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Hawaii hotspot

Hawaii hotspot
of tectonic plates on the margin between the Pacific and Eurasian plates. The Hawaiian hotspot has also been the source of alternate theories that argue against the hotspot theory altogether. The Hawaii hotspot is responsible for over 129 volcanoes (over 123 extinct volcanoes, seamounts, and atolls; 4 active volcanoes; and 2 dormant volcanoes[4]) arranged in an arc known as the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. Data gathered from the Hawaii island chain allowed J. Tuzo Wilson to Three dimensional perspective of the southeastern propose the "hotspot" theory in 1963. The Hawaiian Islands, with the white summits of Mauna Loa (4,170 m/13,700 ft high) and Mauna Kea (4,206 m/ volcanoes of the chain range in age from 20 years to 82 million years, and most of them 13,800 ft high). Historic lavaflows shown in red. are in an advanced state of deterioration. Location North Pacific Ocean Native Hawaiian fishermen were the first Coordinates The newest volcano, Loihi, is at 18°55′N people to notice the increasing age of the is155°16′W / 18.92°N 155.27°W / 18.92;lands, based on differences in erosion. A -155.27Coordinates: 18°55′N 155°16′W / bend at 41 and 43 million years of age 18.92°N 155.27°W / 18.92; -155.27, sharply divides the Hawaiian and Emperor 40 km (25 mi) northwest.[1] sections of the chain; it was once thought to Country United States, Hawaii be a result of sudden plate movement, but recent studies have indicated that it was Type Hotspot caused by movement of the hotspot itself.
Hawaii hotspot

Hotspot theory
See also: Hotspot (geology), Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, and Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes The vast majority of earthquakes and volcanThe chain of islands generated by the Hawaii hotspot, eruptions occur near plate boundaries, but ic called the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. Note the Hawaiian Islands are an exception, as the the V-Shaped "break," a change in the direction of nearest plate boundary to Hawaii is more movement of the Pacific Plate or the hotspot itself. than 3,200 km (1,988 mi) away.[2] In 1963, Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson came The Hawaii hotspot is one of the best up with the "hotspot" theory to explain [2] responsknown volcanic hotspots on Earth, this.[5] The theory claimed that small, long ible for the creation of the Hawaiian Islands lasting, exceptionally "hot" areas of magma in the Pacific Ocean. The hotspot’s volcanoes are located under certain points on Earth. drift northwest, through the action of continThese hotspots provide localized heat and enental drift, from the hotspot at a rate of about ergy systems (thermal plumes) that sustain 10 cm (3.9 in) a year. At this speed, Kure and long-lasting volcanic activity on the surface. Midway atolls were where the present island This volcanism builds up seamounts that can of Hawaii is now about 40 million years eventually rise above the ocean surface, [3] The oldest volcano in the chain, Meiji ago. forming volcanic islands. As the islands Seamount, is dated to 82 million years; slowly drift away from the hotspot (the hothowever, the hotspot may be older, with spot remains relatively stationary as Earth’s older seamounts destroyed by the subduction tectonic plates are moved by seafloor

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spreading), the magma supply is cut and the volcano goes dormant, eventually eroding back into the waves. Meanwhile, a new volcano forms over the hotspot and the process repeats all over again, this time forming a new island, on and on until the hotspot collapses.[2] According to Wilson’s hotspot theory, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian chain should get progressively older and increasingly eroded the farther northwest you travel beyond the hotspot. The oldest rocks in the Hawaiian segment, the rocks on Kauai, are about 5.5 million years old and deeply eroded.[2] In contrast, the rocks of the "Big Island," and specifically those of Loihi, are under 0.7 million years old.[2][6] New volcanic rock is constantly being made at Hawaii’s main island.

Hawaii hotspot
beneath the northern Pacific Ocean. The chain contains about 129 (mostly extinct) volcanoes and stretches over 5,800 km (3,604 mi) from the Aleutian Trench in the far northwest Pacific to Loihi Seamount, the youngest volcano in the chain, lying about 35 km (22 mi) southeast of the Island of Hawaii.[6] The direction, distance between, and size of the chain and its volcanoes indicate the direction and speed of the spread of the Pacific Plate, and thus records the history of plate movement. At a point roughly 50 million years ago, the Pacific Plate suddenly changed direction, due to the subduction of the spreading ridge separating the Pacific and Izanagi plates, and the initiation of subduction along much of the western boundary of the Pacific Plate.[7] The change in direction was recorded by a V-shaped break in the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, easily visible in satellite photography (see map above). Many geophysicists believe that hotspots originate from the interaction between Earth’s core (its deepest rock layer) and the overlying mantle. This zone, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) deep, might develop a small "bump" that protrudes slightly into the mantle from the deeper core layer of the earth. The bump transfers the intense heat from Earth’s center into the adjacent mantle, heating it up. Convection currents make the heat slowly rise a few centimeters a year (due to molten rock’s high viscosity), because it is hotter the surrounding mantle. The heat keeps rising, but does not melt the (usually) highly metamorphosed silicate rock, which is resistant to heat.[8] As the heat enters the less resistant crust layer, it melts the rock, forming a mantle plume, from which the volcanoes get their lava.[9]

A diagram demonstrating the drift of the Earth’s crust over the hotspot This process of volcanoes growing and going dormant forms long chains of volcanic islands over many millions of years. In the case of Hawaii, it has left a long trail of volcanic islands and seamounts across the Pacific Ocean floor. The group of "Hawaiian" volcanoes are actually an extension of a larger chain, dubbed the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain is composed of the Hawaiian Ridge, consisting of the islands of the Hawaiian chain northwest to Kure Atoll, and the Emperor Seamounts, a vast underwater mountain region of islands and intervening seamounts, atolls, shallows, banks and reefs along a line trending southeast to northwest

Challenges to the hotspot theory
The most disputed element of the theory was whether or not the hotspot is fixed relative to the plate, or whether it is mobile. Drill samples collected by some scientists as far back as 1963 had suggested that perhaps the hotspot was not immobile, and that it may have drifted to and fro over time, at a relatively rapid pace of about 4 cm (1.6 in) per year during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary times (81-47 MYA).[1] However,

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most scientists still thought that the hotspot was immobile. In 1987, Peter Molnar and Joann Stock found that the hotspot does move, at least relative to the Atlantic Ocean. However, this could (and was believed to be) a result of the relative motions of the North American and Pacific plates rather then the hotspot itself.[10] In 2003, a new study was concluded that aimed to test the theory’s validity, based on rocks collected by a two-month excursion aboard the research vessel JOIDES Resolution to collect samples of lava flows from four submerged Emperor volcanoes in 2001. The expedition was funded by the Ocean Drilling Program, an international research effort designed to study the world’s seafloors.[11][12] The project drilled Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko seamounts, all to the far northwest of the chain.[12] The findings showed further evidence suggesting that the break was caused by the motion of the Hawaiian hotspot itself.[13] The findings, led by University of Rochester’s John Tarduno, are based on an analysis of rock from the seamounts gathered during 2001. The finding were published first in an online scientific journal (Science Express), and later appeared in the printed magazine Science. Tarduno said the following in an interview with National Geographic: “ "The Hawaii bend was used as a clas- ” sic example of how a large plate can change motion quickly. You can find a diagram of the Hawaii-Emperor bend entered into just about every introductory geological textbook out there. It really is something that catches your eye."[13]

Hawaii hotspot

Bathymetry image of the Hawaiian archipelago - Oʻahu and Maui Nui (the large underwater plateau), a former island, in center two radioactive elements, potassium and argon. Researchers estimated that the volcanoes formed during a period of 81 million to 45 million years ago. Tarduno and his team determined where the volcanoes formed by analyzing the rock for the magnetic mineral magnetite. While hot lava from a volcanic eruption cools, tiny grains within the magnetite align with the poles, and are locked in place once the rock solidifies. Researchers were able to verify the latitudes at which the volcanoes formed by measuring the orientation of the grains within the magnetite. Using these techniques, paleomagnetists concluded that the Hawaiian hotspot had drifted southward sometime in its history, in direct contrast with the theory at the time.[11] The studies indicated that, 47 million years ago, the "southerly movement of the hot spot slowed drastically and maybe even stopped," said Tarduno. "The result is the bend seen in the seamount chain, which until now was considered proof that the Pacific Plate itself had changed direction."[13] The bend in the chain had long been the oft-cited evidence of how suddenly plates can change direction. Some groups who don’t believe in plate tectonics cited the new discovery as one of many pieces of "evidence" against the hotspot theory.[14][13] Arguments against the hotspot theory’s validity generally center on several issues[14]: • The fact that the bend did not result from a change in direction of movement of the Pacific plate.

The Emperor and Hawaiian chains differ in their direction by about 60°. It is thought that a major change in plate movement caused the change; however, such a change in plate direction did not occur, according to the new studies. The change in direction was never recorded by magnetic declinations, fracture zone orientations or plate motion reconstructions. Reorganization of the global plates resulting from continental collision is not an instantaneous event, as would be required if the bend is explained that way.[14] To test the theories, scientists conducted geochemical analyses of the lava samples to determine where and when they formed. Age was determined by the radiometric dating of

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• The bend between the Hawaiian and Emperor chains occurs close to where the chain crosses the Mendocino Fracture Zone. • The Emperor part of the chain (the oldest entities, especially Meiji Seamount) ends near a bend in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. • The absence of an oceanic "rise" near the island volcanoes that should have formed with the erupted lava. • The unusually variable rate of volcanism. • The apparent absence of a heatflow anomaly (increased temperature of the lithosphere around the suspected hotspot). The lithosphere over a thermal plume is expected be thinner and hotter than the average for lithosphere of the same age elsewhere. • Mantle temperature is inconsistent. • The magma seems to originate from a very shallow chamber in the asthenosphere. • Geochemistry is ambiguous regarding the depth of the magma’s origin. • Seismology has yet to detect the plume. Alternate theories state that volcanic island arcs are caused by the unequal distribution of lithospheric stresses, rather then a narrow volcanic plume. The most popular alternate theory cites the correlation of all of the worlds hotspots with local topography, including the fact that most hotspots occur on young rock (typically under 30 million years), as evidence against the hotspot theory.[15]

Hawaii hotspot

Sir James Dwight Dana (1813 – 1895), an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist, was the first geologist to study the Hawaii arc and its hotspot in detail. terms "Loa" and "Kea" series for the two prominent trends. The Kea trend includes the volcanoes of Kilauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakala, and West Maui. The Loa trend includes Loihi, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kahoolawe, Lanai, and West Molokai.[14] The alignment of the Hawaiian Islands, Dana proposed, reflected localized volcanic activity along a major fissure zone on the ocean floor. Dana’s "great fissure" theory served as the working hypothesis for subsequent studies up until the mid-20th century.[14] His conclusions were based mostly on the fact that almost all of the Hawaiian volcanoes have two rift zones, but only one is usually active.[1] Later, it was found that a ridge, the Pacific-Kula Ridge, did at one time exist in the area, but it disappeared in the early Tertiary period.[16] Dana’s work was followed up by geologist C. E. Dutton’s 1884 expedition, who refined and expanded on Dana’s ideas. Most notably the scientist established that there were actually five volcanoes on the island, whereas Dana counted three. Dana had originally

Characteristics and study
History
The Hawaii hotspot and its chain is the beststudied hotspot on Earth, and is comprised of at least 129 volcanoes, most of which are now extinct.[1] The first geologic study of the Hawaiian Islands was directed by James Dwight Dana in the years 1880 to 1881, who first confirmed the increase in age of the islands moving northwest, based on differences in their degree of erosion. He also suggested that many other island chains in the Pacific showed a similar general decrease in age from northwest to southeast. Dana concluded that the Hawaiian chain consisted of two volcanic strands, located along distinct but parallel curving pathways. He coined the

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regarded Kilauea as a flank vent of Mauna Loa, and Kohala as part of Mauna Kea. Dutton also refined some of Dana’s observations, and is credited with the naming of ’A’ā and pāhoehoe-type lavas, although Dana did previously notice a distinction. Dana maintained a lively interest in the Hawaiian isles. Stimulated by Dutton’s expedition, in 1887 he returned to the island at the age of 74, and he published many accounts of his expedition in the Journal of Science. In 1890 he published a manuscript that was the most detailed of its day, and remained the definitive guide to Hawaiian volcanism for decades. In 1909, two large rival volumes were published, which extensively quoted from earlier works now out of circulation.[17]

Hawaii hotspot
volcanoes was formulated in 1946, and since that time, advances have been made that narrowed the gaps between data.[18] In the 1970s, the seafloor in the entire area was mapped using sonar. More direct ship-based sonar data was compiled with math-based SYNBAPS (Synthetic Bathymetric Profiling System)[19] data, with the shipbased bathymetrics carrying the most weight.[20] In 1971, geologist W. Jason Morgan went to Hawaii and gathered evidence against Dana’s theory, which was first put under doubt in 1967 by geologists Jack Oliver and B. Isaacs.[10] The islands were put under more detailed scrutiny from 1994 to March 1998.[21] The effort, funded by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, spent four years mapping Hawaii in detail and studying its ocean floor, making it one of the best studied maritime features in the world. The project, a collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other scientific agencies, utilized submersibles (both manned and remotely operated), dredge samplings, and core samples.[22] The project utilized the recently developed Simrad EM300 multibeam side-scanning sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data. The project contracted with C&C Technologies to run the system on a contracted vessel, the M/V Ocean Alert. The Simrad EM300 was the principal piece equipment in use to collect data for the project, and operates using 30 kHz pings of sound waves.[21]

Charecteristics
A detailed analysis of the topography and geoid (height above or below mean sea level) of the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain reveals that while high near the hotspot, the local elevation (not surprisingly) falls with distance, but most severely between the Murray and Molokai fracture areas. Both geoid and topography rapidly decrease westward of the intersection with the Murray fracture zone. The most likely explanation is that the region of plate between the two zones is more susceptible to reheating then most of the rest of the chain. Another possible explanation is that the strength of the Hawaiian hotspot surges up and down with time.[20] Robert S. Dietz and his colleagues were the first to identify the swells in 1953. It was suggested that the cause was an upwelling of

American geologist Thomas Jaggar, founder of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. In 1912 the study of Hawaiian volcanism was forever changed by the foundation of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory by geologist Thomas Jaggar. The facility was taken over in 1919 by the NOAA, and marked the start of continuous volcano observance on Hawaii island. The next century was a period of thorough investigation, hallmarked by contributions from many top scientists and spearheaded by the volcanic observatory. The complete model for the evolution of Hawaiian

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the mantle. Later work suggested instead that the cause is more likely to be tectonic uplift, caused by the reheating of material within the lower lithosphere. However, the normal seismic activity beneath the swell, as well as lack of detected heat flow, caused scientists to suggest that a dynamic reason may also be viable. Understanding the Hawaiian swell has important implications for the study of hotspots, island formation, and inner Earth.[20] Hawaii’s volcanoes rise an average of 4,572 m (15,000 ft) to reach sea level from their base.[23] The tallest, Mauna Kea, has built itself up to a staggering 4,207.3 m (13,803 ft) in height above mean sea level,[24] which (if measured from its base on the seafloor) would make it the tallest mountain in the world, at 33,476 ft (10,203 m) (compared to 29,028 ft (8,848 m) for Mount Everest, as measured from sea level).[25] As shield volcanoes, they are built by accumulated lava flow growing no more than 3 m (10 ft) at a time to form a broad and gently sloping shape.[23] Hawaii is also surrounded by a myriad of seamounts; however, they were found to be unconnected to the hotspot and its volcanism.[22] The amount of lava erupted from the hotspot is estimated to be approximately 750,000 km3 (180,000 cu mi), enough to cover California with a lava blanket about 1.5 km (1 mi) thick.[6] Hawaiian volcanoes drift northwest from the hotspot at a rate of about 10 cm (3.9 in) a year.[1] At this rate, about 40 million years ago, the far northwestern islands of Kure and Midway atolls were where the present island of Hawaii is now.[3] The oldest major Hawaiian island, Kauai, formed over the hotspot 6 million years ago.[3] The hotspot is known to have migrated south by about 800 km (497 mi) relative to the Emperor Seamount chain. This conclusion is supported by magnetic studies of volcanic rock from Emperor seamounts, which suggested that these seamounts formed at higher latitudes than present-day Hawaii. Prior to the bend, the hotspot migrated an estimated 7 cm (3 in) per year; the rate of movement changed at the time of the bend to about 9 cm (4 in) per year.[14] What we know about Hawaiian drift comes mostly from the Ocean Drilling Program. The 2001[26] expedition drilled 6 of the Emperor seamounts, and tested all of the magnetic samples obtained to determine the original latitude of origin for the seamounts,

Hawaii hotspot
and thus the characteristics and speed of the hotspot’s drift pattern in total.[27] There is also significant evidence that the eruption rates of the volcanoes have been increasing, as the distance between volcanoes on the arc tighten the farther southeast (and closer to modern times) one comes. At the time of its formation, the hotspot produced volcanoes spaced far apart, as in the distance between Meiji and Detroit Seamount. It was not uncommon for the separation to reach 100 km (62 mi) or even 200 km (124 mi).[28][29] In the most recent modern times, the hotspot has produced a large island (Hawaii) compounded of 5 volcanoes.[1][30] Statistically, the eruption rate along the Emperor Seamount chain averaged at about 0.01 km3 (0.0024 cu mi) of lava per year. The eruption rate was very, very low, almost zero, for the initial 5 million or so years in the hotspot’s life. The average along the Hawaiian chain is a much larger 0.017 km3 (0.0041 cu mi) per year. The eruption rate of Hawaiian volcanoes has been increasing. Over the last 6 million years it has been far higher than ever before, with over 0.095 km3 (0.023 cu mi) per year; yet the average for the last 1 million years is even higher, with about 0.21 km3 (0.050 cu mi) of new land added every year. In comparison, the average production rate at a mid-ocean ridge is about 0.02 km3 (0.0048 cu mi) of land per year for every 1,000 km (621 mi) of ridge.[14] At the same time, the amount of time each volcano spends actively "attached" to the Hawaiian mantle plume has decreased. The large difference between the youngest and oldest lavas between Emperor and Hawaiian volcanoes provides evidence that the Hawaii hotspot migrated far slower then it does today; for example, Kohala volcano (the oldest volcano of Hawaii island) first emerged from the sea 500,000 years ago, and last erupted 120,000 years ago, a period of only 380,000 years; in comparison to Detroit Seamount’s (second oldest in the chain) 18 million or more years of volcanic activity.[31] The oldest volcano in the chain, Meiji Seamount, perched on the edge of the Aleutian Trench, is believed to have formed 82 million years ago. The seamount will soon be destroyed as the Pacific Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate; the existence of older seamounts that may have already been destroyed by subduction is currently (as of 2009) a disputed issue.[32]

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Hawaii hotspot
Almost all magma created by the hotspot is basalt; the Hawaiian volcanoes are constructed almost entirely of this igneous rock or the similar coarse-grained gabbro and diabase. Rarely, there are igneous rocks with different compositions, such as nephelinite; these have been found often on the older volcanoes, most prominently Detroit Seamount.[33] Most eruptions are fluid and runny because basaltic magma is more fluid compared with magmas typical in more explosive eruptions such as the andesitic magmas producing spectacular and dangerous eruptions around Pacific Basin margins.[34] Volcanoes are classified into several eruptive categories, and the eruptions at Hawaiian volcanoes are called "Hawaiian-type" after the typical Hawaiian volcanic eruption. Hawaiian lava spills out of craters and forms long streams and rivers of glowing molten rock, which slides down the slope and pools, covering acres of land and making new ones. The low gas and silica content of the lava keeps it runny for long periods of time.[35] Hawaiian volcanoes produce predominantly two types of lava, pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā. Pāhoehoe is a highly pliable, thin type of relatively fast-flowing lava. It can be bulbous, fresh-looking, wrinkled, roped, or in some other shape depending on its temperature.[35] ʻAʻā flow, however, is characterized by a jagged, ruffled appearance compared to the smooth-flowing pāhoehoe flows. It is slightly thicker the pāhoehoe, but can move faster on an incline. The top cools and forms an insulating, jagged "shell" on the bottom of the flow in the form of large basalt chunks, which insulates the bottom half and keeps it moving. Occasionally pāhoehoe converts to ʻaʻā while it is cooling or degassing.[35] In addition to the two types of lava, Hawaiian volcanoes produce some unique volcanic forms, described below. Around 1.2 million years ago, the Hawaii hotspot created a massive prehistoric island far larger than present day Hawaii, called Maui Nui by modern geologists. The massive island was built from seven shield volcanoes. In Hawaiian, "Nui" means "great" or "large", and Maui is the name of Hawaii’s second largest island (which formed the backbone Maui Nui). At its maxim about 1.2 million years ago, Maui Nui was 14,600 km2 (5,600 sq mi) in size, 50% larger than the present-day island of Hawaii. Sea levels were lower than today’s, due to distant glaciation

Glowing ʻaʻā lava flow advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kīlauea. The composition of the lava generated by the hotspot’s volcanoes has been found to have changed significantly over time, using analysis of the Strontium-Niobium-Palladium elemental ratio from the lavas. Data collected from the Emperor seamounts represents 43 million years of activity, with the oldest seamount lava dated to the late Mesozoic Era (Cretaceous Period), and the youngest Emperor lava flows dated to the early Cenozoic Era (Paleogene Period). This leads up right up to the modern day with the eruptions on Loihi and Kilauea, another 39 million years of activity, a total of 82 million years. Data collected have demonstrated a large upward variation in the amount of strontium present in both the alkalic (early stages) and tholeitic (later stages) lavas. The systematic increase slows drastically at the time of the bend. The change is partially associated with the thinning of the local plate as the Hawaii hotspot and the Pacific Plate moved away from one another.[33]

Pāhoehoe-type lava from Kīlauea flowing through a tube system down Pulama Pali.

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Hawaii hotspot
in the lava, and by adjusting the lava for the deterioration of olivine to find the temperature that best matches data. Both tests (carried out by scientists from the USGS) seem to confirm the temperature at about 1,500 °C (2,730 °F). The olivine test also found that the temperature could not have been greater then 1,550 °C (2,820 °F) for the rock to have retained the amount of clinopyroxene in the olivine. The second test put the temperature range at 1,500 °C (2,730 °F) to 1,560 °C (2,840 °F), in agreement with the first. In comparison, the estimated temperature for mid-ocean ridge basalt is about 1,325 °C (2,417 °F).[37]

Erupted objects
Synopsis of Maui Nui submergence history, showing extent of Maui Nui landmass at times indicated ("Ma" or million years ago). Light and dark shading shows extent of land during low and high sea stands of glacial cycles. Panel labeled "Recent" represents latest glacial cycle, and the low sea stand for that period occurred about 18,000 years ago. locking up the earth’s water during an ice age, exposing more land. The volcanoes slowly subsided into the crust by their own weight and from erosion. The "saddles" connecting the volcanoes slowly flooded over time. 200,000 years ago it subsided completely, forming the islands Maui, Molokai, Lanai and Kahoolawe. Another former volcanic island lying west of Molokai was completely submerged and covered with a cap of coral; it is now known as Penguin Bank. The sea floor between these four islands is shallow, about 500 m (1,600 ft) deep. At the same time, the outer edges of the former Maui Nui plummet quickly into the abyssal plain. The steep slopes could result in massive landslides provoked by a flank collapse. One prior collapse removed much of the northern half of East Molokai.[36] Indirect studies have found that the magma chamber is located at about 90 km (56 mi) to 100 km (62 mi) deep, which matches the estimated depth of the Cretaceous Period rock in the lithosphere. This seeming coincidence may indicate that the lithosphere acts as a lid on melting by arresting the ascent of the magma. The original temperature of the lava was tested in two ways, by testing the melting point of garnet

Pele’s hair on a pāhoehoe flow at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Hawaiian eruptions make some truly unique objects. One object often found after Hawaiian eruptions are pieces of Pele’s hair. These threads, brownish in color, have a diameter of less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in) and may be as long as 2 m (7 ft). The strands form when molten lava is overstretched; for example, when ʻaʻā flow runs off a steep cliff. Pele’s hair is often carried high into the air during eruptions, and wind can and often does blow the glass threads tens of kilometers from their place of origin.[38] Another unique object is called Pele’s tears. These are small glass droplet-shaped particles that shoot out of volcanoes, named for their tear shape and for Pele, the Hawaiian fire goddess. They form when small bits of molten lava cool exceptionally quickly, and solidify into glass particles shaped like spheres or tear drops. Pele’s tears are often black in color, and sometimes form on the tips of Pele’s hair.[39] Sometimes, fluid basaltic lava flowing around trees and other objects solidifies

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Hawaii hotspot
crystallizing.[42] The lava tube allows lava flows to travel far from the eruption center due to the efficient insulation, and may allow the lava to flow at higher speeds; a 1984 eruption through Mauna Loa had speeds of over 35 mph (56 km/h) recorded.[42] Within, the tube features include a flat floor and splatter marks (marks for the high point of the lava flow); an example is the Thurston lava tube, part of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Inside the lava tubes, one may also occasionally find "lava stalactites". The cave walls act as an insulator and keeps heat from escaping. If the chamber refills with lava after it has drained, it may partially melt the roof of the tube (made up of pāhoehoe). Gravity then tugs the semi-solid structures down. After the roof solidifies again, clinging to it are fragile lava stalactites. Unlike their mineral counterparts, the lava stalactites do not grow after formation.[35] Other unique structures include lava dome fountains (lava fountains shaped like a dome), lava lakes (the one at Kilauea, Kupaianaha, is one of only four worldwide), some of the highest lava fountains on Earth, lava falls, and lava "skylights."[35]

Lava molds of tree trunks in Lava Tree State Monument. Lava Tree State Monument is located 2.7 miles (4.3 km) southeast of Pahoa on Hawaii. It preserves lava molds of the tree trunks that were formed when a lava flow swept through a forested area in 1790. around them, forming lava trees or tree molds. Tree molds are formed when lava surrounds a tree, cools down against it, and then drains away. The structure left behind is then dubbed a "lava tree".[40] Tree trunks incinerated by lava leave cylindrical hollows in the ground. These "tree molds" often preserve both the shape and the structure of the tree that it destroyed. They are common in fluid and fast moving pāhoehoe flows, and occasionally found in the blockier ʻaʻā flows. Sometimes, the lava drains away before it cools but after it incinerates the tree, leaving a hole in the ground.[40] The eruption of Hawaiian basaltic lavas results in the fluid lava moving down the slope of the volcano, creating its own channel (or reusing existing channels), developing both pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows. Over time the channels can develop lava levees; in pāhoehoe, these develop through overflowing of channels while in ʻaʻā they are caused by moving lava into blocks. On Hawaii these channels can often surround a kipuka, an island of mature vegetation surrounded by barren younger lava.[41][42] Kipuka, the Hawaiian word for "island", are islands of green trees in the middle of large lava flows that form when a particular raised area causes the lava to circle around it, leaving its trees and ecosystem intact.[35] Cooling of the lavas in a channel with pāhoehoe can result in the creation of a lava tube. The surrounding rock acts as an insulator for the interior lava preventing it from

Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The step mark on the right wall indicates the depth at which the lava flowed for a period of time.

Pele’s hair caught on a radio antenna mounted on the south rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, Hawaii.

Assorted shapes of Pele’s tears from Mauna Ulu. U.S. dime for scale in lower right.

A kipuka that formed during the eruption of Pu’u ’O’o.

450 m (1,476 ft)high lava fountain at Kilauea.

Local myths
See also: Pele (deity), Halemaumau Crater, and Hawaiian mythology The possibility that the Hawaiian islands became older as you moved northwest was long suspected by the ancient Hawaiians long

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Hawaii hotspot
flight of Pele from Kauai to Hawaii, which alludes to an eternal struggle between volcanic islands and ocean waves, is consistent with geologic evidence obtained centuries later, proven by scientists using various studies involving radiometric dating.[1][2]

Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes
All of the volcanoes in the chain follow a certain, well-established life cycle of growth and erosion. After a new volcano first forms over the Hawaii hotspot, its rate of eruption gradually increases over a period of several hundred thousand years. The volcanoes typically peak in both physical height and volcanic activity around 500,000 years of age, and go into rapid decline following the peak. The volcano’s level of activity fades with time until it goes dormant, and eventually extinct. At that point, the forces of erosion become the strongest factor, and carve down the volcano until it sinks below the waves again, becoming a seamount.[44] Humanized form of Pele, Goddess of Fire, painted and hanging in the Hawai’i Volcano National Park Visitor’s Center. before any scientific studies were conducted. During their voyages, sea-faring Hawaiians noticed differences in erosion, soil formation, and vegetation, allowing them to deduce that the islands to the north (Niihau and Kauai) were older then those to the southeast (Maui and Hawaii).[2] The idea was handed down the generations through the legend of Pele, the fiery Hawaiian Goddess of Volcanoes. According to legend, Pele was born to the female spirit Haumea, or Hina, who, like all of the Hawaii gods and goddesses, descended from the supreme beings, Papa, or Earth Mother, and Wakea, or Sky Father.[43] According to the myth, Pele originally lived on Kauai. When her older sister Namakaokahai, the Goddess of the Sea, attacked her for seducing her husband, Pele fled southeast to the island of Oahu. When she was forced by Namakaokahai to flee again, Pele moved southeast to Maui and finally to Hawaii, where she still lives in the Halemaumau Crater at the summit of Kilauea. There she was safe, as the slopes of the mighty volcano are so high that even Namakaokaha’s mighty waves cannot reach her.[2] The mythical

An animated sequence showing the erosion of a volcano, and the formation of a coral reef around it-eventually resulting in an atoll. This life cycle is broken up into several steps. The first stage is the submarine preshield stage, currently occupied solely by Loihi, the newest Hawaiian volcano. Loihi is a good example of this early stage. During the submarine pre-shield stage, the volcano is conceived and starts building up height through eruptions that gradually increase in rate over time. The lava produced is pressurized by the sea, disallowing explosive eruptions (as Hawaiian volcanoes have typically "runny" lava that would not happen anyway).

10

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cold water immediately makes contact with the lava, giving it extremely little time to solidify. For that reason, the typical type of lava is pillow lava, typical of underwater volcanic activity.[44] As the volcano slowly rises in height, it begins to go through the shield stages. The volcano forms many of the features of a mature volcano, such as a caldera, during the subsurface part of the shield stage. The summit just breaches the surface, and a "battle" between the volcanic lava and ocean water begins, and the volcano enters the explosive subphase. This stage of development is exemplified by explosive vents of steam. The lava erupted during this stage is mostly ash, a result of the waves dampening the lava.[44] This theme of battle between lava and sea is reverberated in Hawaiian mythology.[43] The volcano next enters the subaerial subphase, once it is tall enough to end frequent contact with the ocean water. During this stage the volcano enters its prime, as it is in this period that the volcano puts on 95% of its height in a period of roughly 500,000 years. The eruptions become much less explosive and more gentle. The lava erupted in this stage form flows of pāhoehoe or ʻaʻā, often both. The most impressive of the Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Loa and Kīlauea, are in this phase of activity.[44] Because of the high growth rate, landslides are extremely common. Hawaiian lava is often runny, blocky, slow, and relatively easy to predict; the USGS tracks where lava will most likely run, and maintains a site for tourists who want to see the lava.[44][45] This is possible as Kilauea has been erupting continuously for the last 26 years through Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a minor volcanic cone and a "blessing" to volcanologists (who get to study the lava) and tourists (who get to see it in person) alike.[46] After the subaerial phase the volcano undergoes a series of postshield stages, during which it is whittled down by the forces of erosion. The volcano eventually sinks below the sea to become a seamount (or often a guyot) once more. Because of Hawaii’s location near the equator, as the volcano disintegrates, it develops into an atoll. Once the Pacific Plate moves it out of the 20 °C (68 °F) isotherm (the bounds of coral reef life), the reef mostly dies away, and the extinct volcano becomes one of an estimated 10,000 dead seamounts worldwide.[44][47] Every

Hawaii hotspot
volcano in the Emperor element of the chain is a dead seamount.

Volcanoes of the hotspot
This segment lists many of the volcanoes of the chain, sorted chronologically. It is incomplete, including only the major, well-documented volcanoes; if it included all of the volcanoes generated by the chain, the list would be far longer. The main island is made up of 5 patchwork volcanoes, with another, Loihi, just off the shore. Also note that Hawaii is surrounded by large swarms of less mainstream seamounts. Hawaiian archipelago Name Big Island Loihi Seamount 1996 (Active)[1] 18°55′N 155°16′W / 18.92°N 155.27°W / 18.92; -155.27 Last Eruption Coordinates

Ag

> 400,000[

Kīlauea

Erupting[48]

19°25′N 300,000–60 155°17′W / years[48] 19.417°N 155.283°W / 19.417; -155.283

Puʻu ʻŌʻō

Erupting[46]

19°23′11″N 155°06′18″W / 19.38639°N 155.105°W / 19.38639; -155.105

< 23 Years

Kīlauea Iki 1959 (Active)[49]

50 Years[49

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mauna Loa 1984 (Active)[50] 19°28′46.3″N 155°36′09.6″W / 19.479528°N 155.602667°W / 19.479528; -155.602667 19°41′32″N 155°52′02″W / 19.69222°N 155.86722°W / 19.69222; -155.86722 1 million years[50] Molokai East Molokai

Hawaii hotspot
Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on earth.[50]

~ 1.76 mill years[52]

Hualālai

1801 (Dormant)[51]

> 300,000 years[51] West Molokai

Mauna Kea

Kohala

Maui Haleakalā

Oahu About 4460 19°49′14.39″N ~ 375,000–1 milWorld’s tallest Koolau[52][53] BP 155°28′05.04″W / lion years mountain if Range (Dormant)[25] 19.8206639°N below-sea elev155.4680667°W ation is coun/ 19.8206639; ted.[25] -155.4680667 Waianae 2.5 Kohala About 20°05′10″N ~ 430,000–1 mil- million is beRange [52][54] BP lieved to be the 120,000 BP 155°43′02″W / lion years (Extinct)[54] 20.08611°N oldest volcano 155.71722°W / that makes up 20.08611; Hawaii Is-155.71722 land.[54] Kauai 18th Century[55] 20°42′35″N 156°15′12″W / 20.70972°N 156.25333°W / 20.70972; -156.25333 Kauai ~ 0.75–2 million years[55][52]

Hualālai lies more or less due west of the much taller Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa mountains.[51]

~ 1.9 millio years[52]

2.7 million

3.7–3.9 mil years[59][52

22°05′N Massive; forms 159°30′W / more than 75% 22.083°N of Maui.[55] 159.5°W / 22.083; -159.5 A much eroded 21°54′N shield volcano 160°10′W / that makes up 21.9°N the western 160.167°W / quarter of 21.9; -160.167 Maui. 21°39′N The smallest of 160°32′W / the 8 principal 21.65°N Hawaiian160.533°W / islands.[54] 21.65; -160.533 Uninhabited.[57]

>5 million[

Niihau ~ 1.32 million Niihau years[52]

West Maui

~4.9 millio

Kaʻula Kahoolawe Kahoolawe Kaʻula 20°33′N > 1.03 million 156°36′W / years[52][56] 20.55°N 156.6°W / 20.55; -156.6

~ 4 million years[52]

Lanai Lanai

Major Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 20°50′N ~ 1.28 million Condition Sixth-largest isName Coordinates 156°56′W / years[52] land.[58] The Nihoa Extinct 23°03′38″N 20.833°N only town is Island 161°55′19″W / 156.933°W / Lānaʻi City, a 23.06056°N 20.833; -156.933 small 161.92194°W / settlement.

Age[

7.2 million 0.3[52]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
23.06056; -161.92194 Necker Island Extinct Island 23°03′N 161°55′W / 23.05°N 161.917°W / 23.05; -161.917 23°52′08″N 166°17′10″W / 23.8689°N 166.2860°W / 23.8689; -166.2860 25°01′N 167°59′W / 25.017°N 167.983°W / 25.017; -167.983 25°25′N 170°35′W / 25.417°N 170.583°W / 25.417; -170.583 25°46′03″N 171°44′00″E / 25.7675°N -171.7334°W / 25.7675; -171.7334

Hawaii hotspot
178.333°W / 28.417; -178.333

10.3 million ± Necker Emperor Seamounts[30]Island is [52] 0.4Many are named after emperors or empresses of the Kuf a small island with few signs history. of inhabitment. Name Type Coordinates[64] [12][27]Ag 30°15′N 12 Hancock million[63] SeamountFrench The 178°50′E / Frigate Shoals 30.25°N is the largest 178.833°E / atoll in the islands. 30.25; 178.833 Colahan Seamount 31°15′N 176°0′E / 31.25°N 176°E 12.3 million ± The Gardner 31.25; 176 [52] 1.0 Pinnacles/are Abbott Unknown

French Frigate Shoals

Atoll

37-40 milli

Gardner Pinnacles

Atoll Island

two Seamountbarren rock 31°48′N 36-40 milli outcrops sur174°18′E / rounded by a 31.8°N 174.3°E / reef. 31.8; 174.3 Maro Reef is a Guyot 32°5.00′N largely sub172°18′E / merged coral 32.08333°N atoll. 172.3°E / 32.08333; 172.3

Maro Reef Atoll

Daikakuji

42.4 millio 2.3[52]

Laysan

Atoll Island

19.9 million ± Guyot Named "Kauō" Kammu 32°10′N 173°0′E 0.3[52] means egg, re/ 32.167°N ferring to173°E / 32.167; its shape. 173 Yuryaka Guyot

Unknown

Lisianski Island

Atoll Island

Pearl and Hermes Atoll

Atoll Island

Midway Atoll

Atoll Island

Kure Atoll

Atoll

32°40.20′N 172°16.20′E / 26°3′48.6564″N Access is 32.67°N lim173°57′57.346″W ited to a sandy 172.27°E / / inlet on the 32.67; 172.27 26.063515667°N southeastern Kimmei Seamount 33°40.84′N 173.96592944°W side. 171°38.07′E / / 26.063515667; 33.68067°N -173.96592944 171.6345°E / 27°48′N 20.6 million ± 2.7 A collection of 33.68067; 175°51′W / small, sandy is171.6345 27.8°N lands, with a laKoko Guyot 35°15.00′N 175.85°W / 27.8; goon and coral 171°35.00′E / -175.85 reef. 35.25°N 28°12′N 27.7 million ± Midway Atoll 171.58333°E / 177°21′W / 0.6[52] consists of a 35.25; 28.2°N ring-shaped 171.58333 177.35°W / 28.2; barrier reef and Ojin Guyot 37°58.20′N -177.35 several sand 170°22.80′E / islets. 37.97°N 28°25′N Kure is the 170.38°E / 178°20′W / northern-most 170.38 37.97; 28.417°N coral atoll in Jingu Guyot 38°50′N the world. 171°15′E /

43.4 millio 1.6[52]

~ 39.9–50 years[10][52

48.1 millio 0.8[52]

55.2 millio 0.7[52]

55.4 million±0.9[68

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
38.833°N 171.25°E / 38.833; 171.25 Nintoku Guyot 41°4.80′N 170°34.20′E / 41.08°N 170.57°E / 41.08; 170.57 42°18′N 170°24′E / 42.3°N 170.4°E / 42.3; 170.4 44°35′N 170°20′E / 44.583°N 170.333°E / 44.583; 170.333 51°28.80′N 167°36′E / 51.48°N 167.6°E / 51.48; 167.6 53°12′N 164°30′E / 53.2°N 164.5°E / 53.2; 164.5

Hawaii hotspot
hawaii_volcano_age.html. Retrieved on of Japan Em2009-05-11. press Jingū. [5] Wilson, J.T. (1963) A possible origin of the Hawaiian Islands, Canadian Journal 56.2 million ± Named after of Physics, volume 41, pages 863-870 0.6[52] former emperor [6] ^ "The long trail of the Hawaiian of Japan Emperhotspot". USGS. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/ or Nintoku. dynamic/Hawaiian.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-09. Unknown Whittaker, R. D. for Named Müller, G. [7] J. M. former emperor Leitchenkov, H. Stagg, M. Sdrolias, C. of Japan EmperGaina, and A. Goncharov (5 October or Yomei. 2007). Major Australian-Antarctic Plate Reorganization at Hawaiian-Emperor ~ 59.6–64.7 milNamed after Bend Time, Science 318 (5847), 83. [52] lion former empress doi:10.1126/science.1143769. of Japan Em[8] Jayne Parsons press Suiko. (main) & others, ed (1999). [www.dk.com "Earth"]. Space Encyclopedia. DK Encyclopedia Series 81 million years Well docu(First American ed.). Madison Avenue, mented New York, New York: Dorling Kindersley. seamount, pp. 85. ISBN 0-7894-4708-8. second oldest. www.dk.com. Retrieved on 3-29-09. 82[9] "Heat is deep and magma is shallow in a million years Named after former emperor hot-spot system". USGS. June 18, 2001. of Japan Emperhttp://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/ or Meiji. Oldest 2001/01_06_14.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. seamount. [10] ^ Rance, Hugh. "PLATE TECTONICS Kinematic theory of Plate Tectonics". Book (Excerpt). http://geowords.com/ histbookpdf/g08.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [11] ^ Uhlik, Caroline (January 8, 2003). "The ’fixed’ hotspot that formed Hawaii may not be stationary, scientists conclude". Magazine article. Stanford Report. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/ january8/aguhotspots-18.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [12] ^ "Siesmic stratigraphy of Detroit Seamount, Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain". Scientific Publication. Stanford University. 12 July 2005. http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/ groups/crustal/docs/ Kerr.DetroitSeamount.G3.2005.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [13] ^ Roach, John (August 14, 2003). "Hot Spot That Spawned Hawaii Was on the Move, Study Finds". for National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2003/08/ 0814_030814_hotspot.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-09.

Yomei

Guyot

Suiko

Guyot

Detroit

Seamount

Meiji

Seamount

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Sciences/Geology/Which-Mountain-isthe-Tallest.247793. Retrieved on 2009-05-11. [26] "Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 Scientific Prospectus - Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot: a Paleomagnetic Test". Ocean Drilling Program database entry for Leg 197. Ocean Drilling Program. 17 May 2001. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/ 197_prs/197toc.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [27] ^ "DRILLING STRATEGY". Ocean Drilling Program. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/ 197_prs/197drill.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [28] "SITE 1206". Ocean Drilling Program Database-Results of Site 1206. Ocean Drilling Program. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/197_IR/ chap_01/c1_9.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-09. [29] "Site 1205 Background and Scientific Objectives". Ocean Drilling Program database entry. Ocean Drilling Program. http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/ 197_IR/chap_05/chap_05.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-10. [30] ^ USGS, pg. 23 (digital pg. 41) [31] "Siesmic stratigraphy of Detroit Seamount, Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain". Scientific Publication. Stanford University. 12 July 2005. http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/ groups/crustal/docs/ Kerr.DetroitSeamount.G3.2005.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [32] "Emperor subduction?". Professional Paper. MantlePlumes.org. 2006. http://www.mantleplumes.org/ Kamchatka2.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. [33] ^ Regelous, M.; M. Regelous, A. W. Hofmann, W. Abouchami, and S. J. G. Galer (2003). "Geochemistry of Lavas from the Emperor Seamounts, and the Geochemical Evolution of Hawaiian Magmatism from 85 to 42 Ma". Journal of Petrology (Max-Planck Institute for Chemie, Abteilung Geochemie, Post 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany: Oxford University Press) Volume 44 (Number 1): Pages 113–140. doi:10.1093/ petrology/44.1.113.

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http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/ content/full/44/1/113. [34] Tarduno, John A.; et al. (2003). "The Emperor Seamounts: Southward Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot Plume in Earth’s Mantle". Science 301 (5636): 1064–1069. doi:10.1126/ science.1086442. PMID 12881572. [35] ^ O’Meara, Donna (2008). "chapters 2 and 3". Volcano:A Visual Guide (1st ed.). P.O. Box 1338, Elicott Station Buffalo, New York 14205: Firefly Books. pp. 14 (Hawaiian type), 160 (A’a’), 162 (Pahoehoe), 138 (lava fountains), 143 (lava lakes), 148 (lava falls), 166 (lava stalactites), 190 (kipukas), 193 (lava skylights), 128 (lava dome fountains). ISBN 978-1-55407-353-5. [36] "Once a big island, Maui County now four small islands". Volcano Watch. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. 2003-04-10. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ volcanowatch/2003/03_04_10.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [37] Sisson, Tom. "Temperatures and depths of origin of magmas fueling the Hawaiian volcanic chain". USGS. http://www.mantleplumes.org/ HawaiiFocusGroup/Sisson_abs.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-02. [38] "VHP Photo Glossary: Pele’s hair". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/PeleHair.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [39] "VHP Photo Glossary: Pele’s tears". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/PeleTears.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [40] ^ "VHP Photo Glossary: Lava tree mold". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/treemold.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [41] Tilling (1985). United States Geological Survey: Special Interest Publication. "Volcanoes" (excerpt). Retrieved on Retrieved March 29, 2009. [42] ^ "How Volcanoes Work". SDSU. http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/ how_volcanoes_work/flow_features.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. [43] ^ "Pele-Goddess of Fire". Coffee Times. 2006. http://www.coffeetimes.com/ pele.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. [44] ^ "Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes". USGS Site. USGS. September 8, 1995. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/

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1995/95_09_08.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. [45] "Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases". Tourist Kilauea Lava Status Updates. USGS-Hawaii. http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/ kilaueastatus.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-15. [46] ^ M.O. Garcia, J.M. Rhodes, F.A. Trusdell, A.J. Pietruszka (1996). "„Petrology of lavas from the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano: III. The Kupaianaha episode (1986-1992)“". Bulletin of Volcanology 58 (5): 359–379. doi:10.1007/s004450050145. [47] Brittanica Summary "Seamounts" (in UK English). Encyclopedia Brittanica. Brittanica Inc.. 1913. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/530940/seamount Brittanica Summary. Retrieved on 2009-03-15. [48] ^ "Kīlauea -- Perhaps the World’s". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/. Retrieved on 2009-05-12. [49] ^ "Summit Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, in Kilauea Iki Crater, November 14 December 20, 1959". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/history/ 1959Nov14/. Retrieved on 2009-05-12. [50] ^ Decker R, Decker B (1997). Volcanoes, W.H. Freeman & Co, Ltd, ISBN 0-7167-3174-6 [51] ^ Macdonald, G.A.; A. T. Abbott (1970). Volcanoes in the Sea. University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 441. [52] ^ "The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/ haw_formation.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [53] "Mauna Kea Hawai`i’s Tallest Volcano". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ maunakea/. Retrieved on 2009-05-14. [54] ^ "Geological Map of the State of Hawaii". USGS Hawaii geology phamphlet. USGS. 2007. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1089/ Hawaii_expl_pamphlet.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-12. pg. 41-43 [55] ^ "East Maui, or Haleakala--A Potentially Hazardous Volcano". USGS. February 2003. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ haleakala/. Retrieved on 2009-05-13.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[56] "Kahoolawe, Hawaii". Photo Gallery of Kohoolawe island. Oregon State University. http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/ volc_images/north_america/hawaii/ kahoolawe.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [57] "Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02, Maui County, Hawaii". U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ DTTable?_bm=y&-show_geoid=Y&tree_id=4001&-_caller=geoselect&context=dt&-errMsg=&all_geo_types=N&mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P001&redoLog=true&-transpose=N&search_map_config=. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [58] "The State of Hawaii Data Book 2004". Hawaii.gov. 2004. http://hawaii.gov/ dbedt/info/economic/databook/db2004/ section05.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [59] ^ "Hawaii’s Coastline - Oahu". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/oahu.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [60] "Hawaii’s Coastline - Kauai". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/kauai.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [61] "Hawaii’s Coastline - Niihau". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/niihau.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [62] "The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands". Chart Ref for Hawaii Rock Ages. Hawaii Center for Volcanology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/ haw_formation.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. [63] ^ Dyar, Darby. "HOTSPOTS AND PLATE MOTION". http://www.mtholyoke.edu/ courses/mdyar/ast106/earth_hw_a.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [64] "Seamount Catalog". Seamounts database. EarthRef, a National Science Foundation project.. http://earthref.org/ databases/SC/. Retrieved on 2009-04-10.

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[65] "Age of Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanoes as a Function of Distance from Kilauea". Graphic Representation of Ages. Enduring Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE). http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=524. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [66] Seach, John. "Colahan Seamount - John Seach". Volcanic Database. volcanolive.com. http://www.volcanolive.com/ colahan.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [67] Seach, John. "Abbott Seamount - John Seach". Volcanic Database. volcanolive.com. http://www.volcanolive.com/abbott.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [68] "Age and chemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from Jingu Seamount, Emperor seamount chain". Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 55: 685-693.. 1980. http://earthref.org/cgi-bin/ er.cgi?s=err.cgi?n=2398. Retrieved on 2009-04-04.

See also
• Pacific-Kula Ridge • List of volcanoes in the United States of America

References
[1] ^ Garcia, Michael O.; Jackie CaplanAuerbanch, Eric H. De Carlo, M.D. Kurz, N. Becker (2005-09-20) (PDF). Geology, geochemistry and earthquake history of Lōʻihi Seamount, Hawaiʻi. This is the author’s personal version of a paper that was published on 2006-05-16 as "Geochemistry, and Earthquake History of Lōʻihi Seamount, Hawaiʻi’s youngest volcano", in Chemie der Erde Geochemistry (66) 2:81-108. SOEST. http://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org:8080/ dspace/handle/1912/1102. Retrieved on 2009-03-20. Personal version [2] ^ Hotspots (This Dynamic Earth, USGS), by W. Jacquelyne Kious and Robert I. Tilling. Retrieved on 2009-03-9 [3] ^ "How Hawaii Was Formed". Education Website. Oracle Foundation. http://library.thinkquest.org/J003007/ Disasters2/volcano/formed/formed.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-28.

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[4] "Reply to ASK-AN-EARTH-SCIENTIST". University of Hawaii. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/ hawaii_volcano_age.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-11. [5] Wilson, J.T. (1963) A possible origin of the Hawaiian Islands, Canadian Journal of Physics, volume 41, pages 863-870 [6] ^ "The long trail of the Hawaiian hotspot". USGS. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/ dynamic/Hawaiian.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-09. [7] J. M. Whittaker, R. D. Müller, G. Leitchenkov, H. Stagg, M. Sdrolias, C. Gaina, and A. Goncharov (5 October 2007). Major Australian-Antarctic Plate Reorganization at Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Time, Science 318 (5847), 83. doi:10.1126/science.1143769. [8] Jayne Parsons (main) & others, ed (1999). [www.dk.com "Earth"]. Space Encyclopedia. DK Encyclopedia Series (First American ed.). Madison Avenue, New York, New York: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 85. ISBN 0-7894-4708-8. www.dk.com. Retrieved on 3-29-09. [9] "Heat is deep and magma is shallow in a hot-spot system". USGS. June 18, 2001. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/ 2001/01_06_14.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [10] ^ Rance, Hugh. "PLATE TECTONICS Kinematic theory of Plate Tectonics". Book (Excerpt). http://geowords.com/ histbookpdf/g08.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [11] ^ Uhlik, Caroline (January 8, 2003). "The ’fixed’ hotspot that formed Hawaii may not be stationary, scientists conclude". Magazine article. Stanford Report. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/ january8/aguhotspots-18.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [12] ^ "Siesmic stratigraphy of Detroit Seamount, Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain". Scientific Publication. Stanford University. 12 July 2005. http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/ groups/crustal/docs/ Kerr.DetroitSeamount.G3.2005.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [13] ^ Roach, John (August 14, 2003). "Hot Spot That Spawned Hawaii Was on the Move, Study Finds". for National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/

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news/2003/08/ 0814_030814_hotspot.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-09. [14] ^ "The Emperor and Hawaiian Volcanic Chains: How well do they fit the plume hypothesis?". Speculation over Plume Hypothesis. mantleplumes.org. http://www.mantleplumes.org/ Hawaii.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. [15] "Extensional Tectonics and Global Volcanism". Alternate theories. Erice, Italy Conference Proceedings. 1999. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~dla/ erice_paper.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [16] Smith, Alan D. (April 2003). "A Reappraisal of Stress Field and Convective Roll Models for the Origin and Distribution of Cretaceous to Recent Intraplate Volcanism in the Pacific Basin". International Geology Review (Bellwether Publishing, Ltd.) Volume 45 (Number 4): 287–302. doi:10.2747/ 0020-6814.45.4.287. ISSN 0020-6814. [17] USGS, pg. 154-155 (digital pg. 172-173) [18] USGS, pg. 157 (digital pg. 175) [19] "SYNBAPS - What does SYNBAPS stand for?". Farlex, Inc.. 2009. http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/ SYNBAPS. Retrieved on 2009-05-11. [20] ^ P., Wessel (1993). Observational Constraints on Models of the Hawaiian Hot Spot Swell. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/pwessel/ papers/1993/JGR_93b/jgr_93b.html. Retrieved on 3-12-09. [21] ^ "MBARI Hawaii Multibeam Survey". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. 1998. http://www.mbari.org/ data/mapping/hawaii/index.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [22] ^ "Hawaii’s Volcanoes Revealed". USGS Poster. USGS. http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/i-map/i2809/ i2809.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [23] ^ L. Hamilton, Rosanna (1995). "Introduction to Hawaiian Volcanoes". Web. www.solarviews.com. http://www.solarviews.com/eng/ hawaii.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-09. [24] "ALASKA & HAWAII P1500s - the Ultras". "Ultra prominent peak" Designation Peaks List-Alaska & Hawaii. Compiled 1999-2004.. http://www.peaklist.org/USlists/ AK5000.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-30.

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[25] ^ Patrick Smith (September 10, 2008). "Which Mountain is the Tallest?". Stanza Ltd.. http://www.scienceray.com/EarthSciences/Geology/Which-Mountain-isthe-Tallest.247793. Retrieved on 2009-05-11. [26] "Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 Scientific Prospectus - Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot: a Paleomagnetic Test". Ocean Drilling Program database entry for Leg 197. Ocean Drilling Program. 17 May 2001. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/ 197_prs/197toc.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [27] ^ "DRILLING STRATEGY". Ocean Drilling Program. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/ 197_prs/197drill.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [28] "SITE 1206". Ocean Drilling Program Database-Results of Site 1206. Ocean Drilling Program. http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/197_IR/ chap_01/c1_9.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-09. [29] "Site 1205 Background and Scientific Objectives". Ocean Drilling Program database entry. Ocean Drilling Program. http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/ 197_IR/chap_05/chap_05.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-10. [30] ^ USGS, pg. 23 (digital pg. 41) [31] "Siesmic stratigraphy of Detroit Seamount, Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain". Scientific Publication. Stanford University. 12 July 2005. http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/ groups/crustal/docs/ Kerr.DetroitSeamount.G3.2005.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [32] "Emperor subduction?". Professional Paper. MantlePlumes.org. 2006. http://www.mantleplumes.org/ Kamchatka2.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-01. [33] ^ Regelous, M.; M. Regelous, A. W. Hofmann, W. Abouchami, and S. J. G. Galer (2003). "Geochemistry of Lavas from the Emperor Seamounts, and the Geochemical Evolution of Hawaiian Magmatism from 85 to 42 Ma". Journal of Petrology (Max-Planck Institute for Chemie, Abteilung Geochemie, Post 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany: Oxford University Press) Volume 44 (Number

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1): Pages 113–140. doi:10.1093/ petrology/44.1.113. http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/ content/full/44/1/113. [34] Tarduno, John A.; et al. (2003). "The Emperor Seamounts: Southward Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot Plume in Earth’s Mantle". Science 301 (5636): 1064–1069. doi:10.1126/ science.1086442. PMID 12881572. [35] ^ O’Meara, Donna (2008). "chapters 2 and 3". Volcano:A Visual Guide (1st ed.). P.O. Box 1338, Elicott Station Buffalo, New York 14205: Firefly Books. pp. 14 (Hawaiian type), 160 (A’a’), 162 (Pahoehoe), 138 (lava fountains), 143 (lava lakes), 148 (lava falls), 166 (lava stalactites), 190 (kipukas), 193 (lava skylights), 128 (lava dome fountains). ISBN 978-1-55407-353-5. [36] "Once a big island, Maui County now four small islands". Volcano Watch. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. 2003-04-10. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ volcanowatch/2003/03_04_10.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [37] Sisson, Tom. "Temperatures and depths of origin of magmas fueling the Hawaiian volcanic chain". USGS. http://www.mantleplumes.org/ HawaiiFocusGroup/Sisson_abs.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-02. [38] "VHP Photo Glossary: Pele’s hair". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/PeleHair.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [39] "VHP Photo Glossary: Pele’s tears". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/PeleTears.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [40] ^ "VHP Photo Glossary: Lava tree mold". USGS. http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/ pglossary/treemold.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [41] Tilling (1985). United States Geological Survey: Special Interest Publication. "Volcanoes" (excerpt). Retrieved on Retrieved March 29, 2009. [42] ^ "How Volcanoes Work". SDSU. http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/ how_volcanoes_work/flow_features.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. [43] ^ "Pele-Goddess of Fire". Coffee Times. 2006. http://www.coffeetimes.com/ pele.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-01.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[44] ^ "Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes". USGS Site. USGS. September 8, 1995. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/ 1995/95_09_08.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. [45] "Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases". Tourist Kilauea Lava Status Updates. USGS-Hawaii. http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/ kilaueastatus.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-15. [46] ^ M.O. Garcia, J.M. Rhodes, F.A. Trusdell, A.J. Pietruszka (1996). "„Petrology of lavas from the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano: III. The Kupaianaha episode (1986-1992)“". Bulletin of Volcanology 58 (5): 359–379. doi:10.1007/s004450050145. [47] Brittanica Summary "Seamounts" (in UK English). Encyclopedia Brittanica. Brittanica Inc.. 1913. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/530940/seamount Brittanica Summary. Retrieved on 2009-03-15. [48] ^ "Kīlauea -- Perhaps the World’s". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/. Retrieved on 2009-05-12. [49] ^ "Summit Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, in Kilauea Iki Crater, November 14 December 20, 1959". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/history/ 1959Nov14/. Retrieved on 2009-05-12. [50] ^ Decker R, Decker B (1997). Volcanoes, W.H. Freeman & Co, Ltd, ISBN 0-7167-3174-6 [51] ^ Macdonald, G.A.; A. T. Abbott (1970). Volcanoes in the Sea. University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 441. [52] ^ "The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/ haw_formation.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [53] "Mauna Kea Hawai`i’s Tallest Volcano". USGS. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ maunakea/. Retrieved on 2009-05-14. [54] ^ "Geological Map of the State of Hawaii". USGS Hawaii geology phamphlet. USGS. 2007. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1089/ Hawaii_expl_pamphlet.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-12. pg. 41-43 [55] ^ "East Maui, or Haleakala--A Potentially Hazardous Volcano". USGS. February

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2003. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ haleakala/. Retrieved on 2009-05-13. [56] "Kahoolawe, Hawaii". Photo Gallery of Kohoolawe island. Oregon State University. http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/ volc_images/north_america/hawaii/ kahoolawe.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [57] "Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02, Maui County, Hawaii". U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ DTTable?_bm=y&-show_geoid=Y&tree_id=4001&-_caller=geoselect&context=dt&-errMsg=&all_geo_types=N&mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P001&redoLog=true&-transpose=N&search_map_config=. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [58] "The State of Hawaii Data Book 2004". Hawaii.gov. 2004. http://hawaii.gov/ dbedt/info/economic/databook/db2004/ section05.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [59] ^ "Hawaii’s Coastline - Oahu". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/oahu.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [60] "Hawaii’s Coastline - Kauai". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/kauai.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [61] "Hawaii’s Coastline - Niihau". University of Hawaii - School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/ publications/hawaiiCoastline/niihau.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. [62] "The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands". Chart Ref for Hawaii Rock Ages. Hawaii Center for Volcanology. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/ haw_formation.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. [63] ^ Dyar, Darby. "HOTSPOTS AND PLATE MOTION". http://www.mtholyoke.edu/ courses/mdyar/ast106/earth_hw_a.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [64] "Seamount Catalog". Seamounts database. EarthRef, a National Science

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Foundation project.. http://earthref.org/ databases/SC/. Retrieved on 2009-04-10. [65] "Age of Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanoes as a Function of Distance from Kilauea". Graphic Representation of Ages. Enduring Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE). http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=524. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [66] Seach, John. "Colahan Seamount - John Seach". Volcanic Database. volcanolive.com. http://www.volcanolive.com/ colahan.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [67] Seach, John. "Abbott Seamount - John Seach". Volcanic Database. volcanolive.com. http://www.volcanolive.com/abbott.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [68] "Age and chemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from Jingu Seamount, Emperor seamount chain". Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 55: 685-693.. 1980. http://earthref.org/cgi-bin/

Hawaii hotspot
er.cgi?s=err.cgi?n=2398. Retrieved on 2009-04-04.

Further readings
• Robert W. Decker, Thomas L. Wright, and Peter H. Straffer (editors), and multiple contributors., ed., Volcanism in HawaiiVolume 1, United States Geological Survey-Volcanism of Hawaii, volume 1, USGS (Paper number 1350) and the Hawaii Volcanism Observatory, http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1987/1350/ pp1350_vol1.pdf

External links
• Pele-Goddess of Fire Details Pele’s full story, according to Hawaiian myths. • The long trail of the Hawaiian hotspot USGS article on the Hawaiian island chain. • Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes USGS article on the evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes over time.

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