Business Process Management Systems Definitions

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					                                                                                DEFINITIONS AND GLOSSARY
Index                    Term                                            Definition                                           Category
 A      ABC                     Activity-based accounting is allows a structured mechanism to capture and allocate
                                expenditure by categories down to the lowest level to accurately identify the cost and
                                consequences of defects and to track the effectiveness of corrective action. The
                                system must be able to associate and track total costs consumed by type (pump,
                                motor, etc.), individual equipment, manufacturer, specific model, and part number.
                                The ability to sort cost data in a variety of ways is essential to identify deviations from
                                required performance and provides vital input into cost times occurrence Pareto
                                analyses needed to prioritize improvement initiatives

 A      Activity                Set of tasks done by a single Person or a Team uninterrupted by other individuals or
                                teams in the sequence of executing the tasks. Any handover from one person to
                                another person or team, or from one team to another team or person, will constitute
                                a new activity to be defined.
 A      Actuarial analysis      Statistical analysis of failure data to determine the age-reliability characteristics of an
 A      Ad hoc Maintenance      Non-tactical maintenance needs identified through unplanned observation (not
                                scheduled via Planned CBM inspections etc.).
 A      APL                     A list of all parts required to perform a specific maintenance activity. Typically set up
                                as a standard list attached to a Standard Job for Routine Tasks. Not to be confused
                                with a Bill of Materials.
 A      Appointed Person        An employee who has been authorised in terms of OHS Act or other applicable
                                regulations to perform specific duties such as plant isolations.
 A      Approve                 Permission in writing to accept performed duties based on agreed parameters.
 A      Asset Management        The systematic planning and control of a physical resource throughout its life. This
                                may include the specification, design, and construction of the asset, its operation,
                                maintenance and modification while in use, and its disposal when no longer required.

 A      Asset Register          A list of all the Assets in a particular workplace, together with information about those
                                assets, such as manufacturer, vendor, make, model, specifications etc.
 A      Audit                   Systematic independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and
                                evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which criteria are fulfilled
 A      Authorise               Permission in writing to perform specific duties based on agreed parameters.
A   Availability            The probability that equipment will be able to fulfil its required function over a period
                            of time, or at a given point in time.
                            Availability measures the time that a machine can be utilised
B   Backlog                 Same as Work in Progress - Total package of Tactical and Non-tactical work due
                            and overdue fir the specific period in question, all work in progress.
B   Balanced Score Card     A top-down method of translating an organization’s mission and strategy into tangible
                            linkages, interrelationships, specific activities, and measures necessary for success.
                            Reliability and maintenance issues can be integrated into an overall business
                            scorecard or identified in a stand-alone scorecard.
B   Benchmarking            A process for measuring ―best practice‖ performance and comparing the results to
                            corporate performance in order to identify opportunities for improvement. The
                            comparison to ―best practice,‖ often called a GAP analysis, leads to a prioritized
                            array of optimizing changes directed to gaining ―best practice‖ levels of
B   Best Practice           A proven and established process of operation which is continuously improved.
B   Breakdown Maintenance   Non-tactical Maintenance: The urgent maintenance activities required to recover full
                            operational productivity after an un-planned loss of function. It differs from Run to
                            Failure in that the consequences can be severe. These failures have not yet been
                            assessed through an applicable RCM based methodology to revert it into pro-active
                            maintenance. There is as yet, no standard task on the system to maintain the
B   Business Processes      The sequences of activities whereby information is processed by people resources
                            through interaction with each others and with systems, to enable the delivery of
                            services which are either sold (e.g. consultancy), or applied to the physical assets
                            and resources in the manufacturing process (Provision, Operation and Maintain).
                            Information flow is therefore one key aspect of business process management.
                            Business processes describe and govern people activities and further define how all
                            relevant resources such as tools, systems, time and information is used, consumed
                            and processed to provide effective interaction and services. It manages all routine
                            transactions in the business. It differs from manufacturing processes, which describe
                            machine processes and interactions to provide products

C   Capacity Utilisation    The extent to which equipment is required to perform against the rated production
                            capacity due to the product demand.
C   Causes                  Reasons that the deviations or hazards occurred.
C   Clearance                            Written declaration signed by the responsible person and issued to the appointed
                                         person on completion of work performed on the specific plant, to state that the plant
                                         is serviceable and all personnel and equipment have been withdrawn.

C   Condition Based Maintenance          Tactical Maintenance: Maintenance action based on the condition of the function.
                                         The maintenance tactic as a set of tasks whereby a Condition Monitoring task
                                         (inspections or tests), is done to verify the condition of the equipment which will then
                                         lead to Work Arising (corrective follow-up maintenance task), if the condition is
                                         approaching an unacceptable status. It is predictive in nature and the purpose is to
                                         prevent unacceptable failure consequences before they occur by monitoring some
                                         measurable and evident failure characteristic associated with the condition of the
                                         CBM is only effective if there is detectable and measurable deterioration in function
                                         and if there is adequate warning time to re-act.
C   Condition Monitoring                 The process of recording measurements that define condition (e.g., vibration, fluid
                                         and electrical characteristics, and thermal gradients) and comparing each to limits.

C   Conditional Probability of Failure   The probability that an item will fail during a particular age interval, given that it
                                         survives to enter that age
C   Configuration Management
C   Consequences                         The effect of a deviation or hazard.
C   Corrective Maintenance               Work done to restore the function of equipment by rotating, replacing, refurbishing,
                                         adjustment or repairing the defective item. (Not a Tactic, as corrective activities are
                                         required as part of Tactical and Non-Tactical maintenance).

D   Defect                               A term typically used in the maintenance of mobile equipment. A defect is typically a
                                         potential failure or other condition that will require maintenance attention at some
                                         time in the future, but which is not currently preventing the equipment from fulfilling
                                         its functions
D   Deferrable Maintenance               Non-tactical Maintenance - Unexpected failures of which the consequences are not
                                         significant over the short term and therefore can be postponed or deferred for
                                         corrective work at a convenient point in time.
D   Delay                                Time calculated by converting all losses in productivity to an equivalent time against
                                         optimum performance (100% production rate)
D   Design Improvement Maintenance        Tactical Maintenance: The Maintenance tactic whereby changes or modifications are
                                          done to the equipment to remove a failure cause, or to allow other maintenance
                                          stategies to be applicable in managing the consequence of the failure.

D   Design Intention                  How the facility should operate under normal condition. This includes start-up and
                                      shutdown activities.
D   Design Philosophy                 A design philosophy is an approach to establish guidelines for the project design to
                                      execute the process successfully and to handle the identified potential risk factors
                                      (deviation hazards) within acceptable tolerances.
D   Deviation                         A departure from design intent.
D   Due Diligence                     The level of care, judgement, prudence, determination and activity that a person or
                                      business would reasonably be expected to do under particular circumstances
E   Economic Life                     The total length of time that an asset is expected to remain actively in service before
                                      it is expected that it would be cheaper to replace the equipment rather than
                                      continuing to maintain it. In practice, equipment is more often replaced for other
                                      reasons, including: because it no longer meets operational requirements for
                                      efficiency, product quality, comfort etc., or because newer equipment can provide the
                                      same quality and quantity of output more efficiently
E   Efficiency                        The extent to which a resource perform against its intended function.
E   Engineering Spares                All spares used in support of maintenance work.
E   Equipment Integrity               Is the physical ability (strength), within design tolerances, of the equipment to
                                      withstand any stresses induced on it from the process and/or environment.
E   ERP                               Enterprise Resource Planning – A software system comprised of a single or
                                      integrated suite of applications to manage enterprise business functions, including
                                      finance, human resources, and order fulfillment.
E   Estimated Plant Replacement Value The estimated cost of capital works required to replace all the existing assets with
                                      new assets capable of producing the same quantity and quality of output. This is a
                                      key value often used in benchmarking activities
E   EVA                               Economic Value Added – profit in excess of the cost of capital
E   Event Based Maintenance           A scheduling logic for maintenance tasks (mostly Tactical tasks (CM, UBM, FFT),
                                      whereby a task is initiated by the onset of an event such as a Restart,
                                      Commissioning etc. Also, alignment to be done each time a shaft assembly is done.

F   Fail-safe                             An item is fail-safe if, when the item itself incurs a failure, that failure becomes
                                          apparent to the operating workforce in the normal course of events
F   Failure                An identifiable and unsatisfactory deviation from the original or acceptable condition.

F   Failure Consequences   A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance. The consequences of all failures
                           can be classified as being either Hidden, Safety, Environmental, Operational, or Non-
F   Failure Finding Task   Tactical Maintenance: A subset of a RTF Tactics. A maintenance task whereby
                           inspections or tests are done to verify if a failure has already occurred as part of a
                           Run to Failure Tactic. These tasks are normally applied to protective and redundant
                           systems where deterioration in function is hidden and normally instantaneous.
                           Examples: Lamp tests on panels, Pressure Relief valve floating, standby system
                           tests etc. The RTF will consist of two standard tasks, the inspection task, and the
                           WA or corrective follow-up task which will be activated if the inspection findings
                           require so.
F   Failure Mode           The physical process or processes that take place, or combine their effects to
                           produce a failure (J.A Collins), the mechanism or process producing the failure.
F   FMEA                   A method, based on logical system structure, to determine the cause and effect(s) of
                           potential component failures.
F   Functional             The definition of what we want an item of equipment to do, and the level of
                           performance which the users of the equipment require when it does it. Note that an
                           item of equipment can have many functions, commonly split into Primary and
                           Secondary Functions. Note also that the level of performance specified is that
                           required by the users of the equipment, which may be quite different to the original
                           design, or maximum, performance capability for the equipment.
F   Functional Failure     The inability of an item (or the equipment containing the item) to meet a specified
                           condition or performance standard.
F   FUP                    Further work required as identified during Tactical or non-tactical maintenance
H   HAZOP                  A structured process, originally developed by ICI following the Flixborough disaster,
                           intended to proactively identify equipment modifications and/or safety devices
                           required in order to avoid any significant safety or environmental incident as a result
                           of equipment failure. Similar, in some respects to Reliability Centered Maintenance,
                           but not as rigorous as Reliability Centered Maintenance in identifying underlying
                           causes of failure, and does not consider, in any depth, the possibility of avoiding
                           such incidents through applying appropriate Proactive Maintenance tasks.
H   Hidden Failure               A failure which, on its own, does not become evident to the operating crew under
                                 normal circumstances. Typically, protective devices which are not fail-safe
                                 (examples could include standby plant and equipment, emergency systems etc.)

H   Hot Work                     Work that may result in the creation of sparks that again can cause a fire hazard e.g.
                                 grinding, cutting, welding etc. A permit (Hot Work Permit) is required to allow the
                                 work to go ahead and this requirement should be defined in the standard task (work
                                 order), in the system.
I   Infant Mortality             The relatively high conditional probability of failure during the period immediately
                                 after an item returns to service.
I   Inherent Reliability         A measure of the reliability of an item, in its present operating context, assuming
                                 adherence to ideal equipment maintenance strategies
I   Instruction                  the line by line definition of how a task is to be executed, describing the sequence of
                                 the activities in the task
J   JIT                          Just-In-Time – used to describe a manufacturing or other process in which materials
                                 arrive as close as possible to the time required for processing.
K   Key Performance Area         A performance category selected as part of a management framework e.g. the four
                                 perspectives of Balanced Score Card, TEAMQF Quality Elements, TPM five Pillars
K   Key Performance Indicators   A select number of key measures that enable performance against targets to be
L   LCC                          Representing all investments and costs related to specific equipment over the
                                 complete Life Cycle (Conception to Disposal) of the equipment.
L   Life Extending Task          The Maintenance strategy whereby good practices such as lubrication and cleaning
                                 is executed to reduce the potential for failure, or to to extend the life or the PF
L   LSA                          A methodology for determining the type and quantity of logistic support required for a
                                 system over its entire lifecycle. Used to determine the cost effectiveness of asset
                                 based solutions.
M   Maintainability            Is the unrestricted access and the effectiveness of maintenance equipment/facilities
                               provided, to do maintenance work on plant, equipment, facilities or parts there-off,
                               The probability that a failure can be corrected within a given period of time when
                               maintenance is performed given prescribed procedures and resources.
                               The probability of completing a maintenance action in a specified time
M   Maintainability            The probability that equipment will be restored to full operating status, as soon as
                               possible, after failure or planned maintenance activity.
M   Maintenance Plan           The set of Risk Based/Reliability Centered standard tasks developed with
                               maintenance program development methodologies such as OMM, RCM, MSG3 etc.
                               that maintain the consequences of failures for a specific piece of equipment,
                               machine, facility or asset.
M   Maintenance Program        The optimised sets of Maintenance Plans for a complete business, factory or mine,
                               integrated to provide in the safe, environmentally friendly and cost-effective
                               maintenance requirements aligned with production and other business needs.
M   Maintenance Task           A task that is designed to maintain the consequence of a failure, based on the failure
                               behaviour (Tactical or Non-tactical)
M   Metrics                    Objective means of measuring performance and effectiveness.
M   Modification               Addition, remaval or changes to existing plant (equipment and related information)
                               configurations (Refer to DIM)
N   Non-tactical Maintenance   Maintenance activities required due to unexpected failure or potential failure
                               occurrences which are not supported by the intent of the Tactical Maintenance
                               Program or master plan of tasks and schedules developed based on maintenance
                               program development methodologies such as OMM, RCM, MSG3 etc. All
                               maintenance activities not executed through standard tasks.
N   NPV                        Pertaining to the time value of money affected by inflation and deflation. Converting
                               future or historical expenditure or revenue to the current value through discounting
                               and compounding.
O   ODBC                       A standard protocol for accessing information in SQL database servers, such as
                               Microsoft SQL Server. You can install ODBC drivers that enable Microsoft Access to
                               connect to these SQL database servers and access the data in the SQL databases.

O   OMETA Pentagram            Information Flow diagram describing information flow between Operations,
                               Maintenance, Engineering, Training and Administration and Finance.
O   Operating Context            The operational situation within which an asset operates. For example, is it a stand-
                                 alone piece of plant, or is it one of a duty-standby pair? Is it part of a batch
                                 manufacturing process or a continuous production process? What is the impact of
                                 failure of this item of equipment on the remainder of the production process? The
                                 operating context has enormous influence over the choice of appropriate equipment
                                 maintenance strategies for any asset.
P   Penalty/Opportunity Costs    Cost incurred due to lost production time (delays or stoppages), on top of direct
                                 Overhead, Material and Labour Costs
P   Performance Rate             The rate at which the equipment is actually operating, compared to the rated
                                 production capacity during the operating period. (E.g. the quantity produced during
                                 the actual running time, versus the potential quantity, taking into account the
                                 designed speed of the botlleneck equipment.)
P   Permit to Work               A written declaration on a specific format, signed by the appointed person and
                                 issued to the responsible person in charge of the work, informing the latter that the
                                 plant to be worked on has been isolated as detailed. Part of Isolation process.

P   Potential Failure            Some physical identifiable evidence that a functional failure is eminent. Identifiable
                                 and measurable condition that indicates an impending functional failure

P   Potential Failure Interval   A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance. The time from when a Potential
                                 Failure can first be detected on an asset or component using a selected CBM - CM
                                 Maintenance task, until the asset or component has failed. Reliability Centered
                                 Maintenance principles state that the frequency with which a Predictive Maintenance
                                 task should be performed is determined solely by the P-F Interval.

P   Primary Function             A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance. The primary functionality required
                                 of an asset - the reason the asset was acquired. For example it is likely that the
                                 primary function of a pump is to pump a specified liquid at a specified rate against a
                                 specified head of pressure
P   Procedure                    A procedure is the documented representation of an actual business process. It
                                 supports corporate governance in that it provides a governing standard on how the
                                 process activities or business transactions are to be executed.
P   Process                      Sequence of linear and parallel activities executed by teams and individuals in order
                                 to provide a specific service. Activities consist again of tasks sequences to support
                                 the activity deliverable.
P   Productivity         The extent to which equipment is performing and producing at optimum Quality,
                         efficiency (Production rate), with the highest possible uptime (Availability), and most
                         of the time (Capacity Utilisation).
P   Project Life Cycle   This include the design, construction, commissioning stages and effective operating
                         life time of the project.
P   Protective Device    Devices and assets intended to eliminate or reduce the consequences of equipment
                         failure. Some examples include standby plant and equipment, emergency systems,
                         safety valves, alarms, trip devices, and guards
Q   Quality Assurance    Preventive, steps taken to increase likelihood of obtaining good quality results,
                         getting it right the first time
Q   Quality Control      Curative , which recognises human fallibility and takes steps to ensure that variations
                         from standard are elliminated. Getting it righ every time with zero defects

R   RAM                  component life and ease of repair, are inherent characteristics that originate at
                         design and strongly influence the lifetime cost of ownership. Lifetime costs must be
                         assessed more fundamentally during the design process. Good design eliminates or
                         minimizes problems, including opportunity for operating mistakes. The process must
                         ensure that improvements and problems solved on existing equipment are
                         incorporated in the design of new equipment. Compromises to reduce cost often
                         result in facilities and equipment that are difficult and costly to operate and maintain.
                         Once a system has been fielded, no improvement of RAM performance can be
                         achieved without significant expense.
R   RCM                  A Logical Discipline focusing on the Failure Process, for developing a Scheduled
                         Maintenance Programme that will realise the Inherent Safety and Reliability Levels of
                         complex equipment at minimum cost.
                         Reliability Centered Maintenance: A systematic, disciplined process to ensure safety
                         and mission compliance that defines system boundaries and identifies system
                         functions, functional failures, and likely failure modes for equipment and structures in
                         a specific operating context.
                         Develops a logical identification of the causes and effects (consequences) of system
                         and functional failures to arrive at an efficient and effective asset management
                         strategy to reduce the probability of failure.
R   Reengineering        A fundamental rethinking and business process redesign to achieve dramatic
                         improvements in performance and productivity.
                         The process of (re-)assessment, analysis, modelling, definition and subsequent
                         operational implementation of the core business processes of an organisation, or
                         other business entity.
R   Reliability          The probability that a equipment will perform its prescribed function, under stated
                         conditions, for a stated period.
R   Reliability          The probability that an item is able to perform a required function for a
                         predetermined period of time.
                         Reliability is the probability that a system or product will perform in a satisfactory
                         manner for a given period of time when used under specified operating conditions.
                         Reliability is a measure of an item’s performance, describing its resistance to
                         deterioration and giving an indication as to the life to be expected from the item.

R   Repair               Any activity which returns the capability of an asset that has failed to a level of
                         performance equal to, or greater than, that specified by its Functions, but not greater
                         than its original maximum capability. An activity which increases the maximum
                         capability of an asset is a modification
R   Responsible Person   A person who has been authorised in terms of applicable regulations to perform
                         work and supervise staff.
R   Restoration          Any activity which returns the capability of an asset that has not failed to a level of
                         performance equal to, or greater than, that specified by its Functions, but not greater
                         than its original maximum capability. Not to be confused with a modification or a
R   Return on Assets     Return on Assets is the profit attributable to a particular plant or factory, divided by
                         the amount of money invested in plant and equipment at that plant or factory. It is
                         normally expressed as a percentage
R   Risk                 Probability that a hazard may result in an accident/incident with definable
R   Risk Based Maintenance         The productive, risk based tasks and tasks sets we employ to manage the
                                   experienced and anticipated failure consequences of equipment and machine
                                   functions. These tasks have been developed and assessed to be Technically
                                   Feasible, Safe and Environmentally Friendly and Cost Effective through the
                                   application of appropriate Risk based Assessment methodologies such as OMM,
                                   RCM, MSG3, Top-down-Bottom-up etc. These tasks are also required to be
                                   executed through, and as standard tasks. Tactical Maintenance consists of the
                                   following Tactics:
                                   • CBM
                                   • UBM
                                   • RTF
                                   • DIM
R   Risk Factors                    Any unacceptable potential hazard or unacceptable potential factor that may result
                                   in loss or downgrade the efficiency of the business operation.
R   Risk Management                The art and science of identifying, analysing and responding to risk factors
                                   throughout the life cycle of a project in the best interest of its objectives.
R   ROA                            Return On Assets: Profit divided by asset value.
R   ROC                            Document detailing all Functional and Performance requirements throughout the
                                   equipment's life cycle. It is a complete system base line against which the equipment
                                   must perform.
R   ROCE                           Return On Capital Employed: Profit divided by asset value.
R   ROE                            Return On Equity: Profit divided by corporate equity.
R   RONA                           Return On Net Assets: Sales minus expenses divided by total assets.
R   Rotable Components/Equipment   Components and equipment which are routinely refurbished or repaired for re-
                                   application in the plant
R   Run to Failure                 The Maintenance Tactic where it is consciously been decided to operate function to
                                   the point of failure. RTF consists of a set of tasks whereby a Failure Finding Task
                                   (FFT - inspections or tests), is done to verify if a failure has already occurred, which
                                   will then activate a Work Arising Task (WA), to support the corrective work required.
                                   These tasks are normally applied to protective and redundant systems where
                                   deterioration in function is hidden and random. Examples: Lamp tests on panels,
                                   Pressure Relief valve floating, standby system tests etc. The RTF will consist of two
                                   standard tasks, the inspection task, and the WA or corrective follow-up task which
                                   will be activated if the inspection findings require so.

S   Sanitory                       Condition that affects health especially with regard to dirt and infection.
S   Scheduled Maintenance   Maintenance activities (Tactical or Non-tactical), which are scheduled for execution
                            based on a certain usage. This scheduling usage can be time based, mileage, tons,
                            batches, events etc.
S   Secondary Function      A term used in Reliability Centered Maintenance. The secondary functionality
                            required of an asset - generally not associated with the reason for acquiring the
                            asset, but now that the asset has been acquired, the asset is now required to provide
                            this functionality. For example a secondary function of a pump may be to ensure that
                            all of the liquid that is pumped is contained within the pump (ie. the pump doesn't
                            leak). An asset may have tens or hundreds of secondary functions associated with it

S   Six Sigma (6-σ)         The use of statistical tools applied in a disciplined way to identify and solve
                            problems. Referring to the normal distribution applied to quality problems.

S   Skilled Person          A person who has been sufficiently trained and tested to be aware of dangers
                            involved in the particular work to be executed.
S   Standard Job/Task       The Reliability Centered or Risk Based Maintenance Task stored in the CMMS as a
                            Work Order which contains all the necessary information required to perform a
                            maintenance task. All Tactical Maintenance has Standard Tasks associated with
                            them. They can be dormant with manual or automated activation, or actively
                            scheduled via the system
S   Stock Code              An unique code to identify all engineering spares (whether the item has a stock level
                            or not).
S   Straw Man               An outline or model that needs to be fleshed out with detail later
S   Systems Engineering    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary, collaborative
                           approach to the engineering of systems (of any type) which
                           aims to capture stakeholder needs and objectives and to
                           transform these into to a description of a holistic,
                           life-cycle balanced system solution which both satisfies
                           the minimum requirements, and optimises overall project and
                           system effectiveness according to the values of the

                           Stakeholder measures of effectiveness could include, as
                           applicable, time to market, cost of goods sold, increase
                           in business net present value, measures of user benefit
                           (eg, product quality, military capability), political
                           benefits, ....
T   Tactical Maintenance   The productive, risk based tasks and tasks sets we employ to manage the
                           experienced and anticipated failure consequences of equipment and machine
                           functions. These tasks have been developed and assessed to be Technically
                           Feasible, Safe and Environmentally Friendly and Cost Effective through the
                           application of appropriate Risk based Assessment methodologies such as OMM,
                           RCM, MSG3, Top-down-Bottom-up etc. These tasks are also required to be
                           executed through, and as standard tasks. Tactical Maintenance consists of the
                           following Tactics:
                           • CBM
                           • UBM
                           • RTF
                           • DIM
T   Task                   Set/Sequence of activities required to address a specific maintenance issue
T   TCO                    A philosophy and process to reduce or optimise Life Cycle Costs. In pure
                           accounting terms: ∑(LCC) = TCO.
T   Terotechnology         The application of managerial, financial, engineering and other skills to extend the
                           operational life of, and increase the efficiency of, equipment and machinery.
T   Thermography           The process of monitoring the condition of equipment through the measurement and
                           analysis of heat. Typically conducted through the use of infra-red cameras and
                           associated software. Commonly used for monitoring the condition of high voltage
                           insulators and electrical connections, as well as for monitoring the condition of
                           refractory in furnaces and boilers, amongst other applications.
T   Thin Client                    The term "thin client" generally refers to user devices whose functionality is
                                   minimized, either to reduce the cost of ownership per desktop or to provide more
                                   user flexibility and mobility. Thin can denote a range of capability—that is, anything
                                   less than a full-fledged PC running a complete operating system, running local
                                   applications, and operating on locally stored data.

                                   Various types of thin clients have existed in the past; X-terminals and diskless
                                   workstations are the most familiar examples. Recently, the term has been
                                   reinvigorated by relating it to several new Internet-oriented devices: the network
                                   appliance, the network computer, and the networked PC (which is really a standard
                                   PC that can also act as a thin client for some applications).

                                   For any thin client, reducing the client role results in an increase in the server role in
                                   delivering complete applications. In a traditional fat client/server deployment (Figure
                                   1), the client PC generally stores files and applications locally, enabling independent
                                   operation. The server is used to store completed files, making them available for
                                   sharing with other users, or to provide network services such as printing, faxing, and

T   Total Maintenance              The collection of Tactical and Non-tactical maintenance activities employed to
                                   address the failure consequences on equipment and machine functions.
T   Total Productive Maintenance   A company-wide equipment management program, with its origins in Japan,
                                   emphasising production operator involvement in equipment maintenance, and
                                   continuous improvement approaches. Numerous books have been written on the
                                   subject, including Nakajima's authoritative introduction, and a more recent Western
                                   hemisphere update by Willmott
T   TPM                            A process of continuous improvement in Maintenance and Manufacturing Processes
                                   and Equipment Condition and Performance to improve overall Equipment
                                   Effectiveness, Operations Efficiency, Output Quality and Worker Safety.
                                   A team-based approach to equipment management that emphasizes zero
                                   defects/zero loss operations, maintenance cooperation (autonomous maintenance),
                                   small group activities, and cleanliness.
T   Tribology                 the process of monitoring the condition of equipment through The analysis of
                              properties of its lubricating and other oils. Typically conducted through the
                              measurement of particulates in the oil, or the measurement of the chemical
                              composition of the oil (Spectographic Oil Analysis). Commonly used for monitoring
                              the condition of large gearboxes, engines and transformers, amongst other
T   Tripple Bottom Line       An approach which takes into account the total business responsibility – the social,
                              environmental and financial (or triple bottom line) accountability. This can be applied
                              to Strategy, Projects, Risk management etc.
T   T-shaped Management       Knowledge is shared freely across the organisation but the business units are
                              committed to own performance. Direct contact is typically needed to transfer tacit
U   Urgent Maintenance        Non-tactical Maintenance - Unexpected failures of which the consequences are
                              significant and therefore needs immediate attention.
U   Usage Based Maintenance   Tactical Maintenance: The maintenance tactic whereby a corrective maintenance
                              task is executed at predetermined intervals of usage (mileage, tonnage, hours,
                              batches, events etc.) to prevent unacceptable failure consequences before they
                              occur. Usage Based maintenance is only effective if there is age determination or a
                              definite pattern in the occurrence of failures (reliable operational period - statistically
                              determinable, before most failure will happen). Example: Typical car timing belt - will
                              normally operate reliably and will be replaced after 80 000km (example). This
                              approach is normally taken if there is no mechanism to determine deterioration in
                              function, and if there are no safety consequences, or unacceptable environmental or
                              economical consequences.

U   Useful Life               The maximum length of time that a component can be left in service, before it will
                              start to experience a rapidly increasing probability of failure. The Useful Life
                              determines the frequency with which a Scheduled Restoration or a Scheduled
                              Discard task should be performed. Note that for the concept of the Useful Life of a
                              component to hold true, components must, at some consistent point in time,
                              experience a rapidly increasing probability of failure. Research in the airline industry
                              showed that, in this industry at least, this was only true for 11% of the components in
                              modern aircraft
V   Value Engineering    A systematic approach to assessing and analyzing the user's requirements of a new
                         asset, and ensuring that those requirements are met, but not exceeded. Consists
                         primarily of eliminating perceived "non-value-adding" features of new equipment.

V   Vibration Analysis   The process of monitoring the condition of equipment, and the diagnosis of faults in
                         equipment through the measurement and analysis of vibration within that equipment.
                         Typically conducted through hand-held or permanently positioned accelerometers
                         placed on key measurement points on the equipment. Commonly used on most
                         large items of rotating equipment, such as turbines, centrifugal pumps, motors,
                         gearboxes etc.
W   WCM                  See TPM.
W   Work Arising         The required follow-up work identified during the execution of a CBM Condition
                         Monitoring Task, and a RTF Failure Finding Task. This work is governed by a
                         standard task in the system which was designed as part of Tactical Maintenance.

W   Work in Progress     Total package of Tactical and Non-tactical work due and overdue.
W   Work Order           The prime document used by the maintenance function to manage maintenance
                         tasks. It may include such information as a description of the work required, the task
                         priority, the job procedure to be followed, the parts, materials, tools and equipment
                         required to complete the job, the labor hours, costs and materials consumed in
                         completing the task, as well as key information on failure causes, what work was
                         performed etc
W   Work Request         The prime document raised by user departments requesting the initiation of a
                         maintenance task. This is usually converted to a work order after the work request
                         has been authorised for completion. Used for Non-Tactical Maintenance work
W   Worker's Register    A register of workers allocated to do work under a specific Permit to Work, to be
                         completed by the responsible person.
In context of equipment performance
The mechanism of failure. Typically Wear, Corrosion, Fatigue.

Describes the endstate or potential endstate of the failure
Refer to Efficiency
Also Tactical Maintenance
Not breakdown and ad hoc maintenance activities as these are
not reflected in the master plan of tasks and schedules.
Technically 6-σ means that only 3.4 defects occur in one million
tries. Most industrial activities are at a Two Sigma (2-σ) level,
which produces 308,537 defects per million. The airline industry
performs at a 6-σ level for safety, but both drug prescription
writing and tax advice from the IRS are said to perform at the 2-σ
level. As stated above, actually achieving 6-σ is often not the goal
of individual projects. Instead, management intends to reach a
defined goal that adds significant cost savings to the bottom line.
Also Risk Based Maintenance
Not breakdown and ad hoc maintenance activities as these are
not reflected in the master plan of tasks and schedules.

Maintenance Context
Matrix organisation?
Also Job Card

Description: Business Process Management Systems Definitions document sample