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					The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                           1

        The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan
        Shaping Solutions and Futures Together
                               October 2005 Koy Thomson


The Purpose of this strategic plan is to provide a broad framework within which to
guide investments and projects. Much as we would all like crystal clear conceptual
and managerial clarity about goals, actions, and performance indicators, work in the
early stages (Year One) of the KI will be necessarily exploratory. Nonetheless the
Strategic Plan does contain clear deliverables in all areas of activity. Activities carried
out in 2006 will determine direction and investment in 2007 and 2008 – so this Plan
necessarily concentrates on 2006.

Process of Producing the Plan

The KI is a new initiative. It has arisen from an analysis of past organisational reviews
and ideas that have been raised in the international meeting in Bangkok. Certain
elements have been shaped with wide consultation with Regions and CPs (for
example the LDPs and some specific initiatives such as research projects which need
to be negotiated with thematic or geographic teams), but other elements have yet to be
opened to broader discussion. It is proposed to ‘launch’ the KI as a whole before the
close of 2005, which will open the plans to another round of suggestion, engagement
and modification.

1.1 Executive Summary

The Knowledge Initiative is a new institution within ActionAid. It was established in
April 2005 and is led by Koy Thomson. It has its origins in proposals for an
ActionAid ‘Multiversity’. The original idea was for a knowledge and training
resource for ActionAid to build up core capabilities and skills in rights work, but also
to use as a base from which to ‘train’ and hence influence others.

The Knowledge Initiative will be driven by a mission to help AAI realise its potential
as a generator of knowledge for change and as an organisation that supports poor and
marginalised people to use their own, and other’s knowledge as a source of power.

Our aim is to support AAI to build the core capabilities and skills to implement
people-centred and rights-based work, become a knowledge leader and skills
provider, and move to become an organisation known for thinking, doing and
providing solutions and alternatives to current neo-liberal development models.

Although in the first instance the priority will be to build the skills and capabilities for
ActionAid International to stay at the cutting edge of human rights, poverty and
injustice work, this work will be the base from which to develop a global network of
individuals, academic and learning organisations, social movements and civil society
organisations concerned with democratising the production and use of knowledge for
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                         2

empowerment. The first phase therefore necessarily requires the building of
‘knowledge assets’, profile and credibility.

The Knowledge Initiative will deliver its mission by providing a range of products
and services:

KI Training offering a base of knowledge, mechanisms and relationships for building
perspectives and critical thinking capabilities and skills to implement Rights to End
Poverty. The main activities will be the Rights to End Poverty Leadership
Development Programmes both at the Regional and National levels.
KI Democratisation to promote the democratisation of knowledge through the
development and application of our participatory methods and new methods of
popular education, people-centred research and knowledge generation. KI
Democratisation will include an effort to collate, package and add-to AAI knowledge
in value-adding ways. The main activities will be:
 Developing and implementing a strategy to take forward the AAI Reflect and
    Participatory Method Review
 Network and Capacity Building in Popular Education and Economy (with the
    Governance Theme)
 Building People-Centred Research Capacities
 Understanding and Connecting with Social Movement and Popular Universities
 Value added generation, collation and package of AAI Knowledge, for example
    through mechanisms such as an ActionAid International Journal, Book on Rights
    and Stories of Change

KI Alternatives addresses the need to take a more solutions and alternatives oriented
approach in our programme and policy work, and challenge prevalent thinking and
practices through new research, publication and collaborations. The main activities
will be:
 Action Research into Alternatives
 Network and Collation of experience into Economic and Social Alternatives
 Development of solutions approaches in AAI’s work
 State of the State Report collaboration with Governance Theme

KI Network delivers the above to AAI and others through networks of KI Associates,
social movements, activists, academic institutions, think tanks and CSOs who share
our approach and values. The main activities will be:
 Strengthening and linking existing initiatives
 The development of a circle of associates
 Knowledge based MoUs with academic, think-tank, and activist institutions across
    the globe.

KI currently has a team of 4 (Koy plus 3 part-time in Reflect - 4,3, and 1 day a week,
and one 6 month secondment) and will employ 1 programme officer and 1
communication and support officer in 2005. In 2006 the KI will explore different
ways of creating a working KI community within and outside AAI.

Koy reports to Ramesh Singh who Chairs an advisory board for the Knowledge
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      3

The KI will work in three main phases:
1. Building knowledge assets: KI Training, Democratisation, Alternatives, Network
2. Building the vision: the vision of a Multiversity or School for Alternatives and
   Circle of Associates is contingent upon the nature of knowledge assets and
   networks created
3. Delivering the vision: with a solid base of experience and relationships, and a
   clear vision, plans for the future institution can be delivered.

1.2 Knowledge, Rights and Poverty

The world is full of knowledge about poverty and what to do about it, but so little of
that knowledge is available to poor people, and even less is being generated by them.
Similarly the power to influence decision-makers remains with an elite removed from
the day to day realities of poor and marginalised people. In its participatory work
ActionAid has long sought to put poor and marginalised people at the centre of their
own analysis of problems and in control of their own planning. Supporting people to
organise and access their entitlements and rights requires new skills in analysis,
understanding of big policy issues, and new methods of bringing appropriate
knowledge in appropriate forms to community deliberations. Beyond ‘existing rights’
a sustained attack on poverty will mean supporting people in the shaping of
alternatives and solutions that work for them.

1.3 Rationale

The Knowledge Initiative is subtitled ‘Shaping Solutions and Futures Together’. This
is to emphasize that it is about enabling the poor and marginalised to creatively shape
solutions and futures that they value, and enabling those who would wish to help to
work effectively in solidarity with that effort. Knowledge and more specifically its
democratisation is key: to value and build on the knowledge of the poor and
marginalised through new participatory methods and popular education; to challenge
dominant structures of decision-making and policy influence through generating and
applying knowledge in new ways; to promote critical thinking and understanding of
development, progress and alternatives.

The Knowledge Initiative will complement work on knowledge management and
shared learning within AAI, but rather than emphasising organisational goals, seeks to
change the relationships of power around knowledge generation and influence that
excludes poor people.

The proposal for the Knowledge Initiative is premised on the following needs of the

    a. To support ActionAid International’s ambition to be a knowledge leader
       through innovation in knowledge generation and use, through the values of
       ‘democratising knowledge’, and the coordinated capture, processing,
       packaging and promotion of our knowledge and experience.
    b. To bring rigour to the presentation and practice of our ideas, evidence and
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      4

    c. For a focused and comprehensive core capacity strengthening mechanism for
       implementation of the rights based approach and Rights to End Poverty
    d. To strengthen the research capacity, knowledge generation and knowledge use
       of our staff, partners and organisation at various levels for powerful
       arguments, evidence and action.
    e. To develop a base of experience, relationships, skills and approaches from
       which to be able to respond to external opportunities for influencing through
       advisory and consultancy support (as opposed to advocacy and campaigns).

1.4 Objectives

The Knowledge Initiative is expected to provide high quality service to ActionAid
International in the following areas:
A. Core technical ‘education’ and training for strategic change management,
 Strengthening ActionAid International staff capacity and motivation for
    knowledge-use, critical thinking, experiential learning, popular and participatory
    methods of knowledge capture, processing, packaging and sharing.
 Priority research and studies, including strengthening of research capacity
B. Challenge ActionAid International’s prevalent thinking and practices for further
    refinement, and promote a ‘solutions and alternatives’ perspective and focus.
C. Process, package and promote ActionAid International knowledge as ideas for
    practice and influence, including working with work with CDs, IDs, Thematic
    Heads to develop a series of new action-research based initiatives to form the core
    of new flagship publications.
D. Develop a base of significant new knowledge, experience and skills within AAI
    which as part of the AAI mission will promoted to other organisations in the form
    of technical consultancy, advisory, networks of AAI fellows, a multiversity,
    School for Alternatives or other enterprising methods

It will do this through the following products and services:

KI Training offering a base of knowledge, mechanisms and relationships for building
perspectives and critical thinking capabilities and skills to implement Rights to End
KI Democratisation to promote the democratisation of knowledge through the
development and application of our participatory methods and new methods of
popular education, people-centred research and knowledge generation
KI Alternatives addresses the need to take a more solutions and alternatives oriented
approach in our programme and policy work, and challenge prevalent thinking and
practices through new research, publication and collaborations
KI Network delivers the above to AAI and others through networks of KI Associates,
social movements, activists, academic institutions, think tanks and CSOs who share
our approach and values.

1.5 Business Model and Principles

Business Model
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                          5

KI seeks to work inside and outside of ActionAid International: inside to build skills
for Rights to End Poverty, and to create a base of knowledge assets, and; outside to
scale up the impact of AAI’s strategy into other organisations through consultancy
and other enterprising routes. KI’s business model has four strands:
1. A high quality experienced staff associated to the KI through a flexible
    institutional structure of fellowships, made up of former AAI staff, internal staff
    who from time to time can become ‘fellows’ as an element of career progression,
    and external friends who can bring in fresh experience and provocative content.
2. Generating internal fees or other income for KI services, and taking on ‘internal
    contracts’ where appropriate.
3. Generating external fees, grants and other income for KI services where
4. The proportion of core support diminishing after three years


People-centred: effectively mobilising grassroots analysis and experience for
influencing, and applying participatory and popular education approaches that
contribute to democratic governance and power for poor people in shaping decisions
International: going beyond regional to create an international approach, network and
Innovative partnerships: forming sustained working links with top institutions around
the world, and encouraging collaborations between activist academics, social
movements and NGOs
Critical thinking: promoting capacity for critical thinking and experiential learning,
not solely content and theory based.
Research rigour: based on our comparative advantage to quickly gather empirical
evidence at national and local levels
Packaging and profile: challenging dominant structures of decision-making and
policy making through generating, applying and presenting knowledge in new ways
Strengthening southern ‘think and do’ tanks
Solutions and alternatives focused
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                                        6

Imagine AAI as an organisation that:
 Effectively mobilises it's grassroots and policy knowledge for influencing
 Is highly regarded for participatory and popular education approaches that significantly contribute
   to democratic governance and power for poor people in policy making
 Has staff able to critically engage with core economic and social debates
 Has an approach to knowledge which is not about telling people ‘here is the answer’ but provides
   enough base knowledge for people to go off and critically do things on their own, with a good idea
   of who to ask if they need deeper help
 Is developing a capability to promote solutions and alternatives
 Has pioneered new methods of research with social movements, grassroots activists and research
   bodies, that generates new and highly influential knowledge that shapes the policy agenda and
   empowers poor people
 Has supported new networks of Southern ‘think-and-do’ tanks
 Is regarded as a ‘knowledge leader’ and is able to promote knowledge content and skills through
   consultancy, advisory, fellows networks, ‘praxis academy’ and other enterprising methods
 And achieves this through an organisational structure that has the independence and flexibility to
   experiment, innovate and be entrepreneurial; but has the close links with AAI to be rooted in the
   rich asset of experience, action and relationships, and; play a catalytic role in the development of a
   powerful new knowledge base, and the skills needed to implement the new strategy.

Imagine AAI as an organization that created a global school for alternatives and activists.

Phase One: Building Knowledge Assets
As has been described above the KI will work in three main phases:
1. Building knowledge assets
2. Building the vision
3. Delivering the vision.

Phase One, Building Knowledge Assets will develop products and services in each of
the four KI areas:

KI Training: Empowering Education and Training for Activists
KI Democratisation: Peoples Knowledge Generation, Knowledge Leadership and
KI Alternatives: Think Tanks for Alternatives and Solutions
KI Network: KI Associates and KI International Faculty

Summary of Investments
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                                            7

The Knowledge Initiative
Strategic Plan                                     2005      2006        2006      2007        2007      2008        2008
                                              Unrestr   Unrestr    Restr      Unrestr    Restr      Unrestr    Restr
Staff Costs - Director, KI Prog, KI Officer                   126                   131                   135
General Budget OHDs, Travel                                     20                    20                    20

PKN001 KI Training                                 58.1         30                    30        50         30         80
PKN002 Popular Educ and Econ                          30         5
PKN003 AAI Journal                                   2.5
PKN004 State of State                                  2
PKN005 Book on Rights                                 25
PKN006 Local Markets Res                           17.5         10                    10        50         16        100
PKN007 Women and Econ Res                          12.5                                         50                   100
PKN008 Social Protection Res                           0        10                    10
PKN009 Solutions Associates                            3
PKN010 Solutions and Altern Res                      3.4
PKN011Building Research Capacities                     0
PKN012 Social Movement and P Univ                      0
Total                                               154        201                  201        150        201        280

The investment implications for 2006 and 2007 are somewhat speculative. Until KI
builds up an asset, understands the market better, and negotiates demand internally
and externally not much can be done to produce a business plan.

For 2006 and 2007 the bulk of the core KI budget is to be spent on human resources
(Director plus KI Programme Officer plus KI Officer). This may seem somewhat
risky since it means negotiating or raising additional programme resources, but unless
‘ideas’ are pushed and quickly turned into products and deliverables, contacts
sustained and followed-up, and identity and profile built, there will be no foundation
for fundraising and networking.

Budgets for the LDP are being negotiated with Regions (who have set aside broad
budgets for training). Small KI budgets have been created for an international faculty
and specific capacity building modules. Seed money has been allocated to alternatives
research with contributions currently being negotiated from themes and CPs. It is
planned that the money will ‘seed’ multi-year research proposals.

2.1 KI Training: Empowering Education and Training for Activists
Taking Stock 2 was clear that AAI had not done enough to ensure that staff had the
requisite skills, knowledge and capacity for critical thinking to make the desired
impact around Fighting Poverty Together. Fighting Poverty Together contained
strategies that increasingly focused on engagement with economic institutions and
economic policy. Rights to End Poverty continues this trend and requires greater
understanding from staff and partners of economic, social and political philosophy
issues. Further, since we believe that solutions will be found in fairer economic
policies and inclusive methods of economic decision-making we face a huge
challenge in building the capability of communities and citizens to understand and
challenge economic and social policy and demand alternatives. KI will work with the
OD department, and the leaders of regions and themes to agree the key capacity
building priorities and their sequencing over the next five years.

KI Training will be developed through three phases corresponding to the next three
Phase One: A Core Rights to End Poverty Leadership Development Programme
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                       8

Phase Two: a) Versioning of core curriculum to local needs and addition of in-depth
modules, including development of distance learning material and specific
experiential learning and action initiatives; b) Development of more innovative
perspective building and training work (such as social movement immersions in
Brasil) c) responding to training needs around our participatory practice, and d)
Shaping external courses for other organisations
Phase Three: Shaping the institutional vision (putting the four KI services and
products together and selling it)

Phases Two and Three are highly contingent on the outcomes of Phase One so not
much planning detail can be offered here. Phase One however is clearer.

2.11 KI Training Phase One 2005-2006

In the first six months of the KI, KI Training has been working with the AAI Regions
on a Rights to End Poverty Leadership Development Programme. There is
currently a need to take an international approach to this, to realise synergy and
ensure that a core foundation of skills and capabilities is being developed across the

There has been some slippage in the delivery of the LDPs. It had been envisaged to
deliver the first one before the end of 2005 but for quality reasons this has been
shifted to the first quarter of 2006.

Development and delivery of a Leadership Development Programme both responds to
an immediate need of the organisation, and is highly strategic for KI since:
1. It will require an International Faculty to develop the curriculum and deliver
    training, and as such is a good first step in forming working relationships with
    regional academic institutions and think tanks
2. It will generate consensus on a progressive approach to knowledge
3. It will lead to the generation of training and other materials that can be versioned
    for distance learning and other purposes
4. In its delivery the LDP can use approaches and techniques of critical reflection
    and interaction that will be useful for local capacity building
5. It will root the KI in the Regions and be a springboard into the development of
    other KI activities

The KI LDP will be interactive and will use peoples own experience as well as
bringing in new ideas and knowledge. It will learn from (and use approaches,
materials, methods from) the Peoples Centred Advocacy courses, ELBAG, Skillshare,
Leadership Development Programmes, and other internal and external training events.

It is envisaged as a partnership between the Knowledge Initiative and Organisational
Effectiveness (Shared Learning and Impact Assessment), and any relevant Regional
initiatives, for example the Kiboswa International Development Centre in Kenya.

The KI is leading the process (with AAI Kenya) of developing the Kiboswa
International Development Centre as an Independent Trust. At the time of writing this
plan the IDC Trust purposes are being developed in line with the KI Strategy and the
Kiboswa assets (and proposed AAI Kenya investment) are being valued. This will
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                       9

involve a Business Planning process (involving external expertise) followed by an
evaluation of different organisational options for the IDC.

LDP Process

The LDP Process, curriculum and approach is described in detail in separate notes.

Initial ideas for a package of learning materials called ‘The Wheel’ and the ‘Power
Points of Change’ have been integrated into the Regional Curriculums.

2.12 KI Training Phase Two 2006

Once a core curriculum and international faculty have been established and tested (in
all three Regions), there will be a base of experience and ‘alumni’ from which to
develop materials and systems for longer term and region-specific needs. Examples of
the need include:

1. Versioning of core curriculum to local needs (material may need to be adapted to
   include local context and examples, and new relationships with individuals and
   institutions formed to deliver support). Development of Regional Centres such as
   the IDC in Kenya will be key.
2. There may need to be a greater emphasis on additional distance learning modules
   (to build on the Foundation Course) and more flexible local delivery. Discussions
   with a number of organisations and contacts internationally (UEA working with
   COSATU in the Eastern Cape, Sane in South Africa, OU, Innovators in
   Bangladesh, Brasil and others) show that support and training for activists to
   engage in complex economic and social debates is a something that people are
   working on in a serious way. The Knowledge Enterprise is in a good position to
   promote a coordinated approach, and an approach that is genuinely focused on
   building a capability for critical thinking and engagement, support to activists, and
   experiential learning.
3. Specific experiential learning programmes may be needed for activists working on
   advocacy and campaigns, for example within the thematic programmes or at
   Country Programme level (discussions have already been held with Malawi and
4. Shaping external courses for other organisations as part of the revenue-raising and
   influencing strategy.

2.13 KI Training Phase Three 2007

The success of KI Training will be founded on a continual development of fresh
practice and experience which is fed back into the curriculum and course material. KI
Training offers organisational ‘software’ and as such must stay on the cutting edge. It
will also depend on the dynamism of the relationships developed with academic and
policy institutions, individual activists and social movements, and the value we add by
bringing them all together within one ‘school’.

Phase Three will be about institutional development, the shaping of the vision for a
networked ‘school for alternatives’ and profile building.
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                    10

2.14 Investment Implications

PKN001 KI Training
£K                                               2006
International Faculty
Consultancy                                         15
Meeting                                              5
Curriculum Development
Materials and Distance delivery                     10

2.15 Performance Indicators

   Effective LDPs based on evaluation of participants and performance criteria
    agreed by Organising Committee (which will include monitoring leadership
    performance of people attending the LDPs)
   High level of innovation and take-up of follow-up processes (individuals and CPs
    through distance learning and other processes), and improved programme design
    and practice
   Quality partnerships formed and delivering around the global schools concept – in
    relation to organisational transformation and practice, not consultancy criteria
   A respected resource of high quality learning products and services produced for
    wider markets, for both face to face learning and training and distance methods
   Self sustaining finance for training and learning services (including donor support
    and ‘purchase’ by clients at both market and subsidised rates)
   IDC Trust Deed signed off and a Business Plan and Model agreed to the
    satisfaction of IDC Trustees and KI Advisory Group. Thereafter Performance
    Indicators to be included and met within the context of the Business Plan.

3. KI Democratisation: Peoples Knowledge Generation, Knowledge
Leadership and Publication
3.1 KI Democratisation: Participatory Methods (a) Reflect and Participatory
Methods Review

Our irrepressible marathon-running trustee Robert Chambers pioneered the biggest
revolution in formal development practice by simply advocating listening to, and
working with poor people, weighing outside and internal knowledge equally in
communities’ search for solutions. Such thinking was paralleled by the great popular
educator Paulo Freire and others. But the simple idea required the careful
development of methods for working with poor peoples’ knowledge, and for getting
experts to listen. ActionAid’s reputation for good work on the ground was the result
of an ‘evangelical’ spread of Reflect and Participatory Rural Appraisal as the field-
based way of working.

Today Reflect exists in almost every Country Programme, sitting alongside other
methods and approaches, including: participatory planning, participatory vulnerability
analysis, Stepping Stones, STAR (Stepping Stones and Reflect), oral testimony,
gender analysis, social auditing, participatory budgeting, citizen juries, and
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                     11

participatory review and reflection. Networks do exist to support this work, for
example: CIRAC (international Reflect Network – independent but growing from
ActionAid); Praxis (the India-based methodology spin-off), and Pamoja (Africa
Regional Reflect Network). Although still admired recent reviews suggest poor
quality application of these methods, and a failure of core methods such as Reflect
and Stepping Stones to keep pace with rights-based goals. For example, Reflect lacks
support in advocacy, organizing and policy analysis, and Stepping Stones faces
limitations in addressing power relations. We know that the quality of practice is
variable, and that Reflect isn’t always being used as participation of empowerment, as
opposed to participation for service delivery.

ActionAid International has tried three time to generate a new initiative on ‘methods’.
The first was the famous Participatory Methods Forum of February 2001
(Bangladesh) and the second the ‘ActionAid in Practice’ Meeting of November 2003
(Ethiopia). Both meetings moved us forward in articulating our needs, but neither
successfully institutionalised follow-up. The third was a paper presented to the
Bangkok International Conference ‘Capabilities in Rights’ which proposed the
creation of a new methods unit with three pillars:
1. Development and spread of tools, methods and approaches for rights and
    empowerment at ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ levels
2. Cutting edge research and policy analysis on democracy and participatory
    governance, the essential context for our rights methods and approaches
3. Shared Learning on the above.

Quality and appropriate participatory methods will be a core capability for delivering
the goals of Rights to End Poverty. Reflect will need to be adapted and other methods
for participatory governance and participatory analysis and decision-making will have
to be brought in.

The AAI Reflect Team has completed a global review/mapping of ActionAid’s
Reflect and Participatory Processes. This was followed by an international meeting to
make recommendations about the core capabilities we need around participation,
power and rights, and to decide what structures/systems/programmes we may need to
take things forward.

The broad conclusion of the meeting was that there is a need to invest in our
participatory practice so that it can become transformative, and enable people to rise
to the challenge of R2EP.
The mapping asked people about future structure, aims and what they could both
contribute and expect to receive from an international participatory resource.
From the mapping the role of a participatory resource was seen as follows:
    1. Work closely with themes to strengthen their use of participatory approaches
    2. Play a strategic role in building participatory culture across the organisation
    3. Play a strategic role in enabling networks around participatory practices
    4. Co-ordinate learning and sharing (incl. Documentation support, capacity building,
    5. Link to OD and HR functions to ensure participation is valued and appraised
    6. Raise resources for rigorous research and piloting new methods
    7. Facilitate linkages with expertise outside the organisation
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                       12

In both the mapping and the meeting the structure of the resource was discussed, the
following was suggested: a three tier structure with a: small coordinating function; an
international team (rooted in country programmes or themes and supporting
innovation, documenting learning and commissioning research at this level – valuing
context as well as the content of programme work); and diverse communities of
practice – who would build learning and expertise together, supporting each other to
strengthening their practice – and contributing to our international resource building
At the time of drafting this Plan, the above recommendation is being discussed by the
International Director’s Team. However, the Reflect Team have produced a Plan
based on the Review and Meeting process. This is included as part of the KI Strategic
The Strategy for 2006, 2007, and 2008 will be determined through discussions with
the International Directors.
3.1 KI Democratisation: Participatory Methods (b) Popular Education and
Economy Concepts, Practice and Networks

One of our biggest challenges around participation is how to bring ‘outside’
knowledge (conscientisation, popular education) to bear on community knowledge
generated through participatory processes. Participation practitioners, particularly
those working with rights acknowledge a big gap here.

The Knowledge Initiative has held an international practitioners meeting on popular
education and the economy, in partnership with IDS Sussex and Just Associates in the

The gathering Citizen Action, Knowledge and Global Economic Power: Reflecting on
Current Practices and Challenges Ahead aimed to bring together people with
experiences in popular education, organizing, advocacy and research to reflect on
practice in order to contribute to more compelling effective activism and policy
change. It was also designed to tap AAI into a valuable network of experience and
knowledge to support the implementation of Rights to End Poverty.

The Meeting did not quite achieve its objectives. Nonetheless a modest programme of
follow-up is planned for 2006 which will:
1. Generate a knowledge resource and network for those wishing to apply popular
    education approaches to local economic and empowerment processes
2. Develop a joint research project on participation and policy change with IDS and
    other institutions participating in the meeting
3. Develop and deliver national capacity building programmes for delivering Rights
    to End Poverty using popular education models, with AAI Malawi and Nepal
4. Further explore a proposal in the meeting for developing a network of ‘local
    economy’ schools.

Over 2006-2008 the Popular Education initiative will be integrated into the
Participation and Rights Strategy (above).
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      13

3.21 Investment Implications

PKN002 Popular Education and Econ
£K                                               2006
Popular Educ and Econ follow-up                     5

3.22 Participatory Methods Performance Indicators

   An effective and used institutional system and structure for promoting quality,
    relevance and innovation in our Participatory methods linked to rights and power
   AAI recognised as leaders in rights-based participatory methods
   KI known as a deliverer of quality services and products within a broader
    transformative vision (not consultancy services)

3.3 KI Democratisation: Alternative Research, Peoples Knowledge Generation,
Knowledge Capture and Knowledge Leadership

Research supposedly generates evidence and development expertise. Of course the
evidence produced depends on the questions asked, the methods used and the beliefs
and goals of the researchers and sponsors. Research provides power for the
researcher's arguments. Development research creates hundreds of thousands of
development experts. The bulk of these experts are pure academics, they work on
development as a subject and a job. A small percentage of experts, academics or NGO
staff care about poverty and can be said to work for development. A dismal
proportion of these latter groups are citizens who live in poor countries and who
therefore have a direct stake in the future of their nations. Still less research (action
research) involves the real experts - those whose entire life experience is poverty and
injustice. And still less can be said to be shaped by poor people through their
organizations and social movements. For those who believe that poor people and their
organisations need to be leaders in shaping policies that affect them and exploring
futures that they value then knowledge generation shaped and done with them is
pretty important. This kind of research done through collaborations between poor
peoples' organisations, social movements, committed academics, experienced
grassroots organisations and global NGOs, could be called peoples knowledge
generation. There is already some experience of these approaches within AAI
(Brasil). We need to develop this new kind of people-centred research expertise –
research that generates alternative knowledge and which gives power to people in
their struggles.

But ‘alternative knowledge’ can also be generated through more traditional research
methods, and in this, we also have a challenge to strengthen our research skills. Our
research needs to be more rigorous and focused strategically on challenging the
globally dominant knowledge giants, for example the World Bank. Activists say that
the World Bank exerts its influence less through conditions on loans but more on
domination of knowledge, perspective and thought. For example, they train hundreds
of developing country officials whose peer group when they run into trouble and need
advice are the World Bank staff who trained them. There is no way we can compete
with the volume of knowledge churning out of an institution like the World Bank. Our
niche must be in generating a rigorous and authentic alternative voice and targeting it
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                       14

very carefully (the education working group have a long record of this kind of

3.4 KI Democratisation: Alternative Research and Knowledge Generation

AAI’s strategic emphasis on themes is resulting in more investment in and profile for
AAI research. Thematic research strategies aim to generate knowledge collaboratively
with peoples organisations and movements, yet in a timely and politically targeted
way. Research capacities will be strengthened through training and new partnerships,
and more will be made of research outputs. Themes will collaborate with KI
Democratisation to achieve these goals.

International Partnership Development have commissioned and completed an AAI
Research Review. An international steering group (convened by International
Partnership Development) has discussed the Report and its recommendations. They
suggest that:

    1. Country Directors and theme heads read the review and encourage others to
       read it because the findings and questions that it raises are applicable to
       research work at all levels. The review will help people to design their own
       research capacity strategies
    2. Over the next year individuals will self-organise around specific new research
       initiatives, identifying 3 or 4 innovative research initiatives that embody our
       future research approaches (combining research rigour and action-oriented
       alliances between academics, activists, social movements and NGOs)
    3. Regional directors carry out a research audit

The core responsibility for research quality and basic research capability resides with
the Policy Director, who will need to address research needs and skills across the

The Knowledge Enterprise will be more involved in innovative or pilot approaches in
relation to alternative knowledge generation, exploration of alternatives and solutions-
driven approaches (in other words (2) above). For example:
     ‘Critical Watch’ in Brasil, a cross-civil society research initiative that others in
        AAI are interested to learn from
     The State of the State Report on country level governance which the Asia
        Region will lead on developing a rigorous methodology over 2005/6
     The Aid Governance and Transparency report and index being led by IPD
     The Food and Hunger theme research programme

A proposal will be developed for reviewing research methodologies and building
appropriate capacities. For example, like the field of popular education, there has not
been much reflection about Participatory Action Research (PAR) as a research
method suited to democratising knowledge and supporting rights-based approaches.
PAR includes research done in collaboration with social movements and activists and
designed to be integral to advocacy goals. We need to be able to form relations with
institutions capable of doing PAR, to partner with in advocacy, and to build our
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                     15

The research review commissioned by IPD also suggested building strengths in this
area. The Knowledge Initiative will be taking this forward with the new Policy
Director. Ideally, we should have some programme for supporting PAR and research
work generally as part of the Change Management Plan.

The priority for 2006 will be collaboration with the Governance Theme on the State
of the State Report.

Over 2006 different elements of this activity may be reorganised into either KI
Training (Research Capacity Building) or KI Alternatives (State of the State) and
become part of these Strategic Plans for 2006-2008.

3.41 Investment Implications

Alternative Research and Knowledge Generation

To be supported by the Programme Officer.

3.5 KI Democratisation: Social Movement and Peoples’ Universities

As well as changing the way AAI generates and democratises knowledge, KI will set
out to understand and interact with social movement’s and popular organisation’s own
efforts around knowledge generation, education and sharing. For example: MST in
Brasil, WSF proposals for a popular university, the Peoples Health Movement, and
Indigenous Peoples’ Universities. This area of work will be further explored and
developed by the Programme Officer. It is possible that in 2006 that this will be
integrated into the KI Training strategic plan (depending upon progress).

3.51 Investment Implications: To be carried forward by the Programme Officer.

3.6 KI Democratisation: Profile and Dissemination of Alternative Knowledge

As was said in the introduction our niche must be in generating a rigorous and
authentic alternative voice and targeting it very carefully. KI will support a
determined effort to package, publish and target significant knowledge, and promote
our approach to knowledge.

There will be an internal effort in collaboration with the Impact Assessment Unit and
Shared Learning, and an external effort with Themes and Regions.

First externally:

3.7 KI Democratisation: ActionAid International Journal

The 'low hanging fruit' in respect to motivating the use, packaging and sharing of
knowledge are the AAI themes. These are our natural communities of practice with a
clear mutual self-interest in improving knowledge creation and sharing. Discussions
for a virtual journal and annual ‘hard’ journal have started with the theme heads. With
each theme working through regional and national networks, the opportunity for
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      16

generating original perspectives and knowledge around our priority themes are very

The other major opportunity will be developing the outputs of our major official
funding projects into more relevant and rigorous research articles. KI will work with
the themes to do a review of innovative research and other work planned in AAI, with
a view to processing, packaging and promoting through different publishing media,
and from the perspective of a specific strategic niche.

This proposal has yet to be fully explored with Themes. The niche, style and content
of the journal will need to be thought through carefully to be consistent with the KI
philosophy, and an editorial board established.

One idea is for the Journal proposal to be linked to creating opportunities for staff to
become KI Associates through being given a two week sabbatical for researching and
writing on an issue that they feel should be brought to the attention of AAI, either to
provoke, to learn from, or as a cutting edge or future issue. They will be given
mentoring support in this period so that they can get access to broader ideas and
perspectives and articulate their ideas in a more rigorous way.

3.71 Investment Implications

A small amount of money has been set aside to develop the idea in 2006 (£2.5K).

3.8 KI Democratisation: State of the State - A Flagship Publication

The goal of a flagship publication is to capture and promote AAI's identity,
demonstrate knowledge leadership in a strategic area, and fulfil influencing,
communications and other purposes.

The prime contender is Governance theme’s 'State of the State' monitoring report on
democratic governance and poverty which will be developed through regional and
national civil society alliances.

KI will support the Governance Theme in the development of a rigorous methodology
and approach for the State of the State Report, maximising the potential for generating
new knowledge for influencing and advocacy, and for serving as a vehicle for
strengthening research capabilities.

The Plan for the State of the State Report is being developed by the Governance

3.81 Investment Implications: Time from Director and Programme Officer and £2K
in support costs.

3.9 KI Democratisation: Book - Five Years Working with Rights

Plans for a Book ‘Five Years Working with Rights’ have been disrupted with the lead
consultant pulling out. But the raw material has been produced and will be developed
and published through collaboration with IASL as an expanded ‘Stories of Change’
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                       17

series. Because of the delays the KI budget has been lost for 2006, and a budget is
being negotiated with IASL.

3.91 Investment Implications 2006

See above.

3.10 KI Democratisation: Books for a Change

Books for a Change has tremendous potential to make a far stronger contribution as a
quality publisher of alternative titles. ActionAid India and the Asia Office are
undertaking a business review of Books for a Change which will lead to the
development of a fully fledged Business Plan. The issue of coordination at an
international level will be part of the review.

3.11 KI Democratisation Performance Indicators

   Publication and demand for Stories of Change, and reference to Stories for
    Change by peers and peer literature. Production is institutionalised and giving
    opportunities for people to be recognised as learners and authors.
   Research Strategy produced, agreed, implemented and leading to research which
    produces impact and which is known and respected within the sector
   State of the State Report is a process and publication that is empowering, and is
    quoted alongside well established CSO publications such as Social Watch, and
    institutions such as the World Development Report and Human Development
    Report. KI contributes significantly to methodology development.
   Progress in other areas has yet to be defined (it would involve too much hopeful
    guessing at this stage)

4.0 KI Alternatives: Alliances for Alternatives and Solutions
All organizations settle into a comfortable pattern of analysis and thinking about the
world. In some respects having a view or perspective is an important part of strategy,
particularly if the organization is careful about evidence and analysis. In other
respects a too-tight-a-perspective is simply blinkered. The culture of ALPS is
intended to institutionalize critical thinking, but the focus is process and not content.
The Knowledge Initiative will create organizational space that serves both as an
internal ‘think-tank’ or ideas incubator and route for forming alliances around and
strengthening southern-based think-tanks and organizations working rigorously on
alternatives ideas and practice.
The following proposals have been explored in 2005 and will be taken forward in
2006. The overall strategy for 2006-2008 is to build the skills and experience to create
a people-centred ‘alternatives’ think tank that crosses the boundaries between AAI
and other organisations. KI will act as a catalyst for boundary pushing work and act
across themes and CPs to promote synergy, rather than becoming operational itself.
Time and experience will shape this role.
4.1 KI Alternatives: Solutions and Alternatives Research
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      18

KI Alternatives Solutions and Alternatives Research will pick up on exciting ideas
that arise within the organization and amongst allies and partners but drift because of
lack of investment in following-up the ideas or because of the pressure of short-term
priorities. Examples include the work on aid-untying and social procurement,
proposals for an alternative corruption index, and basic income guarantees for
HIV/AIDS carers. Other examples are those issues that are relevant to all of our
thematic and programme work but don’t get picked up because they don’t quite fit in
any one, for example, the concept of a basic social minimum programme for all poor
people. The emphasis would be on ‘big ideas’ that have the potential to generate
excitement amongst groups that could usefully be drawn into AAI’s circle of
In 2005 proposals have been developed in the following areas, and depending upon
progress and engagement will grow into multi-country action research projects :
a) Local Economies and Money Leakage: Poor areas need money if they are to
develop. This may be in the form of private investment, market exchanges, or public
money in the form of government grants and work schemes, or aid money.
Participatory budget monitoring makes sure that the money is spent where it is
supposed to be spent, but it is not enough simply to get money into local hands. To
create wealth and to stimulate local economies the money must circulate locally, and
not just leak straight out again. The New Economics Foundation (NEF) in the UK
have worked with poor communities and City Regeneration Funds and have
developed methodologies for identifying leakages and empowering the community to
do something about it. International Directors and the Emergencies Unit have shown
an interest in what might be done to ensure that the ‘Tsunami Money’ works to
benefit affected people rather than leaking out to contractors, consultants and aid
agencies. This would build on past ActionAid work on ‘social procurement’. But the
methods are applicable to anywhere where public money is poured in, and yet brings
few changes except to elites. It is also of interest to people who are interested in the
development of local economies. This would be an action research proposal that
would examine the dynamics of local economies from the perspective of specific
groups, and would involve them in defining changes and solutions for themselves. A
Research workshop is planned in early 2006, centred on the Tsunami work, but
working in collaboration with ELBAG and the Themes.

PKN006 Local markets research
£K                                               2006
Start-up Research                                  10

b) Women Reclaiming the Economy: National reports on the economy and national
economic progress tend to reflect the patriarchal structures of the economy and the
predominant concerns of men. There is little knowledge or space for debate on how
poor and marginalised women experience the economy and their vision of an
economy that would work for them. Alongside this, ActionAid has not had the
opportunity to engage in national processes in which we work with ordinary peoples’
perceptions of the economy – their job insecurity, dwindling livelihoods, decreasing
wages, increase in work loads, lack of services and so on. The proposal was to apply
some of the learning from the Popular Education and Economy meeting and link this
to the women’s networks internationally and nationally to produce participative
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      19

popular annual reports on the national economy from the perspective of women. The
outcome would be knowledge for women’s rights advocacy, education in the issues
that matter for women, and working relations with women’s rights activists, groups
and academics in-country. Two scoping studies were produced in 2005, but the work
of engaging the women’s rights community did not progress as fast as planned for
2005. The KI will explore different options for taking this forward: as part of the food
rights campaign; as part of the State of the State report process; as part of the Tsunami
policy work, or; with CPs taking the lead as part of their Women’s Rights
There is no separate budget for taking this forward. The work will be developed by
the Programme Officer and budgets negotiated with Themes and CPs.
c) A common minimum social floor or programme: ActionAid’s thinking on social
protection and welfare is poorly developed. While professing to be concerned with
services for poor and marginalised people, we have no analysis about what would
constitute a minimum floor of social protection and welfare, for example in respect to
basic income guarantees, pensions, work insurance, food security and relief, minimum
wages, inequality, child care, and so on. A view on a common minimum social floor
should be a thread that joins our thematic work and our work across regions, yet it
falls outside of any one region or theme’s concern. This is a gap that could be filled
through some straightforward joint research, or it could be developed as part of the
State of the State research process, since it essentially relates to governance. A
strategy for this research will be developed in 2006.

PKN008 Social Protection Res
£K                                               2006
Start-up Research                                  10

Solutions and Alternatives: There is a need to critically assess and collate examples
of ‘solutions and alternatives’, both in terms of practice on the ground, and in respect
to policy thinking. It is particularly important to unpack what is meant by
‘alternatives’: alternatives to what and what are the criteria for alternative approaches
and analysis? Having leadership within KI, or a focal point for best practice within the
themes, may be one way of taking this forward, as well as making links with new
economics and alternatives networks, and assessing innovative knowledge initiatives
such as indigenous universities and farmer-to-farmer networking. This idea needs
further discussion with Regions and Themes. There will be some initial work in
‘solutions and alternatives’ as part of the LDP training curriculum.

4.2 KI Alternatives: Articulating Solutions and Models of What Works

Our participatory and decentralised roots make us healthily cautious of ‘models’ and
prescriptions for ‘best practise’. Nonetheless we do have to challenge ourselves on
what our insistent emphasis on process and participation is actually leading to? What
changes are they bringing about and in what direction? Is our participation,
organising, mobilising, research, policy and advocacy work adding up to a picture of
things that work – solutions?
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                      20

KI Alternatives would like to create opportunities (negotiated time, plus a small
budget for research) for people working in thematic programmes and elsewhere to
take some time off to reflect on their experience, and to provoke themselves and the
organisation on solutions and models for change. The KI Programme Officer will lead
on this process.

4.3 KI Alternatives Performance Indicators

   Research projects initiated in all three key areas (local economy, women and the
    economy, socio-economic protection). Research generating new knowledge and
    insights into workable alternatives, and which empowers communities and
    influences broader debates
   Knowledge network, resources and conceptualisation of what we mean by
    ‘alternatives’ produced by Programme Officer, linkage to key organisations
    working in this area, and the initiation of debates and growing
    understanding/orientation within the organisation
   Themes confidently asserting and successfully promoting (and with evidence)
    solutions and alternatives in their areas of work

Second Phase: Building the Vision

5.0 Organisation and Structure

NOTE: This section should be taken as exploratory. There will be some investment at
the end of 2005 in scoping out potential partners and different business models. By
mid 2006 the goal is to have made a decision on which main partners and which
business models are the preferred ones.

Each initiative in the first phase of the Knowledge Initiative (Building Knowledge
Assets) is geared towards creating a powerful and worthwhile knowledge base that we
feel strongly enough about, and value enough to want to promote through
consultancy, advisory and other enterprising routes. This may take many forms
(training, courses, summer schools, an academy and so on). But the first task will be
to invest in and build something to ‘sell’ – the knowledge assets. After one year there
should at least be some sense of the activities that in a business planning sense have
the most potential. Years two and three will see these activities growing and
developing as a resource.

We believe that both the development and delivery phase of this initiative requires
that it develop as an independent institute with an international director.

Ambition: A new institute

This initiative has ambition. It is not a project or a programme of a unit, nor a new
unit. Each successful activity will be designed over time to contribute to the creation
of a powerful and worthwhile knowledge base that we value enough to want to
promote through consultancy, advisory and other enterprising routes. We believe that
the idea is important enough to want to grow over time to challenge existing
knowledge service providers (e.g. for training, publishing, research) and the command
over ‘fact’ and perspective of the few players who control development belief. It is no
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                        21

bad thing to hold in mind the ambitious dream that this initiative will become a global
distance learning academy for activists.

It is proposed that the initiative will develop as an independent institute with an
international director. The reasons are:
1. That having generated a solid knowledge base the initiative aims to generate
     income and have influence through ‘enterprise’ – consultancy, advisory, training
     and imaginative mechanisms such as summer schools or ‘academies’. An
     independent body which connects the external and internal world of AAI, and
     embodies the brand rather than carrying it is better suited to achieving this
2. That the ideas and partnerships that will be explored will flourish in an
     environment which is more entrepreneurial and speculative (intellectually and
     organizational) than might be possible within existing management systems
3. That an important part of the staff resource will be a new ‘Circle of Associates’
     made up of former AAI staff, internal staff who from time to time can become
     Associates as an element of career progression, and external friends who can bring
     in fresh experience – a flexible institutional structure can accommodate this
4. Fundraising for ‘internal’ AAI capacity building will be virtually impossible. If
     the initiative is to raise external funds for the kind of work proposed it needs to be
     perceived as independent.

5.1 KI Network: The Circle of Associates

In 2006, the Knowledge Initiative will start to develop the institutional structure
through which advisory and consultancy may be delivered – the Knowledge Initiative
Associates or Partners.

Knowledge Initiative Associates

The proposal for the creation of a network of Knowledge Initiative Associates
addresses the following organisational needs:
 To create a network of practitioners who share the values and approaches of AAI
   who can provide quality support services in key skill areas, quickly and
   responsively and when needed
 To create a resource that can bring knowledge of other organisations into AAI, but
   who work as a community of practice to accelerate methodological development,
   learning and documentation
 To create an institutional structure that will allow ex-ActionAid International staff
   to continue to use their skills and knowledge in support of AAI
 To be more systematic about the money we spend on consultancies and to get a
   greater added value from the consultants that we use
 To create an institutional structure which will allow AAI to spread its approaches,
   knowledge, experience and values through advisory and consultancy services, to
   complement advocacy and campaign methods
 To act as a resource/accompaniment for training modules/distance learning,
   curriculum development (for example for a future academy or summer school)
 To create an internal incentive to contribute to knowledge initiatives by having the
   possibility of being invited to become a KI Associate.
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                    22

Who are the Associates?

Associates will initially be drawn from: former staff; bright and experienced staff
whose contracts are coming to an end, whose skills, experience, values and
commitment we value, and who AAI would wish to continue to work with, and; staff
who may be rewarded by becoming for a time an ‘Associate’. As the idea develops,
we will draw in friends and other associates who can bring in new skills and linkages
with southern policy houses, think tanks, and academic institutions.

Working both inside and outside AAI, Knowledge Initiative Associates will develop
as a powerful network for supporting ActionAid International in its change objectives
as well as ambassadors and disseminators of AAI approaches and values. They will be
the hunter-gatherers of our shared-learning work, introducing strong market
incentives for packaging experience and making it work for change.

What work will the Associates do?

The Associates will not be full time, nor will they be ‘retained’ or guaranteed any
specific amount of work. However the hope is that KI Associates will develop as a
preferred source for internal consultancy work – and the strategy will be to
deliberately build their capability to do this. Simply working in a sustained way with
AAI will develop this capability, but the Knowledge Initiative will also invest in
institutional development (such as one or two week Learning Forums, for planning,
learning, documentation, methodological development and team-building, or ensuring
that the Associates accompany and are part of cutting-edge processes within and
outside the organisation). They may also propose and develop ideas under the ‘brand’
that are consistent with AAI’s Mission. If we only spend 25% of our total consultancy
budget on ‘KI Associates’ then the idea will be self-sustaining.

The Process

It is proposed that the first half of 2006 will be spent developing the Associates
proposal. This will include:
 Assessing existing models of ‘Associates’, for example CDRA, JASS and others
 Developing the KI Journal sabbatical idea
 Assessing consultancy needs within existing plans and seeing whether the
     Associates model would fit the needs – and then following through in the 2006
     three year plan process with an Associate Business Plan
 Identifying and ‘recruiting’ potential Associates (internal and external)
 Identification of relevant workshops, events, or country processes that Associates
     should be part of in terms of contributions and exposure.

5.2 Knowledge Network Performance Indicators

   Too speculative at this stage to say. By mid 2006 we should have a clearer idea of
    which options are working and which direction we will decide upon.

6.0 Risks
The Knowledge Initiative Strategic Plan Koy Thomson October 2005                                      23

Risk                                Experience                           What to do about it
Talent and staff: KI cannot         No experience with recruitment       KI launched as an exciting job
attract good staff                  to KI. Generally AAI attracting      opportunity. Jobs designed for
                                    better staff. High competition       energetic entrepreneurs with
                                    for good internal candidates.        much space for initiative.
Costs: Internal cost sharing and    Some limited experience of           Upfront communication and
subscription unable to generate     shared posts, particularly within    negotiation based on clear
sufficient funds                    themes and policy.                   shared agenda. Strong culture of
                                                                         collaboration and working
KI assets slow to build: KI may     AAI already has considerable         The LDPs will be a critical
not be able to develop materials,   assets in KI related areas (eg       process for the determined and
experience and relationships fast   Reflect) but has not promoted        systematic development and
enough to enter a business phase    them.                                build-up of knowledge assets. It
                                                                         will have to be a priority.
Market knowledge and                We know that there is a demand       The LDP will have to lead to the
development: external market        for advice and support on            development of a training and
for KI services may be too          everything from RBA to ALPs.         knowledge asset of high
undeveloped or the need too         We don’t know organisation’s         excellence, that has an approach
poorly understood for an            preferred ways of getting            and perspective not available
independent institution to          training or how many provide it      anywhere else. Market research
develop                             in-house.                            will be needed.
Fundraising: The KI idea may        Donors are interested in many        Donor market research needed,
not appeal to donors                aspects of knowledge, from           and meetings with promising
                                    ICT4D to research and                donors (with IPD).
                                    participation. They will not         KI ideas to be attractively
                                    however be that interested in        packaged.
                                    supporting AAI to build its own
                                    capacity. We don’t know the
                                    market in ‘big’ knowledge
Too-fragile institutional           We have many ‘friendly’              KI relationships must be an
alliances: KI will require deep     relationships with institutions in   integral part of sustained
and sustained relationships with    the south (and north), and some      relationship building in the
academic institutions, think        are training relationships. We       Regions. Clear MoUs based on
tanks, universities and             are starting to look more            shared values and clear
individuals to work, but the        systematically at agreements         activities need to be developed
MoUs may be treated as one-         with southern universities, think    with institutions, not just
offs or only negotiated with        tanks and academic institutions.     individuals within them.

7. Headcount
2006 onwards – the core team will be the Director, Programme Officer, and Support
Officer plus what is agreed for the new Participation and Rights structure/system.

2007 onwards – the Business Plan will define how we support a core team of 3
people to manage the 4 KI activities, and how we deliver them through MoUs,
Associates, and Regional Institutions.

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