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A Dual-Mode Direct-Conversion CMOS Transceiver for Bluetooth and

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A Dual-Mode Direct-Conversion CMOS Transceiver for Bluetooth and Powered By Docstoc
					        A Dual-Mode Direct-Conversion CMOS
        Transceiver for Bluetooth and 802.11b
 Yeon-Jae Jung, Hoesam Jeong, Eunseok Song, Jungho Lee, Seung-Wook Lee*, Donghyeon Seo*,
       Inho Song*, Sanghun Jung*, Joonbae Park*, Deog-Kyoon Jeong, and Wonchan Kim

                                 Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
                      *
                       GCT Semiconductor Inc., 2121 Ringwood Avenue San Jose CA 95131, USA


Abstract                                                                                             DC-offset Cancellation
  A dual-mode direct-conversion transceiver integrates
the transmitter of 0dBm output power and the receiver                                                      ~
                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                           PGA                                   PGA

for both Bluetooth with -87dBm sensitivity and 802.11b
                                                                   LNA                                                  Dual-mode PGAs
with -86dBm sensitivity in a single chip with all building
blocks shared for low cost and low power solution.                                                         ~
                                                                                                           ~                     PGA
                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                           PGA

Fabricated in 0.25µm CMOS process, die size is 8.4mm2                                               Dual-mode Filter
including pads and current consumption in RX is 50mA
for Bluetooth and 65mA for 802.11b.                                                                        ~
                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                                                                  Filter
                                                                                                                                  Tuning

                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                            PGA


                                                                    PA

1. Introduction                                                                                            ~
  As the need for a short-range wireless personal
                                                                                            PGA
                                                                                                           ~
                                                                                                           ~                      Serial
                                                                                                                                  Interface
networking rapidly increases, numerous efforts has been                                                                Channel
                                                                                                                                  &
                                                                                                                                  Registers
focused on implementing a low power, low cost, and                          POLY-   DOU-
                                                                                                   PFD
                                                                                                           LOOP
                                                                                                                       Setting


highly integrated RF IC, especially in the areas of                         PHASE   BLER   VCO
                                                                                                  PRE-
                                                                                                           FILTER
                                                                                                                    Reference      CLK
                                                                                                  SCALER
Bluetooth (BT) and 802.11b. Since both two standards are                                                            Clock          GEN.


targeted for the same 2.4GHz ISM band, a good deal of
various building blocks of the two radios could be shared,               Fig. 1. Dual-mode transceiver architecture
in principle. Dual-mode transceivers [1-2], with the same
motivation, have previously been proposed. However,           mode programmable gain amplifier (PGA) in order to
these exploited the partial commonality partly due to         mitigate the low noise requirement of the succeeding filter
different receiver architecture adoption in each mode. The    stage. Rejection of out-of-channel interferers is done by an
proposed transceiver implements the dual-mode capability      active low-pass dual-mode filter, which is implemented by
with a direct-conversion architecture for both modes and      a Butterworth filter of 6th-order. Then, three cascaded
both transmit/receive (TX/RX) operations. Thus, a little      PGA stages provide sufficient gain to accommodate the
area overhead is required since the transceiver can share     signal range required by the A/D converters in the
baseband blocks as well as RF stages. Furthermore, since      baseband IC. DC-offset caused by various sources is
the two standards differ considerably in their bandwidth      removed by the DC-offset cancellation block coupled with
and dynamic characteristics, the power consumption of the     PGAs.
dual-mode transceiver is optimized separately for each          In TX path, the transmitter takes the analog I/Q inputs
mode.                                                         from the baseband IC. The transmit spectrum shaping is
  The proposed dual-mode RF IC is a low power and low         performed by the TX filter. The following PGA linearly
cost solution, which works in stand-alone with each           controls the amplitudes of the filtered I/Q signal in order
commercial baseband chip and even does simultaneous           to guarantee the TX mixer against the dynamic range loss.
operation of Bluetooth and 802.11b with a dual-mode           The TX baseband signal is directly up-converted to
baseband chip.                                                2.4GHz by a single-sideband mixer and then, delivered
                                                              to 50Ω load by the pre-amplifier (PA) with a nominal
2. Architecture                                               power level of 0dBm and 18dB gain control, achieved by
   Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the dual-mode            the gain control in PGA and PA.
transceiver. A direct-conversion architecture includes RF       A 1.2GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizer is used
receive and transmit sections, clock generation, filtering,   for the generation of the LO signal at half the desired
and linear amplification.                                     frequency. Since the raster frequency is as small as
   In RX path, the single-ended low-noise amplifier first     20kHz, the industry standard reference crystal oscillators
amplifies the received signal with high/low gain settings     can be used. The fractional-N synthesizer offers low in-
[3]. Then, the amplified signal is directly down-converted    band rms phase error due to wide loop bandwidth of
to the baseband with 2.4GHz LO signals. The baseband          200kHz. The possible low frequency spur is suppressed
signal is first amplified by a high-linear, low-noise dual-   by using the charge-averaging charge pump scheme [4].
The loop filter is also integrated in IC to minimize the
coupling from the external noise sources. The Gilbert-
cell type frequency doubler and 2nd-order active
polyphase filter produces the 2.4GHz LO signals in order
to minimize VCO pulling by PA and avoid possible
interference by the RF signal.

3. Circuit Design
3.1. Pre-amplifier
  The pre-amplifier, shown in Fig. 1, is a single-ended                                        CMFB
circuit, blocking the use of an external element such as
                                                                       outb          in                      inb         out
balun. The PA uses a cascode structure to assure the
isolation from the PA output to its input, and to maintain
the stability. The output of open-drain type needs an
external RF choke as a load, that also provides the DC                                                                   mode
                                                                                                                         control
current path. The nominal 0dBm output power is
controlled in six steps of 3dB by changing the bias                              Fig. 2. Dual-mode PGA
current of the cascode transistor through a bias control
circuitry in PA and by the gain control in the baseband        by the analog channel selection filter to nullify the
PGA.                                                           dependence on the digital filtering, thus not to confine the
  An optional off-chip power amplifier further boosts the      baseband chip to a specific one. A low pass filter of 6th-
radio output to a maximum of 16dBm at antenna output.          order Butterworth features both a maximally flat in-band
                                                               magnitude response and good group delay response with a
                                                               cutoff frequency of 700kHz in BT and 5.5MHz in 802.11b
                                    RFC                        mode, respectively. Among numerous filter structures
                                             Off-chip
                                             Matching          including gmC and switched capacitor techniques, the
                                             Network
                                                               active RC filter is chosen because it has the superior
              bias                                             linearity performance.
                                                                  Fig. 3 shows the dual-mode filter implementation. The
         in                                                    6th-order characteristic is achieved by cascading two 3rd -
                                                               order filters with different filter Qs. The filter stages are
                     Fig. 1. pre-amplifier                     arranged with low Q in front and high Q at the output to
                                                               maximize the available dynamic range. The 3rd-order filter
                                                               schematic is also shown in detail. The same opamp in
3.2. Programmable Gain Amplifier                               PGA is used to share similar benefits. The 3rd-order filter
  Fig. 2 shows the simplified schematic of the dual-mode       is composed of a biquad and a passive pole – R4 and C3.
PGA. Amplifier using switchable resistor array and             While using simple multiple feedback topology, no stop-
differential opamp exhibits excellent linearity performance.   band zero is added to reduce the required opamp counts,
Gain control is realized by switching the feedback             thus to keep the current consumption low. The capacitor
resistors and the resistors in the forward path to optimize    C2 and C3 are split into a differential and a single-ended
the noise and linearity characteristics at different gain      part to save chip area and to also achieve common mode
settings. A fully differential opamp features one-stage        selectivity.
amplification through a differential pair equipped with
common-mode feedback and buffering through source                                3rd-order      3rd-order
follower stages. Low output impedance of source follower                        Butterworth
                                                                                 Q=0.5412
                                                                                               Butterworth
                                                                                                Q=1.3065
is extremely useful to drive the resistive load and to
mitigate the high frequency roll-off possibly caused by                              ~
                                                                                     ~            ~
                                                                                                  ~
large parasitic capacitance including the succeeding stage,                          ~            ~
which is in order to lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
degradation due to the flicker noise especially in narrow
                                                                                          R2
bandwidth, BT application.                                                                       C1
  Since the bandwidth requirement is greatly differ for BT
and 802.11b, the current in opamp is halved in BT mode
                                                                        R1                R3                   R4
compared to 802.11b mode in order to reduce the overall          inb                                                       out
current consumption. This is achieved by switching the                         C2                                   C3
                                                                  in                                                      outb
current source in differential opamp according to each                  R1                R3                   R4
mode.
  The total gain range of four PGA stages in baseband
                                                                                                 C1
chain is 60dB in 3dB steps.                                                               R2


3.3. Channel Selection Filter
 The rejection of out-of-channel interferers is done wholly                         Fig. 3. Dual-mode filter
                                                                                                PGA
                         BT                  802.11b




                                                                                                           Gm
                                 (a)


            BT                                          tuning[4:0]
                                                                                    Fig. 5. DC-offset cancellation
           Cm/2   Cm/2        16Cu     8Cu         Cu
                                                                      4. Experimental Results
                                                                         The transceiver IC was fabricated in 0.25µm CMOS
                                                                      process. The die area is 2.9mm x 2.9mm including pads,
                            (b)                                       and the die micrograph is shown in Fig. 6. The IC is
  Fig. 4. (a) mode control using switchable resistors and             packaged in a 40-pin QFN package with an exposed
           (b) mode control and frequency tuning                      bottom pad. Fig. 7 shows the receiver bit-error rate (BER)
              using switchable capacitor arrays                       and packet-error rate (PER) versus the input signal power
                                                                      for both BT and 802.11b modes. In BT, the minimum
   Fig. 4 shows the mode control for dual-mode support                detectable signal (MDS) is -87dBm at 0.1% BER, which
and the frequency tuning method. If only capacitor                    is 17dB better than the sensitivity required by the BT
switching is used for the dual-mode control, the required             standard. The sensitivity in 802.11b mode is -86dBm at
capacitor area could be prohibitively large. Thus, the                8% PER and 11Mb/s data rate. This sensitivity level also
resistor is allocated to each one for each mode as shown in           exceeds the required MDS by 10dB. The measured filter
Fig. 4(a) [5]. Since the capacitor dominates the area, the            response of the dual-mode filter is shown in Fig. 8. The
switchable capacitor array is intended for the maximum                discrepancy of the corner frequency from the target value
sharing as in Fig. 4(b). The only non-shared capacitor is a           is reduced within 3% due to the on-chip tuning loop. The
capacitor of the value of Cm/2 for BT mode. Other unit                measured I/Q imbalance, the difference in amplitudes and
capacitor arrays controlled by tuning[4:0] signals, are               phases of the two channels over the pass-band, is not more
included to automatically tune the corner frequency of the            than 0.3dB and 0.5o, respectively. Fig. 9 shows the
filter against the process spreads and temperature                    transmitter output spectrum at 2.442 GHz. The output
variations. The on-chip tuning circuit provides the                   power at nominal condition is about 0dBm for both modes.
tuning[4:0] signals by measuring the RC time constant                 Applying 1Mb/s pseudorandom data with GFSK
and comparing it with the fixed clock reference, in idle              modulation, the BT output spectrum is shown in Fig. 9(a).
time. Since the main capacitor in 802.11b mode is halved              The 802.11b output spectrum with 11Mb/s data applied to
compared to BT mode, the tuning[4:0] signals are right-               its input is shown in Fig. 9(b). An adjacent channel power
shifted by 1-bit and zero-padded in 802.11b case.                     rejection (ACPR) of better than 60dBc is achieved for
                                                                      both modes.
3.4. DC-offset Cancellation                                              Table I summarizes the dual-mode transceiver IC
  Although there are several obstacles in a direct-                   performance characteristics. The receiver IIP3 with the
conversion transceiver implementation, the DC-offset                  high gain setting at LNA is measured as -15dBm. The
problem is the most serious one. While the AC coupling                phase noise measured at PA output is typically 2 degrees.
method may be regarded as an intuitive solution, it                   Final output DC-offset is less than 20mV with all gain
requires the huge capacitor area and accompanies the                  settings in both BT and 802.11b modes.
unavoidable in-band loss [6]. The alternative one is to use
the DC-coupled stage with a feedback configuration as
depicted in Fig. 5. The Gm block proportionally converts
the output offset voltage into the respective offset current                          RF RX
                                                                                      RF RX                  RF TX
                                                                                                             RF TX
fed into the MOS capacitor through a variable resistor.
The integrated error voltage is subtracted from the input
signal in the summer, which is embodied with an                                                       Doubler & Poly-phase
                                                                                                      Doubler & Poly-phase
additional input pair in PGA. The DC-offset cancellation
scheme is effective in that it does not incur any in-band
loss and it is able to use the MOS capacitor which needs                              Filters
                                                                                      Filters
                                                                                                          Frequency
                                                                                         &
                                                                                         &
several times smaller area than the floating counterpart.                              PGAs
                                                                                      PGAs
                                                                                                          Synthesizer
                                                                                                          Synthesizer
The variable resistor is introduced to alter the corner
frequency of the high pass filter characteristics, since this
corner frequency is directly related with the SNR                                                      fc-tuning
                                                                                                      fc-tuning

degradation and settling time. In BT mode, the corner is
                                                                                                        Serial Interface
                                                                                                        Serial Interface
reduced to 1kHz for the minimal performance loss [7]. On
the contrary, in 802.11b mode, the corner is changed to ten
times smaller one compared to the nominal 100kHz.                                      Fig. 6. Die micrograph
                                  802.11b



                  BT



                                                                                            (a)



          Fig. 7. Measured receiver sensitivity




                                802.11b



                                                                                             (b)
                       BT                                                 Fig. 9. Transmitter output spectrum with
                                                                           (a) Bluetooth data and (b) 802.11b data


                                                                                Table I Performance Summary
                                                                                          Bluetooth                802.11b

            Fig. 8. Dual-mode filter response                  RX Current                  50mA                    65mA

                                                               TX Current                  45mA                    60mA
5. Conclusion                                                  Sensitivity                 -87dBm                  -86dBm
   A highly integrated low power dual-mode transceiver in      IIP3                                    -15dBm
0.25µm CMOS intended for use in Bluetooth and 802.11b
                                                               TX Output Power                      0dBm@nominal
applications is reported. A direct-conversion architecture
enables the maximum reuse and the optimal current              Phase noise                   2 deg RMS(10kHz – 10MHz)
consumption of the various building blocks in each mode,       Output DC-offset                        < 20mV
thus low power and low cost solution with the minimal          Supply Voltage                            2.7V
external components required. This CMOS transceiver
                                                               Die Size                    2.9mm x 2.9mm(including pads)
with the dual-mode capability offers the extreme
flexibility for the short-range wireless personal area         Package                                40 pin QFN
network applications.
                         References
[1] H. Darabi, et al., “A dual mode 802.11b/Bluetooth        [5] T. Hollman, S. Lindfors, M. Länsirinne, J. Jussila, and
    radio in 0.35µm CMOS,” ISSCC Digest of Technical             K. A. I. Halonen, “A 2.7-V CMOS dual-mode
    Papers, pp. 86-87, Feb. 2003.                                baseband filter for PDC and WCDMA,” IEEE Journal
[2] T. Cho, D. Kang, S. Dow, C.-H. Heng, and B. Song,            of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, pp. 1148-1153, July
    “A 2.4GHz dual-mode 0.18µm CMOS transceiver for              2001.
    Bluetooth and 802.11b,” ISSCC Digest of Technical        [6] R. Harjani, J. Kim, and J. Harvey, “DC-coupled IF
    Papers, pp. 88-89, Feb. 2003.                                stage design for a 900-MHz ISM receiver,” IEEE
[3] K.-Y. Lee, et al., “Full-CMOS 2-GHz WCDMA direct             Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, pp. 126-134,
    conversion transmitter and receiver,” IEEE Journal of        Jan. 2003.
    Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, pp. 43-53, Jan. 2003.     [7] S.-W. Lee, et al., “A single-chip 2.4GHz direct-
[4] Y. Koo, et al., “A fully integrated CMOS frequency           conversion CMOS transceiver with GFSK modem for
    synthesizer with charge-averaging charge pump and            Bluetooth application,” IEEE SOVC Digest of
    dual-path loop filter for PCS- and cellular-CDMA             Technical Papers, pp. 245-246, June 2001.
    wireless systems,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State
    Circuits, vol. 37, pp. 536-542, May 2002.

				
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