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Filipino American

Filipino American
Filipino American Regions with significant populations California, Hawaii, Chicago Metropolitan Area, New York Metropolitan Area[2] Languages American English, Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Bikolano, Visayan languages, others Religion Predominantly Roman Catholic; minorities of Protestantism, Islam, and others.

Notable Filipino Americans: Cristeta Comerford, LTG Edward Soriano, Eleanor Mariano, Veronica De La Cruz, Allan Pineda, Ben Cayetano

Total population 4[1] Million
1.5% of the US population (2007)

Filipino Americans (Fil-Am for short) are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipino Americans reside mainly in the continental United States and form significant populations in Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, and Northern Marianas. The earliest Filipino Americans to arrive in the New World landed in 1763, later creating settlements such as Saint Malo, Louisiana and Manila Village in Barataria Bay. These early settlements were composed of formerly pressed sailors escaping from the arduous duties aboard Spanish galleons and were "discovered" in America in 1883 by a Harper’s Weekly journalist. Significant immigration to what is presently the United States began with the need for agriculture laborers in the 1900s[3], with Filipinos settling primarily in, what was then, the Territory of Hawaii and California, after the Philippine-American War, which would see the Philippines becoming a territory of the United States. This immigration would stop to a trickle during the 1930s due to multiple factors, to include the recognition of independece by the United States on July 4, 1946, and would not see a ressurgence until the late 1960s. Most would settle in California, while others would find a new home around U.S. Navy Bases, major metropolitan areas, the West, and to a lesser extant the South. Some came looking for political freedom, but most arrived looking for employment and a better life for their families.

Demographics
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Filipino American
States Navy Bases, whose impact can still be seen today. Due to their isolation and enforced segregation, the migrants created the first Little Manilas in urban areas. As time passed, immigration policies changed, and enforced segregation diminished, Filipino Americans had a tendency to settle in a more dispersed fashion than other Asian Americans such as the Chinese and the Vietnamese. This led to a decline in the presence of Little Manilas. Most Filipinos live in the suburbs or in master planned communities. In areas with sparse Filipino populations, Fil-ams often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", which is a key feature of Filipino culture. Such organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date with local events. While these events are well-attended, the associations are otherwise a small part of the Fil-am life. Fil-ams also have formed closeknit neighborhoods of their own, notably in California and Hawaiʻi. A few townships in these parts of the country have established "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community. As of 2008, one out of every four Filipino Americans make their home in Southern California, numbering over 1 million[9]. Greater Los Angeles is the metropolitan area home to the most Filipino Americans, with the population numbering around 370,000. Los Angeles County alone accounts for over 262,000 Filipinos, the most of any single county in the U.S. The City of Los Angeles designated a section of Westlake as Historic Filipinotown. San Diego County is second place in the nation, with nearly 200,000 Filipinos[10]. In addition, San Diego is the only metropolitan area in the U.S. where Filipinos constitute the largest Asian American nationality. A portion of California State Route 54 in San Diego is officially named the "Filipino-American Highway", in honor of the Filipino-American Community. Orange County also has a sizable and growing Filipino population. San Francisco also has a large Filipino American community while metropolitan areas such as Chicago, Atlanta, Houston, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Washington, D.C. and Seattle are also seeing dramatic growth in their Filipino populations. In Census 2000, the state of Hawaii had a Filipino population of over 275,000.[11]

Population
The Filipino American ("Fil-Am" for short) community is the second largest Asian American group in the United States. Filipino Americans are also the largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos.[4] The U.S. Census Bureau reported that there are approximately 3.1 million Filipinos in the United States as of 2007. The census also found that about 80% of the FilipinoAmerican community are United States citizens.[5] Also in 2007, the U.S. State Department estimated the size of the Filipino American community at 4 million[1] or 1.5% of the United States population. There are no official records of Filipinos who hold dual citizenship.

Settlement
Further information: Saint Malo (Louisiana) and List of U.S. cities with large Filipino American populations

Embassy of the Philippines in Washington The first permanent Filipino settlement in North America was established in 1763 in Saint Malo, Louisiana. Other settlements appeared throughout the bayous of Louisiana with the Manila Village in Barataria Bay being the largest. Mass migration, however, began at the beginning of the 20th century, when the demand for labor in the plantations of Hawaiʻi and farmlands of California attracted thousands of mostly male laborers.[6][7] This migration was reduced to 50 persons a year following the Tydings-McDuffie Act, but was offset by the United States Navy’s recruitment of Filipinos, which were exempt from the aforementioned quota.[8] Thus Filipino American communites developed around United

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New York City is home to 215,000 Filipinos.[12] It annually hosts the Philippine Independence Day Parade, which is traditionally held on the first Sunday of June at Madison Avenue. The celebration occupies nearly twenty-seven city blocks which includes a 3.5-hour parade and an all-day long street fair and cultural performances. Devout attendees include Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Senator Charles Schumer. Another area that has a significant Filipino American population is the Southern United States, which contains about 11% of the country’s Filipinos.[13] In June 2002, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and representatives of U.S. President George W. Bush presided over the grand opening and dedication of the Filipino Community Center in Waipahu, Hawaiʻi. It is the largest Filipino American institution in the United States, with the goal of preserving Filipino American history and culture.

Filipino American
Ethnic Groups: 91.5% Christian Malay, 4% Muslim Malay ,1.5% Chinese and 3% other.
[18][19][20]

Culture
Background
See also: History of the Philippines and Culture of the Philippines The background of the people is Indonesian and Malay. There are Chinese and Spanish elements as well. The history of American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated in a unique blend of East and West, both in the appearance and culture of the people of the Filipinos, or people of the Philippines. [14][15][16] The majority of Philippine people are descendants of Indonesians and Malays who migrated to the islands in successive waves over many centuries and largely displaced the aboriginal inhabitants. The largest ethnic minority now is the mainland Asians (called Chinese), who have played an important role in commerce for many centuries since they first came to the islands to trade. Arabs and Indians also traveled and traded in the Philippines in the first and early second millennium. As a result of intermarriage, many Filipinos have some Asian mainland, Spanish, American, Arab, or Indian ancestry. After the mainland Asians, Americans and Spaniards constitute the next largest minorities in the country. [17]

The Filipino character is actually a little bit of all the cultures put together. The bayanihan or spirit of kinship and camaraderie that Filipinos are famous for, is said to be taken from Malay forefathers. The close family relations are said to have been inherited from the Chinese. The piousness comes from the Spaniards who introduced Christianity in the 16th century. Hospitality is a common denominator in the Filipino character and this is what distinguishes the Filipino. Filipinos are probably one of the few, if not the only, English-proficient Oriental people today. Filipino is the official national language, with English considered as the country’s unofficial one. [21][22][23][24][25] Culturally, the Philippines is a country of diverse influences in Asia/Pacific. Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos have given Hispanic surnames (see: Catálogo alfabético de apellidos), have numerous accasions titled ’fiestas’, and the enfused practice of the Catholic religion representing close to 90% of the entire archipelago. Some Filipinos still retain native surnames, which are characterized by repeating syllables (e.g., Cayubyub) or more frequently multi-syllabic (e.g., Lingayan). The other major religion, Islam, prevalent in the Southern Philippines (Mindanao) and represents nearly 5% of the total Philippine population. Many Filipinos speak English due to American colonial influence in the country’s educational system.

Language

Tagalog language spread in the United States. Two official languages --- Filipino and English. Filipino, which is based on Tagalog, is the national language. English is also widely

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Median Household Income: 2004.[33]fig.13 Ethnicity Indians Filipinos Chinese Japanese Koreans Total US Population used and is the medium of instruction in higher education. Eight (8) major dialects spoken by majority of the Filipinos: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicolano, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense. [26] Filipino is that native language which is used nationally as the language of communication among ethnic groups. Like any living language, Filipino is in a process of development through loans from Philippine languages and non-native languages for various situations, among speakers of different social backgrounds, and for topics for conversation and scholarly discourse. There are about 76 to 78 major language groups, with more than 500 dialects. There are over 170 languages in the Philippines, almost all belong to the Austronesian language family. Of all of these languages, only 2 are considered official in the country, at least 10 are considered major and at least 8 are considered co-official. Filipinos speak Tagalog, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Visayan languages, Bikolano, and other Philippine languages at home. However, an overwhelming majority of Filipinos are fluent in English since it is one of the official languages in the Philippines and many Filipino American parents urge their children to enhance their English-language skills. Tagalog is the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers.[27] The standardized version of this language is officially known as Filipino. Many Filipino American civic organizations and Philippine consulates offer Filipino language courses. Many of California’s public announcements and correspondences are translated into Tagalog due to the large constituency of Filipino Americans in the Golden State. Tagalog is also taught in public schools as a foreign language course, as well as in higher Household Income $68,771 $65,700 $57,433 $53,763 $43,195 $44,684

Filipino American

education. Another significant Filipino language is Ilokano, which is taught in school as a foreign language course. Fluency in Tagalog, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Visayan and in the other languages of the Philippines tend to be lost among secondand third-generation Filipino Americans. This has sometimes created a language barrier between older and younger generations.

Religion
Filipino American religious beliefs and values are rooted in their Christian heritage. This is caused by the introduction, and subsequent adoption, of Catholicism and Christian values by Filipinos as a result of nearly 300 years of Spanish colonial rule. In New York, the first-ever Church for Filipinos, San Lorenzo Ruiz Church, is hosted by the city. It is named after the first saint from the Philippines, San Lorenzo Ruiz. This is officially designated as the Church for Filipinos in July 2005, the first in the United States, and the second in the world, after a church in Rome.[28] There are other religious faiths with smaller numbers of Filipino American adherents, including various Protestant denominations, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism. Atheism and Agnosticism also exist.

Socioeconomic
Economics
Much of the Filipino-American community is strongly middle class.[29][30][31] The representation of Filipino American is high in service-oriented professions such as healthcare. When compared to other Asian American groups (other than Indian Americans), many Filipino Americans had a strong median household income. [32]

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Filipino American

Educational Attainment: 2004 (Percent of Population 25 and Older)[33]fig.11 Ethnicity Filipinos Chinese Japanese Koreans Total US Population High School Graduation Rate 90.2% 80.8% 93.4% 90.2% 83.9% Bachelor’s Degree or More 47.9% 50.2% 43.7% 50.8% 27.0% Asian American counterparts. Due to the strong American influence in the Philippine education system, first generation Filipino immigrants are also an advantage in gaining professional licensure in the United States. According to a study conducted by the American Medical Association, Philippine-trained physicians comprise the second largest group of foreign-trained physicians in the United States (20,861 or 8.7% of all practicing international medical graduates in the U.S.). [36] In addition, Filipino American dentists, who have received training in the Philippines, also comprise the second largest group of foreigntrained dentists in the United States. In an article from the Journal of American Dental Association, 11% of all foreign-trained dentists licensed in the U.S. are from the Philippines; India is ranked first with 25.8% of all foreign dentists.[37] The familiar trend of Filipino Americans and Filipino immigrants entering health care jobs is well observed in other allied health professional such as nursing, physical therapy, radiologic technology and medical technology. Similarities in quality and structure of the nursing curriculum in the Philippines and the United States had led to the migration of thousands of nurses from the Philippines to fill the shortfall of RNs in the United States. Since the 1970s and through the 1980s, the Philippines have been a source of medical professionals for U.S. medical facilities. The Vietnam War and AIDS epidemic of the 70s and 80s, signaled the need of the American health care system for more foreign trained professionals. In articles published in health/ medical policy journals, Filipino nurses comprise the largest block of foreign trained nurses working and entering the United States, from 75% of all foreign nurses in the 1980s to 43% in 2000. Still, Philippinetrained nurses make up 52% of all foreigners taking the U.S. nursing licensure exam, well above the Canadian-trained nurses at 12%.

Among Overseas Filipinos, Filipino Americans are the largest senders of US dollars to the Philippines. In 2005, their combined dollar remittances reached a record-high of almost $6.5 billion dollars. In 2006, Filipino Americans sent more than $8 billion, which represents 57% of the total amount received by the Philippines.[34] Many Filipino Americans own restaurants, while others are in the medical, dental, and optical fields. Several are in the telemarketing business. Over 125,000 businesses are Filipino-owned, according to the 2002 US Economic Census.[35] These firms employ more than 132,000 people and generate an almost $14.2 billion in revenue. Of these businesses, 38.6% are health care and social assistance oriented and produces 39.3% of the collective Filipino-owned business revenue. California had the most number of these businesses followed by Hawaiʻi, New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Florida, and Texas.[35] At the point of retirement, Filipino Americans tend to head back to the Philippines, because of the significance of the dollar in the Philippine economy. Current Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has encouraged the Filipino American community business entrepreneurs to invest back home to promote more job-creation in the Philippines.

Education
Filipino Americans have some of the highest educational attainment rates in the United States with 47.9% of all Filipino Americans over the age of 25 having a Bachelor’s degree, which correlates with rates observed in other Asian American subgroups.[33]fig.11 The recent wave of Filipino professionals filling the education, healthcare, and information technology shortages in the United States also accounts for the high educational attainment rates. In California, Filipino Americans are more likely to graduate from college than their

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The significant drop in the percentage of Filipino nurses from the 1980s to 2000 is due to the increase in the number of countries recruiting Filipino nurses (European Union, the Middle East, Japan), as well as the increase in number of countries sending nurses to the United States.[38] According to the United States Census Bureau, 60,000 Filipino nationals migrated to the United States every year in the 1990s to take advantage of such professional opportunities. Other Filipino nationals come to the United States for a college or university education, return to the Philippines and end up migrating to the United States to settle. American schools have also considered the highly-calibrated Filipino teachers and instructors. More US states have been looking to the Philippines to recruit and fill in the need of their respective schools, particularly North Carolina, Kansas, and Virginia.[39]

Filipino American
descent doubled to numbers not reached since 1937, two when the Philippine Islands were represented by non-voting Resident Commissioners, due to the 2000 Senatorial Election. At present there are three Congress-members who claim to have at least one eightieth Filipino ethnicity. They are, in order of election to the legislative body: • Representative Robert C. Scott of Virginia, a Democrat • Senator John Ensign of Nevada, a Republican • Representative Steve Austria of Ohio, a Republican

Community challenges
Immigration
Filipinos remain one of the largest immigrant group to date with 80,000 people migrating per annum. About 75% consist of family sponsorship or immediate relatives of American citizens while the remainder is employment-oriented. A majority of this number prefer to live in California, followed by Hawaiʻi, Illinois, New York, New Jersey, Texas, Washington, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Colorado, Nevada, Alaska, Maryland and Virginia. Filipinos experience the same long-waiting periods of visa issuance experienced by immigrants of all other nationalities. The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has a preference system for issuing visas to noncitizen family members of U.S. citizens, with preference based generally on the closeness of familial relation, and some noncitizen relatives of U.S. citizens can spend long periods on immigration waiting lists.[41][42] Petitions for immigrant visas, particularly for siblings of previously naturalized Filipinos that date all the way back to 1984, were granted in 2006.[43][44] Many visa petitions by Filipino Americans for their relatives are on hold or backlogged and as many 1.4 million petitions are affected causing delay to the reunification of Filipino families.

Politics
Filipino Americans have been socially conservative until the 1990s. Today Filipino Americans are somewhat divided among the Democratic Party and the Republican Party with gender and age being significant factors. Most Filipino American males have consistently voted Democrat, while their female counterparts have consistently voted Republican. Another major dividing factor would be the significant differences of political convictions of the First generation vs Second generation of Filipino Americans. According to the new statistics, children of Filipino immigrants who were either born or grew up in the country tend to support the Democratic Party, and many also have a liberal persuasion on political issues.[40] In the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election Republican president George W. Bush won the Filipino vote over John Kerry by nearly a twoto-one ratio.[1] However, during the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, Filipino Americans voted decidedly Democratic, with 58% of the community voting for President Barack Obama and 42% voting for Senator John McCain.[40] At the national level Filipino Americans have increased their visibility over the past few decades. Ben Cayetano, former governor of Hawaii, became the first governor of Filipino descent in the United States. The number of Congress-members of Filipino

Dual citizenship
As a result of the passage by the Philippine Congress of the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9225), Filipino Americans became eligible for dual citizenship in both the United States and

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the Philippines. Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was reelected to a second term. In 2004, about 6,000 people became dual citizens of the Philippines and the United States. This act encourages many Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines, buy land (only Filipino citizens and, with some limitations, former Philippine citizens are allowed to purchase land in the Philippines[45][46]), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag. Many dual citizens have been recruited to participate in international sports events such as the Olympic Games in Athens 2004, the 23rd Southeast Asian Games in Manila, the 15th Asian Games in 2006 and the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008. In addition, the Philippine government actively encourages Filipino Americans to visit or return permanently to the Philippines via the "Balikbayan" program and to invest in the country. Philippine consulates facilitate this process in various areas of the United States. These are located in Chicago; Honolulu; Los Angeles; New York; Saipan; and San Francisco while honorary consulates are also available in Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, Majuro, Miami and New Orleans.

Filipino American
groups, as documented in California.[49] It is also noted that 21.8% of Filipino Americans are of mixed blood, second among Asian Americans.[50]

Discrimination
Like most immigrants to the United States, Filipino Americans suffer from racial discrimination for their skin color and the presence, or lack of, accented English and other physical features relating to their ethnicity. In the early 20th century, Filipino Americans were in many states barred by anti-miscegenation laws from marrying many non filipino White Americans, a group which included Hispanic Americans. Racial strife was prevalent, culminating in the Watsonville riot of 1930, where Fermin Tobera was murdered in one of the first recorded hate crimes against Filipino Americans. However despite this, many Filipino men, secretly married or cohabitated with non Filpino women in California and the South during the 1920s and 1930s[51][52]. Many were racially segregated into small settlements and were forbidden to travel. The situation became worse after events such as the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair and the Philippine-American War perpetuated many negative stereotypes including the racist idea of the "Little Brown Brother" encapsulated in Rudyard Kipling’s The White Man’s Burden. President McKinley was reputed to have said that America should "educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them"; the veracity of this famous quote is in dispute, but it fairly reflected the attitudes of McKinley and others in the American government (and perhaps also reflected American ignorance of the predominance of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines under 333 hundred years of Spanish colonialism.)[53] During the turbulent 1960s when American blacks were championing their civil rights on the streets and in the courts, Filipino Americans began benefiting from anti-discrimination laws and an increased sense of national tolerance to racial diversity. Many states either let their anti-miscegenation laws expire or discarded them. Still, for the Filipino Americans living in the states in the latter half of the 20th century, racial discrimination was a daily existence. Often mistaken for Vietnamese during the 1970s, racial epithets invoking Vietnamese were popularly

"The Invisible Minority"
The degree of assimilation has gained the Filipino American, along with other Asian groups, the label of "Invisible Minority." [47][48] Recent Filipino immigrants assimilate into American culture, as most are fluent in English. The label also extends to the lack of political power and representation. In the mid-1990s, only 100 Filipino Americans held elected office, with all but one serving at the municipal or state level. This is also partly due to the lack, or invisibility of representation, of Filipino American role models in the wider community and media, despite being the second-largest Asian American group in the United States.. Also if there are Filipino Americans in the Media they might be reassigned to do Hispanic or Chinese and Native American roles in the movies. Intermarriage among Filipinos is not uncommon, as they have the largest number of interracial marriages among Asian immigrant

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used against Fil-Ams. With the infamous deposing of President Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, the Philippines and Filipino Americans in general came to the forefront of the American consciousness through the popular media. Nearly all of the media images of Filipinos from 1972 through 1986 showed very light-skinned people, from Marcos to his wife, Imelda, to Marcos’ successor, President Macapagal-Arroyo. Darker complexioned FilAms were frequently told by American Caucasians that they could not be Filipino, as they were too dark skinned. American-born Fil-Ams who spoke fluent English were still viewed as "foreigners" by many Americans. Well-spoken, accent-less Filipino Americans born in the USA were frequently asked about their emigration to the United States (i.e., "So when did you arrive in the states?"), and whether or not they were yet citizens. Conversely, when visiting the Philippines, Fil-Ams not fluent in the native tongues were chided for speaking English and acting "too western." Second and third-generation Filipino Americans not fluent in their forebears’ native tongues also suffer discrimination from more recently arrived first-generation Filipino Americans. The more recent firstgeneration Fil-Ams, ignorant of the near stultifying racial discrimination faced by earlier waves of Filipino immigrants to the Americas, and equally unaware of the tremendous American cultural imperative through the 1970s to assimilate, i.e., become culturally American, frequently scorn or at best ignore non-Philippine language speaking Fil-Ams. This effectively exacerbates cohesion efforts among different generations of Filipino Americans. In the 21st century, state-sanctioned racial discrimination against Filipino Americans no longer officially exists. A reflection of America’s growing acceptance of racial diversity and the political correctness mindset, overt racial discrimination against people of color, including most Filipino Americans, has dissipated to a large extent. Still, among the decidedly non-politically correct crowd, racial strife still exists. Recent race-based hate crimes against Filipino Americans have occurred, the most notably the 1999 murder of Joseph Ileto by white supremacist Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow and the March 16, 2007 assault of young honors student Marie Stefanie Martinez by a group of black

Filipino American
teenagers at a New York city bus.[54][55][56] On September 13, 2007 Northwestern University student and former Air Force SSgt. Frannie Richards (born and raised in Chicago, Illinois) was allegedly harassed by a sales clerk of H&M store at Downtown Chicago’s Magnificent Mile and was called "Mail Order Bride" and uttered "Ching, Ching, Chang" at the female Air Force veteran. [57][58][59][60] There have also been cases of unreasonable deportation and visa rejection against Filipino Americans, and greater scrutiny when re-entering the United States from Mexico and Canada, even for native-born US citizens.[61]

Post 9/11 Issues
After the attacks on 11 September 2001, the United States government led a crackdown on foreign visitors and workers, which included Filipinos who entered the United States illegally, on temporary tourist, education, and work visas but often choose to stay after their visas expire. The United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Service was dissolved and replaced with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services in hopes of more aggressive prevention of visa fraud. Also, due to the links of terrorism and the Philippine Islamist group Abu Sayyaf, Filipino Americans have been under suspicion as collaborators to extremists.[61]

World War II veteran benefits
During World War II, over 200,000 Filipinos served with the United States Military. They served in multiple groups, including but not limited, to the Philippine Scouts, Philippine Commonwealth Army under US Command, and guerillas during the Japanese Occupation. The U.S. government promised all of the benefits afforded to those serving in the Military of the United States. However, in 1946, the United States Congress passed the Rescission Act which stripped Filipinos who served during WWII of the benefits as promised. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States. Since the passage of the Rescission Act, many Filipino veterans have traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for the benefits promised to them for their service and sacrifice. Over 30,000 of such veterans live in

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the United States today, with most being American citizens, receiving benefits relating to their service.[62] Sociologists introduced the phrase "Second Class Veterans" to describe the plight of these Filipino Americans. Since 1993, numerous bills were introduced in Congress to return the benefits taken away from these veterans. However previous bills died in committee. The current "full equity" bills are S. 57 in the Senate, and H.R. 760 in the House of Representatives. These two bills also did not pass at the end of the 110th US Congress, and have been reintroduced in the 111th US Congress. Similar language to those bills was inserted by the Senate into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009[63] which was signed into law, providing a one time payment of at least 9,000 USD to eligible non-US Citizens, and 15,000 USD to eligible US Citizens.[64][65] However these payments are only provided to those recognized as being soldiers or recognized guerilla members by the United States or their surviving spouse. Those listed as eligible by the US Government is smaller then the list of World War II veterans recognized by the Philippines.[66]

Filipino American
"milkfish" characterized by sweet flesh with a large quantity of thin bones). Filipino American cultural fondness for festivities has led to the establishment of community-wide festivals celebrating the Filipino culture. These usually take the form of fiestas, street fairs, and parades. Most festivals occur in May during Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, which includes Flores de Mayo, a Roman Catholic harvest feast in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Congress has established the Asian Pacific American Heritage Month in May to commemorate Filipino American and Asian American culture in the United States. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, Filipino American History Month was established in October. This is to acknowledge the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California and is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams in the United States.[67][68] Several events commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence occur mostly in June since it is one of the most important events for the community. An example of these is the Philippine Independence Day Parade in New York City, the largest Filipino celebration in the country.

Celebrations
A reflection of their cultural heritage’s deeprooted fondness of hospitality, Filipino Americans are fond to celebrate events, both personal and community-wide. It is not unusual for a family (and extended families) to host perhaps a dozen occasions a year (e.g., baptisms, birthdays, funerals, holidays, showers, weddings). Filipino American cultural traditions often revolve around meals shared in groups, marked by the ubiquitous handcarved, oversized, wooden spoon and fork wall decorations in Fil-Am households. No celebration in Filipino American customs is without a hearty meal (almost to the point of a groaning table), and so celebrations are highlighted by large buffets of traditional Filipino foods including but not limited to adobo (savory soy sauce and vinegar stewed beef, pork or chicken), lumpia (egg rolls), pancit (noodles), lechon (pronounced lehchon, whole roasted pig featuring a crisped skin and tender, succulent meat), and grilled fish, often bangus (pronounced bawng-oos, a fresh water fish known commonly as

Timeline
• , Roughly between 1556 and 1813, Spain engaged in the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco. The galleons were built in the shipyards of Cavite, outside Manila, by Filipino craftsmen. The trade was funded by Chinese traders, manned by Filipino sailors and “supervised” by Mexico City officials. In this time frame, Spain recruited Mexicans to serve as soldiers in Manila. Likewise, they drafted Filipinos to serve as soldiers in Mexico. Once drafted, the trip across the ocean sometimes came with a “one way” ticket. • , First Filipinos (“Luzonians”) to set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno. [72] • , Gaspar Molina, a Filipino from Pampanga province, oversees the construction of El Triunfo dela Cruz, the first ship built in California.

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Major Celebrations in the United States Date January April April May May May May June June June June June June June June 12 June 12 June July July July August August August September 27 September October Name Winter Sinulog Easter Salubong PhilFest Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Filipino Festival Filipino Fiesta and Parade Flores de Mayo Philippine Independence Day Parade Philippine Festival Philippine Day Parade Pista Sa Nayon New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence[69] Philippine-American Friendship Day Parade Fiesta Filipina Philippine Independence Day Pagdiriwang Fil-Am Friendship Day Pista sa Nayon Philippine Weekend[70] Annual Philippine Fiesta[71] Summer Sinulog Pistahan Fesitval and Parade Festival of San Lorenzo Luis Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC) Filipino American History Month

Filipino American

Region Philadelphia, PA Nationwide, USA Tampa, FL Nationwide, USA New Orleans, LA Honolulu, HI Nationwide, USA New York, NY Washington, D.C. Passaic, NJ Vallejo, CA New York, NY New York, NY Jersey City, NJ San Francisco, CA Nationwide, USA Seattle, WA Virginia Beach, VA Seattle, WA Delano, CA Los Angeles, CA Secaucus, NJ Philadelphia, PA San Francisco, CA New Orleans, LA Los Angeles, CA Nationwide, USA Nationwide, USA

August 15 to 16 Philippine American Exposition

December 16 to Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses 24

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December 25 December 30 Pasko Christmas Feast Jose Rizal Day

Filipino American
Nationwide, USA Nationwide, USA

• , First permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana. • , Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California. He and his daughter fell sick with smallpox while enroute, and remained in Baja California for an extended time to recuperate. When they finally arrived in Alta California, it was discovered that Miranda Rodriguez was a skilled gunsmith. He was reassigned in 1782 to the Presidio of Santa Barbara as an armorer.[73] • , The first American trading ship to reach Manila, the Astrea, was commanded by Captain Henry Prince. • , During the War of 1812, Filipinos from Manila Village (near New Orleans) were among the "Batarians" who fought against the British under the command of Jean Lafitte in the Battle of New Orleans.[74] • , Filipinos mestizos studying in New Orleans form the first Filipino Association in the United States, the “Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispanos Filipinos.” • , Dr. José Rizal visits the United States and predicts that the Philippines will one day be [a United States] colony in his essay, The Philippines: A Century Hence.[75] • , The Philippines declares its independence (June 12, Kawit, Cavite) only to be ceded to the United States by Spain for $20 million. United States annexes the Philippines. • , Philippine-American War begins. • , Cooper Act passed by the U.S. Congress makes it illegal for Filipinos to own property, vote, operate a business, live in an American residential neighborhood, hold public office and become a naturalized American citizen. • , First Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive. • , First Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian

José Rizal around the time of his visit to the United States sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries. About 200 Filipino “pensionados” are brought to the U.S. to get an American education. , The US “recruited” Filipinos for service during World War I. Very few survived and returned to the Philippines.. , Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions. , Filipino Workers’ Union (FLU) shuts down 16 of 25 sugar plantations. , California’s anti-miscegenation law, Civil Code, section 60, amended to prohibit marriages between white persons and members of the "Malay and Mongoloid " (i.e. Filipinos). (Stats. 1933,|date=May 2009}} p. 561.).

•

•

• •

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• , Filipino Businessman Pedro Flores opens Flores yo-yos, which is credited with starting the yo-yo craze in the United States. He came up with and copyrighted the word yo-yo.[76] He also applied for and received a trademark for the Flores Yo-yo, which was registered on July 22, 1930.[76] His company went on to be become the foundation of which would latter become the Duncan yo-yo company.[76] • , Anti-Filipino riots break out in Watsonville and other California rural communities, in part because of Filipino men having intimate relations with White women which was in violation of the California anti-miscegenation laws inacted during that time.[77] • , The Tydings-McDuffie Act, known as the Philippine Independence Act limited Filipino immigration to the U.S. to 50 persons a year (not to apply to persons coming or seeking to come to the Territory of Hawaii).[78] • , Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated. • , Washington Supreme Court rules unconstitutional the Anti-Alien Land Law of 1937 which banned Filipino Americans from owning land.[79] • , First and Second Filipino Regiments formed in the U.S. composed of Filipino agricultural workers.[80] • , After the fall of Bataan and Coregidor to the Japanese, the US Congress passes a law which grants US citizenship to Filipinos and other aliens who served under the U.S. Armed Forces. • , American General Douglas MacArthur with the Philippine Commonwealth President Sergio Osmeña together with the Armed Forces of the Philippines General Basilio J. Valdes and General Carlos P. Romulo including the U.S. Liberation forces land the beaches at Palo, Leyte. • , Beginning the Allied recaptured for the Liberation of the Philippines was the country by joint Filipino and American soldiers fought the Japanese Imperial forces until the end of World War II. • , Philippines becomes independent. Republic of the Philippines inaugurated; America Is in the Heart by Carlos Bulosan published.[81]

Filipino American
• , California Supreme Court rules Califorinia’s anti-miscegenation law unconstitutional in the case of Perez v. Sharp,[82] ending racially based prohibitions of marriage in the state (although it wasn’t until Loving v. Virginia in 1967 that interracial marriages were legalized nationwide). Celestino Alfafara wins California Supreme Court decision allowing aliens the right to own real property. • , Peter Aduja becomes first Filipino American elected to office, becoming a member of the Hawai’i State House of Representatives. • , Bobby Balcena becomes first Filipino American to play Major League baseball, playing for the Cincinnati Reds. • , Congress passes Immigration and Nationality Act which facilitated ease of entry for skilled Filipino laborers. • , Delano grape strike begins when members of Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, mostly Filipino farm workers in Delano, California walked off the farms of area table grape growers demanding wages on level with the federal minimum wage. Labor leader Philip Vera Cruz subsequently served as second vice president and on the managing board of the United Farm Workers. 1965- Filipino farm workers under the leadership of Larry Itliong go on strike in Delano and win Cesar Chavez joins Itliong to from the United Farm Workers Union. Filipino American Political Association (FAPA) is formed with chapters in 30 California cities. Immigration Act of 1965 raises quota of Eastern Hemisphere countries, including the Philippines, to 20,000 a year. • , The Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE) founded by Filipino American students at San Francisco State College.[83] • , Pilipino American Alliance (PAA) founded by Filipino American students at University of California, Berkeley; reorganized in 1995 as the Pilipino Academic Student Services (PASS).[84] • , Benjamin Menor appointed first Filipino American in a state’s highest judiciary office as Justice of the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court. • , Governor John A. Burns (D-HI) convinces Benjamin J. Cayetano to run and win a

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seat in the Hawaiʻi State Legislature, despite Cayetano’s doubts about winning office in a white and Japanese American dominated district; Kauai’s Eduardo E. Malapit elected first Filipino American mayor.

Filipino American
• , Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union. • , US Postal worker Joseph Ileto murdered in a hate crime by Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow. • , Robert Bunda elected Hawai’i Senate President and Simeon R. Acoba, Jr. appointed Hawai’i State Supreme Court Justice. • , Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship.[86][87] • , Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States.[88] • , First monument dedicated to Filipino soldiers who fought for the United States in World War II unveiled in Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles, California.[89]

The building where Domingo and Viernes were assassinated. • , Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes are both assassinated June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall.[85] The late Philippine Dictator Ferdinand Marcos hired gunmen to murder both ILWU Local 37 officers to silence the growing movement in the United States opposing the dictatorship in the Philippines. • , Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union. • , David Mercado Valderrama becomes first Filipino American elected to a state legislature on the mainland United States serving Prince George’s County in Maryland. Immigration reform Act of 1990 is passed by the U.S. Congress granting U.S. citizenship to Filipino WWII veterans resulting in 20,000 Filipino veterans take oath of citizenship. • , Seattle’s Gene Canque Liddell becomes first Filipino American woman to be elected mayor serving the suburb of Lacey City. • , Velma Veloria becomes first Filipino American and first Asian American elected to the Washington State Legislature. • , Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai’i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court.

Notable people
Further information: Americans List of Filipino

Further reading
• Carl L. Bankston III, "Filipino Americans," in Pyong Gap Min (ed.), Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues ISBN 1-4129-0556-7 • Bautista, Veltisezar. The Filipino Americans from 1763 to the Present: Their History, Culture, and Traditions , ISBN 0-931613-17-5 • Crisostomom Isabelo T. Filipino Achievers in the U.S.A. & Canada: Profiles in Excellence, ISBN 0-931613-11-6 • Isaac, Allan Punzalan. American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America, (University of Minnesota Press; 205 pages; 2007) Analyzes images of the Philippines in Hollywood cinema, Boy Scout adventure novels, Progressive Era literature, and other realms • A. Tiongson, E. Gutierrez, R. Gutierrez, eds. Positively No Filipinos Allowed, ISBN 1-59213-122-0

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• Filipino American Lives by Yen Le Espiritu, ISBN 1-56639-317-5 • Filipinos in Chicago (Images of America) by Estrella Ravelo Alamar, Willi Red Buhay ISBN 0-7385-1880-8 • "The Filipinos in America: Macro/Micro Dimensions of Immigration and Integration" by Antonio J. A. Pido ISBN 0913256838 News • "Filipino Population in U.S. rivals ChineseAmericans", Honolulu Advertiser, 18 November 1996, Gannett News Service

Filipino American

See also
• • • • • • • Asian American Balikbayan box Filipinos of American descent Hyphenated American Overseas Filipino Pinoy List of Filipino Americans

References
[1] ^ "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. May 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ 2794.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-02. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines." [2] "Filipino Population Density, U.S. Census 2000". Research Center. Church of Nazarene. 2004-11-04. http://www.nazarene.org/files/docs/ USCensusFilipino.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-15. [3] "Labor Migration in Hawaii". UH Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. http://opmanong.ssc.hawaii.edu/filipino/ labor.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-11. [4] U.S. Census Bureau (March 1, 2007). Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2007. Press release. http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/ www/releases/archives/ facts_for_features_special_editions/ 009714.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. (based on census 2000 data) [5] The U.S. Census Bureau 2007 American Community Survey counted 3,053,179

Filipinos; 2,445,126 native and naturalized citizens, 608,053 of whom were not U.S. citizens: "Selected Population Profile in the United States: Filipino alone or in any combination". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ IPTable?_bm=y&-context=ip&reg=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201:038;ACS_2007_1YR qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201&qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201PR&qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201T&qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR&ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&tree_id=306&-redoLog=false&geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=NBSP&search_results=16000US3651000&format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. [6] "Timeline for Filipino Immigration to Hawaii". Hawaii for Visitors. Kathie Fry. http://www.hawaiiforvisitors.com/about/ filipino-immigration.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-05. [7] "Filipino Immigration to America". Bong Tumanut. 1997-08-29. http://www.geocities.com/tokyo/towers/ 3131/usimmig.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-05. [8] "Introduction, Filipino Settlements in the United States". Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. 1995-03. http://www.temple.edu/tempress/ chapters_1100/1157_ch1.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [9] Rene Villaroman (July 10, 2007), LA Consul General Throws Ceremonial First Pitch at Dodgers-Padres Pre-Game Event, Asian Journal Online, http://www.asianjournal.com/ ?c=124&a=21464 See also: About the Consulate General, The Philippine Consulate General of Los Angeles, California, http://www.pcgenla.org/ AboutUscon.htm, retrieved on 2008-06-02 [10] Aurora S. Cudal, A BRIEF HISTORY OF COPAO, COUNCIL OF PHILIPPINE AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY, INC., http://www.copao-sandiego.org/ History.html, retrieved on 2008-06-02 [11] U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000, Fact Sheet. Hawaii: Filipino alone or in any

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Filipino American

combination American FactFinder. [27] "Statistical Abstract of the United States: Retrieved on 2009-03-22. page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at [12] Joseph Berger (January 27, 2008), Home by Language: 2003" (PDF). Filipino Nurses, Healers in Trouble, The http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/ New York Times, 06statab/pop.pdf. Retrieved on http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/ 2006-07-11. nyregion/nyregionspecial2/ [28] "Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz". 27Rnurses.html?_r=1&scp=3&sq=philippine&st=nyt&oref=slogin, http://www.chapelofsanlorenzoruiz.org/ retrieved on 2008-06-02 Home.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. [13] Filipino-American Population, ABS-CBN [29] "Speaking Truth to Power!!". News, http://www.abs-cbnglobal.com/ http://academic.udayton.edu/race/ Regions/USA/Products/AdSales/ 04needs/income02.htm. Retrieved on FilipinoAmericanPopulation/tabid/630/ 2006-08-28. Default.aspx, retrieved on 2008-12-16 [30] "U.S. economics" (PDF). [14] http://www.gov.ph/ http://www.census.gov/apsd/wepeople/ [15] http://www.gov.ph/ we-3.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-08-28. index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=200020&Itemid=26 [31] "economics" (PDF). [16] http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ http://www.ntac.hawaii.edu/products/ 2794.htm Vol2%20Cult.Briefs/ACB[17] http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ Vol2-Iss3-Philippines.pdf. Retrieved on 2794.htm 2006-08-28. [18] http://www.gov.ph/ [32] (pdf) Census Profile: New York City’s [19] http://www.gov.ph/ Filipino American Population, Asian index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=200020&Itemid=26 of New York, American Federation [20] http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/ 2794.htm filipino.pdf, retrieved on 2007-12-23 [21] Fong, Rowena. Culturally competent [33] ^ The American Community-Asians: practice with immigrant and refugee 2004, U.S. Census Bureau, February children and families. p. 70. ISBN ISBN 2007, http://www.census.gov/prod/ 9781572309319. 2007pubs/acs-05.pdf, retrieved on http://books.google.com/ 2007-09-05 books?id=wvfVS9x7-hoC. Retrieved on [34] "Overseas Filipino Remittances". 2009-05-14. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/spei/ [22] Andres, Tomas Quintin D. (1998). People tab11.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-21. empowerment by Filipino values. Rex [35] ^ "Filipino-Owned Firms 2002". Bookstore, Inc.. p. 17. ISBN ISBN http://www.census.gov/csd/sbo/ 9789712324109. filipinosummaryoffindings.htm. http://books.google.com/ Retrieved on 2006-12-06. books?id=3CoB_zBBj9kC. Retrieved on [36] () Top 20 Countries Where IMGs 2009-05-14. Received Medical Training, American [23] Pinches, Michael (1999). Culture and Medical Association, http://www.amaPrivilege in Capitalist Asia. Routledge. assn.org/ama/pub/category/1550.html, p. 298. ISBN ISBN 9780415197649. retrieved on 2007-12-23 http://books.google.com/ [37] "Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the books?id=Xr9Z0bVAmDUC. Retrieved on United States: Exploring their origins", 2009-05-14. American Dental Association [24] Insert footnote text here [38] Brush, et al. "Imported Care: Recruiting [25] Roces, Alfredo; Grace Roces (1992). Foreign Nurses To U.S. Health Care Culture Shock!: Philippines. Graphic Arts Facilities", Health Affairs, 2004. vol.23 Center Pub. Co.. ISBN ISBN (3) 9781558680890. [39] "More US States hire teachers from the http://books.google.com/ Philippines". http://manilamaildc.net/ books?id=Uoq6AAAAIAAJ. Retrieved on modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1429. 2009-05-14. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. [26] http://www.gov.ph/ [40] ^ Gus Mercado Publisher=Philippine index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=200020&Itemid=26 Daily Inquirer (November 10, 2008),

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Obama wins Filipino vote at last-hour, [50] "Multiracial / Hapa Asian Americans". http://globalnation.inquirer.net/ asian-nation.org. http://www.asianmindfeeds/mindfeeds/view/ nation.org/multiracial.shtml. Retrieved 20081110-171290/Obama-wins-Filipinoon 2007-08-30. vote-at-last-hour, retrieved on [51] Veltisezar Bautista (2002). "The Filipino 2008-12-16 Americans: Yesterday and Today". [41] The Preference System, filipinoamericans.net. foreignborn.com, http://foreignborn.com/ http://www.filipinoamericans.net/ visas_imm/immigrant_visas/ yes_today.shtml. Retrieved on 10preference_system.htm, retrieved on 2007-08-30. (part 1of 2) 2008-05-23 [52] H. Brett Melendy. "Filipino Americans". [42] Immigration Preferences and Waiting everyculture.com. Lists, lawcom.com, http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Duhttp://www.lawcom.com/immigration/ Ha/Filipino-Americans.html. Retrieved on pdwtlst.shtml, retrieved on 2008-05-22 2007-08-30. [43] Immigration Updates, gurfinkel.com, [53] Lewis L. Gould, The Presidency of May 28, 2008, http://www.gurfinkel.com/ William McKinley (Kansas UP, 1980), pp. immigration_updates/2008/ 140-42. may25-2008.html, retrieved on [54] Dan Mangan and Leela de Kretser 2008-05-23 (March 18, 2007). "Girl’s Bloody Beating: [44] "Green-card limbo". Archived from the Driver does nothing as teens attack her original on 2007-06-10. on bus". http://www.nypost.com/seven/ http://web.archive.org/web/ 03182007/news/regionalnews/ 20070610130755/ girls_bloody_beating_regionalnews_dan_mangan_____ http://www.manilatimes.net/national/ Retrieved on 2007-08-30. 2006/dec/14/yehey/top_stories/ [55] Erika Martinez; Leela de Krester 20061214top5.html. Retrieved on (2007-03-14). "Girl, 14, nabbed in 2006-12-15. student bus beating" (html). New York [45] BATAS PAMBANSA BILANG. 185, Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/ Chanrobles Law Library, March 16, 03212007/news/regionalnews/ 1982, http://www.chanrobles.com/ girl__14__nabbed_in_student_bus_beating_regionalne bataspambansa/ Retrieved on 2007-10-14. bataspambansablg185.html, retrieved on [56] Caroline Aoyagi-Stom (2007-04-06). "AA 2008-06-02 (Section 2) Community Rallies Around 17-Year-Old [46] REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8179, Supreme Teen Beaten on New York MTA Bus" Court of the Philippines, March 28, 1996, (html). Pacific Citizen. http://elibrary.supremecourt.gov.ph/ http://www.pacificcitizen.org/content/ republic_acts.php?doctype=Republic%20Acts&docid=a45475a11ec72b843d74959b60fd7bd645e5bc1 2007/national/apr6-stom-mta.htm. retrieved on 2008-06-02 (Section 5) Retrieved on 2007-10-14. [47] Haya El Nasser, Study: Some immigrants [57] Mary Owen (2007-10-06). "Protest at H assimilate faster, USA Today, & M backs claim of harassment". Local http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/ news. Chicago Tribune. 2008-05-13-assimilation_N.htm, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ retrieved on 2008-05-23 local/chi[48] N.C. Aizenman (May 13, 2008), Study hmstory_07oct07,0,5831624.story. Says Foreigners In U.S. Adapt Quickly, Retrieved on 2007-10-12. The Washington post, [58] "Filipino American Harassed by H&M http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Employee" (html). blog. content/article/2008/05/12/ http://www.everythingisdesign.com/ AR2008051202575.html, retrieved on 2007/09/24/filipino-american-harassed2008-05-23 by-hm-employee/. Retrieved on [49] "Interracial Dating & Marriage". asian2007-10-12. nation.org. http://www.asian-nation.org/ [59] Sean Walsh (2007-10-08). interracial.shtml. Retrieved on "Demonstrators protest alleged slur at 2007-08-30. H&M". article. The Daily Northwestern. http://media.www.dailynorthwestern.com/

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media/storage/paper853/news/2007/10/ cbnnews.com/pinoy-migration/balitang08/City/ america/03/28/09/excluded-fil-vets-nowDemonstrators.Protest.Alleged.Slur.At.Hm-3018066.shtml. eligible-lump-sum-money. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 2009-03-30. [60] "Youtube Videos of Frannie Richards [67] "Sulat sa Tanso". interview". AAI In the News. http://www.bibingka.com/sst/esperanza/ http://www.youtube.com/ morrobay.htm. Retrieved on 2006-08-28. view_play_list?p=D63A925826690A77. [68] "history". http://us_asians.tripod.com/ Retrieved on 2007-10-12. timeline-1600.html. Retrieved on [61] ^ Jeffrey M. Bale (December 2003). "The 2006-08-28. Abu Sayyaf Group in its Philippine and [69] "Empire State lights up for International Contexts: A Profile and Filipinos—again". Archived from the WMD Threat Assessment" (pdf). onterey original on 2007-10-18. Institute of International Studies. http://web.archive.org/web/ http://policy.miis.edu/docs/sayyaf.pdf. 20061018202544/ Retrieved on 2007-08-30. http://www.philippinenews.com/news/ [62] "World War II Filipino Veteran Rights". view_article.html?article_id=ce56ba8abb743542dce7 Filipino American Curriculum Project. Retrieved on 2006-08-28. Smithsonian Institution. [70] "Filipino weekend". http://filam.si.edu/curriculum/ http://www.philippineweekend.org. u4-part-07.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2006-08-28. 2009-04-05. [71] "Philippine Fiesta.". [63] Maze, Rick (2008-01-29). "Senate puts http://www.philippinefiesta.com. Filipino vet pensions in stimulus" (News Retrieved on 2006-08-28. Article). Army Times (Army Times [72] "Historic Site, During the Manila". Publishing Company). Michael L. Baird. http://morro-bay.com/ http://www.armytimes.com/news/2009/ historical/Philippine-plaque/text-of01/ plaque.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-05. military_filipinoscouts_stimulus_012909w/. [73] Original Settlers (Pobladores) of El Retrieved on 2009-01-30. "Buried inside Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, 1781, the Senate bill, which includes tax cuts laalmanac.com, and new spending initiatives intended to http://www.laalmanac.com/history/ create jobs in the U.S., the Filipino hi03c.htm, retrieved on 2007-12-27 payment was inserted at the urging of [74] Nancy Dingler (June 23, 2007), Filipinos Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, the new made immense contributions in Vallejo, chairman of the Senate Appropriations http://www.solanoarticles.com/history/ Committee and a longtime supporter of index.php/weblog3/more/ monthly pensions for World War II filipinos_made_immense_contributions_in_vallejo/, Filipino veterans." retrieved on 2007-12-27 [64] Bayron, Heda (2009-03-25). "Filipino [75] José Rizal, The Philippines a Century War Veterans Take Advantage of Hence, joserizal.info, http://joserizal.info/ Delayed US Response" (in English). Writings/Other/centuryhence.htm, Voice Of America. retrieved on 2008-01-17 (Translated by http://www.voanews.com/english/ Charles E. Derbyshire, first published in 2009-03-25-voa22.cfm. Retrieved on La Solidaridad, Madrid, between 2009-03-30. September 30, 1889, and February 1, [65] "Stimulus Bill Provides $198 Million for 1890) Filipino Veterans". Public and "... Perhaps the great American Republic, Intergovernmental Affairs. United States whose interests lie in the Pacific and who Depart of Veterans Affairs. 2009-02-20. has no hand in the spoliation of Africa, http://www1.va.gov/opa/pressrel/ may dream some day of foreign pressrelease.cfm?id=1654. Retrieved on possession. This is not impossible, for the 2009-04-05. example is contagious, covetousness and [66] Jaleco, Rodney (2009-03-28). "luded Filambition are among the strongest vices, Vets Now Eligible for Lump-Sum Money" and Harrison manifested something of (in English). ABS-CBN. http://www.absthis sort in the Samoan question. ..."

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[76] ^ Lucky Meisenheimer, MD, Pedro Flores, nationalyoyo.org, http://www.nationalyoyo.org/museum/ pedroflores.htm, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [77] () Remembering the Watsonville Riots, modelminority.com, http://www.modelminority.com/ printout232.html, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [78] The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act), Chanrobles Law Library, March 24, 1934, http://www.chanrobles.com/ tydingsmcduffieact.htm, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [79] () Filipino Americans, Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs, http://www.capaa.wa.gov/community/ filipino_americans.htm, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [80] California’s Filipino Infantry, The California State Military Museum, http://www.militarymuseum.org/ Filipino.html, retrieved on 2008-01-24 [81] (pdf) TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946, United Nations, http://untreaty.un.org/unts/1_60000/1/6/ 00000254.pdf, retrieved on 2007-12-10 [82] Perez vs. Sharp - End to Miscegenation Laws in California, Los Angeles Almanac, http://www.laalmanac.com/vitals/ vi70.htm, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [83] Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor, http://www.pace1967.com, retrieved on 2007-12-27 [84] http://pass.berkeley.edu/history.htm [85] Filipino labor activists Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo are slain in Seattle on June 1, 1981, historylink.org, http://www.historylink.org/essays/ output.cfm?file_id=412 [86] "Citizenship Retention and Reacquisition Act of 2003". Philippine Government, Bureau of Immigration. 2003-08-29. http://www.immigration.gov.ph/ immigration_laws09.php. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. [87] "Implementing Rules and Regulations for R.A. 9225". Philippine Government,

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Bureau of Immigration. http://www.gov.ph/faqs/ dualcitizenship_irr.asp. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. [88] "109th Congress, H.CON.RES.218, Recognizing the centennial of sustained immigration from the Philippines to the United States ...". U.S. Library of Congress. 2005-12-15. http://thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. [89] GARCETTI UNVEILS NATION’S FIRST FILIPINO VETERANS MEMORIAL, Eric Garcetti, President, los Angeles city council, November 13, 2006

External links
• Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program • Filipino American Community Builder news and articles relevant to the Filipino American community • BakitWhy - Filipino American Lifestyle • Filipino American Library • Americans of Filipino Descent - FAQs • Filipino American Centennial Commemoration from Smithsonian • Famous Kababayans • Filipino Recipes • Fil Am Arts • "City of Los Angeles declares Historic Filipinotown". Archived from the original on 2007-01-27. http://www.fasgi.org/news/ LA_declares_historic_filipinotown.html. • Did Philippine indios really land in Morro Bay? by Hector Santos • Manilamen: The Filipino Roots in America • Filipino Founding Father of Los Angeles • The Manila Galleon Trade, 1565-1815 see also Manila Galleon trade[2] • Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1898 • Filipino Veterans of War of 1812 and American Civil War • TheFilipino.com • History of Filipino Americans in Seattle • History of Filipino Americans in Chicago • Filipino American Organizations Directory in Asians in America Magazine • Census 2000 Brief: The Asian Population: 2000

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filipino_American"

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Filipino American

Categories: Asian Americans, Ethnic groups in the United States, Filipino Americans, Filipino American history, Overseas Filipinos This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 00:46 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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