Foundations for Funding Grants in California

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					    Foundation Grantseeking for
      Employment Networks

                 Jeanne Argoff, Ph.D.
                 Disability Funders Network
                 MAXIMUS Presentation
                 February 20, 2007

    Disability Funders Network
     Mission: to promote awareness, support and inclusion of people with disabilities
     and disability issues in grantmaking programs and organizations.

     Works to increase the extent and effectiveness of grantmaking that benefits people
     with disabilities by:

      –   increasing grantmakers' understanding that issues affecting people with
          disabilities extend beyond medical issues;

      –   increasing the availability of quality information on disability as it relates to

      –   enhancing the ability of grantseeking organizations to communicate their
          current and proposed efforts to benefit people with disabilities to grantmaking

    DFN Helps Grantmakers to:

       Integrate disability into their current programs.

       Incorporate questions about disability access to programs and
        services in grant review processes to encourage all grantees to
        be inclusive of people with disabilities.

       Learn about the context for disability funding via comprehensive
        coverage of disability-related public policy, profiles of members’
        grants and activities and trends.

    Inclusion: DFN’s Major Message
    and Work

       Help all funders to see that disability is integral
        to all program areas
       Cross Currents in the Mainstream: examples of
        inclusive grantmaking
       Bridging the Knowledge Gap: for nonprofits
        working with foundations to attract disability

              PART 1

       Employment Networks (ENs): elements that
        appeal to foundations
        –   Meeting Real Needs
        –   Visibility
        –   Small Investment, Big Return
        –   Sustainability
       Mentioning these ―value added‖ factors
        strengthens your submission

    What Are Foundations?

       Grantmaking foundations support for specific
        causes and programs
       Most have ―endowments‖
       2005 statistics
        –   over 68,000 foundations
        –   Over $510 billion in assets
        –   Nearly $34 billion in grants
       Vary enormously in assets and staff
       Essential to know the type of foundation, the
6       issues it supports, and typical grant size.
    Types of Foundations

       Community foundations
        –   serve a specific geographic area
        –   raise money from donors
        –   donor advised funds
        –   fund broadly
       Public foundations
        –   like community foundations, actively raise money
            from donors
        –   small category of grantmakers

    Types of Foundations (cont’d)

       Family foundations
        –   from family wealth
        –   family members usually control the Board of
        –   topics funded often reflect personal interests of
            family members
       Private or independent foundations
        –   often evolve from family foundations
        –   use the interest from their endowments to fund
8       –   generally do not raise money from donors.
    Types of Foundations (cont’d)

       Corporate foundations and giving programs
                philanthropy an extension of corporation
                programs must match corporate interests
        –   corporate giving programs
                run by corporation directly.
                funded with a percentage of company profits
        –   corporate foundations
                usually have more stable programs

     Types of Foundations (cont’d)

        Operating foundations
         –   private foundations that use their resources to:
               fund charitable programs of their own.
               very few make grants to outside organizations

     Types of Foundations (cont’d)

        88.6 percent of all foundations are independent or
        3.8 percent corporate
        1 percent community
        All but operating are targets for support

     What Foundations Fund

     Distribution of Grants for Special
     Population Groups

                                   Dollar Value    Number of Grants
     Group                         2003     2004    2003     2004

     Aging                           1.6%   1.6%      2.4%     2.3%
     Children & Youth               18.0    20.6     22.1     22.8
     Economically Disadvantaged     15.1    20.3     17.6     19.1
     Ethnic or Racial Minorities      8.0   7.6      10.2     10.6
     Gays or Lesbians                 0.1   0.2        0.3     0.5
     Immigrants & Refugees            0.9   0.9        1.3     1.4
     People with Disabilities         3.0   2.9        4.9     5.0
     Women and Girls                  7.3   5.2        6.4     6.5

     Foundation Funding by Subject
     Area, 2004 Overall Funding

     Topic Area                             % of Dollars        Amount
         Education                          23.4                $3.6 billion
         Health                             23.2                $3.4
         Human Services                     13.9                $2.1
         Arts and Culture                   12.8                $1.97
         Public Affairs/Society Benefit     13.0                $2.0
         Environment & Animals               5.3                $813 million
         International Affairs               2.7                $420 million
         Science and Technology              2.9                $454 million
         Religion                            2.3                $362 million
         Social Sciences                     1.4                $214 million
         Other                               0.1                $ 9 million
         Total                              100.0               $15.5 billion

     Source: Foundation Giving Trends, The Foundation Center, 2006.
14   Figures represent approximately half of all US foundation giving
     Disability Funding by Subject Area

     Topic Area                                   Percent        Dollars
          Education                                12.2         $ 56,240,286
          Health                                    49.8         228,582,703
          Human Services                            31.7         152,127,606
          Arts and Culture                          0.8             3,757,879
          Public Affairs/Society Benefit            0.2               769,756
          Environment & Animals                     0.3             1,299,500
          International Affairs                     0.3             1,224,471
          Science and Technology                    0.1               673,600
          Religion                                  0.2               814,500
          Social Sciences                           0.3             1,249,069
          Other                                     4.1            12,524,793
          Total                                   100.0          $459,264,163

     Source: Grants for Physically and Mentally Disabled, The Foundation Center, 2005/6
     Note: figures vary from Foundation Giving Trends because of different foundatiion
15   samples and time periods.
     Different Patterns of Disability Funding
     Compared to Overall Funding Patterns
     Overall Funding                                    Disability Funding

     Education                            23.4          Education                            12.2
     Health                               23.2          Health                               49.8
     Human Services                       13.9          Human Services                       31.7
     Arts and Culture                     12.8          Arts and Culture                     0.8
     Public Affairs/Society Benefit       13.0          Public Affairs/Society Benefit       0.2
     Environment & Animals                 5.3          Environment & Animals                0.3
     International Affairs                 2.7          International Affairs                0.3
     Science and Technology                2.9          Science and Technology               0.1
     Religion                              2.3          Religion                             0.2
     Social Sciences                       1.4          Social Sciences                      0.3
     Other                                 0.1          Other                                4.1
     Total                                100.0         Total                               100.0

     Source: Foundation Giving Trends, The Foundation   Source: Grants for Physically and Mentally
         Center, 2006                                       Disabled, The Foundation Center, 2005/6

     Disability Funding:
     Human Services Subcategories
                                                          %*       Dollar Amount*

         Crime, justice & public protection             0.7%      $ 3.3 million
         Employment                                     4.0%      $18.5
         Food, nutrition & agriculture                  0.7%      $ 3.4
         Housing & shelter                              5.6%      $25.7
         Recreation & sports                            2.9%      $13.4
         Youth development                              0.3%      $ 1.3
         Human services-multipurpose                   18.8%      $86.4

     * Of total disability funding

     Source: Grants for Physically and Mentally Disabled, The Foundation Center, 2005/6

     Disability Funding Trends
     Dollar Value of Grants

     2003             %              2004           %
     $436,664,000     3.0          $452,661,000     2.9

     Number of Grants

     2003           %                 2004          %
     5,973          4.9               6,360         5.0

     Source: Foundation Giving Trends, The Foundation Center, 2006.

     Disability Giving by Size of

     The 100 largest foundations gave a smaller
       percentage to disability than smaller grantmakers
      Largest funders gave 2.2% of dollars and 4.1% of their
       grants to people with disabilities
      Smaller funders in Foundation Center database gave
       more: 3.9% of dollars and 5.5% of grants

     Source: Foundation Giving Trends, The Foundation Center, 2006

     Disability Giving by Foundation

        Community foundations give more to
         disability issues than other types: 4.4% of
         dollars and 5.6% of grants
        Independent foundations gave 3.0% of
         dollars and 5.3% of grants
        Corporate foundations gave 2.0% of dollars
         and 4.1% of grants

     Disability Giving by Region
     Region             Amount (%)                  Number of Grants (%)

     Northeast                   3.6                          5.0

     Midwest                     2.2                          4.5

     South                       3.5                          5.7

     West                        2.3                          5.1

     Source: Foundation Giving Trends, The Foundation Center, 2006

     Summary of Foundation Funding of
     Interest to ENs (2004/5 figures)

        Employment programs
         –   Fall under human services (6% of general human services
             grants = $126.5 million)
         –   Less than one percent of all grants recorded in Foundation
             Center (FC) system (approximately ½ of all grants).
        Disability programs
         –   Between 3-5% of foundation grants
               Almost 50% of that to health, research and mental health
         –   Employment: 4.0% of disability grants in FC system ($18.5

     ENs and Foundation Funding

        Family, community, and corporate foundations
         are particularly interested in programs that
         improve the lives of individuals within their
        Many corporate foundations especially
         interested in employment issues
        Family and community foundations may have
         particular funds set aside for people with
     Foundation vs. Government

     Differences Between Foundation and
     Government Funding Processes

        Difference between “fairness” and
        Both fund best programs to serve the public
        But foundations may fund well-known
         programs to get an excellent product

     Government: Fairness

        Government process emphasizes “fairness”
         –   written ―request for proposals‖ (RFP)
         –   detailed, published review criteria
         –   outside ―objective‖ reviewers
         –   designated government staff members assigned to
             answer questions during the proposal process.

     Foundations: Stewardship

        Foundation world stresses “stewardship”
         –   often favors excellent programs already known to
             the foundation
         –   can make use of information that is not in the grant
         –   may not have specific RFP or guidelines
         –   review and selection processes not open to public
         –   review criteria often not explicit

     How To Be A Successful

     Successful Foundation Grantseeking

        Each foundation is unique
        Target each proposal to one specific
         –   be responsive to all foundation instructions
        ―One size fits all‖ approach doesn’t work

     Number 1: Think “relationships”

        Staff and trustees tend to support programs
         they know and respect
        Essential to work directly with the staff to the
         extent possible
        Enhance relationships by providing stream of
         information—but don’t overload
         –   Put foundation staff on mailing list

     Number 2: Become an “Insider”

        Be publicly successful
        People must know about your agency’s
         success and tell others about it
        Requires systematic communication
        Communicate your successes as part of an
         overall strategy

     Number 3: Do Your Homework

        Prevents wasting your own and foundation’s
        A misplaced application creates a bad
        Homework tells you:
         –   what the foundation funds
         –   criteria for selection
         –   process it uses to fund projects

     Do Your Homework (cont’d)

        Cardinal rule: Never send identical proposals
         to all prospects
        Always tailor programs to foundation’s specific
         needs and requirements
        Sources for foundations information:
         –   Foundation Center and other libraries
         –   Online collections and databases
         –   Foundation websites
         –   Annual reports and other written information
     Number 4: Look Locally

        Only one out of eight foundations gives nationally
        Over 60% of foundation funding come from local
        Identify corporations with headquarters or major
         operations in your area
        Your board members and advisors can help with local
        A local grant makes national foundation support more

     Number 5: Understand the Funder’s Needs

        Foundations have needs, too
        Reflected in mission statements and funding
         –   Look at mission statement in light of recent grants
         –   Grants show current emphasis and priorities

     Number 6: Simplify and Clarify Your

        State the major elements of what you propose
         to do in less than three minutes
        Write out talking points and practice your
         speech with others
        Foundation staff might ask for a written
         version-concept paper (2 pages max)
        Prepare answers to the logical ―second tier‖

     Number 7: Talk Before Writing

        Call and talk to a program officer
         –   Secretary/ receptionist might be empowered to
             answer questions
                 Try to get beyond him/her
        Ask if there are community information

     Talk Before Writing (cont’d)

        Talking to a Program Officer           Talk first, but listen carefully
         –   Briefly describe your project        –   Give them a chance to give
         –   Ask if idea fits foundation’s            their feedback
             priorities                           –   Especially because
         –   If not, are there some                   foundation priorities can
             aspects of the work that                 change
             might fit your guidelines                    With new leadership
         –   Explore ways of                              Because of board decisions
             strengthening your concept                   Economic climate
         –   Never mistake a program
             officer’s enthusiasm as a
             promise of funding
     Number 8: Write the Proposal

        Modify each proposal for each foundation
        Once specific sections modified, lots of
         material can be used repeatedly
        Provide information exactly as requested
        Make sure that methodology is sound
        Most important question to answer: ―how will
         this program make life better for people with

     Write the Proposal (cont'd)

        Answer the three ―What‖ questions
        Do What?
         –   concise and clear statement of what proposal will accomplish
        So What?
         –   what difference would it make for population
        Then What?
         –   how will program be continued?
         –   evaluation and dissemination of results

     Number 9: Don’t Give Up!

        Keep trying to make personal contact
         –   In some cases, direct communication is difficult
         –   Key is to be politely persistent
         –   Never harass or get angry at foundation personnel
         –   ―No,‖ just means there’s not a match
         –   Go on to your next prospect
        Remember your goals!

                PART 2


     Researching Foundations

        65% to 80% of proposals disqualified because
         they don’t match funder’s interests
        Good research is essential
        Wealth of sources readily available
         –   Libraries
                 Foundation Center collection
                 Public libraries
                 University libraries
         –   Online research
     Library Research: Print Resources

     Library Research

        The Foundation Center
         –   Over 200 ―cooperating collections‖
        Local collections operated by groups of local
         funders called Regional Associations of
         Grantmakers (RAGs)
        Other public and university library collections

     Library Research: Types of

        Directories of Foundations
        Specialized Funding Directories
        State and Local Funding Directories
        Grant Indexes
        Periodicals

     Directories of Foundations

        The Foundation Directory
        Foundation Directory, Part 2
        Annual Register of Grant Support: A Directory
         of Funding Sources
        Guide to U.S. Foundations
        Foundation 1000
        National Network of Grantmakers (NNG)
         Grantmakers Directory

     Specialized Funding Directories

        Grants for the Physically and Mentally Disabled
        Grants for Vocational Education: A Guide to
         Funding for School-to-Work, Job Training and
         Adult Education
        Directory of Grants for Organizations Serving
         People with Disabilities: A Reference Directory
         Identifying Grants Available to Nonprofit

     State and Local Funding
     Directories (Examples)

        Guide to California Foundations
        California Foundation DataBook
        Guide to Greater Washington DC Grantmakers
         on CD-ROM
        Directory of Missouri Grantmakers
        Guide to Ohio Grantmakers
        The Michigan Foundation Directory

     Grant Indexes

        Foundation Grants Index on CD-ROM

        Directory of Grants for Organizations Serving
         People with Disabilities: A Reference Directory
         Identifying Grants Available to Nonprofit


        Corporate Philanthropy Report

        Disability Funding News (as of January,2007
         only available online)

        Foundation and Corporate Grants Alert

     Corporate Research

        Aspen Publishers
         –   Giving by Industry: A Reference Guide to the New
             Corporate Philanthropy
        The Taft Group
         –   Corporate Giving Directory
         –   Corporate Giving Yellow Pages 2000

       Online Research:
     Overview of Resources

     Online Research

        Learning how to use the Web efficiently is crucial
        Internet guides help structure research using:
         –   searchable databases
         –   grantmaker websites
         –   online journals and periodicals
         –   discussion groups
         –   electronic mailing lists
        The Foundation Center’s (FC) Guide to Grantseeking
         on the Web

     Websites Providing Free and Fee-
     based Assistance
        Help find potential funders
        Lead you step-by-step through entire proposal process

         –  The Donors Forum of Chicago

         –   ―Learning Lab‖ and Researching Philanthropy pages of FC site

         –   Tucson-Pima Public Library

     Online Directories/Databases

        Offer a variety of levels of access to
         information on funders and grants

         –   The Foundation Center
         –   GrantStation
         –   Others

     Websites of Philanthropy

        Disability Funders Network
         –   Disability Funding in California
         –   Ticket to Work Forums for Grantmakers
         –   The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act:
             Opportunities for Shape Innovation Through Public Private
         –   California State Activities Relating to Work Incentive Act
        Regional Associations of Grantmakers
         –   Donors Forum of Chicago

     Other Regional and Local Sites

        Tucson-Pima Public Library

        Michigan State University Grants and Related

     Corporate Information on the Web
        How to research corporate giving programs and
         interpret corporate website
            Foundation Center’s Guide to Grantseeking on the Web
        Corporations/Execs section of David Lamb’s Prospect
         Research Page
        Hoovers Online
        Internet Prospector’s Corporations Page

     Stages in the Research Process

        Stage One: Create initial list of prospective

        Stage Two: Collect and organize prospect

        Stage Three: Refine list and conduct in-depth
         research on most likely sources

     Stage One. Create Initial List of
     Prospective Funders

        Geographical Search

        Type-of-Support Search

        Subject Search

         –   Foundation Search
         –   Grant Search

     Geographical Search

        One broad sweep to find a few likely national
        Then narrow search to foundations focusing on
         your state or region
         –   National databases
                 Foundation Center database
         –   State and local directories and databases
                 FC Online
                 Guide to California Foundations
                 California Foundation DataBook

     Geographical Search: Corporations

        Corporations based in or with branch
         operations in your area
        Typically support communities where their
         employees live and work
        Corporate foundations included in foundation
        Many companies have giving programs—not
         –   Separate directories for these
                 Taft Publishers
63               Aspen Publishers
     Type-of-Support Search
        Foundations also categorize grants by the kind of
         operations they support
        Types of grants commonly awarded:
         –   Capital support
         –   Endowment
         –   General operating support
         –   Project support
         –   Seed money
         –   Technical assistance
        Over 50% of grants restricted to development and
         support of discrete programs
         –   Project support and/or seed money most suitable for ENs
     Subject Search: Print Resources

        General foundation directories and grant
         –   start with ―disabled‖ or ―handicapped‖
        Specialized disability sources
         –   check subject indexes
                 ―employment‖
                 ―vocational rehabilitation‖
                 etc.

     Subject Search: Electronic
        Start with Foundation Search cross-referencing ―disabilities,
         people with‖* and ―employment‖

          –   search foundations under ―disabilities, people with‖
          –   search foundations under ―employment‖

        Using Grant Search in the same database, use ―employment and
         ―disabilities, people with‖*

     * Other search terms include ―physically disabled,‖ ―blind and vision
        impaired,‖ deaf and hearing impaired,‖ mentally/emotionally
        disabled,‖ and a number of specific conditions, like multiple

     Subject Search (cont’d)

        Browse foundation annual reports and
        Make sure to check guides and other
         resources focusing on health
         –   Fundraising for Health: A Resource List
         –   User Aid for Health Care Programs and Research

     Stage One. Combined Approach

        Locates foundations that:
         –   fund in your geographical area
         –   provide project support and/or seed money
         –   support employment related programs for people
             with disabilities

     Stage Two. Collect and Organize
     Information about your Prospects
        Collect basic information           Use print and online
         –   Mission statement and core       research materials and
         –   Main interests                   foundation websites
         –   Special interests               Use prospect worksheet
         –   Geographic restrictions
         –   Giving patterns
         –   Typical grant size
         –   Organizations funded
         –   Populations served
         –   Limitations and exclusions
         –   Application guidelines
         –   Proposal deadlines
         –   Key decision makers
     Stage Three. Refine your List; Conduct
     In-Depth Research; Contact Foundation

        Refine your list
         –   Eliminate foundations that don’t fund your type of
             program or size of project
         –   Pick best prospects. Funders with:
                 mission statements, philosophy and priorities close to
                 that have supported similar programs to yours
                 have funding cycles that match your needs
                    –   Foundation proposals can take 6 to 18 months to fund

     Stage Three. Conduct In-Depth

        Collect additional information on most
         promising funding sources
        Look at annual reports, application materials
         and grant lists
        Use form 990 PF for private foundations and
         form 990 for public charities when you can’t
         find other information

     Stage Three. Contact Foundation

        Determine if they will consider your EN
         –   Get beyond receptionist
         –   Talk about foundation guidelines and how ENs fit
             into them
         –   Use ―Ticket to Work‖ handout material for
             foundations to educate funders

     Stage Three.
     Contacting Corporations
        Different companies may have their charitable giving in
         different departments
         –   Public affairs
         –   Community affairs
         –   Marketing
         –   Public relations
        Giving can be spread among two or more departments
         –   Departments can have different goals and separate budgets
        How to find contact people
         –   Annual report
         –   Phone
         –   Online
79       –   Website
     Other Resources

     Other Resources

        Electronic Discussion Groups and Message
        General Information Websites
        Special Purpose Websites
        Online Publications
        Instructional Books
        Instructional Websites and Pages

     Electronic Discussion Groups and
     Message Boards

        Benefit: interactive
         –   post and respond to questions directly related to
             disability, employment, etc.
        Drawback: need to filter information
        Charity Channel
         –   Grants
               subscribe grants <firstname
                 archive on the Web at

     General Information Websites

        David Lamb’s Prospect Research Page
        FundsNet
        HandsNet

     Online Publications

        Internet Prospector
        Philanthropy News Digest (PND)
        Philanthropy News Network Online (PNN

     Instructional Books

        Demystifying Grant Seeking: What You
         REALLY Need to Do to Get Grants
        The Foundation Center's Guide to Proposal
        Fundraising for Dummies
        Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal

                PART 3

                 DFN - FOUNDATION
                 CENTER PROJECT
                 ON DISABILITY

     Information Coming on Foundation
     Center Project……


Description: Foundations for Funding Grants in California document sample