           Weighting System: a method for quantifying qualitative
             data to minimize the effect of personal prejudice on seller
             selection.
           Independent Estimates: sometimes referred to as a
             “should-cost” estimate, prepared by the procuring
             organization or have them prepared.


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      Screening System: involves establishing minimum
       requirements of performance for one or more of the
       evaluation criteria.
     Contract Negotiation: clarifies the structure and
       requirements of the contract so that mutual agreement
       can be reached prior to signing the contract.
     Seller Rating Systems: developed by many organizations
       and use information such as the seller’s past
       performance, quality ratings, etc.
     Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment
       related to functional disciplines such as contracts, legal,
       finance, technology, research, etc.
     Proposal Evaluation Techniques: many different
       techniques can be used to rate and score proposals, but
       all will use some expert judgment and evaluation criteria.
    Outputs
     Selected Sellers: the sellers who have been judged to be
       in a competitive range based on the outcome of the
       evaluation.
     Contract: a contract is awarded to each selected seller
       and can be in the form of a complex document or a
       simple purchase order.
     Contract Management Plan: covers the contract
       administration activities throughout the life of the contract.
     Resource Availability: described in Section 3.2.3.3.
     Procurement Management Plan (Updates): the
       procurement management plan is updated to reflect any
       approved change requests that affect procurement.
     Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1




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3.2.4   Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
         The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group consists of those
         processes performed to observe project execution so that potential
         problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action
         can be taken.

         The key benefit of this Process Group is that project performance is
         observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project
         management plan.

        3.2.4.1   Monitor and Control Project Work
                  (Integration Management)
                  The Monitor and Control Project Work process is performed
                  to monitor project processes associated with initiating,
                  planning, executing, and closing.
                  Inputs
                   Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
                   Work Performance Information: described in Section
                      3.2.3.1
                   Rejected Change Requests: the change requests and
                      their supporting documentation showing a disposition of
                      rejected change requests.
                  Tools and Techniques
                   Project Management Methodology: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1.
                   Project Management Information System (PMIS):
                      described in Section 3.2.1.1.
                   Earned Value Technique: measures performance of the
                      project as it moves from project initiation through project
                      closure.
                   Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment used
                      by the project management team to monitor and control
                      project work.
                  Outputs
                   Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
                      3.2.3.2.
                   Recommended           Preventive    Actions:     documented
                      recommendations that reduce the probability of negative
                      consequences associated with project risks.
                   Forecasts: estimates or predictions of conditions and
                      events in the project’s future.
                   Recommended Defect Repair: some defects, which are
                      found during the quality inspection and audit process, are
                      recommended for correction.
                   Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1

        3.2.4.2   Integrated Change Control
                  (Integration Management)
                  The Integrated Change Control process is performed from
                  project inception through completion.      The project

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          management plan, the project scope statement, and other
          deliverables must be maintained by carefully and
          continuously managing changes and incorporating them into
          a revised baseline.
          Inputs
           Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Recommended Preventive Actions: described in Section
              3.2.4.1.
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
              3.2.3.2.
           Recommended Defect Repair: described in Section
              3.2.4.1.
           Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Project Management Methodology: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.
           Project Management Information System (PMIS):
              described in Section 3.2.1.1.
           Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment used
              by the project management team to monitor and control
              project work.
          Outputs
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
           Rejected Change Requests: described in Section 3.2.4.1.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
              management plan will be updated from the various
              changes.
           Project Scope Statement (Updates): if approved change
              requests result, then the project scope statement is
              updated to include those approved changes.
           Approved Corrective Actions: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Approved Preventive Actions: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Approved Defect Repair: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Validated Defect Repair: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.

3.2.4.3   Scope Verification
          (Scope Management)
          Scope Verification is the process of obtaining the
          stakeholders’ formal acceptance of the completed project
          scope and associated deliverables.



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          Inputs
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           WBS Dictionary: described in Section 3.2.2.4.
           Project Scope Management Plan: described in Section
             3.2.2.2.
           Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Inspection: activities such as measuring, examining, and
             verifying to determine whether work and deliverables
             meet requirements and product acceptance criteria; also
             called walkthroughs, reviews, etc.
          Outputs
           Accepted Deliverables: The Scope Verification process
             documents those completed deliverables that have been
             accepted.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.2.

3.2.4.4   Scope Control
          (Scope Management)
          Project Scope Control is concerned with influencing the
          factors that create project scope changes and controlling the
          impact of those changes.
          Inputs
           Project Scope Statement: described in Section 3.2.2.3.
           Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): described in Section
              3.2.2.4.
           WBS Dictionary: described in Section 3.2.2.4.
           Project Scope Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.2.
           Performance Reports: provide information on project
              work performance, such as interim deliverables that have
              been completed.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1
          Tools and Techniques
           Change Control System: defines the procedures by which
              the project scope and product scope can be changed.
           Variance Analysis: assessing the magnitude of variation
              relative to the scope baseline.
           Re-planning: approved change requests affecting the
              project scope can require modifications to the project
              management plan.
           Configuration Management System: provides procedures
              for the status of deliverables and assures that requested
              changes are thoroughly considered and documented.



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          Outputs
           Project Scope Statement (Updates): if the approved
             change requests result, then the project scope statement
             is updated to include those approved changes.
           Work Breakdown Structure (Updates): if the approved
             changes have an effect upon the project scope, then the
             WBS is updated.
           WBS Dictionary (Updates): if the approved changes have
             an effect upon the project scope, then the WBS dictionary
             is revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.
           Scope Baseline (Updates): if the approved changes have
             an effect upon the project scope, then the scope baseline
             is updated.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.2.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): the causes of
             variances, the reasoning behind the corrective and other
             types of lessons learned are documented.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated from the various
             changes.

3.2.4.5   Schedule Control
          (Time Management)
          Schedule Control is concerned with determining schedule
          status, influencing the factors that create schedule changes,
          and managing the actual changes as they occur.
          Inputs
           Schedule Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.9.
           Schedule Baseline: described in Section 3.2.2.9.
           Performance Reports: described in Section 3.2.4.4.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
          Tools and Techniques
           Progress Reporting: reporting on current schedule status
              including the actual start and finish dates and remaining
              durations for activities.
           Schedule Change Control System: defines the
              procedures by which the project schedule can be
              changed.
           Performance Measurement: techniques that produce the
              schedule variance and schedule performance index,
              which are used to assess the magnitude of any project
              schedule variations that do occur.
           Project Management Software: provides the ability to
              track planned dates versus actual dates, and to forecast
              the effects of changes.
           Variance Analysis: comparing target schedule dates with
              the actual/forecast start and finish dates.

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            Schedule Comparison Bar Charts: displays two bars for
             each schedule activity, one showing actual and the other
             showing the baseline.
          Outputs
           Schedule Model Data (Updates): any modification to the
             project schedule model information that is used to
             manage the project.
           Schedule Baseline (Updates): approved changes to the
             schedule’s start and finish dates in the approved
             schedule baseline.
           Performance Measurements: the calculated schedule
             variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI)
             values for WBS components.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.2.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
             Section 3.2.4.4.
           Activity List (Updates): if approved change requests
             result, then the activity list is updated to include those
             changes.
           Activity Attributes (Updates): if approved changed
             requests result, then the activity attributes are updated.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated from the various
             changes.

3.2.4.6   Cost Control
          (Cost Management)
          Project Cost Control includes the influencing of the factors
          that create changes to the cost baseline and managing the
          actual changes when and as they occur.
          Inputs
           Cost Baseline: described in Section 3.2.2.11.
           Project Funding Requirements: described in Section
              3.2.2.11.
           Performance Reports: described in Section 3.2.4.4.
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
              3.2.2.3.
           Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Cost Change Control System: defines the procedures by
              which the cost baseline can be changed.
           Performance Measurement Analysis: help to assess the
              magnitude of any variances that will invariably occur,
              using the earned value technique (EVT).
           Forecasting: making estimates or predictions of
              conditions in the project’s future based on information
              and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.

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            Project Performance Reviews: meetings held to assess
             schedule activity, work package, or cost account status
             and progress.
           Project Management Software: often used to monitor
             calculations in the earned value technique.
           Variance Management: managing variances according to
             the cost management plan.
          Outputs
           Cost Estimates (Updates): revised cost estimates may
             require adjustments to other aspects of the project
             management plan.
           Cost Baseline (Updates): in some cases, cost variances
             can be so severe that a revised cost baseline is needed
             to provide a realistic basis for performance measurement.
           Performance Measurements:               the calculated cost
             variance (CV), schedule variance (SV), cost performance
             indicator (CPI), and schedule performance indicator (SPI)
             for WBS components.
           Forecasted Completion: either a calculated estimate to
             completion (ETC) or a performing organization-reported
             ETC value.
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.2.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
             Section 3.2.4.4.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated from the various
             changes.

3.2.4.7   Perform Quality Control
          (Quality Management)
          Performing Quality Control (QC) involves monitoring specific
          project results to determine whether they comply with
          relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate
          causes of unsatisfactory performance.

          Inputs
           Quality Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Quality Metrics: described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Quality Checklists: described in Section 3.2.2.12.
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
             3.2.3.1.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
             3.2.2.3.
           Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.




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    Tools and Techniques
     Cause and Effect Diagram: illustrates how various factors
       might be linked to potential problems or effects, also
       known as a fishbone diagram.
     Control Charts: used to determine whether or not a
       process is stable or has predictable performance.
     Flowcharting: a graphical representation of a process that
       helps to analyze how problems occur.
     Histogram: a bar chart showing a distribution of variables.
     Pareto Chart: a specific type of histogram, ordered by
       frequency of occurrence and conceptually related to
       Pareto’s Law (80% of problems due to 20% of causes)
     Run Chart: a line graph showing trends in a process over
       time; shows the history and pattern of variation.
     Scatter Diagram: shows the pattern of relationship
       between two variables; dependent variables versus
       independent variables.
     Statistical Sampling: choosing part of a population of
       interest for inspection.
     Inspection: the examination of a work product to
       determine whether it conforms to standards.
     Defect Repair Review: an action taken by the quality
       control department to ensure that product defects are
       repaired and brought into compliance.
    Outputs
     Quality Control Measurements: the results of QC
       activities that are fed back to quality assurance (QA).
     Validated Defect Repair: repaired items are re-inspected
       and will be either accepted or rejected.
     Quality Baseline (Updates): approved changes to the
       quality objectives of the project.
     Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
       3.2.3.2.
     Recommended Preventive Actions: described in Section
       3.2.4.1.
     Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
     Recommended Defect Repair: described in Section
       3.2.4.1.
     Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
       Section 3.2.4.4.
     Validated Deliverables: a goal of quality control is to
       determine the correctness of deliverables. The results of
       the execution quality control processes are validated
       deliverables.
     Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
       management plan will be updated from the various
       changes.




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3.2.4.8   Manage Project Team
          (Human Resource Management)
          Manage Project Team involves tracking team member
          performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and
          coordinating changes to enhance project performance.
          Inputs
           Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
              3.2.1.1.
           Project Staff Assignments: described in Section 3.2.3.3.
           Roles and Responsibilities: described in Section 3.2.2.13.
           Project Organization Charts: described in Section
              3.2.2.13.
           Staffing Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.13.
           Team Performance Assessment: ongoing formal or
              informal assessments of the project team’s performance.
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.
           Performance Reports: described in Section 3.2.4.4.
          Tools and Techniques
           Observation and Conversation: used to stay in touch with
              the work and attitudes of project team members.
           Project Performance Appraisals: feedback and evaluation
              information about team members, gathered from people
              who supervise project work.
           Conflict Management: management of differences of
              opinion; successful conflict management results in
              greater productivity and positive working relationships.
           Issue Log: a written log of issues, with individuals
              assigned to resolve them by target dates.
          Outputs
           Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
           Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
              3.2.3.2.
           Recommended Preventive Actions: described in Section
              3.2.4.1.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
              Section 3.2.4.4.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
              management plan will be updated from the various
              changes.

3.2.4.9   Performance Reporting
          (Communications Management)
          The Performance Reporting process involves the collection
          of baseline data, and distribution of performance information
          to stakeholders, including scope, schedule, cost, and quality
          information.
          Inputs
           Work Performance Information: described in Section
              3.2.3.1.


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           Performance Measurements: described in Section
            3.2.4.6.
          Forecasted Completion: described in Section 3.2.4.6.
          Quality Control Measurements: described in Section
            3.2.4.7.
          Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
          Approved Change Requests: described in Section
            3.2.2.3.
          Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
         Tools and Techniques
          Information Presentation Tools: software packages that
            include     table  reporting,     spreadsheet  analysis,
            presentations, graphic capabilities, etc.
          Performance Information Gathering and Compilation:
            gathering information from a variety of media, including
            manual filing systems, project management software, etc.
          Status Review Meetings: regularly scheduled events to
            exchange information about the project.
          Time Reporting Systems: record and provide time
            expended for the project.
          Cost Reporting Systems: record and provide the cost
            expended for the project.
         Outputs
          Performance Reports: organize and summarize the
            information gathered, and present the results of any
            analysis as compared to the performance measurement
            baseline; should provide the status and progress
            information.
          Forecasts: described in Section 3.2.4.1.
          Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
          Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
            3.2.3.2.
          Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
            Section 3.2.4.4.

3.2.4.10 Manage Stakeholders
         (Communications Management)
         Stakeholder       management       refers   to   managing
         communications to satisfy the needs of, and resolve issues
         with, project stakeholders.
         Inputs
          Communications Management Plan: described in Section
             3.2.2.14.
          Organizational Process Assets: described in Section
             3.2.1.1.
         Tools and Techniques
          Communications Methods: face-to-face meetings, phone
             calls, email, and other tools.
          Issue Logs: described in Section 3.2.4.8.



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          Outputs
           Resolved Issues: as stakeholder requirements are
             identified and resolved, the issues log will document
             concerns that have been addressed and closed.
           Approved Change Requests: described in Section
             3.2.2.3.
           Approved Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.1.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
             Section 3.2.4.4.
           Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
             management plan will be updated from the various
             changes.

3.2.4.11 Risk Monitoring and Control
         (Risk Management)
         Risk Monitoring and Control is the process of identifying,
         analyzing, and planning for newly arising risks and reviewing
         the execution of risk responses.
         Inputs
          Risk Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.15
          Risk Register: described in Section 3.2.2.16.
          Approved Change Requests: described in Section
             3.2.2.3.
          Work Performance Information: described in Section
             3.2.3.1.
          Performance Reports: described in Section 3.2.4.4.
         Tools and Techniques
          Risk Reassessment: identification of new risks and
             reassessment of risks, regularly scheduled.
          Risk Audits: examine and document the effectiveness of
             risk responses in dealing with identified risks.
          Variance and Trend Analysis: trends in the project’s
             execution should be reviewed using performance data;
             outcomes may forecast potential deviations.
          Technical Performance Measurement: comparing
             technical accomplishments during project execution to
             the project management plan’s schedule of technical
             achievement.
          Reserve Analysis: comparing the amount of the
             contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk
             remaining.
          Status Review Meetings: described in Section 3.2.4.9.
         Tools and Techniques
          Risk Register (Updates): described in Section 3.2.2.19
          Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
          Recommended Corrective Actions: described in Section
             3.2.3.2.
          Recommended Preventive Actions: described in Section
             3.2.4.1.


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             Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
              Section 3.2.4.4.
             Project Management Plan (Updates): the project
              management plan will be updated from the various
              changes.

3.2.4.12 Contract Administration
         (Procurement Management)
         The Contract Administration process ensures that the seller’s
         performance meets contractual requirements and that the
         buyer performs according to the terms of the contract.
         Inputs
          Contract: described in Section 3.2.2.11
          Contract Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.3.7.
          Selected Sellers: described in Section 3.2.3.7.
          Performance Reports: described in Section 3.2.4.4.
          Approved Change Requests: described in 3.2.2.3.
          Work Performance Information: described in 3.2.3.1.
         Tools and Techniques
          Contract Change Control System: defines the process by
             which the contract can be modified.
          Buyer-Conducted Performance Review: a structured
             review of the seller’s progress to deliver project scope
             and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to
             the contract.
          Inspections and Audits: conducted during execution of
             the project to identify any weaknesses in the seller’s work
             processes or deliverables.
          Performance Reporting: described in Section 3.2.4.9.
          Payment System: payments to the seller are usually
             handled by the accounts payable system of the buyer.
          Claims Administration: the administration of claims, which
             are contested changes where the buyer and seller cannot
             agree on compensation for the change
          Records Management System: a specific set of
             processes, related control functions and automation tools
             used to manage contract documentation and records.
          Information Technology: the use of information and
             communications technology can enhance the efficiency
             and effectiveness of contract administration.
         Outputs
          Contract Documentation: includes, but is not limited to
             the    contract,     supporting   schedules,    requested
             unapproved contract changes, etc.
          Requested Changes: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
          Recommended Corrective Actions: described in 3.2.3.2.
          Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
             Section 3.2.4.4.
          Project Management Plan (Updates)



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3.2.5   Closing Process Group
         The Closing Process Group consists of the processes used to formally
         terminate all activities of a project or a project phase, hand off the
         completed product to others or close a cancelled project.

         This Process Group, when completed, verifies that the defined
         processes are completed within all the Process Groups to close the
         project or a project phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes
         that the project or project phase is finished.


        3.2.5.1   Close Project
                  (Integration Management)
                  The Close Project process involves the development of
                  procedures for administrative closure (collect records,
                  analyze lessons learned) and contract closure (settle and
                  close contracts).
                  Inputs
                   Project Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.2.1.
                   Contract Documentation: described in Section 3.2.4.12.
                   Enterprise Environmental Factors: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1
                   Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
                      Section 3.2.4.4.
                   Work Performance Information: described in Section
                      3.2.3.1.
                   Deliverables: described in Section 3.2.3.1.
                  Tools and Techniques
                   Project Management Methodology: described in Section
                      3.2.1.1.
                   Project Management Information System (PMIS):
                      described in Section 3.2.1.1.
                   Expert Judgment: in this process, expert judgment is
                      applied in developing and performing both the
                      administrative and contract closure procedures.
                  Outputs
                   Administrative Closure Procedure: a step-by-step
                      methodology for actions and activities that define how to
                      meet stakeholder approval; confirm the project has met
                      requirements; and transfer the product/service to
                      production and operations.
                   Contract Closure Procedure: a step-by-step methodology
                      for actions and activities that formally close all contracts
                      associated with the project.
                   Final Product, Service, or Result: formal acceptance and
                      handover of the final product, service, or result.
                   Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
                      Section 3.2.4.4.




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3.2.5.2   Contract Closure
          (Procurement Management)
          The Contract Closure process supports the Close Project
          process, since it involves verification that all work and
          deliverables were acceptable.
          Inputs
           Procurement Management Plan: described in Section
              3.2.2.20.
           Contract Management Plan: described in Section 3.2.3.7.
           Contract Documentation: described in Section 3.2.4.12.
           Contract Closure Procedure: described in Section
              3.2.5.1.
          Tools and Techniques
           Procurement Audits: a structured review of the
              procurement process to identify successes and failures.
           Records Management System: described in Section
              3.2.4.12.
          Outputs
           Closed Contracts: formal written notice that the contract
              has been completed.
           Organizational Process Assets (Updates): described in
              Section 3.2.4.4.




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                         Project Management Basics – v1.0 March 15, 2006



Appendices
Appendix A – Project Charter Template
Project Charter Template.dot




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                        Project Management Basics – v1.0 March 15, 2006



Appendix B – Project Management Plan Template
Project Management Plan Template.dot




                                                                          48
Appendix C – Project Closure Report Template
Project Closeout Report Template.dot




                                               49
Appendix D – GRO Procedures Mapped to the PMBOK® Guide
This diagram identifies how the project management procedures for GRO map to the
PMBOK processes.

          GRO PM Procedure                          PMBOK Process Name

1.A. Introduce and Discuss the Project

1.B. Develop the Project Charter         3.2.1.1 Develop Project Charter
                                         3.2.1.2 Develop Preliminary Scope Statement

2.A. Develop the Project Management
Plan

  2.A.1 Create the Project Management    3.2.2.1 Develop Project Management Plan
  Plan document

  2.A.2 Define the Scope                 3.2.2.2 Scope Planning
                                         3.2.2.3 Scope Definition
                                         3.2.2.4 Create the Work Breakdown Structure

  2.A.3 Create the Schedule              3.2.2.5 Activity Definition
                                         3.2.2.6 Activity Sequencing
                                         3.2.2.7 Activity Resource Estimating
                                         3.2.2.8 Activity Duration Estimating
                                         3.2.2.9 Schedule Development

  2.A.4 Develop the Budget               3.2.2.10 Cost Estimating
                                         3.2.2.11 Cost Budgeting

  2.A.5 Plan for Quality Management      3.2.2.12 Quality Planning

  2.A.6 Plan for Human Resources         3.2.2.13 Human Resource Planning

  2.A.7 Plan Communications              3.2.2.14 Communications Planning

  2.A.8 Risk Planning                    3.2.2.15 Risk Management Planning
                                         3.2.2.16 Risk Identification
                                         3.2.2.17 Qualitative Risk Analysis
                                         3.2.2.18 Quantitative Risk Analysis
                                         3.2.2.19 Risk Response Planning

  2.A.9 Procurement Planning             3.2.2.20 Plan Purchases and Acquisitions
                                         3.2.2.21 Plan Contracting
                                         3.2.3.6 Request Seller Responses
                                         3.2.3.7 Select Sellers

2.B. Approve the Project Management
Plan


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                          Project Management Basics – v1.0 March 15, 2006


          GRO PM Procedure                               PMBOK Process Name


3.A. Acquire Project Team                    3.2.3.3 Acquire Project Team

3.B. Execute Project Work                    3.2.3.1 Direct and Manage Project Execution

3.C. Perform Quality Assurance               3.2.3.2 Perform Quality Assurance

3.D. Develop Project Team                    3.2.3.4 Develop Project Team

3.E. Communication and Information           3.2.3.5 Information Distribution
Distribution

4.A. Change Control                          3.2.4.2 Integrated Change Control
                                             3.2.4.4 Scope Control
                                             3.2.4.5 Schedule Control
                                             3.2.4.6 Cost Control
                                             3.2.4.7 Quality Control

4.B. Scope Verification                      3.2.4.3 Scope Verification

4.C. Manage Project Team and                 3.2.4.8 Manage Project Team
Stakeholders                                 3.2.4.10 Manage Stakeholders

4.D. Status Reporting                        3.2.4.9 Performance Reporting

4.E. Risk Monitoring and Control             3.2.4.11 Risk Monitoring and Control

4.F. Contract Administration                 3.2.4.12 Contract Administration

5.A. Close the Project                       3.2.5.1 Close Project
                                             3.2.5.2 Contract Closure




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Appendix E – PMBOK Processes and Knowledge Areas

                                                     Project Management Process Groups
Knowledge Area
  Processes         Initiating          Planning Process              Executing            Monitoring and          Closing
                  Process Group              Group                  Process Group       Controlling Process     Process Group
                                                                                                Group
Project          3.2.1.1 Develop     3.2.2.1 Develop Project       3.2.3.1 Direct and   3.2.4.1 Monitor and     3.2.5.1 Close
Management       Project Charter     Management Plan               Manage Project       Control Project Work    Project
Integration      3.2.1.2 Develop                                   Execution            3.2.4.2 Integrated
                 Preliminary Scope                                                      Change Control
                 Statement

Project Scope                        3.2.2.2 Scope Planning                             3.2.4.3 Scope
Management                           3.2.2.3 Scope Definition                           Verification
                                     3.2.2.4 Create the Work                            3.2.4.4 Scope Control
                                     Breakdown Structure

Project Time                         3.2.2.5 Activity Definition                        3.2.4.5 Schedule
Management                           3.2.2.6 Activity                                   Control
                                     Sequencing
                                     3.2.2.7 Activity Resource
                                     Estimating
                                     3.2.2.8 Activity Duration
                                     Estimating
                                     3.2.2.9 Schedule
                                     Development

Project Cost                         3.2.2.10 Cost Estimating                           3.2.4.6 Cost Control
Management                           3.2.2.11 Cost Budgeting




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                                      Project Management Basics – v1.0 March 15, 2006



                                                  Project Management Process Groups
Knowledge Area
  Processes         Initiating       Planning Process               Executing             Monitoring and            Closing
                  Process Group           Group                   Process Group        Controlling Process       Process Group
                                                                                               Group
Project Quality                   3.2.2.12 Quality Planning      3.2.3.2 Perform       3.2.4.7 Quality Control
Management                                                       Quality Assurance

Project Human                     3.2.2.13 Human Resource        3.2.3.3 Acquire       3.2.4.8 Manage Project
Resource                          Planning                       Project Team          Team
Management                                                       3.2.3.4 Develop
                                                                 Project Team

Project                           3.2.2.14 Communications        3.2.3.5 Information   3.2.4.9 Performance
Communications                    Planning                       Distribution          Reporting
Management                                                                             3.2.4.10 Manage
                                                                                       Stakeholders
Project Risk                      3.2.2.15 Risk Management                             3.2.4.11 Risk
Management                        Planning                                             Monitoring and Control
                                  3.2.2.16 Risk Identification
                                  3.2.2.17 Qualitative Risk
                                  Analysis
                                  3.2.2.18 Quantitative Risk
                                  Analysis
                                  3.2.2.19 Risk Response
                                  Planning

Project                           3.2.2.20 Plan Purchases        3.2.3.6 Request       3.2.4.12 Contract         3.2.5.2 Contract
Procurement                       and Acquisitions               Seller Responses      Administration            Closure
Management                        3.2.2.21 Plan Contracting      3.2.3.7 Select
                                                                 Sellers




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                                   Project Management Basics – v1.0 March 15, 2006




Description of Project Management Knowledge Areas
    Project Integration Management describes the processes and activities that integrate the various elements of
      project management.
    Project Scope Management describes the processes involved in ascertaining that the project includes all the work
      required, and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
    Project Time Management describes the processes concerning the timely completion of a project.
    Project Cost Management describes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling
      costs so that the project is completed within the approved budget.
    Project Quality Management describes the processes involved in assuring that the project will satisfy the objectives
      for which it was undertaken.
    Project Human Resource Management describes the processes that organize and manage the project team.
    Project Communications Management describes the processes concerning the timely and appropriate generation,
      collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information.
    Project Risk Management describes the processes concerned with conducting risk management on a project.
    Project Procurement Management describes the processes that purchase or acquire products, services or results,
      as well as contract management processes.




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