The Growth and Development of Living Things

oThe characteristics of living things include growing
and developing.
oGrowth is marked with enlargement of body size,
while development happens when adultness in
completing organs.

 The differences between growth and development

                Growth                      Development
 Increasing of size and number of   A maturation process of live

 Reproduction by mitosis            Reproduction by meiosis

 It found in meristem tissue (for   It found in gamete

 quantitative                       qualitative

 irreversible                       reversible

 The internal factors:
  a. Gene
   The gene is formed of some nucleate acid that is
  composed in macromolecule called DNA. The gene
  has function as carrier of genetic factors
  b. Hormone
  Hormones that are involved in the process of growth
  and development are as follow:
1) Growth Hormone: Hormone that race growth.

2) Hormone of growth inhibitor: Hormone which
   functions to stop the activity of growth and
3) Hormone of body organs former: Hormone that
   has function to stimulate the formation of body
4) Injury   Hormone: Hormone that stimulates
   formation of new tissue from the edge part of injury
   which then will cover that injury part.

 The external factors:
 a. Water and mineral
  Food is main factor for growth and development.
 b. Humidity
  The humidity influences vaporization process.
 c. Sunlight
 All organisms need sunlight. Has function as factor of
 growth inhibitor.
 d. Temperature
 If the temperature is too cold or hot, the organisms
 can’t growth and develop perfectly.

Fertilization      Zygote       Embryo
 The growth and development of animal can be
  seen by three phases:
  1. Cleavage: a fision process of zygote to be cell
  descendant which happens by mitosis. Formed
  morula and blastula
  2.Gastulation: the process of arranging and
  regulating of cells into different layer. Formed
  gastrosol that will form intestine blastofor form
  anus and embryonal layer.
Embryonal layer in animal have 2 layers, external layer
 (ectoderm), middle layer (mesoderm), and inner layer
 3. Organogenesis: the process of formation of organs and
 organ system. formed organ and organ system.
    (cell    tissue    organ       organ system)

 The organs is formed by body layer are as follows:
1. Ectoderm layer       skin, hair, nail, nerve system, and
   medulla adrenal.
2. Mesoderm layer        muscle, blood, blood vascular,
   connective tissue, kidney, testis, ovarium, and uterus.
3. Endoderm layer        liver, pancreas, layer in uretra and
   gland, layer in trachea, canal, bronchi and lung.
 Metamorphosis: the process of changes in form during the
growth of living thing until reaches the mature form.

Some living things, the development that happens can be observed
clear enough.

       1. Happens the change of body shape from egg until adult
       2.Happens in insect and frog.
       3. Through chrysalis phase (pupa) and some don’t pass
throgh chrysalis phase (pupa).

 Divided into two kinds:
  1. Perfect Metamorphosis
Perfect metamorphosis commonly happens in the insect
     group of homometabola. In perfect metamorphosis
     there is different of real shape between larva and
     adult (imago).
     In larva phase, the activity done is eat and grow until
     reaching maximum body size. Next, larva stops eat
     and change to chrysalis (pupa) is dormant phase
     (rest or doesn’t make activity).
         Grow with change of shape.
           (egg      larva     pupa      imago)
           = Butterfly, bee, housefly, and beetle
2. Imperfect metamorphosis
       Imperfect metamorphosis commonly happens in the
  group of insect hemimetabola. Imperfect metamorphosis,
  the eggs hatch to be young animal and develop to be adult
    The young animal (nympha) has the shape is similar with
    adult animal only in young animal its size is still small
    and has no wings.

Grow with change of size.
        (egg      nymph        imago)
        = cock roaches, cricket, termite, dragonfly, and

Metagenesis is the change of generation
 (descendant) from asexual generation (vegetative)
 to sexual generation (generative). Metagenesis
 happens in plant, particularly in moss plant and
 fern plant.
 Metagenesis involves sexual cycle (gamethopyte
 generation) and asexual cycle (sporophyte

   Example: moss, fern, jellyfish (Aurelia aurita)
a. Moss Metagenesis

  spore   protonema       moss

            antheridium          archegonium

            spermatozoid            ovum



Moss produces spore. The spore that falls to the soil will
be protonema. Protonema grows to be moss. Then, moss
produces antheridium and archegonium. Antheridium
and archegonium integrate to be zygote. Then, zygote
forms sporangium.

The gametophyte and sporophyte generation in moss plant
  have the following characteristics:
a. Gametophyte generation, that is generation of gamete
   producer of moss plant. Their characteristics are long
   age, live lonely, and have big size.
b. Sporophyte generation, that is spore producer of
   sporogonium. Their characteristics are short age, live
   depend on it gametophyte, and have small size.

b. Fern Metagenesis

   spore      protalium

      antheridium       archegonium

           ovum          spermatozoid

                    zygote      fern    sporangium

Fern produces spore. The spore that falls to the soil will
be protalium. Protalium produces antheridium and
archegonium. Antheridium and archegonium integrate
to be zygote. Then, zygote grows to be fern plant. And
the fern plant forms sporangium.

Gametophyte and sporophyte generation of fern plant
  have he following characteristics:
a. Gametophyte generation, that is gamete producer of
   prothallium. Their characteristics are short age and
   live lonely.
b. Sporophyte generation, that is spore producer of fern
   plant. Their characteristics are long age and live

 The differences between metagenesis and

            Metagenesis                         Metamorphosis

  Succession of descendant (generation)    Change of shape from a certain
  from asexual generation (vegetative)     phase until adult phase (imago).
  to sexual generation (generative).

  Happens in plant, particularly in moss   Happens in animal, particularly in
  plant and fern plant.                    insect and frog.

The Human Development Phases

    Fertilization   • The human formation process is
                    began with fertilization process.
                    • From this process, formed new cell
      Zygote        that is called zygote.
                    • This zygote will separate its self into
                    2 cells, 4 cells, 8 cells, 16 cells,….
      Embryo        This process is called mitosis.
                    • The zygote that has been separate
                    its self into many cells, will be embryo,
       Fetus        then becomes fetus.

Zygote develops in womb. This is the process of the development
 Morula: advancement from cell fission that produces
the composition of cells with the shape of dense ball.
 Blastosol: hollow that contains liquid that is formed
by blastula (blastula is the development from morula
that keep spliting).
 Gastulation: process of arranging and regulating of
cells into different layer, also happening the formation of
capacity tract.

 Development phase in human began with from under
 five period, childhood period, teenage period, adult
 period, and old period.

The fetus development when in the womb is divided into 3 phases. The
long time in each phase is 3 months.
 1. The First Trimester
        3 first months, the embryo becomes fetus that the
length is 5.5 cm. The fetus has been formed like human even
though its head is too big.
2. The Second Trimester
        The average length is 19 cm. the heartbeat can be
detect. The fetus movement be active.
3. The Third Trimester
        The body is proportional like baby. The length
becomes 50 cm. And then, the fetus births, so , it is called

When the baby births, it has organs and organ systems like
the mature human, but that organs are not mature enough.
Close along with ‘increasing’ age, the organs in that baby
also develop. When it is 5 years old, the organs usually
develop mature enough, except reproduction organ.
The reproduction organ reaches the maturation in the
The puberty is appeared by the estrogen hormone that is
outputted by ovary (if woman) and the testosterone that is
outputted by testis (if man). Because of those, the
reproduction organs have functions and the body changes.

After passes the adultscence, the adult will enters the
adulthood. In this time, the adult body reaches the maximal.
The growth will stop in the twenties years old.
All of the potential in the adulthood will slope down when
enters old. It happens when 60-65 years old.

Growth of Plants
 Growth in plants happens in the meristematic region. That
  is in the tip of stem and tip of root. The meristematic
  region is also called growth point
 Growth in plants are divided into two kinds:
  1. Primary Growth
  Primary growth is the increment of length size in the
  plant’s stem because of the activity of primary
  meristematic tissue (make stem higher and longer).
  The growth region in the tip of root and stem is separated
  into three growth regions:
    a. cell fission region region (multiplication of cells by
    formation of new cells)

  b. extension region cell (change of cell size to be extend)
  c. cell differentiation region (development of cells to be
  various particular types)

2. Secondary growth
   Secondary growth is the increment of size (thickness) of
   the plant’s body organ because of activity of secondary
   meristematic growth (causes the enlargement of stem
 Based on the growth point of plant, there are two theories:
   a. Histoyenic theory
   b. Tunica Corpus theory

Development of Plants
 Development of plants is the process to reach the
  adultness of that plant.
 Plant is said adult if has formed flower.



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