"Economic Characteristics of Industry Target Stores KING GEORGE COUNTY"
KING GEORGE COUNTY, VIRGINIA SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL PRESERVATION PLAN Prepared for KING GEORGE COUNTY VIRGINIA KING GEORGE COUNTY SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL PRESERVATION Prepared for KING GEORGE COUNTY VIRGINIA APRIL 2002 WORK AND ENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 105 RICE HALL SILVER SPRING/DENVER/WASHINGTON CORNELL UNIVERSITY 8601 GEORGIA AVENUE, SUITE 1010 ITHACA, NEW YORK 14853-5601 SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND 20910-3440 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK FOREWORD This sustainable economic development and rural preservation plan was prepared under contract with King George County. Its purpose is to provide the Board of Supervisors, Planning Commission, Industrial Development Authority, regional economic development and planning officials, staff, and others with recommendations to preserve the County’s way of life while accommodating growth and change. The four phases of this analysis were undertaken from April 2000 to March 2002. RESEARCH PHASES The design and preparation of the actual plan falls into four distinct phases each utilizing individual components of methodology which include: Phase I • Personal interviews with members of the Board of Supervisors; Planning Commission, County staff, representatives of County businesses, non-profit organizations, citizens, and others recommended by interviewees. • Collection and analysis of primary and secondary socioeconomic data. • Responses to this draft data report by County, regional and state economic development and planning personnel. Phase II • Assessment of the County’s assets, liabilities, and identification of compatible target industries based on the County’s economic characteristics and industry location criteria. Phase III • Based on the work in the first two phases, a consensus vision for sustainable economic development and rural preservation was prepared. Phase IV • Recommended strategies to achieve the vision described in Phase III. REPORT ORGANIZATION Section I of this report is organized into seven subsections. Topics covered in the subsections include employment and occupations; households and housing units; personal income; retail HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK sales; natural, historic, and cultural resources; education; and finally real estate development patterns. Section II evaluates the County’s assets and liabilities in the context of attracting selected target industries to the County. Sustainable development is defined. Existing resources and industries already attracted to the County and those which would also find the County to be a good place to do business are identified. Five primary and nine secondary target industries are described. The third section presents the vision for the County based on a series of personal interviews. Section IV is the culmination of the sustainable economic development and rural preservation planning process. It presents recommendations on establishing an economic development program, the best locations for industrial growth, and strategies to achieve the vision. The appendix includes a list of interviewees, list of target industry contacts, definitions of selected terms, supplementary tables, a list of retail stores, and a list of the Region’s major employers. Hammer, Siler, George Associates Silver Spring, Maryland April 4, 2002 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i SECTION I. DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 1 COMPONENTS 1 EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONS 3 Employment 3 Occupations 7 POPULATION AND SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP 11 Population 11 School Membership 14 HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING UNITS 15 PERSONAL INCOME 17 RETAIL SALES 21 NATURAL, HISTORIC, AND CULTURAL RESOURCES 22 Natural Resources 23 Historic Resources 23 Economic Impacts 26 Cultural Resources 28 Social Indicators 32 REAL PROPERTY TAXES 33 REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS 34 Commuting 35 Land Holdings 35 Sewer Service 36 Office Space 37 Zoning 37 CONCLUSIONS 38 Employment and Occupations 38 Population and School Membership 39 Households and Housing Units 39 Personal Income 39 Retail Sales 40 Real Property Taxes 40 Natural, Historic, and Cultural Resources 41 Development Patterns 41 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT.) Page SECTION II. ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES 43 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 43 METHODOLOGY 44 ASSETS 46 LIABILITIES 47 COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRY SELECTION CRITERIA 48 Business Criteria 49 Community Criteria 49 Environmental Criteria 49 BUILDING UPON LOCAL BUSINESS RESOURCES 50 Labor 50 Infrastructure 51 Markets 52 By-Product Exchanges 52 Incentives 54 PRIMARY COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES 54 Information and Professional Services 55 Manufacturing 63 Warehousing and Logistics 69 Tourism 75 Agriculture 81 Location Needs 88 SECONDARY COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES 89 Administrative and Business Services 90 Food, Beverage, and Lodging 91 Retail 93 Real Estate 94 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 95 Construction 96 Trucking 98 Packaging 98 Value-Added Agriculture 99 CONCLUSIONS 99 SECTION III. VISION OF THE FUTURE 101 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VISION 101 1. Quality of Life 103 2. Existing Economic Base 103 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT.) Page 3. Opportunities for Growth 104 Manufacturing and Distribution 104 Small Business Needs 105 Agriculture 106 Tourism and Recreation 107 4. Infrastructure 109 5. Housing Supply 112 6. Human Capital 113 7. Managing Economic Development 114 CONCLUSIONS 115 SECTION IV. RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES 117 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 117 Location Parameters 119 Site Parameters 121 STAFF DEVELOPMENT 123 Economic Development Promotion 123 COST-REVENUE MODELS 126 Purposes 126 Preparation 127 Timing 127 Reasons for Use 127 MONITORING ECONOMIC PROGRESS 128 RESPONDING TO ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 129 Capitalizing on Assets 129 Remediating Weaknesses 130 RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES 131 CAPITAL COST IMPLICATIONS 142 MANAGEMENT POLICIES 142 CONCLUSIONS 143 APPENDIXES A-1 INTERVIEWEES A-1 TARGET INDUSTRY CONTACTS A-3 GLOSSARY A-6 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES A-7 RETAIL STORES A-26 MAJOR EMPLOYERS A-27 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF TABLES Number Title Page 1 At-Place Employment Trends, Fredericksburg Region, 1994-1998 4 2 At-Place Employment by Type, King George County, 1994-1998 5 3 Residents’ Occupations by Jurisdiction, Fredericksburg Region, 1990 8 4 Residents’ Shares of Occupations by Jurisdiction, Fredericksburg Region, 1999 10 5 Population Trends, Fredericksburg Region, 1980-2000 12 6 Population and Civilian Labor Force, Fredericksburg Region, 1999 13 7 Public School Membership, by District, Fredericksburg Region, 1995-1999 15 8 Single Family Residential Units Authorized by Building Permits, Fredericksburg Region, 1995-2000 16 9 Multi-family Residential Units Authorized by Building Permits, Fredericksburg Region, 1995-2000 17 10 Average Wages by Industry, Fredericksburg Region, 2000 18 11 Median Household Income, Fredericksburg Region, 1989-1998 19 12 Per Capita Income by Jurisdiction, Fredericksburg Region, 1992-1997 20 13 Households by Income Range, Fredericksburg Region, 1999 21 14 Retail Sales Trends, Fredericksburg Region, 1992-1997 22 15 Economic Impacts of Travel, Fredericksburg Region, 1988-1998 27 16 Shares of Economic Impacts of Travel, Fredericksburg Region, 1988-1998 28 17 Education Attainment by Jurisdiction, Fredericksburg Region, 1990 30 18 Education Attainment by Jurisdiction, Fredericksburg Region, 1990 31 19 Selected Standards of Learning Test Results, Fredericksburg Region, 2000 32 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF TABLES (CONT.) Number Title Page 20 Social Indicator Ranks by Jurisdiction, King George Region, 1997 33 21 Existing Industry Employers, King George County, 1998 51 22 Information Sector Summary, Virginia, 1997 59 23 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Sector Summary, Virginia, 1997 60 24 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services, King George County, 1998 61 25 Manufacturing Firms, Virginia, 1997 67 26 Warehousing and Storage Firms, Virginia, 1997 74 27 Tourism Sector Summary, Virginia, 1997 78 28 Travel Impacts, Fredericksburg Region, 1997 79 29 Number of Farms by Type, King George County, 1997 86 30 Potential Secondary Industries, King George County, 2001 89 31 Administrative and Business Services, Virginia, 1997 90 32 Food, Beverage, and Lodging Industries, Virginia, 1997 92 33 Retail Industry Characteristics, Virginia, 1997 93 34 Real Estate Industry Characteristics, Virginia, 1997 95 35 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Industries, Virginia, 1997 96 36 Construction Industry Characteristics, Virginia, 1997 96 37 Trucking Industry Characteristics, Virginia, 1997 98 38 Industry Development Areas, King George County, 2002 120 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE OF TABLES (CONT.) Number Title Page 39 Recommended Sustainable Economic Development Strategy, King George County, 2002 133 40 Industry Development Areas, King George County, 2002 142 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Achieving the sustainable economic development and rural preservation vision requires protection of existing resources, guiding the location of growth, and attracting compatible private investments. This report quantifies indicators of the County’s position in its region and in the Commonwealth; describes its assets, liabilities, and target industries for which it is especially competitive; summarizes the vision interviewees have of the County’s economic development future; and recommends strategies to achieve that vision. DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK King George County’s economy is closely linked to U.S. Navy expenditures at Dahlgren and to Fredericksburg’s cultural amenities and economic opportunities. Relatively rapid employment and population growth have increased demand for County services and for land. While Federal Government jobs sustained relatively high incomes many of these employees commuted to their jobs from outside the County. The supply of large shopping centers located in nearby jurisdictions and limited total personal income result in retail sales outflow from the County. King George has a relatively low real property effective tax rate compared to nearby Virginia jurisdictions. A large share of the County’s revenue yield is derived from the power plant and landfill. The County’s waterfronts, natural areas, and historic sites and buildings have been instrumental in attracting new and retaining existing residents. Residents rank in the middle of selected social indicators when compared to nearby Virginia jurisdictions. There are no improved vacant organized industrial parks available in the County to accommodate prospective businesses. Potential sites are located in the Dahlgren (business park), Sealston (industrial park), and King George areas. ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES The County’s liabilities are centered on the lack of organized industrial and business parks. One is required to accommodate traditional manufacturing and distribution industries. A second park is required which has higher real estate development standards and is designed to accommodate high tech businesses. The County’s assets include its existing industries with which supplies/consumer relationships can be established; its residents having professional, technical, or other occupations; major highway accessibility; electronic communications capacity; existing utilities and planned extensions thereof; and nearby metropolitan markets for goods and services. Based on industry-by-industry location criteria and the County’s assets, the following primary target industries are recommended: • Information and professional services • Manufacturing • Warehousing and logistics • Tourism • Agriculture HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES i KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK In support of these industries, the following secondary target industries are recommended: • Administrative and business services • Food and beverage • Retail • Motel rooms • Arts, entertainment, and recreation • Construction • Trucking • Packaging • Value-added agriculture These industries tend to be under represented in the County’s economy. VISION OF THE FUTURE Interviewees were most concerned with the following points: • Maintaining the quality of life. • Linking construction and maintenance of infrastructure to growth and development. • Building the economy upon the County’s assets. • Managing a coordinated supply of properly zoned improved land. • Retaining the values of residents while expanding job opportunities and preserving the natural environment. A consensus emerged for continuing the plans, legislated policies, and capital programming supporting these activities. RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES Most new real estate development should be located in the Courthouse, Dahlgren, and Route 3 West areas as designated in the Comprehensive Plan. The limited water and sewer infrastructure and financial resources in support of them call for focusing this development in these areas and for limiting building densities elsewhere. The location of tourism and agriculture resources should be at their existing sites. The County has depended on the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance, Commonwealth of Virginia, utility companies, and land owners to promote economic development. Should the County increase the supply of industrial and business parks, they should be promoted by these entities and by the County. Promotion materials are recommended for distribution to 55 prospective business contacts who are identified, to others in the staff’s network, and in response to inquiries. ii HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The implied cost of maintaining a database required of real estate project cost-revenue model suggests it would not be of significant value to the County’s development permission process. A series of 47 actions are recommended to implement economic development initiatives in the following categories: • Existing industries and employer • Labor force • Remediating weaknesses • General • Information and professional services • Manufacturing, warehousing, and logistics • Tourism • Human resources • Natural resources • Agriculture The capital cost implications of these recommendations are estimated at $16.4 million. A portion of one staff member’s time is required to implement the recommendations. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES iii KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION I. DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION I. DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK King George County is an integral part of the Fredericksburg Region (RADCO) which is also composed of, and defined as, the City of Fredericksburg and the counties of Caroline, Spotsylvania, and Stafford and is geographically linked as an adjacent county to, Westmoreland County, Virginia and Charles County, Maryland. As a result, for purposes of this analysis, all seven jurisdictions are included, to the extent comparable data is available. As defined in this report, the Fredericksburg Region includes the five RADCO jurisdictions and the King George Region includes all seven identified jurisdictions: RADCO plus Westmoreland County, Virginia and Charles County, Maryland. The integral relationships among these eight jurisdictions is further reflected in the growth of the Metropolitan Washington and Richmond area economies which has resulted in rapid development in the I-95 corridor (Fredericksburg Region) and increasing growth pressures in the U.S. 301 corridor (King George Region). This framework therefore measures changes in the Fredericksburg Region and the two adjacent jurisdictions’ economies in recent years which are related to economic growth, to residential development, and to the demand for land. This framework is an input to preparation of and provides the foundation for a long-term sustainable economic development strategic plan for the County of King George. (Please note that the Commonwealth of Virginia is also included where relevant information is available). COMPONENTS This section is organized in terms of employment and occupations; population and school membership; households and housing units; household incomes; retail sales; real property taxes; natural, historic and cultural resources; and real estate development patterns. Except in predominantly retirement or resort economies, employment tends to drive the location, extent, and timing of growth and development. Often, households locate nearby. It is their disposable incomes which support retail and personal services businesses and contribute to the demand for HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 1 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK non-residential land. Therefore, the amount and type of employment are important measures of a community’s economy. King George County has long been dominated by Navy employment complemented by the agricultural industry. However, it faces dramatic change as the economic boom enjoyed by many nearby communities located in the I-95 and U.S. 301 corridors continues. The Board of Supervisors approved the Comprehensive Plan in June 2000 which identifies the following overarching goals for economic development: 1. Promote a healthy diversified economy in the County including the establishment of specified areas for industrial development. 2. Encourage and support the continued stability of the Navy activities at Dahlgren. 3. Encourage more commercial activities, thereby promoting a more healthy and diverse local market. 4. Promote integrated synergistic industrial growth. 5. Encourage tourism to facilitate economic growth. In identifying industries that would diversify the County economy, other policy directions in the Comprehensive Plan come into play, including: • Encourage land use patterns that sustain and enhance the quality of life for the residents of King George County. • Preserve the rural characteristics of King George County. • Encourage economic development which will result in a net local tax benefit, create needed job opportunities and support the other land use goals of this plan, particularly the basic goals of preserving the County’s rural characteristics. 2 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONS Employment by jurisdiction and by major industry are discussed below as are the occupations of residents by major category. Employment The Fredericksburg Region’s employment has been growing rapidly as businesses have sought locations having lower operating costs than other parts of either the Metropolitan Washington or Metropolitan Richmond Areas and having good highway and transportation access to each. Consequently, from 1994 to 1998 over 3,600 jobs were added to the Fredericksburg Region’s economy annually. Approximately 41 percent of the growth occurred in Stafford County, the jurisdiction located closest to Washington, D.C. and another 28 percent of the growth took place in Spotsylvania County, also located in the I-95 corridor. King George County, located in the U.S. 301 corridor, attracted nearly 10 percent of the additional jobs. While jobs located in the adjacent counties of Westmoreland and Charles have grown faster than Caroline County’s, they have grown much more slowly than those located in the Fredericksburg Region as a whole. By comparison, over the same four-year period, the number of jobs located in the Commonwealth of Virginia increased by over 311,000, or over 10 percent, as shown in Table 1. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 3 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 1. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, KING GEORGE REGION, 1994-1998 1994 -1998 Change Share of Jurisdiction 1994 1998 Amount Percent Period Change Caroline County 4,099 4,273 174 4.2% 1% Fredericksburg City 19,094 22,050 2,966 15.5% 20 King George County 7,052 8,486 1,434 20.3% 10 Spotsylvania County 16,044 20,040 3,996 24.9% 28 Stafford County 14,403 20,417 6,014 41.8% 41 Total 60,692 75,266 14,574 24.0% 100% Westmoreland County 3,142 3,294 152 4.8% Charles County, MD 31,792 34,167 2,375 7.7% Commonwealth of Virginia 2,942,715 3,253,987 311,272 10.6% Sources: Virginia Employment Commission; Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation; and Hammer Siler George Associates. Appendix tables 10 through 17 show the shares of each major type of employment in 1994 and 1998 for each of the eight jurisdictions. Key points from these data are that: • Over one-half (52.6 percent) of the jobs located in King George County in 1998 were in the “Government” and ”Other” category which is defined as local, state, and federal government employment and miscellaneous other jobs not elsewhere classified. Although it was the largest category in Caroline and Westmoreland Counties, none of the other jurisdictions’ Government and Other employment category exceeded 31 percent in 1998. • In Charles and Spotsylvania Counties, Retail employment is the largest category. • In Stafford County and Fredericksburg the largest employment category is Services. • Although there have been fluctuations in major industries throughout the region. There were no identifiable trends over the two reported years. As indicated previously, most of King George County’s job growth was in the Government and Other sector, due primarily to private and public employment increases at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Dahlgren. It is currently the single most important component to the economic well being of not only King George County but both the Fredericksburg and King George Regions. In 1999 the NSWC had over 3,100 employees of whom about 2,000, or 64 4 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK percent, were scientists or engineers. The annual payroll exceeded $193 million and the total contracting effort exceeded $570 million. About 39 percent of the payroll was received by King George County residents. As it was to the Fredericksburg Region as a whole, the Services industry was also a major contributor to job growth in King George County. However, as stated above, the largest increase in jobs located in King George County was Government and Other jobs, as shown in Table 2. Of the 843-job increase, 738, or 88 percent were Federal jobs which comprised 83 percent of the government jobs in 1998 in King George County. Local government jobs made up 13 percent of the total and they were mostly school system positions. These two sectors of the economy accounted for over 90 percent of the net increase in jobs over the four-year period in King George County. TABLE 2. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 1994- 1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 30 217 187 623.3% Construction 244 268 24 9.8% Manufacturing 313 316 3 1.0% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 346 231 -115 -33.2% Wholesale Trade 148 133 -15 -10.1% Retail Trade 455 485 30 6.6% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 110 119 9 8.2% Services 1,788 2,256 468 26.2% Government and Other 3,618 4,461 843 23.3% Total 7,052 8,486 1,434 20.3% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 5 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The largest private employers located in King George County in 1999 were: Company Employment Logicon 326 BAE (formally Tracor) 314 EG&G 190 Computer Sciences Corporation 185 Synetics Corporation 150 White Packing Company 146 Heritage Hall 108 SEI Birchwood 61 CACI 57 Planning Consultants 50 Most of these jobs are private NSWC contractors having a need to be located nearby in order to compete for and provide professional services to the Navy. A list of the five-jurisdiction Fredericksburg Region’s major employers by jurisdiction, employment, and products or services is found in the appendix. Prior to the dominance of Federal Government employment, which began building-up in the 1920’s, King George County’s economy was heavily oriented to the agriculture sector. However, as with the rest of the Country, agricultural employment and its economic significance continues to decline in the County although it provided a higher percentage of jobs in 1990 at 2.5 percent in King George, than in the rest of the Fredericksburg region (1.5%). According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 89 percent of the $4.69 million of agricultural products sold in the County in 1997 were crops; mostly corn, wheat, hay and soybeans. The remaining sales ($0.5 million) were livestock and poultry products. The average sales of the 139 farms, of which 56 were full-time, was reported as $33,719 in 1997 and agricultural employment had declined to less than two percent of the jobs located in King George County by 1997. Finally, from 1978 to 1997, land in the County was taken out of farm usage at an average annual amount of just over 595 acres per year. During the same period, the number of farms declined from 168 to 139 while the average size of farms decreased from 271 acres to 246 acres. 6 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Occupations The occupations of the Fredericksburg Region’s residents in 1990, the latest year for which data is available, is shown in Table 3. The highest concentration in the Region is Technical and Professional occupations each of which had over 21,800 persons. Service, Precision Production, and Operators/Laborers occupations each had between 10,000 and 12,900 persons. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 7 8 TABLE 3. RESIDENTS’ OCCUPATIONS BY JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1990 Farming Precision Operators Jurisdiction Professional Technical Service Forestry Production Laborers Total Caroline County 1,220 2,608 1,254 290 1,452 2,031 8,855 Fredericksburg City 2,726 3,012 1,397 113 1,209 1,172 9,629 King George County 1,957 1,843 734 168 1,020 881 6,603 Spotsylvania County 7,451 9,397 3,287 452 4,514 4,378 29,479 Stafford County 8,514 9,864 3,724 263 4,654 3,421 30,440 Total 21,868 26,724 10,396 1,286 12,849 11,883 85,006 Charles County, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK MD 14,590 17,990 5,676 918 7,825 5,606 67,195 Westmoreland County 1,471 1,471 852 372 878 1,425 6,745 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES Commonwealth of Virginia 902,092 927,223 371,408 57,931 348,644 321,053 2,928,361 Source: Bureau of Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK In 1990, Professional and/or Technical jobs in King George County combined to account for 58 percent of the 6,603 jobs held by persons over 15-years-old, which was comparable to the Region as a whole. Throughout Virginia 62 percent of the jobs were in the Professional and/or Technical categories while in nearby Charles County, Maryland, these occupations comprised 48 percent of the total jobs. The least competitive occupational category in all geographic areas was Farming, Forestry, and Fishing. As previously mentioned, those jobs comprised 1.5 percent of the total in the Region and 2.5 percent in King George County. Conversely Farming, Forestry, and Fishing comprised two percent in the Commonwealth of Virginia, and 1.4 percent in Charles County, Maryland. Shares of these occupations by jurisdiction are provided in Table 4. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 9 10 TABLE 4. RESIDENTS’ SHARES OF OCCUPATIONS BY JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1999 Farming Precision Operators Jurisdiction Professional Technical Service Forestry Production Laborers Total Caroline County 13.8% 29.4% 14.2% 3.3% 16.4% 22.9% 100.0% Fredericksburg City 28.3% 31.3% 14.5% 1.2% 12.6% 12.2% 100.0% King George County 29.7% 27.9% 11.1% 2.5% 15.5% 13.3% 100.0% Spotsylvania County 25.3% 31.9% 11.2% 1.5% 15.3% 14.8% 100.0% Stafford County 28.0% 32.4% 12.2% 0.9% 15.3% 11.2% 100.0% KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Total 25.7% 31.5% 12.2% 1.5% 15.1% 14.0% 100.0% Charles County, MD 21.7% 26.8% 8.5% 1.4% 11.7% 8.3% 100.0% HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES Westmoreland County 21.8% 26.0% 12.6% 5.5% 13.0% 21.1% 100.0% Commonwealth of Virginia 30.7% 31.7% 12.7% 2.0% 11.9% 11.0% 100.0% Source: Bureau of Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK POPULATION AND SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP The population has been growing faster in Stafford and Spotsylvania than other parts of the Fredericksburg Region (Caroline/King George). However, the population has also been aging, on average, resulting in a smaller share of the population being enrolled in public schools. Population Job growth in the Fredericksburg Region and accessibility to jobs located outside the Region have resulted in rapid population increases in the five RADCO jurisdictions. The most rapidly growing jurisdictions – Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties – have added over 110,300 people, 90 percent of the Fredericksburg Region’s increase from 1980 to 2000. This population growth in those two counties has resulted in Fredericksburg assuming many economic functions of a central city in a metropolitan region. With the addition of nearly 6,260 people, or over 59 percent, King George County was the third fastest growing RADCO jurisdiction during the 20- year period and has been the 12th fastest growing in the Commonwealth of Virginia over the past decade. Across the Potomac River in Charles County, Maryland, the population increased by over 65 percent, slightly faster than King George County. Nearly 47,800 people were added to Charles County’s population from 1980 to 2000. During the same period, Westmoreland’s population increased by 133 persons per year, a 19 percent growth rate while the Commonwealth’s population growth, during this time frame was over 32 percent, or 1.73 million people, as shown in Table 5. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 11 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 5. POPULATION TRENDS, KING GEORGE REGION, 1980-2000 1980-2000 Change Jurisdiction 1980 1990 2000 Amount Percent Caroline County 17,904 19,217 22,121 4,217 23.6% Fredericksburg City 17,762 19,027 19,279 1,517 8.5% King George County 10,543 13,527 16,803 6,260 59.4% Spotsylvania County 31,995 57,403 90,395 58,400 182.5% Stafford County 40,470 61,236 92,446 51,976 128.4% Total 118,674 170,410 241,044 122,370 103.1% Charles County, MD 72,751 101,154 120,546 47,795 65.7% Westmoreland County 14,041 15,480 16,718 2,677 19.1% Commonwealth of 5,346,818 6,187,358 7,078,515 1,731,697 32.4% Virginia Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. Over one-half of the population is in the civilian labor force located in the five-jurisdiction Fredericksburg Region, in Charles County, and in the Commonwealth, as shown in Table 6. The labor force is defined as those people who are either employed or actively looking for work (over the age of 15-years-old). 12 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 6. POPULATION AND CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE, KING GEORGE REGION, 1999 Participation in Civilian Labor Unemployment Estimated Force Jurisdiction Employment Amount Rate Population Total Percent Caroline County 10,281 348 3.3% 21,700 10,629 49.0% Fredericksburg City 10,800 279 2.5% 19,127 11,079 57.9% King George County 8,342 165 1.9% 16,177 8,507 52.6% Spotsylvania County 42,357 699 1.6% 84,455 43,056 51.0% Stafford County 43,257 696 1.6% 87,248 43,953 50.4% Total 115,037 2,187 1.9% 228,707 117,224 51.3% Charles County, MD 59,529 1,550 2.5% 115,766 61,029 52.7% Westmoreland 7,022 376 5.1% 16,450 7,398 45.0% County Commonwealth of 3,424,001 97,964 2.8% 6,905,345 3,521,965 51.0% Virginia Sources: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce; Claritas; Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. On average in 1999, the Fredericksburg Region’s unemployment rate was less than two percent and fluctuated from 1.6 percent in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties to 3.3 percent in Caroline County. This extremely low unemployment rate has resulted in an increasing demand for personnel recruitment throughout the region. It has also resulted in the inability of some businesses to expand and take advantage of business and/or market opportunities. Charles County, Maryland’s and the Commonwealth of Virginia’s unemployment rates were below three percent at the same time. However, Westmoreland County, with the lowest labor force participation rate among the eight jurisdictions, experienced an average annual unemployment rate exceeding five percent, the highest in the King George region. The Fredericksburg Region added 6,120 people per year from 1980 to 2000. From 2000 to 2010 it is expected to add an additional 4,100 people per year. Most of this growth is anticipated to occur in the prime working years of 40- to 64-years-old. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 13 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Across the Fredericksburg Region, the population has been getting older since 1980 as the percentage of people under 39-years-old declined and the percentage in the 40-to 64-year-old age group increased. King George County reflects this trend. Therefore, there are fewer children than one might expect in the County’s school division and more people than average in their most productive and highest paying employment years. The number of people over 64-years-old in King George County has increased by 70 percent even though their proportion of the population increased only an estimated 1.5 percent over the 20-year period. Because the average life span has increased one would expect the share of elderly King George residents to have increased, as it has. The only jurisdiction which has been growing younger is the City of Fredericksburg. Its share of the population under 20-years-old increased by four percent from 1980 to 2000. Concurrently, the City’s share of elderly residents declined. Population data by age group and jurisdiction is provided in Appendix Table 18. School Membership The public school membership portion of the population is generally growing somewhat slower than the total population as the average number of children per household declines across the Commonwealth. Whereas the public school memberships in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties have kept pace with the rate of population growth, this has not been the case in the Region’s other jurisdictions. The King George County population, for example, grew at about 2.4 percent annually during the 1990’s while the public school student population grew about 1.2 percent annually from 1995 to 1999. Even though Fredericksburg’s population has been getting younger its school membership has been declining as well; perhaps because of greater use of parochial and other private education resources. Public school membership data is provided in Table 7. 14 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 7. PUBLIC SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP, BY DISTRICT, FREDERICKSBURG REGION, 1995-1999. (INCLUDING WESTMORELAND COUNTY) 1995-1999 Change District 1995 1999 Number Percent Caroline County 3,667 3,673 6 0.2% Fredericksburg City 2,217 2,088 -129 -5.8% King George County 2,776 2,916 140 5.0% Spotsylvania County 15,279 17,307 2,028 13.3% Stafford County 16,520 18,936 2,416 14.6% Total 40,459 44,920 4,461 11.0% Westmoreland County 2,053 2,052 -1 -% Commonwealth of Virginia 1,076,653 1,098,718 22,065 2.1% Source: Virginia Department of Education. HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSING UNITS The number of households within the Fredericksburg Region has been growing faster than the population, with the average household size declining as it has since 1980. This trend has increased demand for housing units. Since 1995 an average of over 3,180 residential units have been authorized by building permits each year in the Fredericksburg Region. Some 85 percent of them have been single family units. Consistent with the Region’s population trends, Spotsylvania County has permitted the most housing units—1,525 per year, or 48 percent of the total. King George County’s new housing inventory increased by 134 units per year of which 96 percent were single family structures, clearly the market’s preference. On average, Charles County, Maryland has added over 1,200 units annually and Westmoreland County 57 units per year since 1995. Single family permits are shown in Table 8 by jurisdiction from 1995 to 2000. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 15 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 8. SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL UNITS AUTHORIZED BY BUILDING PERMITS, KING GEORGE REGION, 1995-2000 Average Jurisdiction 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Annual Caroline County 164 120 121 130 114 97 746 124 Fredericksburg City 38 21 18 31 219 41 368 61 King George County 86 94 131 165 170 125 771 128 Spotsylvania County 1,086 1,213 1,117 1,562 1,463 1,460 7,901 1,317 Stafford County 962 1,142 984 1,169 1,048 1,101 6,406 1,069 Total 2,336 2,590 2,371 3,057 3,014 2,824 16,192 2,699 Charles County, MD 1,051 1,153 1,155 1,468 1,023 1,074 6,924 1,154 Westmoreland County 50 48 57 66 61 58 340 57 Commonwealth of 34,677 35,163 35,877 24,604 42,069 39,756 212,146 35,358 Virginia Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties attracted 91 percent of the Fredericksburg Region’s multi- family construction since 1995. Their locations in the I-95 corridor, the relatively high price of land near its interchanges, and permitted high residential densities contributed to this distribution of the Region’s multi-family units. About 15 percent of the Region’s units and nine percent of Charles County’s units, which have been authorized since 1995, were multi-family units. Multi- family permits are shown in Table 9. Multi-family units have not been an important part of the King George County and Westmoreland County markets because their costs are comparable to single family units and demand has been attracted to large amenity-driven projects, providing nearby shopping and entertainment opportunities located outside of these counties. 16 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 9. MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL UNITS AUTHORIZED BY BUILDING PERMITS, KING GEORGE REGION, 1995-2000 Average Jurisdiction 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total Annual Caroline County 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 Fredericksburg City 19 20 12 180 0 0 231 38 King George County 20 2 2 2 4 4 34 6 Spotsylvania County 200 245 568 68 168 0 1,249 208 Stafford County 18 276 56 286 180 593 1,409 236 Total 257 543 638 536 354 597 2,925 488 Charles County, MD 0 54 108 424 131 0 717 119 Westmoreland County 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Commonwealth of 7,147 9,646 8,524 4,837 11,032 8,646 31,186 5,197 Virginia Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. PERSONAL INCOME Compared to the Fredericksburg Region’s average, King George County residents’ wages are higher in four industries and lower in five industries, as shown in Table 10. The greatest disparities occurred in the Government and Services industries where King George average wages were 41 percent and 70 percent, respectively, higher than the Region’s average. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 17 18 TABLE 10. AVERAGE WAGES BY INDUSTRY, KING GEORGE REGION, 2000 (INCLUDING WESTMORELAND) King Industry Caroline Fredericksburg George Spotsylvania Stafford Region Westmoreland Virginia Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing $380 $344 $349 $294 $360 $342 $412 $400 Mining - - - - $849 $791 - $872 Construction $536 $577 $474 $535 $539 $538 $318 $611 Manufacturing $556 $572 $518 $712 $577 $635 $466 $703 Wholesale Trade $489 $668 $651 $588 $687 $648 $503 $920 Retail Trade $283 $274 $251 $335 $244 $291 $251 $338 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate $486 $735 $394 $513 $531 $555 $400 $842 Services $380 $539 $914 $442 $414 $539 $301 $707 Government $512 $618 $992 $704 $520 $702 $486 $680 Transportation, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Communication, and Utilities $754 $662 $632 $636 $625 $650 $526 $934 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES Source: Virginia Employment Commission. KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Escalation of wages and salaries has resulted in increasing median household incomes. On average however, they declined slightly in constant dollars from 1989 to 1998 in the King George Region as incomes were continuing to recover from the recession of the early 1990’s. The highest incomes are found in the fastest growing jurisdictions, Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties. In King George County median household income reached $49,371 in 1998, a 6.3 percent increase over the 1989 figure and represented the highest increase in the region. Stafford County incomes also increased during the period, as shown in Table 11, although not as great as King George. TABLE 11. MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME, KING GEORGE REGION, 1989-1998 1989-1998 Change Jurisdiction 1989 1998 Amount Percent Caroline County $37,638 $37,040 (598) -1.6% Fredericksburg City $34,667 $33,050 (1,617) -4.7% King George County $46,431 $49,371 2,940 6.3% Spotsylvania County $53,803 $52,100 (1,703) -3.2% Stafford County $58,010 $61,219 3,209 5.5% Total $50,688 $49,935 (753) -1.5% Charles County, MD $60,715 $58,200 (2,515) -4.1% Westmoreland County $33,250 $32,685 (565) -1.7% Commonwealth of Virginia $43,596 $43,945 349 0.8% Note: Dollar data in 1998 constant dollars. Sources: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce and Claritas. Even though household incomes were generally declining across both the Region and the Commonwealth of Virginia, per capita income increased from 1992 to 1997 as the average household size declined. According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, per capita income across the Commonwealth increased over seven percent during the five-year period. This growth rate is comparable to that in King George and Caroline Counties. Per capita income data is provided in Table 12 by jurisdiction. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 19 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 12. PER CAPITA INCOME BY JURISDICTION, FREDERICKSBURG REGION, 1992-1997 (INCLUDING WESTMORELAND) 1992-1997 Change Jurisdiction 1992 1997 Amount Percent Caroline County $17,494 $18,770 $1,276 7.3% Fredericksburg City and $22,185 $23,543 $1,358 6.1% Spotsylvania County King George County $21,714 $23,319 $1,605 7.4% Stafford County $19,894 $20,860 $966 4.9% Westmoreland County $17,796 $19,796 $2,000 11.2% Commonwealth of Virginia $24,270 $26,109 $1,839 7.6% Note: Data in 1997 constant dollars. Sources: Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Compared to the Fredericksburg Region, King George County had a higher proportion of households in the under $35,000 annual household income category and somewhat fewer in the over $75,000 category in 1999. The high proportion of County households earning between $35,000 and $75,000 in 1999 may be attributable to the high proportion of persons employed by the Federal Government. The number of households by income range and by jurisdiction is provided in Table 13 from a report prepared by the Wadley-Donovan Group. 20 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 13. HOUSEHOLDS BY INCOME RANGE, FREDERICKSBURG REGION, 1999 Less Than $35,000- Over Jurisdiction $35,000 $75,000 $75,000 Total Caroline County 4,380 (56%) 2,817 (36%) 584 (8%) 7,781 (100%) Fredericksburg City 5,311 (51%) 3,683 (36%) 1,380 (13%) 10,374 (100%) King George County 2,976 (41%) 3,208 (44%) 1,058 (15%) 7,242 (100%) Spotsylvania County 6,662(27%) 12,099 (50%) 5,730 (23%) 24,491 (100%) Stafford County 9,208 (30%) 15,243 (49%) 6,657 (21%) 31,108 (100%) Fredericksburg 28,537 (35%) 37,050 (46%) 15,409 (19%) 80,996 (100%) Region Note: Dollar ranges in current dollars. Source: Wadley-Donovan Group. RETAIL SALES Spotsylvania County’s rapid residential growth has contributed to the greatest retail sales growth in the Fredericksburg Region from 1992 to 1997. It captured 73 percent of the Region’s retail sales growth, in constant dollars, over the five-year period. Fredericksburg attracted the second highest growth in sales, reaching $567.3 million in 1997, an increase of $94.7 million. Much of this increase is attributable to development of the Central Park Shopping Center. King George County which had a marginal increase in sales continues to have the least retail space in the region with 1997 sales of only $53.2 million. Retail sales trends are shown in Table 14 and a list of King George County retailers is provided following Appendix Table 18. In 1997, Charles County’s retail sales reached $1.2 billion as the result of shopping center and big box retail construction to serve households located in market areas having rapidly growing total disposable incomes. Westmoreland County’s $83.4 million sales represented a marginal increase over 1992 in the amount of $1.1 million, in constant 1997 dollars. Growth of the retail industry in Spotsylvania and Charles Counties and the City of Fredericksburg attracted sales inflows from nearby jurisdictions. Retail sales trends by jurisdiction are provided in Table 14. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 21 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 14. RETAIL SALES TRENDS KING GEORGE REGION, 1992-1997 1992-1997 Change Jurisdiction 1992 1997 Amount Percent Caroline County $100,803 $118,392 $17,589 17.5% Fredericksburg City 472,568 567,275 94,707 20.0% King George County 47,008 53,247 6,239 13.3% Spotsylvania County 461,949 737,610 275,661 59.7% Stafford County 428,860 413,532 -15,328 -3.6% Total $1,511,188 $1,890,056 $378,868 25.1% Charles County $894,298 $1,243,620 $349,045 39.0% Westmoreland County $82,314 $83,399 $1,084 1.3% Commonwealth of $54,799,420 $62,569,924 $7,770,504 14.2% Virginia Note: Dollar data in thousands of 1997 constant dollars. Sources: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. More accessible sites and higher total personal income resulted in locating shopping centers and other retail stores in Fredericksburg City and in Charles and Spotsylvania Counties which attract shoppers from King George County. This strong competition has meant that shoppers goods (comparison shopping) stores, including big boxes, have not located in King George County. The County’s largest stores are the Food Lion groceries and Bowling Home Center. The cumulative occupied retail floor space is estimated at 260,000 square feet, excluding gasoline service stations. Demand for retail floor space has been composed of growth of the residential or home-based, job-based, and visitor segments of the market. Because the home-based sector of demand is the largest sector and because King George County has less than eight percent of the Fredericksburg Region’s homes, retail floor space growth in the County has been constrained. NATURAL, HISTORIC, AND CULTURAL RESOURCES King George County has a number of natural, historic, and cultural resources and is located near many others, in nearby jurisdictions, to which visitors are attracted. 22 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Natural Resources The principal natural resources are: • 131 miles of waterfront along the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers • Rolling terrain of farms and woodlands • Wildlife habitats • Sand and gravel deposits • Acquifers • Soils that support crop production. The 2,579-acre Caledon Natural Area is a home of bald eagles, and has hiking trails, picnic areas, and environmental education facilities. The 465-acre Lands End Wildlife Management Area is owned by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and includes the Wilmont Landing access to the Rappahannock River. Two local parks, Barnesfield and Wayside comprise 175 acres on Barnesfield Road and U. S. 301 with access to the Potomac River at Wayside. Historic Resources The County is rich in historic families and events from the times when Native Americans primarily occupied the area onward. However, many of the structures and artifacts have been lost over time. Nevertheless, the County museum –with its important artifacts and identified historic sites, in conjunction with traffic going to tourist destinations in the Fredericksburg region and Westmoreland County (Northern Neck) could constitute a potential and viable growth sector of the King George economy. Museum. Located adjacent to the Sheriff’s Department at the County’s administrative headquarters, the 500-square foot museum emphasizes displays of artifacts and preservation of local genealogical information. Averaging over 200 visitors annually, it is constrained by limited floor space, operating periods which average eight hours per week and limited marketing. Sites. Among the County’s historic structures and sites some have more commercial tourism value than others. Perhaps the resources having the highest potential to attract tourists are Belle HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 23 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Grove, Cleydael, Marmion, Rokeby, Caledon, and St. Paul’s Church. Of special interest to persons who served there is the NSWC at Dahlgren. Belle Grove circa 1770; original owner Francis Conway. Belle Grove, said to be the largest colonial house in King George County, stands on the site where James Madison, Fourth President of the United States was born on March 16, 1751. Belle Grove is a two-story frame mansion with two connecting wings and also two end wings. The house, situated on the north bank of the Rappahannock River, has a double portico with a two-story curving gallery. The riverfront boasts a large double portico porch with columns. The central portion of the house was built in 1770 and the end wings were added in 1839. The interior of Belle Grove has a central hallway with triple arches. The dining room contains walls covered with hand-painted wallpaper. On either side of the fireplace are carved archways leading into the entrance hall. Belle Grove is listed on both the Virginia Historic Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. Cleydael circa 1859; original owner Dr. Richard Stuart. This two-story frame structure was built as a summer residence for Dr. Stuart and was located eight miles from his primary residence, Cedar Grove. Dr. Stuart and his family spent their summers at Cleydael to avoid malaria that sometimes occurred along the river in the summer months. Cleydael retains nearly all of its interior woodwork and has a wide verandah that runs the entire length of the house and wraps around it. The house has an unusual T-shaped floor plan that promoted greater ventilation. Located to the rear of the house was an office and waiting room where Dr. Stuart saw patients. In 1865, John Wilkes Booth sought medical assistance from Dr. Stuart at Cleydael after assassinating President Lincoln. Stuart, suspecting who Booth might be, refused him medical aid and sent him and the other men that were with him away, after having given them dinner. Cleydael is listed on both the Virginia Historic Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. Marmion circa 1719; original owner Philip Fitzhugh. Marmion is a two-story frame house and is listed on both the Virginia Landmarks Register and The National Register of Historic Places. 24 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The exterior of the house yields a clipped gable roof and two interior end chimneys with exposed shafts. The stack of the south “early panel” chimney contains the only known example of glazed-header brickwork in Virginia. The outbuildings of the estate are grouped as a formal quadrangle around the main structure. These dependencies include a dairy, kitchen, office, and a smokehouse. The interior of Marmion contains a central entrance hall with a staircase having carved posts and several paneled rooms. The painted paneling in the parlor is decorated with urns, baroque scrolls, festoons, cornucopia, and landscapes, all with a marbleized background. The parlor is the subject of an interesting story of the estate. In 1782 a Hessian soldier painted the parlor walls using paints made from the plantation’s clay. The paneling of this room has been sold and can now be seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The paneled room is considered the finest piece of artwork in the American wing of the museum. In 1785 Marmion was sold to George Lewis, son of Fielding Lewis of Kenmore in Fredericksburg. Lewis descendants owned the house until 1977. Rokeby circa 1828; original owner was the Wallace family. This Greek Revival house is a large two-story brick structure constructed in Flemish bond with frame wings on either side. The center section of the house was built in 1828 and the wings were constructed in 1912. In the Civil War siege of Fredericksburg, Union General A. E. Burnside used Rokeby as his headquarters. Caledon circa 1659; original owner was Captain John Alexander. The original house at Caledon was located on the Potomac River and is now no longer standing. The house was replaced by a two-story brick building built by a later generation of the Alexander family. The estate was given the name of Caledon for Caledonia, the ancient name for Scotland. It was Captain John Alexander, the original purchaser of the property, for whom the City of Alexandria was named. In 1984 Caledon became part of the Virginia Natural Areas System. It serves as a park where visitors can enjoy viewing the American bald eagle as well as many other forms of natural wildlife and botanical beauty. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 25 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Saint Paul’s Church circa 1766; original owners Saint Paul’s Vestry, style late Georgian. The present structure is the third church built to serve St. Paul’s parish, constructed of brick and contains one of the few wine glass pulpits remaining in the Commonwealth. It is also one of the two remaining Virginia colonial churches with a true Greek Cross plan and two tiers of windows. The exterior of the two-story building has both semi-circular and segmented arches above the windows, rubbed brick trim and a hipped roof at each of the four gables. In 1812-13 the church was in ruins and was taken over as a girl’s school. It was at this time that the four wings were bricked up to make classrooms. One of the three classrooms remains, although the other wings have been restored to their original form. In 1831 paneled pews were installed and galleries were built on the south, east and west wings. Located in the churchyard is the parish house, constructed in the Early Republican style. The parish house was once used as a rectory. A cemetery is also located in the churchyard. The parish register is kept at the Theological Seminary in Alexandria and contains all congregation births, deaths, and marriages of the 18th century. St. Paul’s is listed in the Virginia Historic Landmarks Register and The National Register of Historic Places. Dahlgren Naval Facility since 1918; owned by the U.S. Department of Defense. The buildings and equipment open to the public are of special interest to personnel who served at the site and to people who are already familiar with its roles in our country’s history. Economic Impacts The economic impacts of tourism vary widely across the Fredericksburg Region and Westmoreland County, according to the Virginia Tourism Corporation. Its measures of employment, payroll, spending, and local taxes are summarized by jurisdiction for 1988 and 1998 in Table 15. As indicated by these measures, King George County attracted the least tourism expenditures, and therefore employment, among the six Virginia jurisdictions. Conversely, the large number of tourist service businesses located in Spotsylvania County resulted in tourism having the greatest impact on the Spotsylvania economy. 26 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 15. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRAVEL, KING GEORGE REGION, 1988-1998 Direct Direct Traveler Local Jurisdiction/Year Employment Payroll Spending Taxes Caroline County 1988 240 $3.3 $19.4 $0.5 1998 410 $6.1 $40.4 $0.9 Fredericksburg City 1988 720 $9.3 $43.1 $0.3 1998 950 $17.7 $53.3 $1.5 King George County 1988 90 $1.5 $9.0 $0.3 1998 110 $1.7 $9.0 $0.4 Spotsylvania County 1988 1,720 $26.9 $128.8 $2.0 1998 1,650 $25.2 $111.0 $2.3 Stafford County 1988 830 $11.3 $69.8 $0.8 1998 820 $11.2 $48.3 $1.2 Region Total 1988 3,600 $52.3 $270.1 $3.9 1998 3,940 $61.9 $262.0 $6.3 Westmoreland County 1988 220 $3.6 $21.3 $2.7 1998 310 $5.9 $28.0 $3.2 Virginia 1988 161,620 $3,057.1 $10,379.8 $251.2 1998 194,870 $3,540.7 $11,680.6 $380.5 Notes: Dollar data in constant 1998 dollars. Source: Virginia Tourism Corporation. The shares of the economic impacts of travel are shown in Table 16 by jurisdiction. Because King George County has never established an office of tourism, or a tourist development program having improved sites, it attracted only three percent of the Region’s tourism business which is the smallest share among the jurisdictions. The location of the rest of the Region in the I-95 corridor along with these major tourism investments provides the remaining four jurisdictions the advantage of attracting high volumes of travelers to their attractions. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 27 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 16. SHARES OF ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRAVEL, KING GEORGE REGION, 1988-1998 Direct Direct Traveler Local Jurisdiction/Year Employment Payroll Spending Taxes Caroline County 1988 7% 6% 7% 13% 1998 10% 10% 16% 14% Fredericksburg City 1988 20% 18% 16% 8% 1998 24% 29% 20% 24% King George County 1988 2% 3% 3% 8% 1998 3% 3% 3% 6% Spotsylvania County 1988 48% 51% 48% 51% 1998 42% 40% 42% 37% Stafford County 1988 23% 22% 26% 20% 1998 21% 18% 19% 19% Region Total 1988 100% 100% 100% 100% 1998 100% 100% 100% 100% Sources: Virginia Travel Corporation and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. Cultural Resources The County’s cultural resources include not only its natural settings and casual way of life, but also its health, recreation, and education facilities. Residents seeking performing arts and retail entertainment opportunities, go to Fredericksburg, for the most part, or to the Washington, D.C. Area. The County is compared to neighboring Virginia jurisdictions in terms of nine social indicators described in Table 20. Health. Medical and dental services are available locally through private providers. While clinical services are provided in the County, the largest nearby hospital (Mary Washington) is located in Fredericksburg. 28 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Recreation. The Citizens’ Center provides recreation programs, arts and crafts classes, performing arts opportunities and a small natural amphitheater which is available for community use. School sites provide tennis courts and ball fields. The golf, physical fitness, swimming, and other NSWC recreation facilities are open to the public. Additionally, there is one public golf course in the County (Cameron Hills). Education. The County’s public school system has two elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school. They include 34 trailers as temporary classrooms and serve about 3,000 students. There are no private schools located in the County. A new high school and new elementary school are proposed to be built. Thereafter, the present high school would become a middle school. Selected community college courses are offered in King George by both Germanna and Rappahannock Community Colleges. Mary Washington University is located within commuting distance in Fredericksburg and offers four-year degrees. The NSWC also provides degreed programs in multiple disciplines in cooperation with extension services of colleges and universities nationwide. The levels of education attained by residents of the Fredericksburg Region over 17-years-old in 1990 are shown in absolute terms in Table 17 and in proportional terms in Table 18. Whereas 73 percent of adults had a high school education, or more, there were over 29,800 who were below the high school level. The share of college educated King George County residents was comparable to that of the Region’s. Westmoreland County trailed the Region and Virginia with only 28 percent of its residents having attended or graduated from a school beyond the high school level. Across Virginia, 48 percent had done so by 1990. Since 1997 the Virginia Department of Education has administered statewide Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. Results of four subjects tested at the high school level are shown in Table 19 in terms of the shares of students who passed the tests. King George students achieved higher than the state average in three of the four subjects although students in the Spotsylvania and Stafford school systems generally had higher test results than King George students. This test is not administered in Charles County, Maryland. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 29 30 TABLE 17. EDUCATION ATTAINMENT BY JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1990 Less Than High High Associate 1-3 Years Bachelors Graduate Jurisdiction School School Degree College Degree Degree Total Caroline County 5,619 5,167 417 1,870 788 289 14,150 Fredericksburg City 3,490 4,709 357 3,642 2,415 897 15,510 King George County 2,695 3,116 455 1,701 1,262 524 9,753 Spotsylvania County 9,561 13,835 2,138 7,450 4,865 2,030 39,879 Stafford County 8,460 14,633 2,240 9,059 6,425 2,415 43,232 Total 29,825 41,460 5,607 23,722 15,755 6,155 108,524 Charles County, MD 13,371 27,256 3,994 16,331 7,160 3,330 71,442 Westmoreland County 4,762 3,845 455 1,614 815 402 11,893 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Commonwealth of Virginia 1,131,326 1,297,714 244,488 969,191 676,710 363,602 4,683,031 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES Note: Includes persons over 17-years-old. Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES TABLE 18. EDUCATION ATTAINMENT BY JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1990 Less Than High Associate 1-3 Years Bachelors Graduate Jurisdiction High School School Degree College Degree Degree Total Caroline County 39.7% 36.5% 3.0% 13.2% 5.6% 2.0% 100.0% Fredericksburg City 22.5% 30.3% 2.3% 23.5% 15.6% 5.8% 100.0% King George County 27.6% 32.0% 4.7% 17.4% 12.9% 5.4% 100.0% Spotsylvania County 24.0% 34.6% 5.4% 18.7% 12.2% 5.1% 100.0% Stafford County 19.6% 33.9% 5.2% 21.0% 14.9% 5.6% 100.0% Total 27.5% 38.2% 5.2% 21.9% 14.5% 5.7% 100.0% Charles County, MD 18.7% 38.2% 5.6% 22.9% 10.0% 4.7% 100.0% Westmoreland 40.0% 32.3% 3.8% 13.6% 6.9% 3.4% 100.0% County Commonwealth of 24.2% 27.6% 5.2% 20.7% 14.5% 7.8% 100.0% Virginia Note: Includes persons over 17-years-old. Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. 31 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 19. SELECTED STANDARDS OF LEARNING TEST RESULTS, KING GEORGE AREA, 2000 Subject U.S. Jurisdiction English Geometry Biology History Caroline County 67.0 43.3 62.7 20.5 Fredericksburg City 79.6 88.2 86.6 45.1 King George County 65.4 68.6 79.7 49.4 Spotsylvania County 78.5 63.1 81.6 40.1 Stafford County 85.7 73.0 88.7 51.3 Westmoreland County 68.0 44.4 66.7 22.7 Commonwealth of Virginia 78.1 62.1 79.4 39.2 Note: Data show shares of high school students taking the tests that passed them. Source: Virginia Department of Education. Social Indicators An important industry location criterion is the quality of the labor force. Many companies have full-time staff members evaluating their existing employees, evaluating prospective employees, and seeking additional candidates. Indicators of a jurisdiction’s future labor pool quality are school expenditures, behavior of children, and resources they have available as they are growing up. In Table 20, these types of social indicators are ranked for Fredericksburg Region jurisdictions and Westmoreland County. In general, King George County falls in the middle of the Region’s jurisdictions except its high ranking keeping high school students in school, indicator E. The highest ranking a jurisdiction could receive is 1 and the lowest 140. 32 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 20. SOCIAL INDICATOR RANKS BY JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1997 Social Indicator Jurisdiction A B C D E F G H I Caroline County 116 129 49 79 41 113 71 84 13.3% Fredericksburg City 57 100 129 99 89 12 112 105 NA King George County 88 71 56 75 9 73 93 40 7.9% Spotsylvania County 43 91 38 71 89 100 63 12 5.9% Stafford County 23 74 35 57 2 104 34 6 5.0% Westmoreland 87 31 58 41 7 101 113 80 15.8% County Note: Definitions of ranks by column: A Babies born weighing less than five pounds eight ounces. They are more susceptible to disease and retardation than other babies. B Psychiatric hospitalizations of ages 5-17, often leading to reduced educational attainment. C Child abuse or neglect. D Violent crime arrests of ages 12-17. E High school dropouts. F Per pupil expenditures. G Teen age girl births. H Children receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. I Share of population living in poverty. The higher the rank, the bigger the problem. Ranks are proportional to population. Comparable data not available for Charles County, Maryland. NA means data not available. Source: Action Alliance for Virginia’s Children and Youth.. REAL PROPERTY TAXES Industries having a choice of new investment locations consider real property taxes as a factor, among many others, in making that decision. Because of school construction costs and other public services and amenities demanded by residents, jurisdictions which have attracted rapid population growth have experienced pressures to increase this tax and/or other sources of revenue to pay for these public facilities, services, and amenities. According to the Weldon HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 33 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Cooper Center for Public Service at the University of Virginia, the real property tax rates in the Fredericksburg (including Westmoreland County) Region in 1999 resulted in the following effective tax rates: Effective Tax Jurisdiction Rate Caroline County $0.66 Fredericksburg City $1.14 King George County $0.72 Spotsylvania County $0.86 Stafford County $1.01 Westmoreland County $0.59 These rates are per $100 of fair market value. They show that King George County has the third lowest rate among the six Virginia jurisdictions. It should be noted that, depending on the jurisdiction, agricultural, forest, horticultural, and open space exemptions may be available to property owners. Charles County, Maryland had an effective real property tax rate of $0.68 per $100 of value in 1999. Because Maryland’s tax structure differs from Virginia’s, its local jurisdiction tax rates are not directly comparable to those in Virginia. REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS Before selection of the NSWC site in 1918 King George County’s real estate development was concentrated at major road intersections. During the past 84 years Dahlgren, the location of NSWC in the U.S. 301 corridor, has attracted the bulk of new real estate investments in the County. A second important influence on real estate development patterns has been the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers comprising 131 miles of shoreline in the County. They are crossed by highways at only two locations in the County, the U.S. 301 bridges at Dahlgren into Charles County and Port Conway into Caroline County. As a result, these rivers are barriers to development on the one hand and they attract development to riverfront sites on the other. These factors have influenced labor force commuting and the locations of large land holdings. 34 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The Harry W. Nice and James Madison Memorial bridges carry U.S. 301 traffic across the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, respectively. It is the only north-south highway going through the County from outside. During the 10-year period, to 2008, when reconstruction of the I-95/I-495 interchange and re-decking Woodrow Wilson Bridge across the Potomac River at Alexandria may be completed, increased traffic is expected in the U.S. 301 corridor. This corridor has provided a good alternate to congestion in the I-95 corridor in spite of its lower design standards and traffic capacity. Commuting In 1990, the most recent year for which data is available, about 39 percent of the Fredericksburg Region’s 88,000 commuters went to jobs outside the Fredericksburg Region. This high rate reflects the availability of relatively inexpensive housing in the Region, concentrations of job opportunities outside the Region, and highway capacity connecting the two. At that time only 16 percent of King George County’s labor force, or 2,673 persons over 15-years of age, commuted outside the County for jobs – the majority of them to Stafford and Spotsylvania Counties or to the City of Fredericksburg. Most of King George County’s residential subdivisions are located along its major road corridors. About 5,000 workers commuted to jobs located in King George County in 1990, most of them from Westmoreland and Spotsylvania Counties and the City of Fredericksburg. Today King George County, as it was in 1990, appears to have remained a net in-commuting County (more employees commuting into King George to work than King George residents going daily to other jurisdictions for employment) primarily because of jobs at the NSWC. In 1990 more than 2,300 more persons commuted into than out of the County. Commutation data is provided in Appendix Tables 1 and 2. Land Holdings King George County’s economy was formerly dominated by farms whose average size has not changed markedly over the years. Many of these tracts remain in single ownership and continue HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 35 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK to be used for agriculture or forestry purposes. Large tracts in public use where urban development will not take place include Caledon State Park, Lands End Waterfowl Refuge, and the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge within which is located the County’s only public dock and boat ramp, Wilmont Landing on the Rappahannock River. Restrictive use covenants have been placed on selected large properties to preserve their present uses and densities. They include the Nanzatico, Rokeby, and Walsington farms, Powhatan Plantation, and Belle Grove, President James Madison’s birthplace. The 958-acre Hop Yard Turf Farm located along the Rappahannock River, is proposed to be developed for 900 dwelling units and for commercial uses on its VA 3 frontage. Other large residential projects are Presidential Lakes with 342 lots, Bayberry with 223 lots, and Oakland Park with 201 lots. Sewer Service While most real estate development prior to 1990 was on sites in excess of three acres, land prices have increased during the past 10 years and therefore most development took place on smaller sites. Sewer service was provided by two special purpose districts (Dahlgren and Fairview Beach) and several other private companies until 1994 at which time the County acquired the assets of all but one of the private providers. The special purpose districts continue to serve the Dahlgren and Fairview Beach areas as part of the King George County Service Authority while the NSWC provides sewer service on the Base itself. Dahlgren is the largest service area off-base, has the most vacant commercial land available for development, and has excellent highway access. The other areas having service are Oakland Park, King George (the vicinity of VA 206 and VA 3), the intersection of VA 205 and VA 3 and Fairview Beach. Excluding NSWC, cumulatively these service areas comprise less than one percent of the County’s land area. 36 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Office Space Over 90 percent of the County’s office space demand has been attributable to the NSWC and the County government. Over 90 percent of the private space is located in the Dahlgren area where 500,000 square feet are more than 95 percent occupied. Because this demand is dependent upon Navy contracts and is time sensitive, it is often built to minimum standards responsive only to County code and security requirements. The remaining estimated 52,000 square feet of private office space located in the County is primarily clustered in the King George community and otherwise scattered around the County. Although Dahlgren continues to see growth no private office space has been built outside Dahlgren since before 1990. The Hop Yard Turf Farm plan calls for 20,000 square feet of office space and the Cleydael project has a site available which could accommodate additional office space. Zoning Currently the King George County Planning Commission and the Department of Community Development are working on a revised Zoning Plan and according to the Planning Commission, there are five zoning issues responses to which may increase development standards. They include: • Allowing limited residential lots in agricultural areas while maintaining the property in agricultural use. • Promoting open space by clustering buildings having smaller side yards than currently required. • Reducing traffic conflicts while promoting good development along major highway corridors by having a highway corridor overlay zoning district. • Improving real estate development standards with appearance design criteria. • Protecting the public health and increasing “curb appeal” of real estate products by demolishing poorly maintained vacant buildings. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 37 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK These tools would maintain the aesthetic appearance of the County while protecting its natural resources. CONCLUSIONS Major conclusions of the topics covered in this section are summarized as follows: Employment and Occupations • King George County’s economy, as is the RADCO Region itself, is closely linked to U.S. Navy Department expenditures and to the cultural and economic amenities of the City of Fredericksburg. • The NSWC at Dahlgren and its contractors accounted for over 52 percent of the jobs located in the County in 1998. Their relatively high pay scales have been the primary stimulus to median household incomes increasing more than 25 percent since 1979, in constant dollars. Federal military and civilian jobs are stable and may increase with growth of the Navy budget for NSWC’s missions. • Fredericksburg is the region’s central place and has excellent access to the Metropolitan Washington and Richmond markets. Fredericksburg’s cultural, educational, and retail resources serve King George residents and businesses and make the County an attractive residential location.. • King George County has been adding about 360 jobs per year during the 1990’s mostly attributable to NSWC. It is the primary engine which drives the local and regional economy. • The County’s total population has been growing slightly faster than employment at 371 persons per year. • Because the Navy allocates its missions and budgets to sites and selects its contractors, the County has little influence on those decisions. • Meat packing, health services, tomato growing, electric power generation, sand and gravel recovery, and land fill companies are the largest (over 12 employees) non- defense private employers located in the County. • In 1990, more people commuted in to King George County than out. 38 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Most of the jobs held by King George residents in 1990 were in professional and technical occupations. The County generally reflects the shares of occupations found in the Region. Population and School Membership • King George County’s population has been growing between 2.5 and three percent annually since 1980, about the same rate as neighboring Charles County, Maryland. • The County according to population estimates was the 12th fastest growing in the Commonwealth of Virginia. While closer to jobs in Northern Virginia and Washington D.C., Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, located in the I-95 corridor, have been growing even more rapidly. • King George County’s unemployment rate is about the same as the Region’s. • In the fastest growing counties – Spotsylvania and Stafford – public school memberships have kept pace with the rate of population growth while elsewhere in the Region school membership has been growing somewhat slower as the average number of children per household has declined. Households and Housing Units • As the average size of households has declined the number of households and housing units has grown faster than the population. • The overwhelming majority of these units have been single family among the Region’s jurisdictions except in Fredericksburg City where land prices are higher than elsewhere in the King George Region. Personal Income • Following the recession in the early 1990’s, household incomes began increasing and had nearly returned to their 1989 levels by 1998. • While Federal Government jobs sustained relatively high levels of income, agriculture jobs did not. • While many King George County householders have high paying jobs, many others do not. This has resulted in the County’s median household income being 99 percent of the Region’s in 1998. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 39 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • King George County’s share of households having incomes of less than $35,000 in 1999 was somewhat higher than the Region’s. Retail Sales • Perhaps retailers have the most exacting locational criteria among private real estate investors because it is a highly competitive industry. Retail malls and big boxes locate in jurisdictions having excellent highway access to relatively high levels of total personal income. Spotsylvania and Charles Counties had the highest relative growth in retail sales from 1992 to 1997. • Although residential land located in King George County is generally less expensive than in adjacent counties, the lack of improved sites, absence of cultural facilities, perceptions of public school quality, and the lack of comparison shopping opportunities have suppressed residential demand to below levels it might have achieved. • Relatively inexpensive new residential units (typically $130,000 for 1,800 square foot houses on a one-third acre lot) has contributed to few multi-family units being constructed. • Low residential densities have reduced demand for community recreation facilities which are currently being provided at the public schools and the NSWC. • The supply of new houses available to people making less than $50,000 per year is extremely limited. Some housing units do not have indoor plumbing. • Rental Housing is extremely limited in the County. • Some housing units do not have indoor plumbing. Real Property Taxes • Among nearby Virginia jurisdictions, King George County has the third lowest real property effective tax rate after Westmoreland and Caroline Counties. • Property tax rates are a portion of private investment location decisions that effect new development. • The Birchwood power plant is located about nine miles west of the village of King George and adjacent to the King George County landfill, a publicly owned and privately operated (Waste Management) landfill. The power plant exports electricity from the County and the landfill imports solid waste from other communities. Together they 40 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK generate over 31 percent of the County’s annual revenue (approximately 7 million dollars annually) but provide fewer than 100 jobs. • It must be noted however that the landfill portion of this revenue stream may dwindle to zero by 2032. Replacement of this revenue in support of County services is consequently an increasingly important issue. Natural, Historic, and Cultural Resources • The County’s waterfronts and natural areas are extremely important to its residents’ quality of life and could be instrumental to attracting new residents as well as sustainable economic development. • Whereas there are important historic resources, they have generally not been developed or promoted. • The County’s cultural resources include its natural settings, active and passive recreation facilities, and public schools including some community college course offerings. • County residents also benefit from access to these types of resources located in Fredericksburg. • King George County residents over 17-years-old had achieved slightly lower levels of education than those in the Region in 1990. In 2000 the County’s high school students achieved higher than the state’s averages in three of the four SOL subjects quantified. • County residents generally fall in the middle of nine social indicators which were quantified by the Action Alliance for Virginia Children and Youth. Development Patterns • Primarily because of the NSWC, King George County had net in-commuting in 1990. Many people who work in King George prefer to live outside the County. • The largest potential real estate developments currently approved are located at the Hop Yard Farm and Presidential Lakes projects. Their build-out would continue the pattern of growth along major highways and the riverfronts. • More than 25 percent of permitted sewer plant flows are available to serve growth in the vicinities of four of the five wastewater treatment plants. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 41 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • There are no improved vacant industrial sites available in King George County and no economic development staff. A promotion program would have very few resources to promote except accessibility to the I-95 and U.S. 301 corridors. • Traffic congestion in the I-95 corridor has increased its property values, driven some real estate development into the I-81 and U.S. 301 corridors, and substantially increased their truck traffic. • No major highway or bridge improvements are proposed during the next six years in the County other than marginal widening and alignment intended to reduce the number of accidents. • The only rail service available in the County is to the power plant and quarries located near VA 3 and Birchwood Creek Road. It provides rail access to and from Fredericksburg. • Prospective industrial sites are located in the Community Development Policy Areas (Court House and Dahlgren) and the Route 3 West Satellite Policy Area around the Birchwood Power Plant/King George Landfill complex. • The private office space market is driven by NSWC contracts and access to its contractors’ offices. 42 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION II. ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION II. ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES Policies provide general guidelines for preparation of an economic development strategy undergirded by principles of sustainability. The purposes of this section are to: • Identify major assets and liabilities affecting long-term growth and development of the County. • Recommend primary target industries compatible with the County’s social, economic and physical characteristics and a number of business, community, and environmental criteria. • Recommend secondary target industries which support the primary target industries from the perspectives of attracting to the County both businesses and their prospective employees. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable development is real estate development that balances environmental, community, and business interests. Support for this type of development is growing as quality of life issues arise as a result of new land use patterns, of traffic congestion, and of increasing demand for community facilities. Sustainable development offers the hope of a win-win approach to growth and change, where communities achieve economic growth while protecting or improving the environment and meeting the needs of citizens. By ensuring that each of these facets is considered, the potential for achieving sustainable economic development increases. The goals of community sustainability are to establish local economies that are economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially responsible. Achieving these goals requires participation from all sectors of the community, both to determine community needs and to identify and implement innovative and appropriate solutions. Communities around the country are attempting to balance the needs of their citizens, businesses, and the environment through encouraging local ownership of businesses, constructing eco- industrial parks, increasing business networking, community planning, construction and operation of business incubators, and promoting industrial clusters. Sustainable economic development focuses on industries that fit well with the available resources in a community. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 43 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Developing a web of interconnected businesses (for instance, by bringing suppliers and customers closer and creating materials exchange programs) strengthens both the businesses and their ties to the community. METHODOLOGY In identifying the opportunities for sustainable economic development, Cornell University’s Work and Environment Initiative (WEI) went through a series of steps to understand the community and the perspectives of those living and working there. WEI reviewed existing King George documents including the Hammer, Siler, George Associates development framework data summary, the Draft Comprehensive Plan for King George County (2000), the King George County Comprehensive Plan (1991), the Naval Surface Warfare Center’s Report to the Community 2000, the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance’s Profile (1998), and information of the Virginia Economic Development Partnership. These sources of information provided insights into the nature and scope of the County’s assets and liabilities that may affect industrial and business recruitment. Next, WEI conducted a series of one-on-one interviews with selected representatives of civic associations, businesses, agriculture, education, King George County, and the U.S. Navy. A goal of the interviews was to identify the assets and liabilities of King George County from the perspective of those that live and work in the County. The multi-step primary and secondary compatible target industry selection process is illustrated in Figure 1 on the following page. In order to assure consistency with the County’s comprehensive plan, its goals and objectives and recommended real estate development patterns were reviewed. Turning to the list of four-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industries, those whose labor, infrastructure, markets, by-product exchange, or incentive needs could obviously not be met by King George County’s resources were evaluated. This analysis, based on existing reports on characteristics of the local and regional economies, eliminated many prospective target industries as not being ones for which the County could effectively compete with limited resources. 44 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK FIGURE 1 COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRY SELECTION PROCESS King George County Comprehensive Plan 2000 Fredericksburg King George County Regional Alliance Prospective Target Industries Development Profile, 1998 Framework, 2001 NSWC Report to Virginia Economic the Community, Development 2000 Partnership, 1999 King George County Assets and Liabilities Preliminary Compatible Primary Target Industries Sustainability Criteria Final Compatible Primary Target Industries Support Services Requirements Recommended Compatible Secondary Target Industries The next step was to compare the County’s sustainable economic development assets and liabilities, listed on pages 47 and 48, to these target industries. This resulted in elimination of additional prospective industries and in a preliminary list of compatible primary target industries. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 45 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Next, the 14 business, community, and environmental sustainability criteria prescribed by WEI were compared to these shortlisted industries. This resulted in identification of the five final compatible primary target industries. Growth of rural economies often requires attraction of secondary industries which not only support the compatible primary target industries but also help attract their prospective employees. Nine compatible secondary industries were identified by again reviewing the existing economic characteristics reports and the County’s assets and liabilities. This screen resulted in identification of deficiencies in the County business and labor force support industries. Filling these voids will increase the County’s competitiveness for the primary target industries and for a broad range of residential subdivision price points to attract and house the future labor force. ASSETS From this documentation and selected personal interviews the following major King George County assets, which can be promoted to attract private industry investments, were identified. They are organized in terms of social, economic, and physical assets. 46 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Social • Median household income equal to that of jurisdictions in the Fredericksburg Region and 12 percent higher than Virginia’s. • Access to Fredericksburg’s cultural and historic assets (theater, museums, higher education, various clubs) only 10 to 30 miles to the west. Economic • Over 52 percent of jobs located in the County are with the Federal Government. They tend to be more stable than jobs in the private sector of the economy. • A high proportion (58 percent in 1990) of County resident jobs were in the professional and technical occupations. They are in greater demand among high paying industries than most other occupations. • Good access to metropolitan markets in the Mid-Atlantic states. • Less expensive housing than in the Metropolitan Fredericksburg and Washington Areas. • Competitive real property tax rate among the King George Region’s jurisdictions. Physical • A 131-mile shoreline along the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers. • Abundant woodlands and wildlife in a rural setting. • Historic sites and building resources provide links with tradition. • T-1 and DS-1 bandwidth and Level 3 national fiber backbone. LIABILITIES The same sources of information were used to identify major liabilities. They are organized in terms of social, economic, and physical factors. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 47 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Social • Lack of shoppers’ goods and entertainment retail opportunities. • Lack of cultural amenity choices (theaters, museums, higher education). • A low share (18 percent) of residents over 16-years-old were college graduates in 1990. • On average, low Standards of Learning English scores by high school students compared with those in the Region and Virginia. • Relatively high incidences of teenaged births and low birth weight babies. Economic • Lack of retention of persons employed in the County as County residents. This increases commutation time, traffic congestion, and resulting vehicular-based pollution. • Compared to the Region and Virginia, County residents employed in the construction, manufacturing, finance, insurance, and real estate industries have relatively low wages. • Over dependence on public employment. • Lack of rental housing for young families and empty nesters. • Over dependence on a small number of private industries’ tax yields. Physical • Undeveloped tourism resources which can attract and accommodate visitors. • Few and small public access locations along the County’s waterfronts. • No improved industrial or business parks meeting contemporary standards. • Lack of major institutions of higher learning having the science and engineering resources to attract or partner with private industries. • Matching water and sewer capacity to demand for these services. • Excessive dependence on trailers for public school classrooms. COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRY SELECTION CRITERIA WEI established criteria to identify industries that would foster sustainable development in three categories: business, community, and environment. Industries were then evaluated in comparison to these criteria. The 14 criteria are listed below. 48 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Business Criteria 1. Does the industry encourage and support the continued stability of the Navy activities at Dahlgren? 2. Does the industry encourage the preservation of natural and historic resources to facilitate economic growth? 3. Does the industry promote a diversified economy in the County? 4. Does this industry serve the existing businesses, allowing them to develop, expand, or remain in the County? 5. Does the industry utilize existing resources or by-products (waste that could be used for other industries or groups raw materials) provided in the County or surrounding area, and/or is the industry willing to work with other industries to create networks? 6. Does the industry increase the stability of the agricultural industry in King George County? 7. Is King George County a viable setting for this industry in terms of business needs? Community Criteria 1. Does the industry preserve the rural quality of life of the area? 2. Does the industry encourage real estate development patterns that sustain and enhance the quality of life for the residents of King George County? 3. Does the industry create living wage jobs for area residents? 4. Does the industry create economic development which will result in a net local tax benefit, create needed job opportunities and support the other land use goals of this plan, particularly the basic goal of preserving the County’s rural characteristics? Environmental Criteria 1. Can the industry use resources that would otherwise be considered waste in this community? 2. Does locating the industry in King George County reduce vehicle trips (improving air quality)? 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce its impact on the environment by using pollution prevention, environmental management systems, design for the environment, and green building design strategies when available? Here are brief definitions for terms used to describe this criterion: HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 49 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK − Pollution Prevention is changing existing or planned operations so that the volume and/or toxicity of wastes are minimized, so that waste generation is prevented altogether. − Environmental Management System are environmental policies that identify the environmental aspects of a company’s operations and legal requirements, establishes environmental objectives and targets, creates management programs to meet these objectives, establishes internal and external reporting systems, prepares regular audits, reports to management, and provides follow-up on the audit findings and reviews to ensure improvement, as needed. − Design for the Environment evolved out of product life-cycle analysis and concurrent engineering, this work considers potential environmental implications of a product: energy and materials used, its manufacture and packaging, transportation, consumer use, reuse or recycling, and disposal. − Green Building Design is designing buildings to minimize energy consumption, using renewable or recyclable resources, protecting the natural environment, and creating healthy non-toxic work environments. The industry selection process included consideration of local business resources and of the industries’ revenue, payroll, and employment in Virginia trends to better frame the potential for that industry in King George County. The optimal locations for the primary industries will be identified in Section IV of this report together with recommended implementation strategies. BUILDING UPON LOCAL BUSINESS RESOURCES One of the goals for a sustainable economic development strategy is to improve the viability of local businesses. An overview of existing labor, infrastructure, markets, the potential for by- product exchanges, and development incentives is provided below. Labor The government services industry is the primary employer in the County. Of these employers, NSWC is the largest employing 3,422 people. The next five largest private employers are technical contractors which support NSWC missions, as shown in Table 21. 50 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 21. EXISTING INDUSTRY EMPLOYERS, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 1998 Employer Description Number of Employees Naval Surface Warfare Military-Navy weapons systems 3,422 Center R&D King George County School Schools 406 Board Logicon/Syscon Computer integrated systems design 326* TRACOR Computer programming service 314 EG&G Engineers – Consultants 190 Computer Sciences Computer programming services 185 Corporation Synetics Corporation Computer programming services 150 White Packing Company Meat packing 146 King George County Govt. Government Offices 112 Heritage Hall Nursing Homes 108 SEI Birchwood Electric power generation 61 CACI Computer programming services 57 Planning Consultants, Inc. Computer programming services 50 Note: * The number of Logicon employees is a combination of Logicon/Syscon, Inc., Logicon Tactical Services, and Logicon Technical Services, Inc. Source: Virginia Employment Commission. Infrastructure While private company locational decisions typically include a wide variety of factors, infrastructure is often high on the list. Three important types that are important to these decisions are vehicle accessibility, communications, and utilities. These infrastructure assets are highlighted below. They could be mobilized to increase King George County’s competitive marketability for new private investments. Vehicle Accessibility. U.S. 301 has the greatest capacity and provides access to neighboring Charles and Caroline Counties. It is also an important truck route generally paralleling I-95. The principal east-west route is VA 3 while other important state highways include VA 205, VA 206, and VA 218. Most real estate development has occurred in close proximity to these six highway corridors. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 51 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Communications. A fiber optic cable is located along the Highway 301 right-of-way which includes a booster at Dahlgren for the Naval Center to access. This booster can allow private industries to tap into the fiber optic cable for telecommunications, computing, and other industries. Currently no private industries are using this resource. Utilities. An independent but somewhat fragmented sewer and water system is managed by the County. Additional capacity is provided by the Navy at its Dahlgren facility and by a private company. The County has significant issues with coordinating its own sewer and water systems and ensuring adequate capacity for the existing customers. If the County gained management responsibility for the Naval Base’s water and sewer system, it could extend these services to the rest of the Dahlgren area which would improve the County’s ability to market the Dahlgren area as a development node as recommended by the comprehensive plan. Markets King George County can take advantage of its proximity to rapidly developing areas in Virginia. The Northern Virginia portion of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is the fastest growing metropolitan area in the state, now home to more than two million Virginians located in the counties of Fairfax, Loudoun, Arlington, and Prince William and the cities of Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Alexandria. It includes over 50 million square feet of high technology building space. To the south of King George County is the Richmond-Petersburg area. The Metropolitan Richmond Area has a population of 974,000. This area also is headquarters to six Fortune 500 firms. The Greater Richmond area is a government, education, manufacturing, and medical science center. By-Product Exchanges It is possible to identify market opportunities for new and existing industries based on current material and energy flows. By-product exchange is the transformation of one industry’s waste to 52 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK another industry’s raw material. This process can decrease the disposal costs of one industry while reducing the procurement costs for another. A primary means to accomplish this is through waste matches, or by-product exchange, which decreases disposal costs for one industry and procurement costs for another. Another method is to identify businesses that could provide materials or services for other industries in King George County. These businesses could either be new or the expansion of existing local businesses. Energy cascading is the continued use of an energy stream, using it for industrial or other processes that require lower quality energy content. For example, using steam from a power plant to heat greenhouses. The SEI Birchwood Power Facility currently sends excess steam to the Village Farms Greenhouse. Power plants are often easy places to create both by-product exchange and energy cascading opportunities. Another possible use for steam from a power plant is heating for an aquaculture farm. Using by-products from power plants is best achieved when the industries are nearby the source of the energy. Long pipelines are costly and the greater their length, the greater the energy losses. Sites near the power plant are best suited for by-product exchange and for energy cascading. Gravel mines located near the power plant are suitable for aquaculture farms or other uses that could use by-products from the power plant, landfill, or greenhouse. Once the gravel mines are exhausted, they can be reclaimed for reuse. Based on the County plan’s, desire to cluster development in designated areas to prevent sprawling land use patterns, preference to minimize inefficient utility extensions, agricultural, recreational fishing, and fish farming could be appropriate future uses for these mines. The greenhouse, another industry in the area of VA 3 and the power plant, sends most of its organic waste material to the landfill. Local regulations prohibit the greenhouse from having an on-site compost facility. A composting facility at the landfill could serve local business and resident needs. It would set the stage for developing a commercial quality compost available to support agricultural uses. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 53 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Incentives Incentives which would support sustainable compatible target industries include: • Financial institution below market interest rate financing programs to ensure that small- and medium-sized businesses can have access to capital to ensure their viability within the community. • Constructing an incubator to provide the initial space required by entrepreneurial members of the community to begin businesses. With the NSWC research and development facilities, there is a good possibility that “spin-off” industries could develop and eventually turn into private manufacturing or services opportunities. An incubator could also be used for local entrepreneurs attempting to get into the government procurement system. • The County could adopt a preferential procurement policy for locally made or grown products. • Wildlife habitat incentives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. PRIMARY COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES Recommended primary target industries were selected based on Comprehensive Plan goals and policy directions listed on page 2, the County’s assets and liabilities listed on pages 47 and 48, and the criteria listed on pages 49 and 50. The industries are: • Information and Professional Services. This industry includes information services, telecommunications, data processing, technical consulting, computer services, and research services. • Manufacturing. This industry includes the transformation of materials to new products. • Warehousing and Logistics. This industry includes facilities for storage of goods and the logistics of the distribution of goods including light assembly, packaging, and inventory control and management. • Tourism. This is industry includes facilities and activities that support by pleasure travelers including, historic and natural areas. 54 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Agriculture. This industry includes crop and animal production, including, farms, orchards, greenhouses, and aquaculture. Each of these five industries is discussed in terms of its definition; the extent to which it is responsive to local business, community and environmental criteria; establishment and employee trends in Virginia; and its location needs. Information and Professional Services The information portion of this sector includes those establishments that create, disseminate, or provide the means to distribute information. It includes establishments that provide data processing services; newspaper, book, and periodical publishers; software publishers; broadcasting and telecommunications producers and distributors; and motion picture and sound recording industries, information services, and data processing services. Some of the relatively new industries include paging, cellular and other wireless telecommunications, and satellite telecommunications. The focus for King George should be for telecommunications, information services, and data processing services companies because of existing fiber optic capacity, supply of labor force, and availability of relatively inexpensive land. The professional, scientific, and technical services portion of this sector includes those businesses whose major input is human capital. They include establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 55 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and record keeping, personnel management, and physical distribution and logistics. Criteria. Information and Professional Services were evaluated as a potential industry for King George County against the 14 sustainability criteria. The numbers of each criterion correspond to the criterion numbers and descriptions found on page 49. Information and Professional Services Sustainability Criteria Criteria How Information and Professional Services Meet the Criteria Business 1. Does the industry encourage and Currently professional and informational services support the continued stability of the in King George County are largely related to the Navy activities at Dahlgren? NSWC, the primary employer in the County. 2. Does the industry encourage the No, unless historic sites and buildings are preservation of natural and historic adaptable to the electricity and security resources to facilitate economic requirements of this industry. growth? 3. Does the industry promote a diversified No, however, this industry’s growth and the economy in the County? County’s trained labor force provide opportunities for its promotion and attraction. 4. Does the industry promote a diversified Professional and informational services would economy in the County? help diversify the economy in King George County. Even firms that have contracts with the NSWC have the opportunity to locate other clients and diversify their own portfolios. 5. Does this industry serve the existing Professional services are already a thriving businesses allowing them to develop, industry in King George County. For such a expand or remain in the County? small county, King George has a healthy, viable existing professional services industry. Most of these services are being provided to the NSWC, but could be diversified. Any activity to support this industry will help the existing firms within this industry. 56 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Information and Professional Services Meet the Criteria 6. Does the industry utilize existing The NSWC has facilities that are available for resources or by-products provided in research and development activities that support the county or surrounding area or is the Navy’s activities. The development of these this industry willing to work with other industries would take advantage of the resources industries to create networks? at the Naval base. Community 1. Does the industry preserve the rural Clustering this industry in urbanized area of the quality of life of the area? County or in planned industrial and business parks will preserve rural areas. 2. Does the industry encourage Information and professional services are usually development patterns that sustain and unobtrusive forms of development that should enhance the quality of life for the sustain the existing quality of life for residents of residents of King George County? the County. 3. Does the industry create manufacturing Information and professional services could use or other living wage jobs for area the skilled labor in King George County and the residents? Fredericksburg Region. Several interviewees indicated that the retirees of the Naval base could be a source of skilled labor for consulting firms. 4. Does the industry create economic This industry would result in a net local tax development which will result in a net benefit and could provide jobs to residents of the local tax benefit, create needed job area that are currently out-commuting to jobs that opportunities and support the other are not available in the County. land use goals of this plan, particularly the basic goals of preserving the County’s rural characteristics? Environmental 1. Can the industry use resources that It could if adaptable vacant sound building would otherwise be considered waste resources are available for conversion to in this community? information and professional services. This will be determined on a case-by-case basis. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 57 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Information and Professional Services Meet the Criteria 2. Does locating the industry in King According to the Fredericksburg Regional George County reduce vehicle trips Alliance, there is a source of highly skilled labor (reducing emissions)? that is currently commuting out of the region that would prefer jobs within the region. Locating similar high-skilled jobs in the County could reduce length of car trips by transferring those jobs into the County. 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce its Information and Professional services tend to be impact on the environment by using low polluting, clean businesses. pollution prevention, environmental management systems, design for the environment, and green building design strategies when available? Trends. According to a report by the U.S. Census Bureau, service industries created 6.4 million new jobs, more than half of all new jobs, between 1992 and 1997 in the United States. They are the biggest and fastest-growing part of the U.S. economy as measured by jobs and business services account for much of that growth. In that period in receipts among firms subject to federal income tax, business services sales increased from $275 billion to $529 billion, or 92 percent. Employment in business services grew 56 percent during the five years. Other service industries with fast-growing receipts include data-processing schools (up 197 percent), computer rental and leasing (160 percent), prepackaged software (152 percent), and health supply services (142 percent). These trends reflect growth in knowledge-based jobs and in international trade, or globalization of the economy. Virginia is well positioned to compete for growth opportunities in the knowledge-based, global economy. There are more than 3,000 information technology, telecommunications, and Internet companies located in the Commonwealth. More than 50 percent of all Internet traffic worldwide passes through the state making it an acknowledged leader for applied information and telecommunications technologies, as well as the leading exporter of related products and services. Virginia now boasts the third largest computer software industry in the U.S. and the largest located east of the Mississippi River. Northern Virginia has the largest concentration of 58 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK computer companies in the country; more than 1,100 firms. These firms comprise three percent of the region’s businesses, employed 16 percent of the population and produced close to 25 percent of private-sector earnings in 1997. In total, there were more than 4,700 high-technology firms in the Commonwealth of Virginia employing a total of 158,000 people. Much of Virginia’s high-tech growth can be attributed to private-sector partnerships with U.S. Military operations such as the NSWC at Dahlgren. Virginia has more than 650,000 miles of fiber-optic cable and state-of-the-art digital switching equipment provide an advanced telecommunications system throughout the state. One cable runs along U.S. 301 with a transformer at Dahlgren for the NSWC. The information sector in Virginia in 1997 employed over 90,000 people. Table 22 shows characteristics of subcategories in the Information Sector. Wages were relatively high in this sector. TABLE 22. INFORMATION SECTOR SUMMARY, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Paid Average Code Description Revenue Annual Payroll Employees Annual Wage 5112 Software publishers $ 1,310,660 $ 446,251 6,970 $64,025 5133 Telecommunications $10,231,615 $1,840,247 35,792 $51,415 5141 Information services $ 2,566,814 $ 719,874 7,646 $94,150 5142 Data processing services $ 582,372 $ 277,024 6,947 $39,877 51 Information $20,400,419 $4,347,332 90,346 $48,119 Notes: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. Revenue and annual payroll data in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Sector in Virginia employed 212,632 in 1997. Table 23 shows the subcategories in the Information Sector and the number of firms in Virginia. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 59 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 23. PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL SERVICES SECTOR SUMMARY, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Annual Description Code Revenue Payroll Employees Wages 5411 Legal services $2,134,201 $ 911,351 21,082 $43,229 5412 Accounting, tax return 1,204,804 530,796 19,896 $26,679 prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services 5413 Architectural, 5,607,156 2,437,419 52,792 $46,170 engineering, & related services 5414 Specialized design 200,109 58,180 1,994 $29,178 services 5415 Computer systems 9,746,921 3,592,464 66,065 $54,378 design & related services 5416 Management, 2,501,345 1,162,809 24,800 $46,888 scientific, & technical consulting services 5417 Scientific research & 1,642,636 649,401 12,347 $52,596 development services 5418 Advertising & related 861,875 300,110 9,288 $32,312 services 5419 Other professional, 252,644 87,232 4,368 $19,971 scientific, & technical services 54 Professional, $24,151,691 $9,729,762 212,632 $45,759 scientific, & technical services Notes: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. Revenue and annual payroll data in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. King George County is well represented by professional, scientific, and technical service firms. As of 1998, it had 70 private sector employers in this industry most of which had fewer than 10 employees. These firms are quantified by type of service in Table 24. The vast majority of these firms serve the NSWC. In 1999, the NSWC purchased $244.1 million of services from Virginia 60 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK contractors of which over 53 percent was from small or disadvantaged businesses. The NSWC is expected to continue to outsource work to contractors and offers Corporate Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) for private parties to use its facilities for cooperative and mutually beneficial research and development activities. TABLE 24. PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERVICES, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 1998 Number of NAICS Code Description Firms 5411 Legal services 4 5412 Accounting, tax prep, bookkeeping, payroll services 5 5413 Architectural, engineering and related services 27 5415 Computer systems design and related services 21 5416 Management, scientific and technical consulting services 2 5417 Scientific research and development services 6 Total 65 Note: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, CenStats County Business Patterns 1998 (NAICS). Opportunities. While King George County enjoys the presence of the NSWC, it wants to diversify the economy in accordance with its comprehensive plan goals. One approach is to promote industries responsive to the NSWC research and development program. The contractors located at Dahlgren, at the behest of the NSWC, also have good access to prospective clients located elsewhere in the region. In a 1998 survey, 73 percent of the Region’s respondents said they would be very likely to accept or probably would accept an equivalent job if it were within a 15-minute commute and offer comparable opportunities, prestige, challenges, benefits, and compensation. The survey also revealed that 34 percent of out-commuters would accept positions regionally with a 10 percent reduction in pay. Location Needs. In order to attract professional services/consulting services to King George County, the County must begin to address the particular needs of the industry, described below: HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 61 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Networking. This industry tends to include small- to medium- sized businesses highly dependent on their client base and providing levels of service to their clients. While much of this service can be delivered via mail, e-mail, and the Internet, it still requires some face-to-face interactions. Additionally, professionals in this industry enjoy interaction with others to network for potential clients. • Access to skilled labor. Finding a ready supply of skilled labor is often difficult in this economy. When the labor market is “tight” in these fields due to the increasing demand and growing number of firms providing services that need a highly educated labor force many King George residents can respond to their needs. Yet, King George is not near any major research universities or multi-institutional educational hubs making recruitment difficult in the area. However, there is a subset of the labor pool in the King George area that is currently commuting to areas outside of the region that could provide a source of highly skilled labor, as could retiring NSWC personnel. • Quality office space. The firms in these industries are primarily office-using firms with a few requiring research laboratory space. These industries tend to employ well- paid skilled labor that enjoy quality work spaces. The physical space of these offices needs to be able to accommodate the necessary communications and other technology. • Quality of life. Employees in these industries tend to be well-paid, as shown in Tables 22 and 23, and seek high quality of life requirements. Additionally, when this labor market is tight, the quality of life issues can become deciding factors in making corporate location decisions. King George County has some of the required quality of life features such as open space, rural qualities, safety, and affordable housing prices. However, it is lacking in other quality of life features, such as, health care, comprehensive schools, quality diversified restaurants, and entertainment. • Access to research and development. Many of these firms are developing new projects and require research and development space or access to laboratories. NSWC has excellent facilities that are available for use when projects are being collaborated on that are in the interest of the NSWC. This is a highly attractive locational factor for King George. • Financing. These firms often need to make capital investments in equipment to provide their services. Some cities are able to attract a particular type of industries by having representatives of financial institutions and venture capital investors that understand their businesses and are able to make investments that other financial institutions would be unwilling to make. • Infrastructure. Many of the firms in these industries do not want to manage infrastructure such as the wastewater collection and treatment systems. They need to maintain their primary focus on their core business. 62 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Advanced communications systems. The firms in this industry need the capacity to transfer large amounts of data quickly from one location to another. King George has recently gained a distinct market advantage in this area. A fiber optic cable along U.S. 301 is available for public access and provides the necessary capacity for most information and professional services to operate from King George County. Manufacturing The manufacturing industry encompasses establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products and the assembling of component parts of manufactured products. Establishments in this industry include plants, factories, or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment. However, establishments that transform materials or substances into new products by hand or in the worker’s home, and those engaged in selling products made on the same premises from which they are sold are also prospects. Manufacturing establishments may process materials or may contract with other establishments to process their materials for them. Criteria. Manufacturing was evaluated as a potential industry in comparison the following sustainability criteria. Manufacturing Sustainability Criteria Criteria How Manufacturing Meets the Criteria Business 1. Does the industry encourage and To a limited extent, the information processing support the continued stability of emphasis of the NSWC requires little product the Navy activities at Dahlgren? manufacturing the Navy’s contract bidding process opens manufacturing opportunities to most qualified firms. 2. Does the industry encourage the To the extent that natural resources are required for preservation of natural and historic manufacturing processes they would typically be resources to facilitate economic acquired outside the County with the exceptions of growth? wood, sand, and gravel. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 63 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Manufacturing Meets the Criteria 3. Does the industry promote a Yes, because manufacturing represents less than diversified economy in the four percent of the County’s employment. County? 4. Does the industry promote a Manufacturing would be a way to diversify the diversified economy in the economy. Currently King George County has few County? manufacturing businesses operating in the County. By developing manufacturing, King George will be able to provide jobs for a wider labor pool including graduates of high school and community college technical programs. 5. Does this industry serve the This industry could serve existing industries in King existing businesses allowing them George County if the specific manufacturing to develop, expand or remain in the industries brought to the County create value-added county? agricultural products, tourism products, or possibly “spin-off” industries from an incubator or NSWC. 6. Does the industry utilize existing The manufacturing industry provides the greatest resources or by-products provided opportunity to utilize existing resources or by- in the county or surrounding area products from other industries in the region. The or is the industry willing to work manufacturing industry is the main industry sector with other industries to create that is in the business of producing and creating a networks? product. This requires a wide range of raw materials or other inputs and produces a wide variety of outputs or waste. 7. Does the industry increase the Manufacturing can be directly related to agricultural stability of the agricultural industry activities. For example, on-site energy production, in King George County? such as biomass can use agricultural by-products, both making agricultural production more viable and providing an efficient form of energy for industry. Additionally, if crops in the area are modified (see Agriculture section), value-added manufacturing products could be developed, further increasing the viability of agriculture in King Community George County. 1. Does the industry preserve the Location of manufacturing plants in planned rural quality of life of the area? industrial parks would minimize their effects on rural areas. Growth of manufacturing employment will increase commutation traffic, congestion, and pollution. 64 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Manufacturing Meets the Criteria 2. Does the industry encourage If the industry is located in areas designated for development patterns that sustain industrial use, it should not take away from the rural and enhance the quality of life for character or aesthetic of the County. the residents of King George County? 3. Does the industry create Manufacturing tends to produce living wage jobs manufacturing or other living wage for people with high school educations. This would jobs for area residents? improve the quality of life for those King George County residents with the required skills. 4. Does the industry create economic The manufacturing industry often has many development which will result in a secondary industries, such as suppliers and services net local tax benefit, create needed for the industry that would create additional job opportunities and support the economic development through additional jobs, and other land use goals of this plan, property and sales taxes. particularly the basic goals of preserving the County’s rural characteristics? Environmental 1. Does the industry use resources Specific firms can be targeted for recruitment based that would otherwise be considered on their potential for using existing resources. waste in this community? 2. Does locating the industry in King King George is in a strategic location close to large George reduce vehicle trips? markets. Situated at the southern fringe of Northern Virginia, King George is a prime target for future industry expansion. Many nearby localities already have begun to attract greater investment because of their proximity to the DC metropolitan area. This proximity could reduce truck traffic if the goods are currently coming from farther away. 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce Light manufacturing can be a low polluter and a its impact on the environment by good neighbor. Ideally if an industry cluster can be using pollution prevention, formed near the power plant, energy cascading and environmental management by-product exchange could minimize the impact systems, design for the that industry would have on the county while environment, and green building providing living wage jobs and diversifying the design strategies when available? economy. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 65 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Trends. Manufacturing can generate high-skill/ high-wage jobs, creates new wealth through the production or export of goods, and serves as an economic catalyst by creating additional “spin- off” jobs. Dynamic changes have occurred in manufacturing with the growth of the global economy especially productivity, capital investment, exports, and increasing shares of high-tech products. The manufacturing firms that have managed to adjust to the new “leaner” forms of production experienced growth, especially in rural areas, throughout the country and in foreign countries. Many manufacturing facilities are not the behemoths of the past, but small (average size 62 employees in Virginia in 1997), state-of-the-art operations. These new manufacturing facilities are increasing the productivity of manufacturing facilities per employee, making them much more competitive internationally. Locational and management emphases today are focused on the day-to-day work of individual firms in their struggle to gain and retain a competitive edge. That is, the things companies are doing on and around the factory floor to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, flexibility and time-to-market of their products to meet customer requirements. The issues of process technology development, technology deployment, management and accounting practices, market strategies, and workforce education and training are being reengineered to improve daily operations. Manufacturing is one of the most important segments of Virginia’s economy, accounting for more than 370,000 jobs in approximately 6,000 establishments, with annual shipments of $6.6 billion in 1997. Manufacturing accounts for 13 percent of total non-agricultural employment in Virginia, ranking fourth behind services, wholesale and retail trade, and government (federal, state, and local) in number of jobs. Income from manufacturing is almost eight times the total income from Virginia’s farms, mines, forests, and fisheries. According to the Virginia Economic Development Partnership. “the growth of manufacturing in Virginia has been more consistent than manufacturing growth at the national level. The strength of the diversified manufacturing sector is exemplified by the 10.1 percent employment increase Virginia experienced from 1970 to 1995. During the same time period, national manufacturing employment declined by 4.9 percent.” Virginia has a diversified manufacturing base of both traditional and “high-tech” firms representing a broad range of industries. The most important manufacturing industries in the 66 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Commonwealth were electronic equipment, lumber, industrial machinery and equipment, apparel, transportation equipment, textiles, food processing, rubber and plastics, printing, and furniture. Together, these industries account for nearly 75 percent of Virginia’s total manufacturing employment. Manufacturing establishments and paid employees in 1997 are quantified in Table 25. TABLE 25. MANUFACTURING FIRMS, VIRGINIA, 1997 Paid NAICS Code Description Establishments Employees 311 Food mfg 436 33,703 312 Beverage & tobacco product mfg 72 13,273 313 Textile mills 88 20,726 314 Textile product mills 152 4,175 315 Apparel mfg 226 26,203 316 Leather & allied product mfg 19 709 321 Wood product mfg 582 19,612 322 Paper mfg 105 15,670 323 Printing & related support activities 888 20,741 324 Petroleum & coal products mfg 20 605 325 Chemical mfg 185 20,271 326 Plastics & rubber products mfg 197 21,899 327 Nonmetallic mineral product mfg 350 12,114 331 Primary metal mfg 49 7,342 332 Fabricated metal product mfg 768 20,631 333 Machinery mfg 348 21,343 334 Computer & electronic product mfg 268 29,832 335 Electrical equipment, appliance, & 106 11,673 component mfg 336 Transportation equipment mfg 175 36,782 337 Furniture & related product mfg 472 23,671 339 Miscellaneous mfg 480 9,620 31-33 Manufacturing 5,986 370,595 Notes: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. mfg means manufacturing. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Manufacturing in Virginia. Electronics and electric equipment comprise the largest portion of the high-technology sector. In 1995, 342 electronics and electric equipment establishments, employing 32,500 Virginians, HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 67 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK shipped electronics products worth more than $5.9 billion. This sector grew with the value of shipments increasing about 18 percent and the number of employees rising more than seven percent over the previous year. Manufacturing plays a relatively small role in King George County, with only four percent of all employees working in the industry. The county’s largest manufacturing employer is the White Packing Company, a manufacturer of sausages, bacon, and other meat products. Opportunities. King George County has relatively inexpensive land, is located near metropolitan markets, and is situated along a major truck transportation corridor; making it a prime location for manufacturing operations. Manufacturing can also respond to the demands from the tourism industry. Arts, crafts, and tourist products all can become manufacturing industries in King George County. As the tourism industry continues to develop memorabilia (i.e. t-shirts, mugs, pens, baskets, blankets) could be produced in the County. The production of value-added agricultural products is also considered a manufacturing enterprise. As the farms change to growing products having higher value crops, value-added products become a likely source of further developing and protecting agricultural uses. Because the manufacturing industry is not well developed, the County has the opportunity to accommodate state-of-the-art facilities by taking into consideration, as businesses desire to locate in King George County, options to implement pollution prevention, green building, and energy efficiency strategies. King George County has some unique opportunities for manufacturing with the potential to tap into the excess steam produced at the power plant thus realizing reductions in energy costs. The County can also promote other important industries, such as organic waste products from the green houses and the farms (i.e. commercial grade compost) and food products (i.e. value-added agricultural products). Location Needs. Manufacturing has specific needs in location choices. The following is a list of the types of factors that go into location decision-making for manufacturers: • Inexpensive sites. This industry often requires large amounts of space and has typically located in rural areas where land is inexpensive and there is a minimum of interaction with residential and other incompatible neighbors. This industry is often balancing the needs to be close to markets with the benefits of relatively inexpensive 68 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK land and building space. King George County both has relatively inexpensive land available and is located close to large markets. • Skilled labor. Manufacturing industries continue to move toward complicated, computerized machinery requiring high skill levels to manage. King George is at a disadvantage in that the existing manufacturing base is very limited. Often, skilled manufacturing labor moves within the industry, the firms benefit because of the combined pool of skilled labor in the area. • Access to markets. The primary focus of manufacturing industries is to make a product and get that product to its customers. Access to roads, airports, or freight trains is crucial for the location of many manufacturing industries. King George County is in good transportation location. • Trucking capacity. The trucking industry currently uses King George as a stop on their delivery routes, as noted by the large gas stations and convenient stores throughout King George to capture the truck traffic along U.S. 301. Some trucking industry would have to be developed to meet the needs a larger manufacturing industry in King George. • Access to machinery. Manufacturing industries need machinery to operate their businesses. This includes parts and technicians that can service this machinery. King George is in close enough proximity to Northern Virginia and Richmond to tap these areas for skilled machine service people and parts and machinery. This also offers the potential for spin-off maintenance and repair businesses to develop. • Raw materials. Often manufacturing industries have chosen to locate either near the raw materials that it uses or near the markets that it serves. Location to raw materials is of primary concern when they and cost a lot to move (e.g. mining). The types of manufacturing industries that would be attracted to the King George area would be light manufacturing, including products related to agricultural products, and not extractive manufacturing industries (i.e. steel). • Inexpensive energy. Energy cost is a major concern of industries that have energy intensive processes, usually in relation to running their machinery. King George does have some potential connections that could be developed with the power plant, such as, energy cascading. The lack of natural gas service could be deterrent for some firms. Warehousing and Logistics The warehousing industry is primarily engaged in operating facilities for storage of general merchandise, refrigerated goods, and other warehouse products. They do not sell the goods they handle, instead, they take responsibility for storing the goods and keeping them secure. Logistics HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 69 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK services can include labeling, breaking bulk, inventory control and management, light assembly, order entry and fulfillment, packaging, pick and pack, price marking and ticketing, and transportation arrangements. Demand for logistics services growing as “just-in-time” delivery requirements of manufacturers increase. The types of services provided in logistics management can include outsourcing warehousing, transportation, supply chain technology, order and inventory management and return cycles. Value-added services such as cross-border support, subassembly, product configuration and refurbishment, service parts storage and distribution, and quality inspection are also provided. The types of employees needed in this industry are software developers, industrial engineers, repair technicians, warehouse managers, multimodal transportation managers, facility designers, logisticians, manual labor and international trade experts. Criteria. Warehousing and logistics was evaluated as a potential industry in comparison to the following sustainability criteria. Warehousing and Logistics Sustainability Criteria Criteria How Warehousing and Logistics Meet the Criteria Business 1. Does the industry encourage and Yes, to the extent the Navy and/or its contractors support the continued stability of require warehousing or logistics services or building the Navy activities at Dahlgren? space. 2. Does the industry encourage the No. preservation of natural and historic resources to facilitate economic growth? Yes because less than two percent of the County’s 3. Does the industry promote a employment is in wholesale trade. diversified economy in the County? Warehousing can diversify the area’s economy 4. Does the industry promote a without a large increase in population. Since diversified economy in the warehousing is not a labor-intensive industry, its County? impact on population growth would be negligible. 70 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Warehousing and Logistics Meet the Criteria 5. Does this industry serve the Warehousing could support the manufacturing, existing businesses, allowing them agricultural and tourism industries that are also to develop, expand or remain in the recommended for development in King George county? County. 6. Does the industry utilize existing Depending on the type of warehousing, some by- resources or by-products provided product exchange could occur. For example, if the in the county or surrounding area warehousing was refrigerated, it may be able to take or is the industry willing to work steam from the power plant to run the refrigeration with other industries to create units. networks? Community 1. Does the industry preserve the rural No because of its requirement for large flat sites and quality of life of the area? of truck traffic generated by typical warehouses. 2. Does the industry encourage This form of development can be fairly low impact. development patterns that sustain The location designation for the warehousing and and enhance the quality of life for logistic industries should be near a major the residents of King George transportation corridor in order to keep this form of County? development focused in a couple of areas. Again, the creation of new jobs and the shorter commute times will also enhance the quality of life for some King George County residents. 3. Does the industry create Warehousing provides jobs for people with a high manufacturing or other living wage school education and others. The average wage for jobs for area residents? warehousing is about $8 per hour in Virginia. This can help provide a range of employment opportunities in the County. Median wages for associated industries, such as, trucking are $12 per hour. If the work is full-time, however, health benefits can improve overall income. While warehousing has low wages, logistics management can have some very high job skill requirements and associated pay. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 71 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Warehousing and Logistics Meet the Criteria 4. Does the industry create economic development which will result in a Warehousing does not demand expensive net local tax benefit, create needed investments in infrastructure, such as, natural gas job opportunities and support the service or countywide sewer service thus not other land use goals of this plan, requiring large investments by the County. King particularly the basic goals of George’s limited infrastructure restricts the kinds of preserving the County’s rural businesses that can locate in the County. At the characteristics? same time, warehousing will be subject to property and sales taxes, create jobs, and support the Environmental manufacturing industry in the County. 1. Does the industry use resources that would otherwise be considered Warehousing or logistics can serve as an waste in this community? intermediary to transport and store by-products for other industries. Warehousing can use waste steam from the power plant or other shared energy from manufacturing activities. 2. Does the locating the industry in King George reduce vehicle trips? Warehousing is a clean industry. There are usually very little to no emissions or pollution associated with warehousing. Warehousing will increase truck traffic to the area; however, King George County already serves as a throughway for truck traffic. So, it is likely that the increase in truck traffic would be minimal. Because warehouses produce no product of their own, they produce little in the way of solid waste, wastewater, and air pollution. Moreover, because warehousing operations have low energy demands, possibilities exist for warehouses to use excess steam from the power plant. 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce its impact on the environment by Warehousing and logistics are industries that can using pollution prevention, implement all of these strategies. Other activities environmental management can include reusing existing buildings or parts of systems, design for the buildings by getting construction material through environment, and green building deconstruction activities. design strategies when available? Trends. The industry formerly was dominated by company-owned warehouses or independent warehousing companies that focused exclusively on the storage and distribution of merchandise. In contrast, very few businesses own their own warehouses today, and independent warehousing 72 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK companies have expanded their services to include salvage and scrap disposal, freight transport, customer billing, and logistics management, in addition to storage facilities. Industry growth remained strong throughout the 1990s, thanks to continued outsourcing of warehousing functions by manufacturing firms, widespread use of sophisticated materials handling equipment, and growth of internet commerce. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, employment in the industry grew from 90,000 in 1985 to approximately 150,000 in 1996 in the U.S. Although less than ten multi-regional companies dominate the general warehousing business, dozens of medium- and small-sized companies serve regions located throughout the country. Entry into the industry is costly due to the sophisticated machinery and large truck capital and operating costs incurred by warehousing firms. Nevertheless, Standard and Poor’s estimates that warehousing and logistics was a $105 billion business in 1999, representing nearly one percent of gross domestic product. Logistics management is a growing industry in this country. As more and more businesses focus on their “core competencies”, they are looking for ways to subcontract out part of their business. This contract includes transportation to the customer base. As more companies do this and the markets become global, logistic management firms become an essential way of doing business. General warehousing and storage is the largest segment of the industry in Virginia. Continued employment and population growth sustained demand for warehousing services that support other industries. Table 26 shows how many warehousing and storage firms there were in Virginia as of 1997 and their employment. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 73 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 26. WAREHOUSING AND STORAGE FIRMS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Code Description Establishments Paid Employees 49311 General warehousing & storage 90 1,169 49312 Refrigerated warehousing & storage 16 729 49313 Farm product warehousing & storage 13 165 49319 Other warehousing & storage 35 391 493 Warehousing & storage 154 2,454 Note: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Manufacturing in Virginia. There are currently no warehousing or logistics businesses located in King George County. Opportunities. The proximity to the firms in Northern Virginia, to 60 percent of the Nation’s population within 500 miles, and to the Nation’s federal highway system make King George County a good location for warehousing supporting these markets. Logistics management is a particularly interesting warehousing option due to the high concentration of Internet firms in Northern Virginia. These industries provide a unique opportunity for King George to encourage the use of green building techniques, that can make a company more profitable in the long-run, reduce energy use and thus, pollution. Location Needs. Warehousing has specific needs in making location choices. The following is a list of the types of factors that go into location decision-making for warehousing and logistics management. • Inexpensive land. This industry often requires large amounts of space and has typically located in rural areas where land is inexpensive. This industry is often balancing the needs to be close to markets with the benefits of inexpensive land and building space. King George County has relatively inexpensive land available. • Skilled labor. The warehousing and logistics industry is continuing to move toward computerized systems that require high skill levels. King George County has a limited vocational training program, however, if these targeted industries are developed, there will be a need for computer and other skills that are provided in vocational training programs. 74 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Access to markets. The primary focus of warehousing and logistics industries is to get goods to customers. Access to roads, air or train is crucial for the location of warehousing and logistics industries. King George County is in a good transportation location. It is within two hours of the Washington D.C., Northern Virginia, and the Richmond area along U.S. 301 and I-95. • Trucking. The trucking industry currently uses U.S. 301 as a corridor on their delivery routes. Some trucking industry would have to be developed to meet the needs of the warehousing industry as it develops in King George County. • High-speed Internet access. The firms in this industry need the capacity to manage large amounts of data coming from all over the world. King George County has recently gained a distinct market advantage in this area. A fiber optic cable is installed along U.S. 301, which is available for public access and will provide the necessary capacity for any warehousing or logistics firms that want to operate from King George County. Tourism Tourism is travel for pleasure. The travel industry encompasses many segments of the economy within its definition, such as museums, historical sites, natural areas, entertainment, and recreation, associated retail sales, lodging, and restaurants. Tourism was evaluated as a potential industry for King George County against the sustainability criteria. Tourism Sustainability Criteria Criteria How Tourism Meets the Criteria Business 1. Does the industry encourage and Yes because of the continued interest in the NSWC support the continued stability of by former employees and because the NSWC’s the navy activities at Dahlgren? visitors will help support transient accommodations and restaurants which would also be patronized by prospective tourists. 2. Does the industry encourage the Pursuing a comprehensive approach to developing preservation of natural and historic tourism will facilitate economic growth while resources to facilitate economic simultaneously requiring investments be made in growth? the preservation of historic and natural resources. Funds can be generated directly from the tourism industry that can go to further make improvements in historic and natural resources. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 75 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Tourism Meets the Criteria 3. Does the industry promote a Yes, although the County is rich in historical and diversified economy in the natural resources, they are mostly undeveloped. County? Because the County is located between Westmoreland County and the City of Fredericksburg, historically rich jurisdictions, investments in King George County’s historic resources will attract visitors from those areas. 4. Does the industry promote a Tourism will diversify the economy of King George diversified economy in the County based on its abundant cultural and natural County? resources and the development of tourist products, services, accommodations, and amenities. 5. Does this industry serve the In addition to gains from direct visitor sales, many existing businesses, allowing them community businesses gain indirectly by supplying to develop, expand or remain in the the businesses that make these direct sales. A large county? portion of direct spending is then re-spent in the local economy, resulting in what economists call the “multiplier effect.” 6. Does the industry increase the Historic resources investments will help preserve stability of the agricultural industry the County’s agricultural heritage. in King George County? 7. Does the industry increase the Tourism can also help increase the viability of stability of the agricultural industry agricultural industries. Agro-tourism can be in King George County? promoted as one of the unique features of visiting King George. Some of these types of industries that have been successful elsewhere are wineries, Community farmer’s markets, and sustainability farms. 1. Does the industry preserve the Tourism can help preserve the rural quality of King rural quality of life of the area? George County by producing more products to purchase agricultural products and arts and crafts, further adding to the economic viability of agriculture and small locally owned businesses. 2. Does the industry encourage Tourism often makes services available to residents development patterns that sustain that the community could not otherwise support. and enhance the quality of life for For example, the additional meals purchased by the residents of King George visitors may generate the demand necessary to open County? more fine restaurants in King George County. 76 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Tourism Meets the Criteria 3. Does the industry create Few. manufacturing or other living wage jobs? 4. Does the industry create economic Tourism provides income for the host community development which will result in a without directly increasing the population of the net local tax benefit, create needed County. Money spent by visitors filter through all job opportunities and support the segments of the local economy, not just hotels and other land use goals of this plan, restaurants. Additionally, tourist bring with them particularly the basic goals of increase sales taxes and hospitality taxes (i.e. for preserving the County’s rural hotels). characteristics? Environmental 1. Can the industry use resources that Yes, to the extent that valuable undeveloped would otherwise be considered historic resources are considered wasted. waste in this community? 2. Does locating the industry in King No, it will increase trips as the number of tourists George County reduce vehicle increases. Promoting bus tours will minimize trips? vehicle trips. 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce The historic and natural resources do so because its impact on the environment by they predate the use of vehicles and protect the using pollution prevention, natural environment except for coal and outdoor environmental management burning. Buildings built before 1990 do not adhere systems, design for the to sustainable environment design standards. environment, and green building design strategies when available? Trends. Travel and tourism is the nation’s third largest retail sales industry and one of the country’s largest employers. According to the Travel Industry Association of America (TIAA), tourism was a $540 billion industry in the United States in 1999, representing 5.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Travel spending generated an estimated 7.8 million jobs and nearly $87 billion in tax revenue for federal, state and local governments in 1999. Moreover, tourism is a growing industry, with total revenues up 55 percent since 1990. A TIAA survey found that 53.6 million adults visited a museum or historical site in one year. Cultural- and historic-oriented HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 77 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK travelers spend more, stay in motels more often, visit more destinations and are twice as likely to travel for entertainment purposes than other travelers. Tourism is big business in Virginia, among the top 10 states for tourism in 1998. It was also in the top ten state governments in spending on promotion of tourism in 1999-2000, spending a total of $19.2 million on promotion. In 1997, travelers spent over $11 billion in the state, generating nearly $900 million in state and local tax revenues. According to the Virginia Tourism Corporation, tourism is the third largest employer in the state, behind business and health services. The state’s bounty of historic, cultural, and natural attractions, and Virginia’s central location along the Eastern Seaboard, makes the state an easy drive for millions of Americans. The information in the U.S. Economic Census database for tourism are categorized under Code 71, Arts, Entertainment and Recreation. This does not include closely associated industries to tourism, such as, accommodations and restaurants. Table 27 shows the number of tourism establishments, payroll and average wage for the tourism industries. TABLE 27. TOURISM SECTOR SUMMARY, VIRGINIA, 1997 Annual Paid Average NAICS Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 71211 Museums 96 $59,636 2,749 $21,694 71212 Historical Sites 32 $12,375 768 $16,113 71919 Nature Parks 8 $ 3,159 169 $18,692 71393 Marinas 122 $13,861 700 $19,801 Notes: NAICS means North American Industry Classification System. Revenue and annual payroll data in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. Many of Virginia’s largest and most popular tourist attractions are within a short drive of King George County. In nearby counties of Virginia travelers can find the birthplaces of Robert E. 78 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Lee, George Washington, and James Monroe, as well as several other points of historical interest. In addition, several beaches, parks, and nature preserves are in the area. To the west, the City of Fredericksburg is home to several key civil war sites, an historic downtown, and varied and abundant shopping opportunities. Tourism spending in King George County and the area surrounding the County is shown in Table 28. From the table, it is clear that the areas surrounding King George County have managed to capture a significantly higher amount of tourism dollars that has King George County. TABLE 28. TRAVEL IMPACTS, FREDERICKSBURG REGION, 1997 Jurisdiction Traveler Spending Travel Payroll Travel Employment King George County $ 10,490,000 $1,730,000 120 Caroline County $ 36,190,000 $5,370,000 370 Fredericksburg City $ 69,830,000 $16,400,000 1270 Spotsylvania County $ 178,040,000 $31,950,000 2390 Stafford County $ 56,920,000 $12,520,000 980 Virginia $11,146,950,000 $3,372,140,000 192,370 Source: Travel Economic Impact Profile, Virginia Tourism Corporation. Opportunities. King George County has both historic and natural resources that, if developed and promoted together in a cohesive form, could help the County capture more tourist dollars. The Comprehensive Plan identifies 66 historic resources in the County; however, they are not developed or open to the public. The King George County Museum and Research Center is a resource that contains historic artifacts from the area and local family histories, however, it is only open eight hours a week. Marketable historic resources available in King George County include: Marketable Historic Resources Resource Status Old Marshall Place A house that is being restored and opened to the public by the owner. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 79 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Resource Status Marmion A house with outstanding Virginia woodwork. The paneling of the parlor is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. St. Paul’s Parish Church One of two remaining Virginia colonial churches with a true Greek Cross plan and two tiers of windows. Belle Grove (Birthplace of The “largest colonial house in King George County” is on James Madison) the site where James Madison was born. King George Museum Artifacts from the County and local family histories of the region. King George County also has a significant number of existing and potential natural resources and recreation areas. Although it is situated between the Rappahannock and the Potomac Rivers, there is limited public access to them. The primary community park is Barnesfield Park at the eastern edge of the County. Another 10-acre park, with a public boat landing, is located near Barnesfield and Wilmont Landing. No public recreation area exists in the center of the County near the Courthouse area. The rivers also provide wildlife habitat areas. There are many species of birds and other wildlife that use the rivers as migration corridors. The Caledon Natural Area, comprised of 2,579 acres, is located in the north central area of the County along the Potomac River, where there are Bald Eagle viewing tours. King George County can be proactive in reducing the impact that attracting many visitors could have on its infrastructure and environment. Potential County initiatives include, building green (energy-efficient) motels, creating a seasonal bus or open-air trolley system providing easily accessible recycling bins at tourist attractions, providing environmental education signs and brochures (e.g., how run-off pollutes the watershed). 80 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Location Needs. The following list of factors are prerequisites enhancing the County’s tourism industry. • Access to tourism resources. According to the TIAA, outdoor activities accounted for 22 percent of all the person-trips in the U.S. in 1999 and historic/cultural activities accounted for 21 percent. If these resources were rehabilitated and open to the public in King George County, they would attract increased tourism. The County clearly has the historic and natural resources as a basis for increasing tourism. These sites have to be made accessible and jointly advertised with regional and state promotion agencies in order to regional context increase tourism. • Associated tourist activities. Lodging, retail, and restaurants serving tourists activities also have to be developed in order to capture their expenditures. • Advertising and marketing. King George does not advertise or market its tourism resources. The City of Fredericksburg and State of Virginia have active marketing and promotional campaigns in which King George County could piggyback. In developing the tourism industry, there are a few other needs to consider. While travelers contribute tax dollars to local governments, they also increase demand for public services such as streets, parking, water supply, sewage collection and treatment, restrooms, solid waste collection and disposal, and safety. In addition, there is a need to increase spending on tourism promotion and administration at a minimum placing materials at the visitors centers located in Fredericksburg and at the Governor Nice Memorial Bridge. Agriculture Agriculture includes both indoor and outdoor crop and animal production. A third type of agriculture is aquaculture which is the farm raising of finfish, shellfish, or any other kind of animal aquaculture. Criteria. Agriculture was evaluated as a potential industry in comparison to the following sustainability criteria. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 81 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Agriculture Sustainability Criteria Criteria How Agriculture Meets the Criteria Business 1. Does the industry encourage and No. support the continued stability of the Navy activities at Dahlgren? 2. Does the industry encourage the Yes, especially the highly valued preservation of natural and historic agricultural landscape and way-of-life. resources to facilitate economic growth? 3. Does the industry encourage the Retail and agro-tourism enterprises located preservation of natural and historic on farms can provide added tourist dollars, resources to facilitate economic growth? as well as increased community awareness of the importance of farming. 4. Does the industry promote a diversified Although agriculture only comprises three economy in the County? percent of King George’s economy, it contributes significantly to the community’s rural character and cultural heritage. Helping farmers build healthy, successful businesses is therefore a key to preserving King George’s economic diversity. 5. Does this industry serve the existing By focusing on agriculture as an industry, businesses allowing them to develop, King George can help increase the viability expand or remain in the county? and stability of existing agricultural businesses in the County. 6. Does the industry increase the stability Yes by promoting increased agricultural of the agricultural industry in King land, employment, and value added crops George County? and livestock production. 7. Does the industry increase the stability By focusing on agriculture as an industry, of the agricultural industry in King King George can help increase the viability George County? and stability of existing agricultural businesses in the County. 82 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Criteria How Agriculture Meets the Criteria Community 1. Does the industry preserve the rural Maintaining and/or expanding existing quality of life of the area? farmland is one strategy for preserving open vistas. The land requirements of farming guarantees that a certain amount of space will remain “green” and open. 2. Does the industry encourage Many residents have indicated that the rural development patterns that sustain and quality of King George County is one of the enhance the quality of life for the primary indicators of the quality of life they residents of King George County? want to preserve. By focusing on agriculture, this rural quality can be preserved. 3. Does the industry create manufacturing There is potential for agricultural product or other living wage jobs? processing employment which may do so. 4. Does the industry create economic Retail and agro-tourism enterprises located development which will result in a net on farms can provide added tourist dollars, local tax benefit, create needed job as well as increased community awareness opportunities and support the other land of the importance of farming. use goals of this plan, particularly the basic goals of preserving the County’s rural characteristics? Environmental 1. Can the industry use resources that Agriculture can use compost from the would otherwise be considered waste in community and in some cases it can also this community? take sludge applications. Another possible waste connections is to use agricultural waste products as biomass fuel. 2. Does locating the industry in King Comparatively few vehicle trips are George County reduce vehicle trips? generated by agriculture uses. 3. Does the industry attempt to reduce its Agricultural industries can include impact on the environment by using innovative practices that protect and pollution prevention, environmental enhance the environment, such as integrated management systems, design for the pest management and agricultural environment, and green building design management plans. strategies when available? HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 83 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Trends. In the United States the agribusiness trend towards large-scale, monoculture (single crop or product), industrial farms has forced small- to medium-scale, family-run farms to seek new alternatives to remain financially viable. By diversifying into cash crops, organic produce, or agro-tourism, some farmers have found profitable market niches which allow them to pass their farms on to future generations for continued production. Agriculture is Virginia’s top industry measured in terms of value of products, according to the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The industry generates $35.9 billion in annual sales, or 12.3 percent of all sales in the state; contributes $19.5 billion or 11.2 percent, to Virginia’s Gross State Product; and creates approximately 388,000 jobs in Virginia or nearly 10 percent of total jobs statewide, 235,800 jobs directly related to agriculture and 152,000 jobs from induced effects. It includes traditional crops and products such as milk, poultry, beef, and soybeans; uniquely (for the United States) southern crops like cotton, peanuts, and tobacco; and relatively newer commodities such as farm-raised fish and nursery/landscaping products. Virginia is well known for pork, tobacco, and seafood products. In 1997 there were approximately 49,000 farms in Virginia, less than half the number of 1960. At that time, the state’s agriculture ranks fourth in the nation in tobacco and fresh-market tomatoes, fifth in fresh-market cucumbers, sixth in apples and peanuts, seventh in summer potatoes and fresh-market snap beans, and eighth in fresh-market bell peppers. Virginia ranks fifth in turkey production and ninth in poultry and has nearly 2,100 acres of grapes. An acre of grapes can produce 600 gallons or 3,000 bottles of wine. The raw grape product had a $4 million value in 1999 and wholesale wine had a value of more than $20 million. According to the American Farmland Trust, Virginia lost 45,000 acres of farmland a year in the 1990’s. As a result, the Commonwealth has formed a Farmland Protection Task Force whose mission is to prepare a comprehensive farmland protection policy for the commonwealth. That policy will include identification of incentives that might encourage landowners to keep their property in agricultural uses; government actions that lead to or cause farmland conversion; and ways those actions can be modified to meet farmland protection goals. 84 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Interest in fish farming has increased with the successes of trout farmers in the West and catfish farmers in the South. Virginia is a water-rich state endowed with thousands of miles of flowing rivers and streams and an equal abundance of ponds and lakes, providing numerous opportunities for fish farming throughout the state. In addition, Virginia’s three geographic provinces vary strikingly in climate, growing season, rainfall, soil composition, soil fertility, and topography, offering a diversity of environmental conditions that allows for the raising of a wide variety of warm water, cool water, and coldwater fish in- and out-of-doors. Agriculture plays a relatively small role in King George’s economy and employment base, yet the county’s nearly 140 farms covering over 34, 000 acres contribute to the rural culture and land use character of the community. Many people prize this low density, uncongested, open space dominant lifestyle where many real estate developments are not visible, and farms are a easy drive from anywhere in the County. Table 29 summarizes commodities produced in King George by number of farms. The total estimated market value of agricultural products sold in 1997 was $4.69 million, for an average of $33,719 per farm. Harvested crops—primarily corn, wheat, hay, and soybeans—account for the greatest share of this value at $4.19 million. In addition, several farmers have planted orchards, the fruit from which is sold at farmer’s markets in Oak Grove and West Fredericksburg. Beef cattle were raised for sale at 46 farms for a total market value of $515,570. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 85 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 29. NUMBER OF FARMS BY TYPE, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 1997 Commodity Number of Farms Crops Corn for grain or seed 37 Wheat for grain 21 Tobacco - Soybeans for beans 34 Peanuts for nuts - Hay (alfalfa, other tame, small grain) 58 Orchards 8 Livestock and Poultry Cattle and calves 46 Hogs and pigs 2 Sheep and lambs 2 Poultry: layers and pullets 7 Source: USDA, “1997 Census of Agriculture: County Summary Highlights,” 1997. Despite the small role that agriculture plays in the County’s economy, preservation of its agricultural character is high priority of the Comprehensive Plan. Among the ways to protect existing and developing agriculture increase investments in this industry are stringent land use control and purchasing agricultural development rights. The County has an opportunity to protect agricultural land before it is converted to more intensive land uses. As nearby metropolitan area markets continue to grow, demand for agricultural production will increase. Opportunities. A number of farmers in King George County have explored potentially profitable alternatives to current production to allow them compete in today’s market. These alternatives include crop diversification, value-added products, environmental stewardship, agro- tourism, farmers markets, and government purchase of agricultural development rights. The county’s location in the coastal plain region and near the Potomac River makes it suitable for warm water fish cultures. There is potential to develop heat exchanges using waste heat from the power plant to maintain fish tank temperatures in buildings. 86 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Some agricultural businesses have intensified their operations to include cultivation of high- value commodities and on-site value-added processing. Orchard crops, for example, yield a higher value and therefore may be a way for farms to remain in businesses. Several farms in the County produce higher-value crops such as peaches, apples, grapes, and Christmas trees. The Village Farms Greenhouse operates a 1.8 million square foot greenhouse producing tomatoes and peppers; another farm cultivates turf grass for residential and commercial landscaping companies. Whereas most King George farms ship their products out of the County for processing and wholesaling, one farmer has opened a small winery and retail store. Agro-tourism is a growing industry in the United States which attracts people to farms to learn first-hand how their food is produced and for general recreation. Closely related to eco-tourism, agro-tourist enterprises often focus on environmentally sustainable production systems, for example, organic cultivation, composting, and nutrient cycling. As with any successful tourism venture, agro-tourism can bring external dollars into the community, with the added benefit of raising community awareness of the importance of sustainable agriculture. King George has a “stewardship farm,” incorporating recreation, education, habitat enhancement, and commercial farming on a single parcel of land. This farm is a “test case” under a program of the Natural Resources Conservation Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program offers private landowners cost-sharing to install and operate practices to improve wildlife habitat. Farmers markets provide both the mechanism for sales of produce and an opportunity to expand tourism by attracting customers. King George County farmers typically sell to markets in Fredericksburg and Oak Grove. Developing a farmers market will keep agricultural dollars in the County, particularly due to the proximity of Dahlgren and its affluent high-tech community. Sales of rural arts and crafts at farmers markets can also attract tourist dollars from outside the County. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 87 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Farming has formed the social and cultural fabric of many American communities and provides open space. Today, many farmers and their communities are working to maintain this rural character and open space through the agricultural preservation movement. A major strategy for preserving farmland is for local governments to purchase and retire development rights from farmers to help preserve farmland and to help limit sprawl. Location Needs • Inexpensive land and property taxes. Both capital and operational costs can become prohibitive, leaving many farming families in debt. Increasing land values and the resulting rise in property taxes has forced many American farmers to sell their land. This is a problem that is facing King George County farmers. • Availability of farmworkers. A barrier to the expansion of fruit and vegetable farming is a shortage of workers. The inadequate availability of short-term housing in King George exacerbates this problem, and current residents are unlikely to take seasonal agricultural jobs given the county’s low unemployment rate and highly skilled workforce. • Technology. Agricultural activities also raise certain environmental and human health concerns. Handling and disposal of crop and livestock waste, the use of chemical inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers, and genetically modified products have all become highly publicized subjects for scientific and public debate. The Virginia Cooperative Extension Service provides information on technological improvements in agricultural practices. • Commitment. Across the nation, as urban, non-farming families and individuals move into rural areas, increased conflict has developed over issues such as farm odor, waste, and pesticide use. Newcomers concerned about the environmental and health impacts of agriculture challenge families who are continuing on the practices of generations. To mitigate the possible harmful effects such conflict can have on a community, the public and officials need to work together to plan agricultural development and design processes to address grievances. The Commonwealth of Virginia and King George County are committed to encouraging and preserving farmland. 88 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECONDARY COMPATIBLE TARGET INDUSTRIES Target secondary industries are those that would be supported by attraction of the primary target industries for which the County is best suited. Part of developing a sustainable economic development strategy is to identify industries that will support existing and prospective industries. Table 30 below shows potential secondary industries that could expand because of the new primary target industries. Secondary industries can strengthen the presence and viability of the primary industries and further diversify the economy. TABLE 30. POTENTIAL SECONDARY INDUSTRIES, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2001 Information and Tourism Professional Services Agriculture Manufacturing Warehousing Business Business Services Business Business Business Services Services Services Services Food and Food and Beverage Trucking Trucking Trucking Beverage Retail Retail Packaging Construction Construction Motels Real Estate Tourism Packaging Return Center Entertainment Entertainment Value-Added Processing Manufacturing Construction Warehousing Source: Work and Environment Initiative. Secondary industries will often follow primary industries as a result of market forces; however, King George County can assist business entry into the community by establishing a business promotion and recruitment program, by increasing the supply of industrial and business parks, and by ensuring that the appropriate infrastructure is in place to support these types of businesses. The definitions of the each secondary industry are provided below along with their role in the Virginia economy. A central objective of the King George County economic development strategies recommended in Section IV is attracting a greater share of the investments to be made in these secondary industries in Virginia. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 89 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Administrative and Business Services Each of the primary industries will need administrative and business services for their operations. Administrative and business services incorporate a number of types of businesses usually referred to as “back office businesses” such as office suppliers, professional services, printers, and cleaners. Buildings required of this industry are dominantly office space with storage and retail space. In rural areas like King George County, these types of services often are geared to helping small- to medium- sized businesses that may not be able to afford them in-house. In incubator settings, these services are often shared. Characteristics of this industry are provided in Table 31. TABLE 31. ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 561 Administrative & 6,847 $3,085,082 175,684 $17,560 support services 5611 Office administrative 642 $ 351,924 9,831 $35,797 services 5612 Facilities support 105 $ 165,784 5,417 $30,604 services 5613 Employment services 777 $1,123,614 68,898 $16,308 56131 Employment 125 $ 45,442 1,641 $27,692 placement agencies 56132 Temporary help 550 $ 899,962 57,856 $15,555 services 5614 Business support 775 $ 309,761 16,090 $19,252 services 56141 Document 128 $ 25,151 1,120 $22,456 preparation services 56142 Telephone call 130 $ 146,125 8,901 $16,417 centers 561421 Telephone answering 67 $ 40,925 1,877 $21,803 services 56143 Business service 269 $ 65,579 2,923 $22,436 centers 561431 Private mail centers 103 $ 11,243 459 $24,495 90 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 31. ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, VIRGINIA, 1997 (CONT.) NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 561439 Other business 166 $ 54,336 2,464 $22,052 service centers (including copy shops) 5615 Travel arrangement 795 $ 170,695 6,547 $26,072 & reservation services 56151 Travel agencies 640 $ 122,920 4,631 $26,543 56152 Tour operators 71 $ 18,851 668 $28,220 56159 Other travel 84 $ 28,924 1,248 $23,176 arrangement & reservation services 561591 Convention & 15 $ 1,511 90 $16,789 visitors bureaus 561599 All other travel 69 $ 27,413 1,158 $23,673 arrangement & reservation services 56172 Janitorial services 1,913 $ 337,521 35,626 $ 9,474 56191 Packaging & labeling 43 $ 11,425 644 $17,741 services 3231 Printing 71 $ 116,828 4,225 $27,652 422120 Office Supplies 170 $ 62,764 1,787 $35,123 541110 Lawyers 3,558 $ 872,662 19,791 $44,094 5412 Accounting Services 2,330 $ 530,796 19,896 $26,679 Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 U.S. Economic Census: Information for Virginia. Food, Beverage, and Lodging These industries include those businesses that provide customers with lodging and/or preparing meals, snacks, and beverages for immediate consumption. The sector includes both accommodation and food services establishments because the two activities are often combined at the same establishment. Lodging refers to temporary rooms such as motels. The food and beverage industries will follow the tourism and the information and professional industries HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 91 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK because of their creation of markets for these products. Information and professional industries tends to attract employees that prize quality-of-life, a measure of which is often places to eat. Other food and beverage industries attracted to primary target industries are catering services due to their meetings, and social functions that require these services. This industry’s average annual wages are relatively low. TABLE 32. FOOD, BEVERAGE, AND LODGING INDUSTRIES, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 721 Accommodation 1,445 $ 564,783 40,994 $13,777 7211 Traveler accommodation 1,237 $ 548,028 40,065 $13,679 72111 Hotels (except casino 1,142 $ 538,663 39,151 $13,759 hotels) & motels 72119 Other traveler 95 $ 9,365 914 $10,246 accommodation 7212 RV (recreational vehicle) 155 $ 14,918 748 $19,944 parks & recreational camps 722 Foodservices & drinking 10,898 $1,755,912 192,645 $ 9,115 places 7221 Full-service restaurants 4,889 $ 846,262 91,734 $ 9,225 7222 Limited-service eating 4,985 $ 739,295 88,021 $ 8,399 places 722211 Limited-service 4,296 $ 668,754 80,208 $ 8,338 restaurants 7223 Special foodservices 787 $ 152,709 10,637 $14,356 72231 Foodservice contractors 586 $ 131,203 8,998 $14,581 72232 Caterers 142 $ 18,895 1,481 $12,758 72233 Mobile foodservices 59 $ 2,611 158 $16,525 7224 Drinking places 237 $ 17,646 2,253 $ 7,832 (alcoholic beverages) Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. 92 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Retail This industry is engaged in selling merchandise and rendering services related to the sale of goods (there is no modification of the product being sold). Investments in this industry typically follow growth in resident total personal income, or growth in employment or tourism. The large number of persons who work in the County but live elsewhere and large quantity of retail floor space located in the I-95 corridor have attracted retail sales outside the County. Table 33 identifies the general categories of retail businesses that are to be supported by King George County residents and tourists. TABLE 33. RETAIL INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 441 Motor vehicle & parts 3,239 $1,319,870 47,195 $27,966 dealers 442 Furniture & home 1,831 $ 291,443 15,059 $19,353 furnishings stores 443 Electronics & appliance 1,148 $ 185,898 10,137 $18,339 stores 444 Building material & garden 2,108 $ 607,442 29,477 $20,607 equipment & supplies dealers 4451 Grocery stores 2,680 $ 977,803 69,473 $14,075 44511 Supermarkets & other 1,690 $ 914,397 62,840 $14,551 grocery (except convenience) stores 44512 Convenience stores 990 $ 63,406 6,633 $ 9,559 4453 Beer, wine, & liquor stores 279 D (1,000-2,499) 445 Food & beverage stores 3,393 $1,024,617 73,141 $14,009 446 Health & personal care 2,065 $ 350,021 21,805 $16,052 stores 447 Gasoline stations 3,669 $ 378,289 29,062 $13,017 4481 Clothing stores 2,482 $ 304,797 26,417 $11,538 44811 Men’s clothing stores 408 $ 45,793 3,240 $14,134 44812 Women’s clothing stores 1,039 $ 87,585 8,319 $10,528 44813 Children’s & infants’ 133 $ 11,439 1,245 $9,188 clothing stores HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 93 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 33. RETAIL INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 (CONT.) NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 44814 Family clothing stores 462 $ 127,746 10,905 $11,714 4483 Jewelry, luggage, & leather 796 $ 79,480 4,670 $17,019 goods stores 44831 Jewelry stores 744 $ 76,076 4,388 $17,337 448 Clothing & clothing 4,080 $ 444,784 36,212 $12,283 accessories stores 451 Sporting goods, hobby, 1,826 $ 192,110 15,777 $12,177 book, & music stores 452 General merchandise stores 1,130 $ 790,684 65,241 $12,119 453 Miscellaneous store 3,373 $ 255,315 19,686 $12,969 retailers 454 Nonstore retailers 1,170 $ 362,102 16,247 $22,287 Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. D means data not provided to avoid disclosure. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. These types of retail business require storefront space that has “traffic”, either people or car, passing by the store. These stores often locate in a shopping mall setting or in a “main street” area. Retail stores tend to locate near other retail stores to take advantage of people coming to the area for other stores. The Courthouse area and the Dahlgren area are the best locations for retail stores because of their accessibility, existing retail floor space clusters, and nearby households having disposable income. Real Estate This industry represents businesses involved in the renting, leasing, or managing property to others, real and personal property appraisal, and the associated services related to such activity. The real estate industry will grow as a result of people and businesses moving into the area for the various primary industries. Table 34 quantifies selected characteristics of the industry. 94 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 34. REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 531 Real estate 5,096 $734,158 29,832 $24,610 5311 Lessors of real estate 2,138 $194,273 10,014 $19,400 53111 Lessors of residential 1,056 $114,969 6,287 $18,287 buildings & dwellings 53112 Lessors of nonresidential 670 $ 59,982 2,635 $22,764 buildings (except miniwarehouses) 53119 Lessors of other real estate 208 $ 10,165 501 $20,289 property 5312 Offices of real estate agents 1,645 $205,118 7,207 $28,461 & brokers 5313 Activities related to real 1,313 $334,767 12,611 $26,546 estate 53131 Real estate property 817 $257,473 10,482 $24,563 managers 53132 Offices of real estate 326 $ 29,072 1,011 $28,756 appraisers 53139 Other activities related to 170 $ 48,222 1,118 $43,132 real estate Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation This industry includes businesses such as, movie theatres, concert venues, and recreational services not provided by public agencies. The arts, entertainment and recreation businesses will grow with development of tourism and the attraction of residents. Selected characteristics of this industry sector are provided in Table 35. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 95 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 35. ARTS, ENTERTAINMENT, AND RECREATION INDUSTRIES, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 512131 Motion picture theaters 128 $19,737 2,586 $ 7,632 (except drive-ins) 71113 Musical groups & artists 85 $6,563 619 $10,603 71132 Promoters of performing 57 $14,501 318 $45,601 arts, sports, & similar events w/o facilities Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. Construction A variety of building types are going to be required to meet the needs of the primary and secondary industries. These include residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Other construction that will be required includes upgrading the infrastructure systems. Selected characteristics of the construction industry are provided in Table 36. TABLE 36. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 233 Building, developing, & 6,429 $1,199,042 42,012 $28,541 general contracting 2331 Land subdivision & land 199 $ 40,401 1,228 $32,900 development 2332 Residential building 5,080 $ 570,455 23,063 $24,735 construction 23321 Single-family housing 4,881 $ 518,564 20,967 $24,732 construction 23322 Multifamily housing 198 $ 51,891 2,096 $24,757 construction 2333 Nonresidential building 1,151 $ 588,185 17,721 $33,191 construction 96 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TABLE 36. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 23331 Mfg & industrial 133 $ 44,512 1,557 $28,588 building construction 23332 Commercial & 1,018 $ 543,674 16,163 $33,637 institutional building construction 235 Special trade contractors 11,854 $2,763,562 107,595 $25,685 2351 Plumbing, heating, & air- 2,391 $ 672,524 24,055 $27,958 conditioning contractors 2352 Painting & wall covering 1,349 $ 146,748 7,309 $20,078 contractors 2353 Electrical contractors 1,578 $ 566,850 19,218 $29,496 2354 Masonry, drywall, 1,584 $ 373,532 16,663 $22,417 insulation, & tile contractors 2355 Carpentry & floor 1,655 $ 204,387 8,321 $24,563 contractors 2356 Roofing, siding, & sheet 922 $ 217,162 9,225 $23,541 metal contractors 2357 Concrete contractors 805 $ 196,117 8,429 $23,267 2358 Water well drilling 90 $ 13,851 587 $23,596 contractors 2359 Other special trade 1,479 $ 372,390 13,788 $27,008 contractors Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. The construction industry in King George County is small, with large construction contractors coming in from other places for major projects, as required. However, the County is especially well suited to attract specialized skills, such as plumbing, electrical, and carpet repair and installation work because of low building rents that can be offered to these firms. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 97 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Trucking The trucking industry provides transportation of cargo and the related support services, proving support to the warehousing and manufacturing industries. Selected characteristics of the industry are provided in Table 37. The trucking industry requires sites to store and maintain vehicles and road capacity and network connections to move their products. TABLE 37. TRUCKING INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS, VIRGINIA, 1997 NAICS Annual Paid Average Code Description Establishments Payroll Employees Annual Wage 484 Truck transportation 2,884 $789,959 28,825 $27,405 4841 General freight trucking 1,052 $451,621 15,209 $29,694 48411 General freight trucking, 351 $ 65,979 2,552 $25,854 local 48412 General freight trucking, 701 $385,642 12,657 $30,469 long-distance 48422 Specialized freight (except 1,268 $126,256 5,743 $21,984 used goods) trucking, local 48423 Specialized freight (except 297 $101,718 3,214 $31,648 used goods) trucking, long- distance Notes: NAICS means North American Industrial Classification System. Annual payroll in thousands of dollars. Average annual wage is annual payroll divided by the number of paid employees. Source: 1997 Economic Census: Information for Virginia. Packaging The packaging industry primarily supports the warehousing and manufacturing businesses and is involved in packaging client-owned materials and related services. This industry could be encouraged to utilize recycled material or to modify their scrap packing material to be used in compost or other applications. In 1997 the packing industry had 43 establishments, 644 employees, and an average and wage of $17,741 in Virginia. These operations should be located near the manufacturing and warehousing businesses to minimize transportation costs. 98 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Value-Added Agriculture As King George County promotes higher value agricultural crops it should seek businesses engaged in the manufacturing and subsequent sale of agricultural products as new products. In 1997 the food preserving portion of this industry had 22 establishments, over 2,200 employees, and an average annual wage of about $21,900. CONCLUSIONS Target industries are identified which support comprehensive plan goals, build upon the County’s assets, and take into account its competitive liabilities. Primary and secondary compatible target industries which are recommended are responsive to sustainable development principles which seek to balance environmental, community, and business interests. The assets which will attract new private investments are its labor force, infrastructure (accessibility, electronic communications capacity, and utilities), nearby metropolitan markets for goods and services, the potential for by-product exchanges, and selected incentives. The County continues to work on liabilities in order to improve its business climate and to attract more residents. The Section I Development Framework, industry-by-industry location criteria, and the County’s assets support attraction of the following primary target industries: • Information and professional services • Manufacturing • Warehousing and logistics • Tourism • Agriculture. The trends, opportunities, and location needs are analyzed for each of these five industries. Attraction of these primary target industries will support development of the following secondary target industries and also attract a larger labor force for existing and future businesses. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 99 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Administrative and business services • Food and beverage • Retail • Motel Rooms • Arts, entertainment, and recreation • Construction • Trucking • Packaging • Value-added agriculture. These industries tend to be under represented in King George County. Attraction of the primary target industries would increase the County’s competitiveness for the secondary target industries. Section III describes perceptions of the County’s sustainable economic development and rural development plan in terms of the vision of its future. 100 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION III. VISION OF THE FUTURE HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION III. VISION OF THE FUTURE King George County’s economic development achievements have been primarily built upon its natural resources and its selection as a U.S. Navy base. They have generated most of the employment located in the County. Residential growth has primarily been attributable to these jobs and to jobs located in nearby jurisdictions. The real estate development growth pressures have been located at major highway intersections, for the most part. The County’s Comprehensive Plan calls for fully serviced growth nodes in selected areas and for preservation of the natural environment upon which high value is placed by representatives of businesses and by residents alike. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VISION Preparation of a vision of the future growth and development of the County is a continuing process whose principal components are: • The annual budgeting process by the Board of Supervisors resulting in allocation of the County’s financial resources. • Preparation of comprehensive and functional plans. • Responses to development permission applications. This draft sustainable economic development and rural preservation plan is one of the County’s functional plans. Examples of others is those recently prepared for road, water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and school improvements. This report summarizes the ideas, opinions, and insights of interviewees into the following seven categories: 1. Quality of Life 2. Existing Economic Base HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 101 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 3. Opportunities for Growth a. Manufacturing and Distribution b. Small Business Needs c. Agriculture d. Tourism and Recreation 4. Infrastructure 5. Housing Supply 6. Human Capital 7. Planning for the Future Among the County’s most prized existing characteristics are the following: • Natural beauty of the rural landscape • A strong economic base • Low unemployment • An independent but community-minded citizenry Existing characteristics that interviewees felt were hampering economic development include: • Lack of improved sites (no water or wastewater hookups). • Lack of promotion and incentives to help attract private job-generating investments. • Lack of rental housing for people having jobs in the County. • Perception of inferior public school system, relative to surrounding systems. • Lack of entertainment, cultural facilities, parks and recreation. • Lack of department store shopping located nearby. • Lack of variety of restaurants. • Distance from I-95 Interviewees hope to preserve their rural lifestyle through selective and carefully planned economic growth. Desired features include: • An increased emphasis on tourism and recreation opportunities, • The expansion of industry, and • The diversification of agriculture. 102 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK To facilitate these goals, area interviewees would like to see the upgrading of important infrastructure such as schools, water and sewer systems, and telecommunications. They also feel that county government should play a key role in nurturing development, but do so hand-in-hand with community and business leaders. 1. Quality of Life There is great satisfaction with having King George as their home. By a wide margin, the most valued characteristic of the County was the rural nature of the area yet, it is still close to major urban centers. Part of the attraction is the clean air and wide open spaces. People are protective of their rural connections, being stewards of their community, independent, and committed to King George County. Others emphasized living in a rural yet progressive community where people are generally forward thinking. Other key assets include relatively low taxes, a highly skilled labor force, a sound economy, plenty available land and open space, and few traffic problems. 2. Existing Economic Base Clearly the biggest strength of the County is the Naval Base because the work at the Base has resulted in a lot of high-tech spin-offs, which provide good relatively high paying jobs for a rural area. The Naval Base and the associated contractors make up about 50 percent of employment located in the County. The Navy’s facilities include four commands: the Dahlgren Laboratory of the of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division; the Aegis Training and Readiness Center; the Naval Space command; and the Joint Warfare Analysis Center. Collectively, these institutions are commonly known as the NSWC. In partnership with Coastal Systems Station in Panama City, Florida, the NSWC is the Navy’s principal research, development, test, and evaluation site for surface ship combat systems, ordnance, mines, and strategic systems support. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 103 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The Navy has had a presence in King George County since 1918. Today the facility employs over 7,300 military, civilian, and contract employees. Fully one-third of those employed at the base are scientists and engineers, and approximately 51 percent (3,700) are civilians. For fiscal year 1999, the total civilian payroll was $193.7 million, with $75.2 million going to King George County residents. In addition to the NSWC, other major employers in the area include the King George Landfill, SEI Birchwood Power (electricity generation), White Packing (a meat packing plant that makes sausage and bacon), Heritage Hall Nursing Home, King George County, and Food Lion retail stores. While these businesses provide stable employment for many King George residents, diversifying the economic base and encouraging economic growth will increase job opportunities and reduce dependence on existing industries for real property taxes. 3. Opportunities for Growth These opportunities are discussed in terms of manufacturing and distribution, small business needs, agricultural, and tourism and recreation. Manufacturing and Distribution Support was expressed for growth in the County and to diversity the tax base to ensure that services like schools can continue to improve. Although some people think that real estate development ruins everything, if done sensibly, development can be good for the County. The key is to balance growth with open space and habitat protection and to make sure that development pays its own way. Interviewees supported expansion of light industry including more clean industry. For example, White Packing is a good source of jobs for many people and more industry jobs like that would be a big help. Warehousing and distribution in the U.S. 301 corridor would also be a good use but not provide many jobs. 104 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Attracting some kind of light industry to the area seems like the most sensible option for the County because it can bring good jobs to the area, but residents would not have worry about excessive population or traffic growth. Nearly all interviewees were in agreement about the type of development they did not want in the County: avoid large-scale projects that attract a lot of people. The last thing they seemed to want is to end up like Stafford or Spotsylvania Counties. Concern was expressed for a lot of new retail space like what has happened in Fredericksburg. It has put a strain on the area in terms of increased noise and traffic and demands on community facilities. A number of interviewees were pleased to see the landfill located in the County. It brings a lot of tax money into the County, but it doesn’t cause any problems. On the other hand, the County should avoid bringing in development that could degrade the natural environment and community. The landfill brought in other place’s garbage and the County should not have too many projects like that. Small Business Needs Small business “spin-offs” of the County’s basic industries are needed such as those providing business services. For example, a better quality restaurant even though there are a lot of fast food options which are great for kids. It would be nice to have some place to go for fine dining. More shopping options, school facilities, parks and recreation areas, and better medical facilities close to home were other common responses to attracting and retaining small business managers and employees. There is no adequate meeting space in King George. When businesspeople from outside the County come to visit, you have to tell them that there’s no place in the County to have a business meeting. Residential construction was another industry mentioned as ripe for expansion. While a few local contractors build on a house-by-house basis, no “Class A” high capacity builder exists in King George. Given the ongoing housing boom in the region, the potential for growth in this market appears strong. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 105 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Several representatives of businesses expressed interest in selling more of their products locally. The power plant, for example, has excess steam and fly ash available that could be used by other businesses. Much of the fly ash goes to the neighboring landfill to be used as cover material, but the power plant still produces enough to support other customers should they materialize and be approved by the County. The greenhouse is another business with unused resources, both compost and leachate, that could be used as fertilizer for agriculture. But because no market for these products currently exists in the County, they are sent to the landfill for disposal. Finally, King George County has over 100,000 square feet of vacant retail space scattered along highway corridors. The surplus buildings could be sources of cheap space with adequate parking for either retail businesses or startup industries, if their rehabilitation costs are minimized. Agriculture Although King George is a rural county, agriculture plays a minor economic role in its economy. There are fewer than one hundred farms in the county. While the number of farms is small, they play a significant role in maintaining the rural character of the County. Most of the farms produce corn, soybeans, and wheat, products that are eventually shipped elsewhere for processing and wholesaling. A handful of farmers raise beef cattle for sale, which are marketed at the Fredericksburg Livestock Exchange. Other large-scale businesses producing agricultural products include the Woerner Farm and Village Farms Greenhouse. The Woerner farm produces turf grass for residential and commercial landscaping companies, while Village Farms has 1.8 million square feet of greenhouse space growing tomatoes and peppers from November to May. The Woerner Farm is expected to develop its land for residential units beginning in 2002. The farm owners plan on building 450 single family homes and 450 multi- family units over a period of years. Many area farmers see revenue from real estate development as a way to finance their retire. As land values increase, many farmers find that they can no longer afford to pay the taxes on their 106 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK land. One option is to sell the land to developers, since this option often provides farmers with enough income to retire. Other farmers continue farming or pursuing related businesses such as a small winery or a retail store. Another has converted his property into a “stewardship farm,” an innovative multi-use area that incorporates recreation, habitat preservation, and commercial farming on a single parcel of land. This farm’s income comes from sales of holiday trees in the winter and peaches and apples during the Fall. While most of the produce is sold at the farm, some of the fruit is sold at the farmers’ market in Fredericksburg. Orchard crops may be the way for farms to remain operable since they tend to yield a higher value than many other crops. A second farmer’s market operates in Oak Grove, a few miles southeast of King George. One option for King George County is to set up their own farmers market. The Dahlgren area, with its proximity to the Naval Base employees and an affluent high-tech community living close by, would be an excellent location. Another option would be for the Navy to contract with local framers to purchase produce directly from area farms. The Navy would benefit by gaining access to farm-fresh fruits and vegetables, and area farmers would benefit by having a customer capable of purchasing the quantities increasing the profitability of farming. Equally important, the local community would be able to preserve part of its agricultural heritage and maintain the rural features of the County. One major barrier to the expansion of fruit and vegetable farming, however, is attracting workers necessary to harvest crops. The existing greenhouse already has some problems attracting employees due to inadequate short-term housing in King George. Residents are unlikely to take seasonal agricultural jobs, given the County’s low unemployment rate and generally highly skilled workforce. Tourism and Recreation King George County is located between two of Virginia’s most famous tourist attractions. To the east is Fredericksburg, home of several key Civil War sites. To the south is Westmoreland County, the birthplace of both Robert E. Lee and George Washington. While the County’s HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 107 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Comprehensive Plan identifies several historically significant buildings, none has been developed to attract and serve visitors. Roadside markers describing points of interest could increase tourist traffic in the County or retain it for a longer period of time. Another option would be to expand the operating hours of the County Museum located in the old courthouse building beyond eight hours per week. Opening the museum on weekends could increase tourism especially during the peak summer tourist season. Another potential for economic growth is nature-based tourism. Nearly every person who spoke on the subject emphasized the natural beauty of the area. With an abundance of forested areas, streams, ponds, and two large rivers in the County, ample opportunity exists to promote these areas as sites for hiking, fishing, hunting, camping, and/or boating. One barrier to tourism development is the small inventory of overnight accommodations. Although there are 290 rooms available, there are no camping facilities. The construction of a public campground in the County would increase tourism and retain some of the campers’ expenditures. Many interviewees commented on the lack of recreational facilities. They recommend providing more opportunities for area youth. For example, there’s no place for kids to go after school or on weekends. There’s no common area or swimming for them to go to and just hang out with their friends. A park with tennis courts would be one option, or maybe a roller skating rink. Right now teenagers go to Fredericksburg for entertainment, and it would be nice if there were things locally that kids could do. Many adults also see the area as lacking in entertainment options. Many people choose to commute to King George County jobs from other jurisdictions because of lack of recreational facilities, shopping, and cultural amenities in the county. There’s no place to gather or go that brings everyone together. 108 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 4. Infrastructure Some interviewees expressed frustration with inadequate infrastructure in the County. While companies in Dahlgren have access to most necessary services (thanks to the Naval Base), inadequate infrastructure in the western part of the County oftentimes makes business difficult by reducing the supply and permitted density of developable sites. The most often-cited problem was inadequate sewer and water systems. There are five independent wastewater systems in the County but most businesses operate on septic systems and private wells. A looming problem is replacing aging residential and commercial septic fields that have an estimated average 20-year lifespan. Typically, the lots are too small or hilly to relocate the clogged septic field on site. More than one attendee stated that the lack of adequate water and sewer lines represents a major inconvenience that few businesses from outside the County are willing to tolerate. One businesswoman indicated that she would build another building in King George, but she could not tap into the existing sewer system, in spite of the fact that there was a sewer line in the road right-of-way in front of her site. Other interviewees suggested that a carefully planned sewer expansion program could help shape future development patters. The top priority should be to concentrate construction of the sewer system in areas designated for commercial development. This way businesses will have access to the infrastructure they need, and the County benefits by having commercial development limited to key target areas. One possibility for improving sewer service is for the County to work jointly with the Naval Base when it upgrades its own facilities. The base expects to privatize its water and sewer service by 2005, making it possible for the County to bid to become the public works contractor and tap into the lines to service the Dahlgren area. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 109 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Another issue raised was the lack of reliable, countywide wireless phone service. For many businesspeople having a cell phone is considered a necessity. In the western part of the County there are still many areas where you can’t get reasonable cell phone service. A third barrier to industrial development is the absence of natural gas service which the Naval Base and perhaps others would use if it were available. There is an Executive Order to increase alternative fuel consumption on the Base by 2005. One way of achieving this goal is to convert Navy vehicles to natural gas, some of which has already been done. This demand alone, however, is not enough for the Navy to provide its own natural gas service. Representatives of the power plant and the landfill cited the lack of natural gas access as an obstacle to developing the area as an industrial park. Hence, the possibility exists for some form of cooperative effort between the Navy and industry to bring natural gas to the County at a future date. A fourth issue raised by interviewees was the lack of high-speed Internet access outside of Dahlgren. Only the Naval base and its contractors have access to high-speed Internet service. It is necessary to use a dial-up modem connection to access the web. Having high-speed access in King George would go a long way towards improving he productivity of some business. U.S. Highway 301 has fiber optic lines running in its right-of-way. Having this valuable infrastructure in-place facilitates the expansion of high-speed telecommunications services in the County’s eastern area. An inadequate road system was another problem raised by several interviewees. Road construction and expansion has not kept pace with growth, say some area residents. Sources of increased traffic have been the reconstruction of the “mixing bowl” (intersection of I-395 and I- 495 in Fairfax County) and congestion on the Woodrow Wilson Bridge, which carries I-95 and I- 495 traffic over the Potomac River at Alexandria. These two traffic “hot spots” have diverted traffic between Baltimore and Richmond to U.S. 301 through King George County. No major highway or bridge improvements are planned in the County. 110 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Truck-intensive industrial development located outside the U.S. 301 and VA 3 corridors is limited because of the inadequacy of the road system. Any new development beyond these corridors would have to be limited to light industry or office parks generating little large truck traffic. Another interviewee felt that any new traffic should be channeled to selected major routes. Business development should really be restricted to Routes 301 and 3, and the County should do what we can to keep traffic off 206 and 218. Although some people are against development on routes 301 and 3 because they don’t want to put up another traffic light up, one additional traffic light won’t make that much difference in travel times or convenience. Highway 206 does not meet current standards because there’s no shoulder and the big trucks use that road make it very dangerous for automobile drivers. Development of industrial parks on Route 301 particularly at the intersection of Routes 3 and 301, which should be the next big growth center. Air, water, and rail transportation services in the County are limited. The only rail service is a five-mile spur of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac (RF&P) Railroad whose trains bring solid waste and coal in and take sand and gravel out of the far southwestern corner of the County. The closest air carrier airport is Ronald Reagan/Washington National, located 70 miles to the north. Recent completion of Stafford County Airport, which is 30 miles to the northwest, has plenty of general aviation capacity. Although the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers are navigable, there are no ports located in King George County. Another concern expressed by interviewees is the lack of a public transportation system. Especially for older people, some kind of bus system would really help because everything is so spread out in the County. A public bus system would be really helpful for older people that either can’t or shouldn’t be driving. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 111 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 5. Housing Supply Major housing projects that are either planned or under construction in King George, Caroline, and Westmoreland Counties comprise about 2,680 acres. They are located in three areas: Dahlgren, along the Potomac River north of Route 218 and east of 696, and along the Rappahannock River near Route 607. Thus far, only about five percent of the 2,680 acres have been developed, a reflection of the real estate market and of the lack of infrastructure in these areas. While the range of housing available in King George is generally good, a few attendees pointed out the lack of mid-priced homes in the community. There are a lot of starter homes and a lot of high-end homes, but not much supply in the middle, costing $80,000 to $100,000. This can make it difficult for the middle-income families with children that have outgrown their ‘starter’ home, but still can’t afford the ‘luxury’ homes that dominate this market. An example of its affect is that about 60 percent of the County’ public school teachers live outside of the County because o the lack of moderately priced homes. Another underserved market sector is short-term and multi-family housing. The lack of affordable rental property in the County is a major impediment to attracting seasonal employees. For seasonal agricultural workers temporary group housing is needed. If that was available, they could participate in national farm worker programs making their businesses more viable by attracting the needed labor force. Additional rental housing is also in demand in Dahlgren, thanks to employee turnover at the Naval base and a lack of sufficient cost effective multi-family housing in Charles and St. Mary’s Counties in Maryland, as well as King George County. Because population growth alone rarely pays its own way as people demand more services, it’s important that residential growth be balanced with new industrial and commercial development. 112 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 6. Human Capital In spite of its rural setting and small population, King George County is home to a well-trained and highly educated workforce primarily attracted by the NSWC. Much of the County’s strength in attracting and retaining quality employees can be attributed to jobs at the naval base and the high-tech contractors in Dahlgren. Many interviewees stressed the importance of the base to the local economy and felt that significant potential exists to expand high-tech employment. Some interviewees would like to see the County promote itself as a high-tech company location readily accessible to Northern Virginia which has companies like IBM, Toshiba, Dominion Semiconductor, and others in Prince William County. To the south, Richmond also has many high-tech firms including Motorola and Siemans. King George County is right in the middle of these two growth poles, so it seems like a natural place for the industry to grow. When combined with the talent that’s already at the Naval base and the low cost of living in King George, it’s an ideal location for high-tech firms according to one line of reasoning. In addition to providing jobs for highly skilled workers, another King George resident pointed out how the Naval base and the contractors are a good source of employment for people without a college diploma. There are still many jobs in Dahlgren that people without a lot of education can get. While the base is able to provide employment for some people with fewer skills, a shortage of living wage jobs in the County was a common concern of many respondents. This includes jobs for people without a college education. Unemployment is very low in the County, so it’s not a matter of not having enough jobs for people. But what would be best is if people with little formal education could find family-supporting jobs in the County. One interviewee suggested that the County should hire more local people instead of recruiting from outside the local area. Most people without college degrees work at low-wage service jobs. One potential untapped source of talent is the large number of military veterans and retirees but they often leave the area after retiring from the Base. While many of them would like to stay in HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 113 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK King George, opportunities for work just aren’t there. Ideally the County could attract more subcontractors so that more of these people can stay in the area. Another concern raised by interviewees is the ability of King George schools to produce quality graduates with the skills necessary to find family-supporting jobs in the local area. One suggestion was to develop mentor programs with area employers so that graduating seniors would have a better sense of the opportunities available in the County and skill sets required to succeed in these positions. Another recommended that the high school focus more heavily on vocational training so that graduates that choose not to attend college will leave the schools and the tools necessary to find good quality jobs. Several interviewees pointed out the potential role that area colleges and universities play in both attracting new employers and training local workers. While there are no higher education facilities in the County except for selected extension courses, Germanna, Rappahannock, and Mary Washington Colleges as well as Strayer University were cited as easy commutes from King George. The community colleges were mentioned as key resources where employee training and industry-designed educational programs have and could be developed that benefit both workers and businesses. Another option for training workers locally has been proposed by the Potomac Gateway Alliance, an advocacy organization based at NSWC. The Alliance has proposed construction of a seminar center of up to 30,000 square feet on Navy property in Dahlgren. In addition to providing much-needed meeting space, the facility also could be used as a training and education center for the larger community. 7. Managing Economic Development Managing development in one of the fastest growing counties in Virginia demands increased levels of cooperation among business, government, and community leaders, according to some attendees. By working together, area residents can plan more effectively and take proactive 114 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK stances on the locations of development. Interviewees seemed strongly supportive of the County’s role in economic development programs. Growth is inevitable and the County needs to have a better sense of how it wants the County to grow over the long term. Another interviewee agreed by pointing out that this is something that the County has needed to do for a long time. Occasional phone callers from companies interested in doing business in King George are disappointed that the County does not have sites to promote. Another interviewee stressed the educational role that County officials can play in planning for development. People around here know what they want but they often don’t know how to express themselves using technical language. With education, people would understand that’s ‘smart growth’ type development is what is best for the County. In addition to its role in managing growth several interviewees stressed the need for an “outreach system” to help companies do business in the County. The permit and project approval process is too long said one. What the County really needs is to have someone on staff that businesses can turn to for help in getting through the system. For some County residents, the role of government should be limited to preserving private property rights, maximizing real property tax yields while keeping tax rates low, and minimizing publicly owned property. CONCLUSIONS Although there were a wide variety of perspectives shared by interviewees, a few themes emerged from them: • Our way of life, culture, and natural features are worth preserving. • Construction and maintenance of infrastructure have not kept pace with the amount and distribution of land development. • Job growth and its promotion should be responsive to the County’s assets. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 115 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • The small scale of development and incremental growth are not sufficient to attract department stores, a wide variety of restaurants, and a wide variety of housing types and price points. • Managing a coordinated supply of properly zoned land, infrastructure meeting contemporary standards, and the provision of utilities is an appropriate role of County government. This vision for the County retains values of its residents, expands job opportunities, and preserves the natural features which have attracted people. 116 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION IV. RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK SECTION IV. RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES Interviewees expressed a number of values is support of reasons they have chosen to locate and remain in the County. A summary of this consensus is: • Protect the environment for the enjoyment of citizens, visitors, and outdoors persons. This includes natural features and historic resources. • Provide sufficient public infrastructure capacity for residents and at-place employees. This includes public facilities, utilities, and transportation systems meeting federal, state, and local standards. • Avoid the financial risks inherent in extending infrastructure to undeveloped areas unless it serves a major public facility. • Balance the tax base by promoting economic development to avoid increasing the residential property tax rate beyond the annual inflation rate. • Encourage job growth by providing improved office and industrial park sites at cost to prospective developers. Such sites must meet the County’s infrastructure, development permission, and compatible land use standards. These principles are a basis for countywide strategies to achieve the vision. The recommended strategies are preceded by discussions of physical development, staff development and promotion, cost-revenue models, monitoring economic progress, and responding to assets and liabilities. They are complemented by primary target industry-by- industry strategies described in Table 39 on pages 133 through 141. Following the table is a discussion of capital cost implications of the strategies and of management policies. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Each of the recommended primary compatible target industries has specific location and infrastructure needs. The map on the following page identifies three competitive locations for economic development. Areas 1 (Courthouse), 2 (Dahlgren), and 3 (Route 3 West) were designated in the Comprehensive Plan to accommodate industries and businesses. Areas 1 and 2 are currently the two primary areas within which retail and office development has occurred. They should remain the focus of such land uses. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 117 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK FIGURE 1. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AREAS 118 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK An important objective of the County is to preserve its rural character. Therefore scattered real estate development, or sprawl, should be avoided except at a residential density no greater than one dwelling unit per 10 acres and a non-residential floor area ratio (the ratio of gross floor space to land area covered by the building) of less than 0.05. Additionally, because the County has limited water and sewer infrastructure and financial resources to expand their service areas, it should focus development in areas to which it can most easily provide these services. Area 3, where the landfill, power plant, greenhouse, and gravel mines are located, is most suitable for selected manufacturing and warehousing industries some of which could use by-products from these industries. Location Parameters During the past 67 years competition among cities and counties to attract jobs, real property tax base, and personal income has been intensified by public incentives. Even in good economic times, many local jurisdictions and states package incentives tailored to attract growth and development. Jurisdictions which choose not to compete in this way or to minimize their direct and indirect subsidies and promotion expenditures still have competitive location advantages. Those advantages in King George County were discussed in Section II of this report. Contemporary business location needs, based on experiences of economic development promotion agencies, is instructive in designing the physical and economic features of a promotion program. Based on surveys of various businesses the following location factors are important to them, according to Area Development magazine: • Highway accessibility, particularly high capacity roads • Labor costs • Trained labor supply • Tax structure, rates, and exemptions • Local and state incentives • Building construction and occupancy costs • Environmental regulations From a quality of life perspective, the top interests of prospective residents are health care facilities and the supply of sound housing units having a range of price points. These location HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 119 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK criteria can guide King George County in its site selection, infrastructure investment, and development permission initiatives and decisions. However, many of these location factors are ones over which the County exercises little or no influence. Table 38 identifies the development areas in which the various target industries should be located in light of these location factors, existing land uses, and existing and proposed infrastructure capacities. TABLE 38. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT AREAS, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Industry Planning Area Comments Warehousing 2 and 3 Area 2 is already under a significant amount of development and is a good location to extend infrastructure capacity to. This area is a center for commercial and office development. Area 3 is a good location for by-product exchange with the existing industries, particularly energy cascading. Manufacturing 3 Area 3 is a good location for by-product exchange with the existing industries and for road access. Tourism 1, 2 and Area 1 should be the focus of a tourism industry. surrounding area The historic museum is located adjacent to the courthouse area and could become the “historic” town center that would focus the rest of the historic and natural features of the county. Professional and 1 and 2 Office development should be located in Area 1 Information Services and 2 in order to provide appropriate services to those industries. These services include water, sewer, restaurants, and support services. Agriculture All areas outside All the areas outside Areas 1 and 2 should of Areas 1 and 2. remain rural in character. Sources: Work and Environment Initiative and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. 120 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Site Parameters The County’s tourism and agriculture sites are more-or-less fixed. Historic sites and buildings, parks and open space preserves, and their buildings are numerous but require improvements to their existing locations in order to offer visitors value. Agricultural land is in production or is fallow and can be put into production if it is protected from development. The other three primary compatible target industries—warehousing, manufacturing, and professional and information services—are, to some extent, footloose. They can locate in response to infrastructure capacities, development permission, and compatible land use standards. Warehousing. Its large floor plates and truck access requirements call for large flat sites in close proximity to high capacity highways and sometimes to railroad service. Therefore, sites near VA 3 in Area 3 and U.S. 301 in Area 2 are most appropriate. Only Area 3 includes rail service for those warehousing and distribution firms requiring it or preferring to have it as an alternative mode of transportation to trucking. Because of the potential noise, this use should be buffered from residential uses. Typically this use requires sites ranging from three to 40 acres and its buildings have a floor area ratio (FAR) of 0.2 to 0.5. This density range provides space for truck maneuvering and for truck and automobile parking. Manufacturing. While there is a wide range of site sizes required by this industry, the bulk of the market is in the two- to five-acre range. Because fewer than 20 percent of these firms use rail services, this industry is only partially dependent on rail service unless they receive or ship a lot of heavy bulky items. However, it often requires one floor buildings having plenty of improved parking lot space and good truck access. Extraordinary water, sewer, and electric services may be required by manufacturing firms which are addressed on a case-by-case basis. The best sites for this use are located in development Areas 2 and 3 and may require buffering from other nearby land uses. Manufacturing buildings frequently include floor space devoted to office and storage functions and may be designed to change the amount of floor space devoted to each function, as required over time. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 121 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Professional and Information Services. These industries are predominantly housed in office buildings. They may be located in business parks or stand alone. Depending upon their security and advertising needs, they may or may not seek sites highly exposed to highway or pedestrian traffic. Unlike some warehousing and manufacturing sites, this use may require amenities such as landscaping, water features, pedestrian walkways, picnicking, or panoramic views. Fiber optic capacity may be a location determinant. To the extent that physical access to the County’s government and public school services administrations is important, Area 1 is a good location. Superior physical access to the NSWC, the County’s principal employer, makes Area 2 a good location for this use. This area has already attracted office space primarily occupied by Navy contractors whose presence near the NSWC may be an advantage when competing for contracts and working with Navy personnel. Demand. Industrial and business parks have not been developed in the County because each firm having space requirements obtained their site and building(s) as needed and because the scale of the local market induced too much risk to building developers and owners. Plenty of developable land was available on the east side of Fredericksburg and in the I-95 corridor to accommodate demand. Two important factors have emerged in recent years to increase the potential for such parks located in King George: • Land prices have increased in the I-95 corridor. • Industrial-type development providing the opportunity to support other industries have been developed, the power plant, landfill, and commercial greenhouse. Yet, there is no industrial park available to attract target or other industries which do not want to be sole occupants on their own sites. A 40- to 50- acre site should be zoned for this purpose in Area 3. Continued development of business park uses in the Dahlgren area is appropriate. Setting aside 30 to 40 acres for this purpose would position the County to effectively compete with neighboring jurisdictions for high tech industries. Office space demand in the vicinity of the Courthouse has averaged less than 1,000 square feet annually during the past 10 years. Enough 122 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK land is already zoned in this area to accommodate this much space during the next 10 years at a floor area ratio of 0.2 to 0.3. Building density, landscaping, driveway, and building material standards would ensure increased the quality of office space products compared to existing projects. STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION Because the County has not had competitive office and industrial parks to promote few staff resources have had to be devoted to this function. The County Administrator and Board of Supervisors have supplied information to prospects and represented the County on economic development policy boards. The County has been promoted, to an extent, by the Virginia Department of Commerce, the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance, and the electric utility. These agencies also promote the economic development interests of other counties and of cities. By having a supply of improved sites to promote and a goal of their near-term absorption, more staff time will be required to promote and monitor their performance. Accordingly, three County initiatives are recommended: • Promote sites • Evaluate prospective owners and tenants • Monitor progress toward site absorption and job growth objectives. These initiatives are discussed below. Economic Development Promotion Economic development location decisions are often skewed by government incentives to attract jobs and economic development promotion has become increasingly competitive. The country’s thousands of public and quasi-public economic development agencies frequently compete for a portion of the same job, income, and real property tax base pie. Consequently, counties and cities must have resources available to promote prior to implementing an economic development HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 123 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK program. Improved sites and business incubator building space, marketing and information services, and negotiated financing mechanisms are the primary components of such a competitive program. Sites. Unlike the other counties in the King George Region, King George does not have improved sites that are properly zoned available to business prospects. The highest priority business park and incubator location is near the intersection of U.S. 301 and VA 206/218 in the vicinity of the NSWC. Its locational advantages in the context of the County’s assets are: • Best access. • Available wastewater collection and treatment capacity. • Available water supply and processing. • Readily accessible by prospective contractors to NSWC contacts and its other local contractors. • Near most of the retail floor space located in the County. These advantages make this a good location for the information technology, computer and telecommunications equipment manufacturing, and warehousing target industries. The highest priority industrial park development area is near VA 3 in the vicinity of Sealston. It is about 14 miles east of Fredericksburg in the vicinity of the land fill and power plant. Its locational advantages are: • Good east-west access via highway and railroad. • Closest to the I-95 corridor and superior cultural and retail opportunities. • Good access from a mature (multiple product choices) housing market. Marketing Materials. While the state and regional promotion agencies have brochures, newsletters, videos, and reports on their geographic areas, the County has largely depended upon Virginia Power and case-by-case dialogue with prospects to promote its economic development interests. After sites are available for office and industrial parks they should be the subject of a 124 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK brochure and possibly a video extolling features of the jurisdiction as a business location. They may have a shelf-life of up to three years at which time their relevance to a business prospect and accuracy should be evaluated by the County. These products should be designed to supplement, not replace, those of other economic development agencies within whose jurisdictions the County is located. Once utilities are available to one or more business and industrial parks and a staff member is on-board to promote them, initiative marketing of the site(s) should be underway. In addition to the preparation of marketing materials and activities discussed above, contacts should be established with representatives of prospective target industries. They are either the people who make location decisions or supervise people who make location decisions for their respective companies. Representatives of firms which should be contacted by the proposed King George County economic development representative are listed in the Appendix. They were identified from information supplied by Dun & Bradstreet iMarket at 800-590-0065 and the Harris Info Source at 800-888-5900. There is a charge for each of these information services which are provided in hard copy or electronic versions. The following criteria were used to select prospective representatives: • Primary and secondary target industries identified in Section II. • Located in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, or North Carolina. • Have no more than 400 employees. • High likelihood of requiring skills of County residents and persons who work in the County. • Up to five persons per industry. When these screens were applied to the lists of candidates, the persons were identified. Because King George County is not yet positioned to offer these companies competitive location HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 125 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK opportunities, making contact with their representative should be delayed. Because the contact persons change over time they should be confirmed immediately before contact is made. Negotiated Financing. In the event a prospect seeks financial incentives to locate a new or expand an existing business, the County needs to be prepared to negotiate with its representatives. Each prospect’s needs will differ from the others. The proposed economic development specialist will be required to become acquainted with then relevant incentives and the extent to which they apply to the specific circumstances at hand. COST-REVENUE MODELS Some local governments have turned to the use of real estate development mathematical models to help determine economic implications of proposed projects. Before embarking on a process for doing so, a number of points need to be addressed regarding their purposes, preparation responsibility, types and sources of information, and timing of information. Purposes The purposes may be to: • Help the planning staff, planning commission members, and Board of Supervisors evaluate rezoning and other development permission applications. • Forecast annual county services requirements of existing and proposed real estate development. • Provide estimates of local tax yields that may be generated. • Quantify the net difference between implied costs and revenues. Whichever types of information sought, it will add to the data available to decision makers. Fiscal impact models are generally not required until after the proposed project’s consistency with the comprehensive plan is determined. 126 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Preparation Either the County staff, applicant, or a consultant is typically responsible for preparation of the analysis. If the county staff is responsible they could use or require the use by others of the same model for each project. Otherwise, applicants could be responsible for selection of specification of the models to be used. In order to compare results of one project to another, the same model most current data inputs should be used consistently. Data needs vary with the proposed land uses, purposes of the model, and time period. The data is distinguished between the cost and revenue side of the equation. Because some of the data such as real property assessments, tax and fee rates, and costs of services change annually, or more frequently, the results of impact model analyses change over time. Therefore, real estate projects which are phased or implemented over time, rather than all at once, may require multiple impact model runs and comparisons among them. The operating and maintenance expenditure data is distinguished from capital expenditures. Debt retirement cost assumptions are required for each capital expenditure as are assumptions regarding the proportion of these expenditures attributable to the real estate project at hand. Timing Use of a model also permits calculation of site development alternatives, land uses, infrastructure investments, and timing of improvements. As a result the public financing implications can be calculated in terms of proffer or impact fee requirements of the applicant and expenditures by the county. Reasons for Use Use of cost-revenue models to assess economic development incentive package and development permission applications ebbs and flows depending on the following factors: HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 127 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Jurisdiction’s Unemployment rate. The higher the rate the less likely a cost- revenue criterion would be used. • Desire to Enhance the Next Property Tax Base. As the non-residential tax base increases as a share of the total, the less likely a cost-revenue criterion would be used. • Extent of Difference to the Private Real Estate Market. The county could depend on real estate market analysis to support project approvals that are prepared by applicants. • Available Staff Expertise. If the county staff is available and has the time to apply a model, its results can provide additional information upon which to base a decision. • Available Data. The county staff would need to establish and update information to calculate costs and revenues including assumptions regarding future taxes and fees and their rates, floor space absorption, and land and building values. In order to process 25 applications per year, an estimated one-third to one-half person – year costing about $16,000 to $22,000 would be required. Because of the cost implications and limited value of a cost-revenue model to the County, use of one is not recommended at this time. MONITORING ECONOMIC PROGRESS The first step in this process is to establish annual objectives for a multi-year period. It should be the responsibility of the County’s economic development staff and authority to established quantified economic development objectives and measure progress toward achieving them. A 10-year period with annual review and amendment is recommended as being long enough to plan for economic development initiatives, including land acquisition and other capital expenditures. Topics that should be covered in the plan for economic development include: • Development permission of sites where jobs would be located. • On- and off-site infrastructure improvements by location and cost. • Site acquisition by location and cost. • Type and cost of promotional materials. • Staff requirements. 128 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK The development permission requirements are based on the proposed sites located in accordance with the parameters described above. Site acquisition and improvement costs must be estimated on a case-by-case basis because they can differ markedly from each other. A four-page four-color brochure would cost $2,000 to $5,000 for 500 copies, assuming the County provides the text, tables, and graphics. Supplementary information tailored to the specific needs of the inquiry would typically be provided on additional sheets or in a cover letter. Videos of a jurisdiction’s economic development assets are often prepared on urban areas. They may cost from $25,000 to $35,000 and face the same shelf life constraints of hard copy. RESPONDING TO ASSETS AND LIABILITIES The following section describes prerequisites to developing a sustainable economic development strategy. The focus is to capitalize on the existing assets while remediating the weaknesses in order to improve the County’s competitiveness for new private investments. Capitalizing on Assets • Existing Industry and Employers. This includes the Dahlgren Naval Surface Warfare Center, the computer technology companies, and the agricultural businesses. • Location and Land. King George is located near Northern Virginia and its technology companies, and near the Richmond area and its manufacturing and technology companies and state government functions. With King George’s relatively inexpensive land some industries will find it a desirable place to locate. Many of the businesses have located in the County because of the NSWC or the truck traffic on the U.S. 301 or VA Route 3 corridors. Identifying markets for suppliers, customers, or intermediary warehousing is essential in attracting industries to the area. King George is a good place for the storage of goods, particularly for logistics management purposes. • Natural Features. Bordered by the Potomac and the Rappahannock Rivers, the County’s natural areas along the river and its rural, undeveloped aesthetic quality provide an opportunity for attracting residents and workers and for further developing the nascent tourism industry. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 129 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK • Historic Sites. Rich in historic resources, most of them are undeveloped and unavailable to the general public. There is an active historic tourism market in the region as the surrounding counties and the City of Fredericksburg have developed their tourism markets in conjunction with the State and Federal governments. The primary economic development reason for developing historic resources is attracting tourism expenditures. • Labor. The area has a highly educated and experienced workforce largely currently or formerly from the NSWC. • Access to Markets. The metropolitan Washington D.C. and Richmond markets are comprised of over four million residents and 1.5 million at-place jobs. • Fiber Optic Cable. Access to the fiber optic cable that lies along Highway 301 is a unique essential infrastructure for many information, professional services, and research and development activities. Remediating Weaknesses King George also has weaknesses that should be remediated if it is to attract the target industries to the area. These weaknesses are listed below, and responses to them are addressed in the remediating weaknesses section of the strategy. • Lack of Promotion. King George lacks the staff dedicated to and promotional materials necessary to be competitive for private investments. • Lack of Improved Sties. Infrastructure (water and sewer systems) is composed of independent systems that for the most part are already at capacity. There is also no natural gas pipeline in the County although many businesses do not require this service. • Preservation of Agriculture. There is no program for protecting and encouraging agricultural land uses in the County though the preservation of a rural quality of life and the aesthetic that is highly prized. • Lack of Entertainment and Big Box Retail. There is little variety in dining and entertainment choices. The small market is unable to support a large variety of dining and entertainment options, commonly available to help bring people into the County temporarily through tourism to increase the capacity of the county to support dining, transient accommodations, and entertainment options. The concentration of total personal income and superior highway access in Fredericksburg and Charles County 130 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK has attracted large stores. Their nearby locations have attracted King George residents and reduce local retail sales and floor space potential. • Lack of Higher Educational Resources. The County does not have higher education programs in support of jobs at the NSWC or other high technology industries. It also does not have a means to identify existing employer needs and provide training in response to them. • Limited Public Recreational Options. Compared to the population, little acreage is devoted to parks available for the general public’s use. As a substitute, NSWC’s facilities are available but use can be restricted. • Lack of Public Transportation. There is no public transportation to take residents to where there are jobs within the region. The market is too small to support this service without substantial subsidies. • Lack of Affordable Housing. There is an inadequate supply of affordable housing in the County for those in the middle- and low-income ranges (less than $30,000 per year). There is also a lack of multi-family rental housing typically needed by some young families and by empty nesters. RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES The following sustainable economic development strategy provides guidelines for expanding existing industries and attracting compatible target industries. Recommended actions are prioritized with the understanding that all of these items will not be able to be implemented simultaneously. There are two levels established for priorities: high priority action items that should be implemented first and lower priority actions, many of which depend on another action item being addressed prior to their implementation. The 47 recommended actions are organized in Table 2 in terms of 10 categories: A. Existing industries and employers B. Labor force C. Remediating weaknesses D. General E. Information and professional services F. Manufacturing, warehousing, and logistics G. Tourism HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 131 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK H. Human resources I. Natural resources J. Agriculture It is assumed additional staff resources, an economic development coordinator, will be available to help implement this program. 132 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority A. Existing Industries and Employers The purpose of these action items is to strengthen existing businesses so as to ensure their presence in King George County and to build from them. 1. Conduct a survey of existing businesses to identify material products and services that could be Economic 1 used as inputs to other businesses. A survey could also be used to identify opportunities for Development cooperative purchasing, aggregated demand for products (i.e. natural gas), personnel training Coordinator needs, cooperative marketing, and joint transportation opportunities. 2. Organize a local buying program. For example, the purchase of locally grown fruits and Economic 2 vegetables would increase the viability of agriculture in the County. The County should review Development its current procurement process to ensure that locally produced or grown items are given some Coordinator/ advantage in obtaining County and school district contracts. County Supervisors 3. The county can develop incentives to increase the amount of products, supplies, or labor used Economic 2 from local sources. Incentives can include preferences for contract services for firms that hire Development and/or purchase goods locally. Financial services company selection can be determined based on Coordinator/ the reinvestment loan portfolio that financial institutions make in the County. County Supervisors 4. Sponsor financing programs assisting local companies in making capital investments. There are Economic 2 many different types of financial programs including revolving loan funds, cooperative buying Development agreements, and loan guarantees. This could be done in conjunction with local financial Coordinator/ institutions programs in item A.3, above. County Supervisors 133 134 TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 5. Continue an assistance program in accessing resources at Dahlgren for procurement purposes. Economic 2 Government procurement programs can be very difficult to access. There are procurement Development officers within the base and government agencies which periodically provide procurement Coordinator training to representatives of businesses interested in providing goods or services to government agencies. B. Labor Force King George has an existing labor pool that encompasses many levels of education and skills. Some of the NSWC’s present and former employees have entrepreneurial interests. Other residents are in KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK need of job training to acquire higher wage jobs. 1. Evaluate the potential of creating office incubator space for small start-up companies. Possibly Economic 2 start with a virtual incubator that provides services for new businesses, including accounting, Development HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES legal, and other business services. Coordinator 2. Develop programs supporting minority and women-owned businesses. This can include outreach Economic 2 to the minority and female communities regarding interest in an incubator, targeted revolving loan Development funds, and special assistance with the government procurement system. Government agencies Coordinator have preferred procurement and contracting for minority and women-owned businesses; however, this system can be difficult and convoluted to access without technical assistance. 3. Based on surveys of existing companies and in partnership with them renew the vocational Economic 2 training programs for residents of the School District. Development Coordinator/ King George School District/ State Training Program TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority C. Remediating Weaknesses 1. Add an economic development staff person to help promote King George County, to work with County 1 the Virginia Economic Development Partnership and to build partnerships within the County. Supervisors 2. Encourage Washington Gas to construct a pipeline to Dahlgren and the power plant. Continue to Public Works 1 look at options of doing this in conjunction with a “rails to trails” project where the right-of-way Department could be owned by Washington Gas, but public access be allowed for the trail. 3. Extend public bus service between Fredericksburg and King George County so employed persons Public Works 2 have this option to get to jobs either in Fredericksburg or in King George County. Department 4. Establish a housing authority to increase the supply of affordable multi-family housing units. Community 2 OR Development Adopt an affordable housing program that ensures that a percentage of all new housing built is Department affordable or an in-lieu fee can be paid to an affordable housing fund that the County manages. Industry Action Items In addition to the action items listed above, the following specific action items would need to occur to draw these industries to King George County. These action items are organized by generally applicable actions and by recommended industry. D. General 1. Create a common source of information (including a web page) on land available for development Economic 2 (at a minimum land available for redevelopment should be listed), utility resources and contacts, Development development permission processes, and amenities in the County. This website should be made Coordinator available to the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance and the Virginia Economic Development Agency. 135 2. 136 TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 3. Market the availability of the fiber optic cable along Hwy 301 through a partnership with Verizon Economic 1 Communications (the commercial vender of this service). Access to this technology hardware Development will create a unique marketing opportunities that may differentiate the County from the Coordinator surrounding area. This will attract data processing, telecommunications firms, call centers, logistic management and warehousing firms’ attention to King George County. E. Information and Professional Services Provide a “jobs available” service to be advertised in the region to attract the qualified employees that Economic 2 are currently commuting out of the region. Development Coordinator KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK F. Manufacturing, Warehousing and Logistics 1. Designate an area near the landfill and/or power plant as an industrial park. Create a set of Community 1 guidelines for industrial development that considers the options of by-product exchange. For Development example the power plant’s excess steam for refrigeration warehousing. Once the strategies are in Department and HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES place, warehousing needs for aquaculture, crops, value-added agriculture products, and tourism Economic goods can be promoted. Development Coordinator 2. Pursue manufacturers which can use the by-products of King George County businesses. (e.g. a Economic 2 compost business, mulching business, value-added agriculture industry). These will be further Development identified once the survey has been completed. Coordinator 3. Using the strategies to make agriculture more viable pursue manufacturers who can make value- Economic 2 added agricultural products. See Agricultural Strategy, Section. J Development Coordinator 4. Once the strategies for tourism are in place, identify industries that make goods, such as arts and Economic 2 crafts, that can be sold to the tourists. These include be small home-based businesses. The Development incubator could provide services to home-based businesses; such as workshops on “owning your Coordinator own business”. TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 5. Contact the Virginia Economic Development Partnership to begin to jointly pursue manufacturers Economic 2 looking to locate in Northern Virginia which may need less expensive land. Development Coordinator G. Tourism 1. Extend the hours of the King George museum, to be open during business hours and on weekends. County 1 Provide resources to extend the museum’s current focus of artifacts collecting, genealogies and Supervisors local family histories from the region. Additionally, expand its role as a visitor’s center. Financially support relocation to a larger facility. 2. Prepare a King George visitor’s guide. This guide should be distributed throughout the region’s Visitor’s Center 1 and Commonwealth visitor’s centers to attract tourists to the County. H. Historic Resources 1. Sites with high tourist value, identified in Part II, should be assessed for potential for public Parks and 1 access. These sites are the Old Marshall Place, Marmion, St Paul’s Parish Church, and Belle Recreation Grove. Once these are established, the remaining sites, identified in Part I, should be reviewed for public investment potential in order to make them attractive for a historic resources tour. 2. Design a promotional program, including literature, advertising, signage, tourism center, and bus Economic 2 tours components. This program should include working with the Virginia Tourism Corporation Development and the Fredericksburg Tourism Center to attract tourists. Coordinator 3. Rehabilitate historic center of King George. Focus on redeveloping the main street area of the Planning 2 Courthouse area. Department 137 138 TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 4. Establish design guidelines for all development in keeping with the rural and agricultural Community 2 character of the area. Design guidelines can include setbacks, landscaping, lighting, and building Development materials standards. Department I. Natural Resources In order to protect valuable natural and agricultural resources, clustering real estate development in areas in order to prevent sprawling land use patterns is essential as land demand increases. By protecting these resources, industries dependent upon them will also be protected. Strategies to accomplish these goals are provided here: KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 1. Focus water and sewer infrastructure to those areas to be developed. Recommended development Public Works 1 areas are the Courthouse and Dahlgren areas. A third area for industrial and warehouse uses is Department Area 3. The infrastructure in Area 3 should be located in an industrial park. By clustering HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES infrastructure the County can maintain control over where industrial and commercial development occurs and protect natural and agricultural lands. This strategy should be included in the County’s water and sewer plan. 2. Establish priorities for the acquisition and development of recreational resources that serve Parks and County residents and visitors. This plan should identify both recreational needs of the county and Recreation Resource Protection Areas (areas that should be protected from development due to their value as Department natural areas). Projects that should be prioritized are: 2.1 The creation of a “rails to trails” project, possibly at the former railroad right-of-way on the east side of Dahlgren. This could be in conjunction with a utility “right-of-way”, such as a 2 Washington Gas natural gas pipeline. 2.2 Sites for campgrounds (including areas for recreational vehicles). 2 TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 2.3 Easily accessible public picnicking areas. Parks and 1 Recreation 2.4 Create a town park and plaza in the Courthouse area that can serve as a focal point for Department visitors to the area. This should be done in partnership with the creation of a main street and historic downtown area (see historic resources strategy H.3). 2 2.5 Transform the old landfill site into a public park. Ensure it can serve as a gathering place for King George County residents and visitors. Possible use is as a Farmer’s Market location. 2 (See agriculture strategy J.2.5) J. Agriculture 1. Form an agricultural preservation committee to explore strategies for retaining the county’s Community 1 agricultural character and open spaces. Agencies that should be included are the Virginia Development Cooperative Extension, the Virginia Farm Bureau and the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Department Consumer Service. 2. Promote the following agricultural industries, including: Economic Development 2.1. Aquaculture. The National Marines Fisheries Service and the National Oceanic and Coordinator Atmospheric Administration make technical assistance and money available to help finance aquaculture. Once they are depleted, use the gravel mines near the Birchwood Power Facility from which heat or steam could be piped to aquaculture companies and fish waste sent to the Greenhouse as fertilizer. 2 139 140 TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 2.2. Higher value crops. The proposed Economic Development Coordinator should work with the 1 Virginia Cooperative Extension agency, the Virginia Farm Bureau and the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service to identify crops, such as grapes and orchards, suitable for King George County soils and climate. 2.3. Stewardship farms and agro-tourism. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service administers a voluntary Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program that provides some cost-sharing and technical assistance to develop a wildlife habitat development plan. The Virginia Department of Forestry has several programs designed to provide assistance to farmers to institute farming practices that are good for the environment. The County should participate KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK in the cost sharing of these practices for the purposes of ensuring continuing agricultural 1 practices that also enhance the environment. 2.4. Agricultural preservation/development rights. A purchase of development rights program HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES transfers real estate development rights from agricultural lands within the county. In this voluntary program, landowners who wish to sell their development rights submit applications to the County; the local government makes an offer to the landowner to buy the development rights on the property. If the landowner accepts the offer, an easement is placed on the property, limiting further residential development in perpetuity, and the landowner is paid accordingly. The Ag Vitality Program (sponsored through the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services) can provide assistance in prescribing ordinance 2 language. 2.5 Farmers market. There are currently farmer’s markets in the Region, however, King George County does not have any operating. A local farmer’s market would capture local traffic unwilling to commute to other markets, provide a tourist attraction, an additional market for local farmer’s to sell their produce, and possibly a gathering place for the local community. The farmer’s market should be located at the old landfill (see natural resources strategy 2 I.2.5). TABLE 39. RECOMMENDED SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, KING GEORGE COUNTY, KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 2002 Responsible Category/Action Item Organization Priority 2.6 Value-added agriculture and other secondary industries (machinery, input production, 1 processing, business services, etc.). Once higher value agricultural crops are identified, a program of developing value-added agricultural products from them should be developed. Other industries should develop from aggregate demand of agricultural activities, such as a need for machinery for farm operations and business services. 3. Design an educational program to assist farmers interested in exploring the alternatives for Economic 2 agricultural business development. Do this in partnership with the Virginia Cooperative Development Extension Service and/or USDA. Coordinator 4. Agriculture labor needs. A farm worker program may be helpful to area farmers that could Community 2 include cooperative farm worker housing in the area that is jointly owned and operated by area Development farmers. Department Sources: Work and Environment Initiative and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. 141 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK CAPITAL COST IMPLICATIONS Eight of the actions described in Table 39 have short-term capital cost implications. They are listed below in Table 40 with estimates of their potential costs in constant dollars. TABLE 40. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT AREAS, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 2002 Action Amount Comment A.4 and B.3. Financial assistance Loans having no net costs. B.1. Business incubator $3.1 Assumes 30,000 square foot building at $85 per square foot plus 15 percent for equipment and $150,000 for an improved two-acre site. C.3. Bus service $0.2 Assumes $95,000 for each of two 23- passenger buses. F.1. Industrial and business parks $5.3 Assumes 75 acres for two parks at $170,000 per acre. I.1. Water and sewer service Debt to support capital costs from user revenue. I.2. Pedestrians trail and parks $7.8 Assumes costs covered by intergovernmental transfers and park land and improvements cost $65,000 per care for 120 acres. J.2.5 Farmers market Part of a park recommended in action I.2 at the old landfill. Note: Dollar data in millions of 2002 dollars. Sources: Work and Environment Initiative and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. MANAGEMENT POLICIES The County already has in place real estate development legislation, goals, policies and plans in support of sustainable economic development. The County has undertaken the following financial initiatives to support sustainable economic development: • $400,000 to evaluate eco-industrial development. • $130,000 to implement the recreational open space plan. 142 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN • $75,000 to address rural preservation. • $100,000 per year for environmental and economic enhancement. • $20,000 revolving environmental enhancement loan fund. The County should continue capital improvements programming consistent with them. Consideration should be given to the extension of the programming time period to 10 years as is done in some jurisdictions. The purposes of doing so are to: • Anticipate major new construction and maintenance projects over a longer period to provide more time to accumulate funding for them. • Identify and acquire rights-of-way and other public use land when it is less expensive and when fewer buildings would be needed for this purpose. CONCLUSIONS Industries and business seeking new locations are especially concerned about accessibility, labor supply and costs, and taxes and incentives. King George County is generally competitive regarding important location factors. However, it is less so regarding attraction of high technology professional and information services because: • Many of the persons holding these types of jobs located in the County choose to live in other jurisdictions. • Few higher education opportunities needed to maintain and update technical skills are available in the County. Each of the three growth areas designated in the Comprehensive Plan is competitive for a portion of the recommended compatible target industries. However, there are no organized industrial parks or competitive surplus or speculative buildings in which to accommodate them. Neither are local economic development staff resources available to promote the County’s assets and help remediate its weaknesses. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 143 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK A series of 47 actions are prescribed to take initiatives to achieve sustainable economic development and rural development preservation objectives. At least part of a staff member (one-third to one-half time) is required to implement the recommended eco-industrial development and economic enhancement program. The primary uses of this staff time are to: • Acquire or otherwise set aside industrial and business park sites. • Arrange for construction of a business incubator. • Prepare promotional materials. • Manage the business incubator. • Attend selected trade shows of target industry associations. • Monitor progress toward achieving sustainable economic development and rural preservation objective. • Coordinate the program with other County departments, regional and Commonwealth economic promotion agencies, and utility and other private company economic and preservation organizations. While cost-revenue models measure discrete financial inflows and outflows and compare them to each other, they are not effective at measuring broader potential impacts on the physical environment or on social indexes. To do so would be costly and of limited value to the County. Therefore, an impact model is not recommended and devotion of limited staff time to gathering data inputs to one is not appropriate. The capital costs of implementing the recommended actions is estimated at $16.4 million, in 2002 dollars. The County is in the process of implementing eco-industrial, environmental and economic enhancement, rural preservation, and recreational open space initiatives. They support recommendations of this plan and should be continued. 144 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIXES LIST OF INTERVIEWEES LIST OF TARGET INDUSTRY CONTACTS GLOSSARY SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES RETAIL STORES MAJOR EMPLOYERS HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN LIST OF INTERVIEWEES The following persons were interviewed by members of the consultant team. Interviewees located outside King George County are indicated. Mr. Vic Mason Ms. Debra Bushrod King George County Clerk Potomac Elementary School Mr. Frazier Nelson Mr. James B. Howard Naval Surface Warfare King George Middle School Center KG Board of Supervisors Mr. Peter Leighton SEI Birchwood Power Facility Mr. C. Stephen Wolfe, II T. Rowe Price Ms. Rebecca Sperlazza KG Board of Supervisors Virginia Employment Commission Fredericksburg, VA Mr. Charles F. Thomas, Jr. Virginia Department of Health Mr. Jim Slater Fredericksburg Stewardship Farm Owner Mr. Michael L. Lipford Mrs. Jessica Herrink The Nature Conservancy KG Chamber of Commerce Charlottesville Owner of the KG Journal Mr. Robert C. O’Niell Mr. Timothy Schotsch Collen Properties Waste Management, Inc. Fredericksburg Ms. Phylis Ashton Mrs. Phyllis Boykin Retired Teacher Service Realty Mr. David Clare Mr. Bob Hoffman Union Bank & Trust Company Village Farms Greenhouse Mr. David Hinkle Mr. Gary Tolly Director of Facilities KG Computer King George County Mr. Cedell Brooks, Jr. Commander Larry van Dessel Cedell Brooks Funeral Home Director Public Works Department KG Board of Supervisors Dahlgren Division Naval Service Warfare Center HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-1 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Ms. Rose Maire Ball Ms. Kathy J. Beard KG School Board Office of Economic Development and Tourism Fredericksburg Mr. Robert P. Fuscaldo Synetics Mrs. Elizabeth Lee KG Board of Supervisors KG Historical Society Mr. Joseph W. Grzeika Mrs. Mary Anne Cameron Planning Consultants KG Planning Commission KG Board of Supervisors Mr. L. Eldon James, Jr. Mr. Alan M. Voorhees Eldon James & Associates Summit Enterprises Woodbridge Ms. Suzanne Heflin Agricultural Development Ms. Linda Lundquist Crowe Halifax The Nature Conservancy Charlottesville Ms. Susan Tipton Northern Neck Tourism Council Mr. Thomas M. Burnell Warsaw General Contractor Mr. Tyrone Pollard Mr. S. E. Veazey Naval Surface Warfare Center SE Ventures Mrs. Doris Whitfield Ms. Regina Prunty Sierra Club Virginia Cooperative Extension Ms. Debra Osborne Mr. Peter Mitchell Trust for Public Lands Fauquier County Agricultural Development Washington, D.C. Warrenton Mr. Dan Shields Mr. Louis S. Nichols KG Industrial Development Authority Loudon County Agricultural Development Leesburg A-2 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES TARGET INDUSTRY PROSPECTIVE CONTACTS Estimated Name Address City State Phone Number Contact Person Employment 7375 Information Retrieval Services Braincore Inc 35 Industrial Blvd New Castle DE 302-999-9221 Ms. Amy Rand 18 Vcampus Corporation 1850 Centennial Park Dr Reston VA 703-893-7800 Mr. Daniel Neal 40 CCC Information Services Inc 7310 Ritchie Hwy Glen Burnie MD 410-761-8330 Mr. Glen Smith 22 Vector Development Inc 4350 Fairfax Dr Ste 350 Arlington VA 703-312-2808 Mr. Bob Smith 10 Infonxx Inc 5420 Millstream Rd Mc Leansville NC 336-383-3625 Mr. Chris Turner 400 7374 Data Processing and Preparation Psi-Maxamus (Public Systems, Inc) 21 Deer Cir Bear DE 302-834-8599 Mr. Michael Moore 28 Gearboxx Interactive Inc 100 Executive Dr Sterling VA 703-904-9880 Mr. Paul Leonard 20 Data-Prompt Inc P.O. Box 8668 Silver Spring MD 301-622-0900 Mr. Sheldon Katz 155 Forum One Communication Corp 2200 Mount Vernon Ave Alexandria VA 703-548-1455 Mr. Chris Wolz 11 Arsenal Digital Solutions 2525 Meridian Pkwy Durham NC 919-405-2474 Mr. Kevin Pollard 15 7379 Computer Related Services, n.e.c. Alerica International Inc 116 Saint Andrews Ct Middletown DE 302-547-4846 Mr. Allan Ratsimbazafy 10 Globotech Inc 8226 Brushyridge Rd Laurel MD 301-483-3149 Mr. Min Choi 10 Dna Productions Llc 12537 N Lake Ct Fairfax VA 703-222-5394 Mr. David Anderson 65 Richmond Information Group Ltd P.O. Box 2053 Glen Allen VA 804-965-9156 Mr. Michael Yancey 12 Stonebridge Technologies Inc 2550 W Tyvola Rd Ste 290 Charlotte NC 704-423-0220 Mr. Robert Moreland 30 8731 Commercial Physical Research Baxter Hyland Immuno (Baxter Healthcare) 1105 N Market St Wilmington DE 302-777-5048 Ms. Sharon Mates 77 Gene Logic Inc 708 Quince Orchard Rd Gaithersburg MD 301-987-1700 Mr. Mark Gessler 185 Guilford Pharmaceuticals Inc 6611 Tributary St Baltimore MD 410-631-6300 Dr. Craig Smith 300 Nova Research Inc P.O. Box 15532 Alexandria VA 703-360-3900 Mr. Russell Jeffries 15 Troxler Electronic Labs P.O. Box 12057 Durham NC 919-549-8661 Mr. William Troxler 85 3498 Fabricated Pipe and Fitting Apex Piping Systems Inc 302 Falco Dr Wilmington DE 302-995-6136 Mr. Ronald Sabbato 65 A-3 Shenandoah Fiberglass Pdts Co 211 E 4th St Front Royal VA 540-635-2131 Mr. Stephen Ratcliffe 26 A-4 TARGET INDUSTRY PROSPECTIVE CONTACTS Estimated Name Address City State Phone Number Contact Person Employment 3498 Fabricated Pipe and Fitting (Cont.) U S Industrial Piping Inc 105 Woodland Trl Kernersville NC 336-993-9505 Mr. John Dixon 62 Protech Fabrication Inc 575 Edmiston Rd Mount Ulla NC 704-663-1721 Mr. Harold Moore 26 Markovitz Enterprises Inc (Flowline Div.) 164 Industrial Dr Whiteville NC 910-642-2058 Mr. Richard Price 35 3823 Process Control Instruments Gammaflux L P 113 Executive Dr Ste 106 Sterling VA 703-471-5050 Mr. David Huntting 60 Altek Corporation 12210 Plum Orchard Dr Silver Spring MD 301-572-2555 Ms. E Cameron 40 Oceana Sensor Technologies 1632 Corp Landing Pkwy Virginia Beach VA 757-426-3678 Mr. Richard Lally 28 Hoffer Flow Controls Inc P.O. Box 2145 Elizabeth City NC 252-331-1997 Mr. Kenneth Hoffer 71 Danaher Controls P.O. Box 368 Elizabethtown NC 910-862-2511 Mr. Joseph Thompson 200 3629 Electrical Industrial Apparatus, n.e.c. KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK South Atlantic Controls Inc P.O. Box 280 Williamsport MD 301-223-9166 Mr. Craig Shupp 12 United Power Corporation 2132 Tomlynn St Richmond VA 804-359-6500 Mr. Robert Van Sickle 70 Powerware Corporation 8380 Capital Blvd Raleigh NC 919-981-8127 Mr. David Stiles 45 Acme Electric (Power Distribution Pdts) 4815 W 5th St Lumberton NC 910-738-4251 Mr. Nick Arena 300 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES N W L Capacitors P.O. Box 97 Snow Hill NC 252-747-5943 Mr. Bert Seitz 42 4225 General Warehousing and Storage D & S Warehousing Inc Harmony Industrial Park Newark DE 302-731-7440 Mr. Joachim Schneider 40 B & E Storage Corp 7079 Oakland Mills Rd Columbia MD 410-720-5166 Mr. Richard Williams 12 Dollar Tree Distribution Inc 500 Volvo Pkwy Chesapeake VA 757-321-5000 Mr. Macon Brock 200 Womack Warehouse Inc P.O. Box 521 Danville VA 919-554-1547 Mr. David Womack 10 Redneck Trailer Supplies 550 Sigmon Rd Lincolnton NC 704-732-3232 Mr. Kent Moran 20 8741 Management Services Aventis Cropscience Investment 220 Continental Dr Newark DE 302-571-1818 Mr. Thomas Kirk 35 Brace Management Group Inc 9500 Arena Dr Ste 250 Upper Marlboro MD 301-772-7600 Mr. Paul Halsey 16 Innolog (Innovative Logistics Techniques) 3501 Fairfax Dr Rm P-19 Arlington VA 703-516-1469 Mr. Grover Gibson 14 SAE Enterprises Inc 3201 Derby Ln Williamsburg VA 757-253-0143 Mr. Steven Ewell 12 Aviation Management Group Inc 3001 Spring Forest Rd Raleigh NC 919-981-0444 Mr. Bill Graef 18 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES TARGET INDUSTRY PROSPECTIVE CONTACTS Estimated Name Address City State Phone Number Contact Person Employment 7359 Equipment Rental and Leasing A-1 Sanitation Service Inc P.O. Box 336 New Castle DE 302-322-1074 Mr. Anthony Smiertka 10 Pump & Power Equipment Corp 8019 Dorsey Run Rd Jessup MD 410-799-1800 Mr. Richard Sander 25 Ricks Gradall Rental Inc 8 Hidden Cove CT Baltimore MD 410-687-7207 Mr. Richard Jamison 14 Sunbelt Rentals Inc 1012 Executive Blvd Chesapeake VA 757-436-2403 Mr. Craig Ambrose 20 Access Equipment of NC P.O. Box 14009 Raleigh NC 919-832-1444 Mr. Charles Parrish 20 4783 Packing and Crating Wsc Warehousing & Packing 22750 Glenn Dr Sterling VA 703-478-6066 Mr. Joseph Cho 12 Maryland Overpak Corp 1601 S Highland Ave Baltimore MD 410-276-3400 Mr. George Herzog 30 American Packing & Shipping 1250c Featherstone Rd Woodbridge VA 703-497-2500 Ms. Dee Bailey 10 Shurpak Inc 5202 S Airport Dr Sandston VA 804-226-4885 Ms. Pam Jay 83 Kontane Logistics 212 Marble Rd Statesville NC 704-871-0331 Mr. Mark Banish 15 Sources: Dun & Bradstreet iMarket, Harris Info Source, and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. A-5 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK GLOSSARY OF SELECTED TERMS Average Daily Membership. The number of public school students registered by grade. Residential Building Permit. A permit for construction of a dwelling unit issued by the jurisdiction in which the unit will be located. Constant Dollars. Dollar value that includes inflation thereby allowing the reader to compare sales and costs among different years. The source of inflation indexes is the Consumer Price Index for urban wage earners from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Fredericksburg Region (RADCO). Fredericksburg and Caroline, King George, Spotsylvania, and Stafford Counties comprising the Rappahannock Area. King George Region. The Fredericksburg Region plus Charles County, Maryland and Westmoreland County, Virginia. Labor Force. Persons over 15 years of age who are employed or looking for work. Government and Other. Local, state, and federal government employment and miscellaneous other jobs not elsewhere classified. NSWC. Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren. Technical and Professional. Jobs such as engineers, scientists, lawyers, teachers, physicians, dentists, and ministers. Service Industry. Jobs such as protective, food and beverage preparation, health, and personal services workers. Precision Production. Jobs such as assemblers, inspectors, processors, metalworking, printing, and plant operators. Operators/Laborers. Jobs such as common labor, machine, and vehicle operators. A-6 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES APPENDIX TABLE 1. COMMUTE PATTERNS OF RESIDENTS 16 YEARS AND OLDER, 1990 Caroline Fredericksburg King George Spotsylvania Stafford County, Workplace Locality County, VA City, VA County, VA County, VA VA Region Alexandria City, VA 35 0.4% 90 0.9% 14 0.2% 436 1.5% 1,088 3.3% 1,663 1.9% Arlington County, VA 96 1.1% 166 1.7% 91 1.3% 779 2.6% 1,700 5.2% 2,832 3.2% Caroline County, VA 3,064 34.1% 73 0.8% 113 1.6% 374 1.3% 77 0.2% 3,701 4.2% Charles County, MD 28 0.3% 0 0.0% 237 3.4% 15 0.1% 9 0.0% 289 0.3% Culpeper County, VA 0 0.0% 42 0.4% 8 0.1% 170 0.6% 52 0.2% 272 0.3% District of Columbia 239 2.7% 278 2.9% 164 2.4% 1,409 4.8% 2,408 7.3% 4,498 5.1% Fairfax City, VA 12 0.1% 12 0.1% 22 0.3% 128 0.4% 133 0.4% 307 0.3% Fairfax County, VA 171 1.9% 367 3.8% 119 1.7% 2,350 8.0% 4,841 14.7% 7,848 8.9% Fauquier County, VA 0 0.0% 56 0.6% 0 0.0% 89 0.3% 165 0.5% 310 0.4% Fredericksburg City, VA 602 6.7% 3,894 40.4% 403 5.8% 4,920 16.7% 2,996 9.1% 12,816 14.6% Hanover County, VA 1,450 16.1% 20 0.2% 6 0.1% 180 0.6% 50 0.2% 1,706 1.9% Henrico County, VA 646 7.2% 20 0.2% 0 0.0% 157 0.5% 30 0.1% 853 1.0% King George County, VA 207 2.3% 530 5.5% 4,261 61.5% 1,068 3.6% 942 2.9% 7,009 8.0% Louisa County, VA 12 0.1% 33 0.3% 0 0.0% 307 1.0% 22 0.1% 374 0.4% Montgomery County, MD 4 0.0% 6 0.1% 19 0.3% 99 0.3% 171 0.5% 299 0.3% Orange County, VA 7 0.1% 65 0.7% 6 0.1% 290 1.0% 69 0.2% 437 0.5% Prince George’s County, MD 23 0.3% 35 0.4% 74 1.1% 186 0.6% 188 0.6% 506 0.6% Prince William County, VA 147 1.6% 568 5.9% 127 1.8% 1,808 6.1% 6,281 19.1% 8,931 10.2% Richmond City, VA 592 6.6% 40 0.4% 31 0.4% 117 0.4% 51 0.2% 831 0.9% Spotsylvania County, VA 977 10.9% 2,011 20.9% 423 6.1% 10,900 37.0% 2,211 6.7% 16,523 18.8% St. Mary’s County, MD 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 34 0.5% 42 0.1% 5 0.0% 81 0.1% Stafford County, VA 306 3.4% 1,177 12.2% 604 8.7% 3,094 10.5% 8,526 25.9% 13,707 15.6% Other Locations 372 4.1% 156 1.6% 178 2.6% 559 1.9% 919 2.8% 2,184 2.5% Fredericksburg Region 5,156 57.4% 7,685 79.7% 5,804 83.7% 20,356 69.1% 14,752 44.8% 53,756 61.1% Out of Region 3,834 42.6% 1,954 20.3% 1,130 16.3% 9,121 30.9% 18,182 55.2% 34,222 38.9% Total 8,990 100.0% 9,639 100.0% 6,934 100.0% 29,477 100.0% 32,934 100.0% 87,978 100.0% A-7 A-8 APPENDIX TABLE 2. COMMUTE PATTERNS OF RESIDENTS 16 YEARS AND OLDER, 1990 Workplace Locality Caroline Fredericksburg King George Spotsylvania Stafford County, Workplace Locality County, VA City, VA County, VA County, VA VA Region Caroline County, VA (1) 3,064 65.9% 602 4.2% 207 2.2% 977 5.4% 306 1.9% 5,156 8.3% Charles County, MD 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 235 2.5% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 235 0.4% Chesterfield County, VA (3) 38 0.8% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 38 0.1% Culpeper County, VA (4) 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 153 0.8% 123 0.8% 276 0.4% Essex County, VA (4) 68 1.5% 0 0.0% 97 1.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 165 0.3% Fairfax County, VA (2) 0 0.0% 83 0.6% 55 0.6% 85 0.5% 185 1.2% 408 0.7% Fauquier County, VA (4) 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 68 0.4% 68 0.1% Fredericksburg City, VA (1) 73 1.6% 3,894 27.1% 530 5.7% 2,011 11.0% 1,777 7.4% 7,685 12.3% Hanover County, VA (3) 170 3.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 170 0.3% Henrico County, VA (3) 104 2.2% 67 0.5% 0 0.0% 82 0.4% 0 0.0% 253 0.4% King and Queen County, VA 54 1.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 54 0.1% (4) King George County, VA (1) 113 2.4% 403 2.8% 4,261 46.1% 423 2.3% 604 3.8% 5,804 9.3% KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK King William County, VA (4) 71 1.5% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 71 0.1% Louisa County, VA (4) 0 0.0% 129 0.9% 0 0.0% 138 0.8% 0 0.0% 267 0.4% Manassas City, VA (2) 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 71 0.4% 71 0.1% Orange County, VA (4) 0 0.0% 334 2.3% 0 0.0% 411 2.3% 211 1.3% 956 1.5% Prince George’s County, MD 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 51 0.6% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 51 0.1% HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES (4) Prince William County, VA 0 0.0% 109 0.8% 0 0.0% 230 1.3% 835 5.3% 1,174 1.9% (2) Richmond City, VA (3) 66 1.4% 60 0.4% 86 0.9% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 212 0.3% Spotsylvania County, VA (1) 364 7.8% 4,920 34.2% 1,068 11.5% 10,900 59.7% 3,094 19.6% 20,346 32.6% St. Mary’s County, MD (4) 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 92 1.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 92 0.1% Stafford County, VA (1) 77 1.7% 2,996 20.8% 942 10.2% 2,211 12.1% 8,526 53.9% 14,752 23.7% Westmoreland County, VA (4) 0 0.0% 141 1.0% 1,249 13.5% 93 0.5% 85 0.5% 1,568 2.5% Other 384 8.3% 654 4.5% 376 4.1% 535 2.9% 532 3.4% 2,481 4.0% Total 4,646 100.0% 14,39 100.0% 9,249 100.0% 18,249 100.0% 15,817 100.0% 62,353 100.0 2 % Summary (1) Fredericksburg Region 3,691 79.4% 12,81 89.0% 7,008 75.8% 16,522 90.5% 13,707 86.7% 53,743 86.2% 5 (2) Northern Virginia 0 0.0% 192 1.3% 55 0.6% 315 1.7% 1,091 6.9% 1,653 2.7% (3) Richmond MSA 378 8.1% 127 0.9% 86 0.9% 82 0.4% 0 0.0% 673 1.1% (Other) 577 12.4% 1,258 8.7% 2,100 22.7% 1,330 7.3% 1,019 6.4% 6,284 10.1% Total 4,646 100.0% 14,39 100.0% 9,249 100.0% 18,249 100.0% 15,817 100.0% 62,353 100.0 2 % KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 3. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, FREDERICKSBURG CITY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 82 88 6 7.3% Construction 1,039 584 -455 -43.8% Manufacturing 1,475 1,269 206 -14.0% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 468 499 31 6.6% Wholesale Trade 761 799 38 5.0% Retail Trade 5,134 5,812 678 13.2% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 985 1,122 137 13.9% Services 6,311 8,691 2,380 37.7% Government 2,839 3,186 347 12.2% Total 19,094 22,050 2,966 15.5% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-9 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 4. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, STAFFORD COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 176 239 63 35.8% Construction 1,662 1,944 282 17.0% Manufacturing 365 694 329 90.1% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 900 1,059 159 17.7% Wholesale Trade 1,388 1,602 214 15.4% Retail Trade 2,625 3,594 969 36.9% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 1,422 3,516 2,094 147.3% Services 2,935 4,067 1,132 38.6% Government 2,910 3,702 792 27.2% Total 14,403 20,417 6,014 41.8% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. A-10 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 5. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, CAROLINE COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 66 96 30 45.5% Construction 250 251 1 0.4% Manufacturing 706 505 -201 -28.5% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 248 266 18 25.8% Wholesale Trade 78 68 -10 -12.8% Retail Trade 774 1,013 239 30.9% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 171 207 36 21.1% Services 452 566 114 25.2% Government 1,354 1,301 -53 -3.9% Total 4,099 4,273 174 4.2% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-11 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 6. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 108 178 70 64.8% Construction 1,660 1,971 311 18.7% Manufacturing 1,598 1,979 381 23.8% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 652 1,061 409 62.7% Wholesale Trade 949 1,279 330 34.8% Retail Trade 5,590 6,511 921 16.5% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 414 745 331 80.0% Services 2,528 3,216 688 27.2% Government 2,545 3,086 541 21.3% Total 16,044 20,040 3,996 24.9% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. A-12 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES APPENDIX TABLE 7. AT-PLACEMENT EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE AND JURISDICTION, KING GEORGE REGION, 1998 Caroline King George Spotsylvania Stafford Charles Westmoreland Industry County Fredericksburg County County County County County Virginia Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 96 88 217 178 239 364 304 44,998 Construction 251 584 268 1,971 1,944 3,454 129 188,659 Manufacturing 505 1,269 316 1,979 694 1,229 682 405,264 Transportation, Communication and Public Utilities 266 499 231 1,061 1,059 1,813 88 164,294 Wholesale Trade 68 799 133 1,279 1,602 886 44 145,895 Retail Trade 1,013 5,812 485 6,527 3,594 11,241 669 587,154 Finance Insurance and Real Estate 207 1,122 119 745 3,516 1,175 106 174,211 Services 566 8,691 2,256 3,216 4,067 6,803 550 946,601 Government 1,301 3,186 4,461 3,086 3,702 7,202 722 596,911 Total 4,273 22,050 8,486 20,040 20,417 34,167 3,294 3,253,987 A-13 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 8. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, CHARLES COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 205 364 159 77.6% Construction 2,794 3,454 660 23.6% Manufacturing 1,252 1,229 -23 -1.8% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 1,405 1,813 408 29.0% Wholesale Trade 837 886 49 5.9% Retail Trade 10,182 11,241 859 8.4% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 1,002 1,175 173 17.3% Services 6,994 6,803 -191 -2.7% Government 7,121 7,202 81 1.1% Total 31,792 34,167 2,375 7.7% Source: Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. A-14 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 9. AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Change Industry 1994 1998 Amount Percent Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 40,120 44,998 4,878 12.2% Construction 163,404 188,659 25,225 15.5% Manufacturing 405,997 405,264 -733 -0.2% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 142,651 164,294 21,643 15.2% Wholesale Trade 135,441 145,895 10,454 7.7% Retail Trade 540,920 587,154 46,234 8.6% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 162,067 174,211 12,144 7.5% Services 771,513 946,601 175,088 22.7% Government 580,602 596,911 16,309 2.8% Total 2,942,715 3,238,464 295,749 10.1% Source: Virginia Employment Commission. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-15 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 10. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, FREDERICKSBURG CITY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 0.4% 0.4% - Construction 5.4% 2.7% -2.7% Manufacturing 7.7% 5.8% -1.9% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 2.5% 2.3% -0.2% Wholesale Trade 4.0% 3.6% -0.4% Retail Trade 26.8% 26.4% -0.4% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 5.2% 5.1% -0.1% Services 33.1% 39.3% 6.2% Government 14.9% 14.4% 0.5% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. A-16 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 11. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, STAFFORD COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 1.2% 1.2% - Construction 11.5% 9.5% -2.0% Manufacturing 2.5% 3.4% 0.9% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 6.3% 5.2% -1.1% Wholesale Trade 9.6% 7.9% -1.7% Retail Trade 18.2% 17.6% -0.6% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 9.9% 17.2% 7.3% Services 20.5% 19.9% -0.6% Government 20.3% 18.1% -2.2% Total 100.0% 100.0% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-17 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 12. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, CAROLINE COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 1.6% 2.2% 0.6% Construction 6.1% 5.9% -0.2% Manufacturing 17.2% 11.9% -5.3% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 6.0% 6.2% 0.2% Wholesale Trade 1.9% 1.6% -0.3% Retail Trade 18.9% 23.7% 4.8% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 4.2% 4.8% 0.6% Services 11.0% 13.2% 2.2% Government 33.0% 30.5% -2.5% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. A-18 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 13. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 0.7% 0.9% 0.2% Construction 10.3% 9.8% -0.5% Manufacturing 10.0% 9.9% -0.1% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 4.1% 5.3% 1.2% Wholesale Trade 5.9% 6.4% 0.5% Retail Trade 34.7% 32.5% -2.1% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 2.6% 3.7% 1.1% Services 15.8% 16.0% 0.2% Government 15.9% 15.4% -0.5% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-19 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 14. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, WESTMORELAND COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 8.8% 9.2% 0.4% Construction 5.2% 3.9% -1.3% Manufacturing 19.4% 20.8% 1.4% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 3.5% 2.7% -0.8% Wholesale Trade 2.3% 1.3% -1.0% Retail Trade 20.2% 20.3% 0.1% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 3.2% 3.2% - Services 15.1% 16.7% 1.6% Government 22.3% 21.9% -0.4% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. A-20 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 15. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, CHARLES COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 0.6% 1.1% 0.5% Construction 8.8% 10.1% 1.3% Manufacturing 3.9% 3.6% -0.3% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 4.4% 5.3% 0.9% Wholesale Trade 2.6% 2.6% - Retail Trade 32.0% 32.9% 0.9% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 3.1% 3.4% 0.3% Services 15.1% 19.9% 4.8% Government 22.3% 21.1% -1.2% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-21 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 16. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, KING GEORGE COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 0.1% 2.6% 2.5% Construction 3.7% 3.2% -0.5% Manufacturing 4.4% 3.7% -0.7% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 4.9% 2.7% -2.2% Wholesale Trade 2.1% 1.6% -0.5% Retail Trade 6.4% 5.7% -0.7% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 1.6% 1.4% -0.2% Services 25.4% 26.6% 1.2% Government 51.3% 52.6% 1.2% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. A-22 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 17. SHARES OF AT-PLACE EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE, SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1994-1998 1994-1998 Industry 1994 1998 Change Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining 1.4% 1.4% - Construction 5.5% 5.8% 0.3% Manufacturing 13.8% 12.5% -1.3% Transportation Communications and Public Utilities 4.9% 5.1% 0.2% Wholesale Trade 4.6% 4.5% -0.1% Retail Trade 18.4% 18.1% -0.3% Finance Insurance and Real Estate 5.5% 5.4% -0.1% Services 26.2% 29.2% 3.0% Government 19.7% 18.4% -1.3% Total 100.0% 100.00% - Source: Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-23 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 18. HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AGE GROUP TRENDS BY JURISDICTION, 1980-2000 Age Range in Years Jurisdiction Under 20 20-39 40-64 Over 64 Total Caroline County 1980 Amount 6,229 5,521 4,374 1,780 17,904 Percent 34.8% 30.8% 24.4% 10.0% 100.0% 1990 Amount 5,566 6,124 5,255 2,272 19,217 Percent 28.9% 31.9% 27.45 11.85 100.0% 2000 Amount 5,801 5,562 6,602 2,538 20,503 Percent 28.3% 27.1% 32.2% 12.4% 100.0% Fredericksburg City 1980 Amount 5,192 6,029 4,137 2,405 17,763 Percent 29.2% 33.9% 23.3% 13.4% 100.0% 1990 Amount 4,901 7,605 3,927 2,594 19,027 Percent 25.85 40.05 20.6% 13.56% 100.0% 2000 Amount 6,817 6,782 4,464 2,410 20,473 Percent 33.3% 33.1% 21.85 11.8% 100.0% King George County 1980 Amount 3,776 3,268 2,624 875 10,543 Percent 35.85 31.0% 24.9% 8.3% 100.0% 1990 Amount 4,136 4,577 3,552 1,262 13,527 Percent 30.6% 33.85 26.3% 9.3% 100.0% 2000 Amount 4,964 4,765 4,706 1,563 15,999 Percent 31.0% 29.8% 29.4% 9.8% 100.0% Spotsylvania County 1980 Amount 12,130 10,888 6,876 2,100 31,994 Percent 37.9% 34.0% 21.5% 6.6% 100.0% 1990 Amount 19,007 19,808 14,379 4,209 57,403 Percent 33.1% 34.5% 25.1% 7.3% 100.0% 2000 Amount 22,517 24,300 23,359 5,826 76,002 Percent 29.6% 32.0% 30.75 7.7% 100.05 A-24 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN APPENDIX TABLE 18. HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AGE GROUP TRENDS BY JURISDICTION, 1980-2000 (CONT.) Age Range in Years Jurisdiction Under 20 20-39 40-64 Over 64 Total Percent 36.6% 35.3% 22.6% 5.5% 100.0% 1990 Amount 19,905 21,874 15,830 3,627 61,346 Percent 32.5% 35.7% 25.9% 5.9% 100.0% 2000 Amount 25,764 31,371 21,977 4,697 83,809 Percent 30.8% 37.4% 26.2% 5.6% 100.0% Fredericksburg Region 1980 Amount 42,153 39,9821 27,150 9,389 118,674 Percent 35.5% 33.7% 22.9% 7.9% 100.0% 1990 Amount 53,515 59,988 42,943 13,964 170,410 Percent 31.4% 35.2% 25.2% 8.2% 100.0% 2000 Amount 65,864 72,780 61,108 17,034 216,786 Percent 30.3% 33.6% 28.2% 7.9% 100.0% Westmoreland County 1980 Amount 4,276 3,523` 3,953 2,289 14,041 Percent 30.5% 25.1% 28.1% 16.3% 100.0% 1990 Amount 3,968 4,105 4,469 2,938 15,480 Percent 25.6% 26.5% 28.9% 19.0% 100.0% 2000 Amount 4,329 3,572 5,468 3,031 16,400 Percent 26.4% 21.8% 33.3% 18.5% 100.0% Commonwealth of Virginia 1980 Amount 1,686,044 1,826,047 1,332,568 405,692 5,350,351 Percent 31.5% 34.1% 24.9% 7.5% 100.0% 1990 Amount 1,704,603 2,178,812 1,639,473 664,470 6,187,358 Percent 27.6% 35.2% 26.5% 10.7% 100.0% 2000 Amount 1,895,217 2,106,746 2,119,918 774,821 6,896,702 Percent 27.5% 30.6% 30.7% 11.2% 100.0% Sources: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce; Virginia Employment Commission and Hammer, Siler, George Associates. HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES A-25 KING GEORGE COUNTY ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN RETAIL STORES KING GEORGE COUNTY Subway Sandwiches B&D Video Food Lion McDonald’s Conquest Auto Parts NAPA Auto Parts Keith’s Tropical World 7-Eleven Wawa Food Market Burger King Chic-N-Quic Lucy’s Crafts & Arrangements N.C. Furniture Connection King George Pharmacy Domino’s Pizza Big Burger King George Discount Grocery Pizza Hut Pizza Bono Bo’s Café J’s Cars Buttons & Bows Eastside Glass Shop Tri-County Carpet Stine’s Vacuum & Sewing Center Bowling Home Center Dahlgren Hardware & Electronics A-26 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 1 Naval Surface Warfare Center King George 3,422 Military-Navy weapons systems research and 9711 development 2 GEICO Stafford 3,000 Insurance-Regional Headquarters 6331 3 Medicorp Health Systems Fredericksburg 2,923 Health and allied services 8099 4 Stafford County School Board Stafford 2,424 Schools 8211 5 Spotsylvania County School Spotsylvania 2,100 Schools 8211 Board 6 Food Lion, Inc. Region 1,157 Grocers Retail 5399 7 McLane Mid-Atlantic, Inc. Stafford 1,100 Grocers Wholesale 5141 8 Capital One Spotsylvania 1,100 Bank-credit card processing 6022 9 Mary Washington College Fredericksburg 731 College 8222 10 Spotsylvania County Spotsylvania 650 Government Offices-County 9199 Government 11 Stafford County Government Stafford 650 Government Offices-County 9199 12 Caroline County School Board Caroline 587 Schools 8211 13 City of Fredericksburg School Fredericksburg 482 Schools 8211 Board 14 Giant Food, Inc. Region 456 Grocers Retail 5399 15 CVS Spotsylvania 450 Distribution center for retail pharmacy chain 5331 16 King George County School King George 406 Schools 8211 Board 17 Intuit, Inc. Stafford 378 Computer Software 7372 18 General Products Company, Spotsylvania 375 Steel entrance and bifold doors, air jet metal 3442 Inc. chimneys and vents 19 Education Credit Services Fredericksburg 368 Management services and business development 7336 services A-27 A-28 FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 20 City of Fredericksburg Fredericksburg 367 Government Offices-City 9199 Government 21 General Motors Powertrain Spotsylvania 325 Manufacturer of torque converter clutches 3714 22 Walmart Spotsylvania 325 Discount Department Store 5311 23 TRACOR Corporation King George 314 Computer programming services 7371 24 Fort A.P. Hill Caroline 309 Military-Army base 9711 25 Bookcrafters, Inc. Spotsylvania 300 Book printing & binding 2731 26 Ukrop’s Spotsylvania 283 Grocers Retail 5399 27 Logicon/Syscon, Inc. King George 267 Computer Integrated systems design 7373 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 28 Rappahannock Area Fredericksburg 261 Clinics 8322 Community Services Board 29 Free Lance-Star Publishing Co. Fredericksburg 260 Newspaper publishing 2711 30 Fredericksburg Auto Auction Spotsylvania 250 Automobile Dealers Used Cars Wholesale 5012 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 31 Diversifield Mailing Services, Spotsylvania 250 Letter Shop Service 7331 Inc. 32 Germanna Community College Spotsylvania 237 Community College 8222 33 Princeton Data Source LLC Fredericksburg 200 Market research, commercial 8732 34 Petro Stopping Center Caroline 200 Truck stop and tires 5541 35 Value City Furniture Caroline 200 Distribution Center, Furniture 5021 36 DynaMarketing, Inc. Spotsylvania 200 Call center, mail order processing 7389 37 Fredericksburg Nursing Home Spotsylvania 200 Nursing Homes 8051 38 Belk Spotsylvania 200 Department Stores 5311 39 EG&G King George 190 Engineers-Consulting 8744 40 Computer Sciences Corporation King George 185 Computer programming services 7371 41 United States Post Office Fredericksburg 181 Post Offices 4311 42 Printpack, Inc. Spotsylvania 180 Flexible package printing 2673 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 43 Friction, Inc. Stafford 180 Automobile Parts & Supplies Mfrs 3714 44 Sears Spotsylvania 175 Department Stores 5311 45 J C Penney Co. Spotsylvania 175 Department Stores 5311 46 Shoppers Food Warehouse Stafford/F’brg 175 Grocers Retail 5399 47 Caroline County Government Caroline 162 Government Offices-County 9199 48 Cracker Barrel Old Country Spotsylvania 155 Restaurants 5812 Store 49 Kaeser Compressors, Inc. Spotsylvania 155 Compressed air system products 5084 50 Montgomery Ward & Co. Spotsylvania 155 Department Stores 5311 51 McLane Foods, Inc. Stafford 150 Sandwiches & convenience store food products 2099 52 Hilldrup Moving & Storage, Stafford 150 Storage Household & Commercial 4225 Inc. 53 Pratt Medical Center Fredericksburg 150 Physicians & Surgeons 8011 54 Hecht’s Spotsylvania 150 Department Stores 5311 55 Unique Binders Spotsylvania 150 U.S. postage stamp finishing 2796 56 Synetics Corporation King George 150 Computer programming services 7371 57 White Packing Company, Inc. King George 146 Meat packing 2011 58 National Bank of Region 146 National Commercial Banks 6021 Fredericksburg 59 Cardinal Concrete Company Stafford 140 Concrete Ready Mixed 5211 60 Simmons Company Spotsylvania 130 Bedding Manufacturers Supplies 2515 61 Union Bank & Trust Caroline 127 State Commercial Banks 6022 62 Collegiate Funding Services Stafford 125 Servicing of Student Loans 6141 63 Exposaic Industries, Inc. Spotsylvania 125 Concrete Products Except Block & Brick 3272 64 Lowe’s Home Center Fredericksburg 120 Building Materials 5211 A-29 65 YMCA Stafford 120 Social Service Organization 8322 A-30 FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 66 Direct Marketing Enterprises Spotsylvania 120 Mail order fulfillment center 5961 Ltd. 67 Bowman, A. Smith Distillery, Spotsylvania 116 Distillery 2085 Inc. 68 E-OIR Measurements, Inc. Spotsylvania 115 Defense contractor 7389 69 National Coach Works, Inc. Spotsylvania 115 Bus Lines 4142 70 Woodmont Healthcare Center Stafford 115 Nursing Homes 8051 71 Virginia Power Stafford 115 Electric Services 4911 72 Purvis Ford, Inc. Spotsylvania 113 Automobile Dealers New Cars 5511 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 73 King George County King George 112 Government Offices-County 9199 Government 74 United Parcel Service Spotsylvania 110 Worldwide delivery and pickup 4212 75 Rappahannock Electric Co-op. Caroline 109 Electric Companies 4911 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 76 Heritage Hall King George 108 Nursing Homes 8052 77 First Virginia Bank Region 103 State Commercial Banks 6022 78 Presidential Resort Spotsylvania 100 Resorts 7011 79 BJ’s Wholesale Club Spotsylvania 100 Wholesale club 5014 80 Mid-Atl. Coca Cola Bottling Stafford 100 Distribution center, soft drinks 5149 Co. 81 Rappahannock Goodwill Fredericksburg 97 Hearing protectors; remfr of laser toner cartridges 8331 Industries 82 Greenhost, Inc. King George 96 Greenhouse for floral products 0181 83 North American Die Casting Fredericksburg 95 Zinc die castings 3364 84 Sheraton Inn Fredericksburg 90 Hotel 7011 85 Motion Control Carlisle Spotsylvania 90 Brake linings for trucks 3714 86 K mart Stores Spotsylvania 89 Department Stores 5311 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 87 Insteel Wire Products Fredericksburg 87 High carbon steel wire 3315 88 Automatic Rolls of Virginia, Spotsylvania 85 Hamburger rolls for fast food industries 2050 Inc. 89 ILM Corporation Spotsylvania 85 Data capture 7389 90 Keller Ladders Caroline 81 Aluminum extruded products, metal doors, sashes 3442 & frames 91 Beck, C C & Son, Inc. Spotsylvania 80 Box spring frames & high grade furniture lumber 2421 92 Walter Grinders, Inc. Spotsylvania 80 Tool grinding machines 3542 93 Creative Dimension Group, Inc. Spotsylvania 80 Fabrication of architectural millwork 7336 94 Pro Source Distribution Spotsylvania 80 Food and paper products 4214 95 Williamsburg Milwork Corp. Caroline 75 Sawing mill: wooden pallets, chips, sawdust & 2448 bark 96 Pizza Hut Region 71 Restaurants 5812 97 Trussway Ltd. Spotsylvania 70 Wooden floor & roof trusses 2499 98 Service Merchandise Spotsylvania 70 Catalog Showroom 5961 99 AKA Printing & Mailing Spotsylvania 68 Commercial offset printing, typesetting & binding 2754 100 Patriot Bank Region 66 State Commercial Banks 6022 101 Peoples Bank Region 66 State Commercial Banks 6022 102 Rotondo Precast, Inc. Spotsylvania 65 Precast & prestress concrete products 3272 103 Newtown/CPC Fredericksburg 64 Business forms 2761 104 SEI Birchwood, Inc. King George 61 Electric power generation 4911 105 Carbotek Stafford 60 Distribution & sales center, electronics 5065 106 CACI King George 57 Computer programming services 7371 107 Colonial Circuits, Inc. Stafford 55 Printed circuit boards 3672 108 Eliott’s Enterprises, Inc. Caroline 55 Convenience/Gasoline - Towing/Auto Sales 5541 A-31 109 Federal Express Stafford 55 Air Courier Service 4513 A-32 FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 110 Quarles Petroleum, Inc. Stafford 55 Petroleum-Wholesale 5171 111 Nuline Industries, Inc. Spotsylvania 52 Corrugated asphalt roofing & siding 5033 112 Blue Beacon Truck Wash Caroline 52 Tractor Trailer Truck Wash 5541 113 Jefferson National Bank Region 51 National Commercial Banks 6021 114 S M I-Rebar Virginia Spotsylvania 50 Steel rebar fabricating 3312 115 Sauder Wood Products, Inc. VA Caroline 50 Wood molding 2431 116 Hoover Treated Wood Products Caroline 50 Chemically treated fire retardant lumber & 2491 plywood 117 World’s Best Cheesecake Caroline 50 Food products 2024 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 118 GTE Telephone Stafford 50 Telephone Communications 4813 119 Estes Express Lines Stafford 50 Local Trucking 4212 120 Planning Consultants, Inc. (PCI) King George 50 Computer programming services 7371 121 L. White & Company Spotsylvania 50 General Contractor 1541 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 122 NSWC Federal Credit Union King George 48 Credit Unions, Federally Chartered 6061 123 Jones, WT & Sons, Inc. Caroline 47 Lumber, logs, bark, sawdust & wood chips 2421 124 Fredericksburg Savings Bank Fredericksburg 47 Savings Institutions, Federally Chartered 6035 125 Gallahan’s Furniture Spotsylvania 46 Furniture dealers retail 5712 126 Jones Chemicals, Inc. Caroline 45 Chemically treats lumber (i.e., fire retardants) 2899 127 Huttig Distribution Fredericksburg 44 Interior & exterior millwork 5031 128 Integrated Microcomputer King George 43 Computer programming services 7371 Systems 129 Knighton, JH Lumber Co., Inc. Caroline 40 Rough, soft & hardwood lumber 2421 130 Flying J Travel Plaza Caroline 40 Travel Plaza/Truck Stop 5541 131 Logicon Tactical Services King George 40 Computer programming services 7371 132 Virginia Heartland Bank Spotsylvania 40 State Commercial Banks 6022 133 Mapei Corporation (Italy) Stafford 40 Surface preparation, floors 3253 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 134 Dietrich Industries, Inc. Spotsylvania 39 Metal framing components: structural & drywall 1742 studs 135 Tarmac America, Inc. Spotsylvania 38 Sand, gravel & landscape materials 3273 136 First Union of Virginia Region 38 National Commercial Banks 6021 137 Solite Corporation King George 37 Sand & gravel 3295 138 Keen Building Components, Fredericksburg 36 Roof & floor wood truss components & wall 2439 Inc. panels 139 U.S.A. Waste, Inc. King George 35 Landfill 4953 140 BFI-The Recyclery Fredericksburg 35 Recycling center 7389 141 Virginia Semicondutor, Inc. Fredericksburg 35 Silicon crystals & wafers 3674 142 Signet Bank Fredericksburg 31 State Commercial Banks 6022 143 Breg International, Inc. Fredericksburg 30 Absorbent products 2842 144 BFI-Pioneer Southern Caroline 30 Manufacturer – Potting Soil, Mulch 2873 145 Russell Stover Candies, Inc. Caroline 30 Candy Distribution Center 5145 146 Stafford Insulation Spotsylvania 30 Insulation products 1742 147 Central Fidelity Bank Region 30 National Commercial Banks 6021 148 Northern Neck Distribution Co. Spotsylvania 29 Wholesale distribution of beer products 5181 149 Colonial Assembly & Design Spotsylvania 27 Electronic, electromechanical, pc boards & cable 7379 assemb. 150 Cardinal Press, Inc. Spotsylvania 27 Commercial offset printing 2759 151 Dowling Company, Inc. Fredericksburg 26 Highway signs, billboards & displays 3993 152 Vulcan Materials Company Stafford 25 Crushed stone 1429 153 Cellofoam North America, Inc. Stafford 25 Expanded polystyrene insulation 2821 154 Mid-Atlantic Foam Spotsylvania 25 Styrofoam roofing insulation 5039 155 Beasley Wood Products Caroline 25 Ready mixed concrete, septic tanks 3272 A-33 156 Engineered Wood Products Spotsylvania 25 Trus Joist Macmillon stocking dealer 5031 A-34 FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 157 LifeCare Medical Transports, Stafford 25 Medical transportation services 4119 Inc. 158 Jim Carpenter Company Spotsylvania 24 Line of building products 5251 159 Bassett Bedding Company Fredericksburg 23 Mattresses, box springs & foundations 2515 160 Tuftex Corporation Spotsylvania 23 Vinyl building panels 3083 161 Catlett, TC & Sons Lumber Co. Spotsylvania 22 Sawmill: logs & timbers, railroad ties, rough & 2421 grade lumber 162 Colonial Concrete Co. Stafford 22 Ready-mixed concrete 3273 163 ANTEON Corporation King George 21 Computer programming services 7371 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 164 Harkness Screens Fredericksburg 20 Theatre screens 3089 165 Battelle Corp. Stafford 20 R & D – government contractor 8731 166 Carter Machinery Company, Stafford 20 Earth moving & materials handling equipment 7629 Inc. and repair HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 167 Faber Industries Ltd. Spotsylvania 20 Blinds, window treatments & specialty shades 2591 168 Personal Selling Power Stafford 20 Magazine publishing 2721 169 Western Wood Products Spotsylvania 20 Wholesale lumber 5031 170 Omni/RUS Caroline 20 Rental uniform company 5699 171 Advanced Pneumatics Spotsylvania 20 Pneumatic components for automation 3495 172 McQ Associates, Inc. Stafford 20 Research and Development 8731 173 Advanced Technology & R King George 20 Engineering Services 8711 Corp. 174 Logicon Technical Services, King George 19 Computer integrated systems design 7373 Inc. 175 De Jarnette Lumber Corporation Caroline 19 Industrial Grade Lumber 5031 176 Grace, WR & Co-Conn Spotsylvania 18 Cement additives 2899 177 Carico Industries Fredericksburg 18 Industrial & commercial Machinery & Equipment 3599 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 178 Jones, Everett Lumber Corp. Spotsylvania 18 Wood chips, hardwood & softwood lumber 2421 179 Alliance Tractor Trailer Caroline 18 School to learn to operate tractor trailers 8249 Training Center 180 Caroline Savings Bank Caroline 18 Savings Institutions, Not Federally Chartered 6036 181 GBN Machine & Engineering Caroline 17 Automated pallet assembly systems & lumber 3559 stackers 182 B & H Milwork, Inc. Stafford 17 Sawmill 2421 183 Fogg Brothers, Inc. Caroline 16 Wood chips 2421 184 Associated Directory Services Stafford 16 Publish yellow page directories 2741 185 Norfleet Products, Inc. Fredericksburg 16 Mulch 2421 186 Envisioneering, Inc. King George 16 Engineering Services 8711 187 Virginia First Mortgage Fredericksburg 16 Savings Institutions, Federally Chartered 6035 188 Hollinger Corp. Spotsylvania 15 Document cases, corrugated boxes, file folders & 2653 envelopes 189 Fredericksburg Sand & Gravel Stafford 15 Sand & gravel quarry 1442 190 Pinpoint Engineering Spotsylvania 15 Assembly and repair of computer rigid disk 7379 products 191 Crestar Bank Region 15 State Commercial Banks 6022 192 Martin Marietta Aggregates Caroline 14 Crushing rocks 3281 193 Massaponax Building Spotsylvania 13 Wooden roof & floor trusses 2439 Components 194 Ribco Product, Inc. Fredericksburg 13 Paper rolls & machine ribbon 2679 195 Dominion Building Stafford 13 Wall panels, floor & roof trusses 2431 Components 196 Stafford Stone Works, Inc. Stafford 13 Precast concrete panels & cast stone trim 3272 A-35 197 Compek Research King George 13 Computer programming services 7371 A-36 FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 198 Simms Industries, Inc. King George 13 Computer integrated systems design 7373 199 Technology Service King George 12 Management Consulting Services 8742 Corporation 200 Journal Press, Inc. King George 12 Newspaper publishing 2711 201 VEDA, Inc. King George 12 Engineering Services 8711 202 Chewning, James H Jr. Spotsylvania 12 Sawmill & logging 2421 Company 203 Lake Anna Lumber Co., Inc. Spotsylvania 12 Dimension & mixed hardwood lumber 2426 204 Smith Sand & Gravel, Inc. Caroline 12 Sand & gravel 1442 KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 205 Frackelton Block Co. LP Fredericksburg 12 Cinder blocks 3271 206 Billingsley Printing/Engraving Fredericksburg 11 Commercial offset/letterpress printing, typesetting 2759 & binding 207 Fredericksburg Machine Shop Fredericksburg 11 Machine shop, arc & MIG welding & mill work 3599 HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES 208 Eldyne, Inc. King George 11 Engineering Services 8711 209 Micah Systems, Inc. King George 11 Computer integrated systems design 7373 210 Comptek Research Corporation King George 11 Computer integrated systems design 7373 211 American Stone Mix, Inc. Caroline 10 Dry packaged cement mixes 3272 212 Brooks Lumber Company Caroline 10 Sawing mill: lumber, wood chips, sawdust & bark 2421 213 Metropole Products, Inc. Stafford 10 RF & microwave filters & components 3663 214 Mastercraft, Inc. Fredericksburg 10 Commercial & residential windows; custom 2431 millwork 215 Glatfelter Pulp Wood Company Fredericksburg 10 Pulpwood products 2611 216 Through The Bark, Inc. Stafford 10 Custom millwork: wooden cabinets & laminated 2431 furniture 217 All American, Inc. Stafford 10 Trophies, plaques, castings, ribbons & engraving 3499 services KING GEORGE COUNTY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK HAMMER • SILER • GEORGE • ASSOCIATES FREDERICKSBURG REGION MAJOR EMPLOYERS (By Employment Size) Company Name Locality Employment Product/Service Description SIC Code 218 Stafford Printing Company Stafford 10 Commercial offset printing, typesetting & binding 2721 219 American Sources, Inc. Stafford 10 Telecommunication cables 3679 A-37