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Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom. For most of the last millennium, the lands now constituting the United Kingdom were largely inhabited by English, Scots, Irish, Welsh people and Cornish people. Since World War II, however, substantial immigration from the New Commonwealth, Europe, and the rest of the world has considerably altered the demographic make-up of many cities in the United Kingdom. done so. In 2001 790,000 people were born in Ireland, although there are thought to be millions more 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations. The Irish are the largest white minority in the United Kingdom. The major areas of settlement for the Irish population are Liverpool, Glasgow, Manchester, London and Birmingham.

Although Italians have had a presence in the UK for centuries, it was only after the Second World War that there was a large influx to the country. Many came for work, for study or when situations of political and economic turmoil back home forced them to leave. Many headed to the UK as an alternative to the US. They have left their mark on British life mainly through their food where Italian restaurants, bars & cafes are now commonplace. In the UK, British Italians are popularly known as "Britalians", a term coined by the UK-based Italian chef Antonio Carluccio. Currently, the Italian official records report around 175,000 Italians living in the UK (115,000 in the area served by the Italian Consulate General of London alone), but these figures are to be taken as a low estimate (not everyone register with the consulates, especially the short term or temporary residents), as well as those of Italian heritage.

Native population
Further information: Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland, White British, English people, Irish people, Scottish people, Welsh people, and Cornish people The United Kingdom Census 2001 subsumes the native populations of Great Britain "White British". 85.7% or 50.4 million of UK population fell into this category. The native population of Ireland was described as "White Irish", accounting for 1.2% or 0.7 million. According to the CIA Factbook, 77% of UK population, or 45 million people are English, 8% or 4.7 million are Scottish, 4.5% or 2.7 million are Welsh and 2.8% or 1.6 million are Northern Irish. [1]

More recent migration
In recent years there has been sustained position net immigration into the United Kingdom from all sections of the globe.[2][3] London is often cited as the most ethnically diverse city in the world.[4]


South & Eastern Europeans
Greeks & Greek Cypriots
Immigration to the UK from Greece has existed for centuries with the first major mirations occurring in the 1800s and early 1900s. Since it got its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960, Cyprus has seen many of its citizens emigrate to the United Kingdom for economical reasons and in search of a better life. The first major influx of Cypriot immigrants to London and other UK cities was between the two world wars when Cyprus was ceded to Britain, and then in the

Western Europeans
From the independence of the Republic of Ireland in 1922 until 1949 citizens of that country retained their status as British subjects and also legal right to settle in the United Kingdom. From 1949 onwards they have had to meet the same criteria as other nationalities to settle in the United Kingdom (see British nationality law and the Republic of Ireland) and hundreds of thousands have


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1950s and 1960s, and then, after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, an estimated 20,000 Greek-Cypriots fled to the UK. There are more than one hundred Greek communities in the United Kingdom, with a total number of Londoners of Greek decent of 300,000 according to London Greek Radio and a UK Greek population of 400,000 +/-100,000. About 3/4 of Greek Britons come from Cyprus, not Greece itself. Probably 50% have both parents Greek Cypriots, 25% mixed Greek and Greek Cypriot ancestry, and 25% both parents Greek since the 2001 UK Census shows that the ratio of Cyprus born Britons to Greece born Britons is 2:1.

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
Poland’s accession to the EU in May 2004, the number of Poles in the UK has risen once more. Large number of Poles have migrated to the UK, although there is evidence that much of this migration is circular and that many Poles have returned home.[11][12] According the Labour Force Survey, 458,000 Polish-born people were resident in the UK in quarter 4 2007.[11]

Turks & Turkish Cypriots
The first Turks to arrive in the United Kingdom were the Turkish Cypriots who were Commonwealth citizens as Cyprus was a British colony until 1960. Some Turkish Cypriots came from the 1930s to find employment, others joined later to escape the tensions between Turkish and Greek Cypriots which resulted in the Turkish occupation of the north of the island in 1974. Many Turkish people sought refuge in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s, and the number of Turkish immigrants has continued to increase. Many came from Cyprus during the actions of EOKA and Enosis. The most recent influx started soon after the military coup on the Turkish mainland by General Kenan Evren in 1980. The harsh repression that followed forced many people out of the country. Poets, artists, intellectuals, journalists, political opponents of the regime, but also simple people and a large proportion of Turkish Kurds.

There is a long history of migration from Poland to the UK. In the 1800s, Protestant refugees from Poland settled in Britain.[5] Many Jewish people also moved from Poland to Britain, both as refugees and economic migrants.[6] In 1940, after the fall of France to the Nazis, the Polish president, prime minister, government, and at least 20,000 soldiers were exiled to London.[5] In the immediate post-World War II period, many Poles who had fought on from bases in the United Kingdom following their defeat by the Germans, were urged to return home by the British Government. Only about half of them did so, however, with the remainder (of about 250,000 people) staying on to form the basis of the United Kingdom’s Polish community. The Polish Resettlement Corps (1947-49) eased the transition from military to civilian life for the ex-soldiers and numerous dependants. Also following the end of World War II, substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled territories settled in Britain, including many Poles. The UK recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to industries that were required in order to aim economic recovery after the war.[7] In the 1951 Census, the Polish-born population of the UK numbered some 162,339, up from 44,642 in 1931.[8][9] The 2001 UK Census showed that the number of Polish-born people in the UK was declining. In 2001, there were 60,680 Polishborn people in Britain, compared to 73,951 at the time of the 1991 Census (note that the figures exclude Northern Ireland).[10] Since


South Asians
These comprise Indians (originating primarily from Punjab and Gujarat), Pakistanis (originating primarily from Kashmir and Punjab), Bangladeshis (originating primarily from Sylhet), and a small number of Sri Lankans. They numbered 2,331,423 in the 2001 Census. This further subdivided to 1,053,411 of Indian origin, 747,285 of Pakistani origin, 283,063 of Bangladeshi origin, and 247,664 from other Asian origins. 2004 estimates show that the British Asian community is 2,799,700 including people of mixed White British and Asian British descent. There are Asians present in most towns and cities in the United Kingdom. The largest concentrations of Indians are to be found in west London, Leicester and the West Midlands. The largest Bangladeshi community is in east London. Pakistanis are more evenly spread


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through the country, with large concentrations in Birmingham, Lancashire, Yorkshire and Greater Manchester.

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

See also: Hong Kong British British Chinese are predominately from southern Chinese origin, in particular from Hong Kong. The first significant immigration began during the 1950s and 1960s, followed by a further wave in the early 1980s and another in the mid-1990s prior to Hong Kong being incorporated into the Peoples Republic of China. In 2001 they numbered 247,403. Many students of Chinese origin study in the United Kingdom and since 2001 a substantial portion have chosen to remain, increasing their numbers further. In contrast to the largely southern Chinese community living in the United Kingdom, newer arrivals tend to come from all across China. The Chinese are the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the United Kingdom, growing at 11% per annum between 2001-2003. This growth comes almost exclusively from immigration.

Bangladeshis primarily live in London, mainly in the East London boroughs, of which the borough of Tower Hamlets has the highest percentage of Bangladeshis with about 33% of the borough’s total population. The national census of ethnicity and identity found over 283,000 people had Bangladeshi heritage in Britain as of 2001. Bangladeshis decide to move to the United Kingdom include the need to find work and earn a better living. Most of these people came from the Bangladeshi region of Sylhet during and after the 1970s. The influence of Bangladeshi culture and diversity can be seen across London in boroughs such as Tower Hamlets, Newham, Camden and Southwark By 1970, Brick Lane, and many of the streets around it, had become predominantly Bengali. The Jewish bakeries were turned into curry houses, the jewellery shops were turned into sari stores, and the synagogues into dress factories. In 1976, the synagogue at the corner of Fournier Street and Brick Lane became the Jamme Masjid (community mosque). The majority of 95% of British Bangladeshis originate from Sylhet, which is a division and city located in the north-east of Bangladesh. Notables, for example Konnie Huq - notable for being the longest-serving female presenter in Blue Peter, Baroness Uddin, Monica Ali and many more.

There was a small population of Filipinos in UK up until the 90’s. A notable increase in Filipino population in UK started in 2000 when NHS started hiring nurses directly from the Philippines. List of Filipino Associations 1. Milton Keynes Filipino Association - Joselito Calaper Chairman 2. Oxfordshire Filipino Association 3. Filipino Association of Southampton 2008 Chairman Euri Banez / 4. Pembrokshire Filipino Community -

See also: Anglo-Indians

Pakistani Romnichal
The Romanichal, for whom the term "Gypsies" is now considered pejorative, also reside in the United Kingdom.

Since immigration restrictions were relaxed in 1989, the United Kingdom’s Korean population has grown rapidly. In 2005, South Korea’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade estimated there were 40,810 Koreans in the United Kingdom, making them the ninthlargest population of overseas Koreans.


East Asians
See also: Anglo-Burmese people


Black British


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Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

These originated mostly in several of the former British colonies in the Caribbean. The largest proportion of the Black Caribbean population in the UK are of Jamaican origin; others trace origins to smaller nations including Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Montserrat, Dominica, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Guyana. Black-Caribbean communities exist throughout the United Kingdom, though by far the largest concentrations are in London, Birmingham and the broader West Midlands conurbation. Significant communities also exist in other population centres, notably Manchester, Nottingham, Leicester, Bristol, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool and Cardiff. Around half of the British Caribbean community originate from Jamaica. In 2001 the Black Caribbean community numbered 565,876 and the total Black population was 1.2 million or 2.2% of the population. See also • Antiguan British • Bahamian British • Barbadian British • Dominican British • Guyanese British • Jamaican British • Saint Lucian British • Saint Kitts and Nevisian British • Grenadian British • Montserratian British • Trinidadian British • Vincentian British

Horn Africans
Somalis, Ethiopians, Sudanese and Eritreans.

North Africans
Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians, Egyptians and Libyans.

Middle East
See also: Assyrians in the United Kingdom, Egyptian British, Iraqi British, Lebanese British, Moroccan British, and Yemeni Britons Arabs number over 1 million in the United Kingdom, and are a rapidly growing ethnic group, this ethnic group can be split up further.[13]

Iranian peoples Jews
See also: Israeli British and History of the Jews in England The first Jews arrived in England in 1070 from Rouen following the Norman Invasion. There is mention of them in the Domesday Book. They were expelled in 1290 under the edict of expulsion but a small number returned from 1656 onwards. The vast majority of today’s Jewish community, however, descend from Jews who arrived from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.[14] It is hard to discern the number of ethnic Jews in the United Kingdom as they are classified as white on census forms. In 2001 however there were 267,373 practitioners of Judaism in the United Kingdom.

West Africans
Many people from Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cape Verde and Cameroon continue to migrate as professional workers or students.

North American
See also: African American British

Latin Americans
See also: Argentines in the United Kingdom, Bolivian British, Chilean Briton, Colombian British, Cuban British, Ecuadorian Briton, Mexican Briton, and Peruvian Briton

South Africans
Zimbabweans, South Africans, Zambians, Angolans, Mozambicans, Mauritians, Seychellois and Botswanans.


East Africans
Kenyans, Tanzanians, Ugandans, Rwandians and Burundians.

Further information: British Mixed-Race Britain has a long history of mixing with foreigners arriving from abroad, beginning with Europeans, such as the Celts, Romans, Anglo-


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saxons and Normans. From the 16th century, non-Europeans began arriving to Britain and mixing with the local population, beginning with the Romani people ("Gypsies"), with origins from the Indian subcontinent, who formed the Romnichal community through intermarriage. With the rise of the British Empire, other non-European immigrants were brought to Britain (most often as seamen), where they intermarried with the local white British population. This occurred with South Asian immigrants (mostly lascar seamen) since the 17th century (resulting in Anglo-Indians), Arab and East Asian immigrants since the 19th century, and African and Caribbean immigrants since the 20th century. After World War II, established ’mixed communities’ abroad, principally the AngloIndian and Anglo-Burmese communities in India and Burma, respecively, migrated to the UK. They are now established and integrated communities within the UK. Over more recent years, there has been substantial and increasing intermarriage between the various groups, resulting in the recognition of a new group - Mixed. This group is relatively heterogeneous, with "Mixed - Afro-Caribbean / White British" being the biggest component, followed by "Mixed - South Asian / White British". The Mixed group has the youngest demographic profile of any group, with half being under 16, and numbered 677,117 at the 2001 Census. Due to rapid growth the Mixed group is predicted to become the largest ethnic minority group by 2020.

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
• The Nigerian British community is the largest overseas Nigerian community on the planet, and three times larger than its closest rival: the USA (see Nigerian American). • The Mixed-Race population is the fastestgrowing ethnic group in the UK. In 2000, The Sunday Times reported that "Britain has the highest rate of interracial relationships in the world".[15] • The Brazilian British community increases in size by around 22 people every day, and sits firm as the world’s fourth largest overseas Brazilian community. • Many communities such as the Scandinavian British, French British, German British, Italian British, Spanish British and the British Jews, have inhabited the United Kingdom for millennia, and it is impossible to tell how many people have partial ancestry, although it is thought to be in the millions for many throughout the country. • There estimated to be up to 450,000 Iraqis in the United Kingdom, making the country’s Iraqi community the largest in the Western World, and fourth worldwide. • According to findings in the 2001 British Census, over half of the total population of London (estimated at 7-8 million inhabitants) are non-white/non-European, to make it the most cosmopolitan or ethnically diverse city in Europe.

Demographic transition
The period from 1948 has seen a dramatic change in the ethnic make-up of the United Kingdom. Non-Whites have grown from tens of thousands in 1951 to 4,600,000 in 2001. The total number of ethnic minorities (including whites from ethnic minority groups) in 2001 was 6,751,689

General Information
• The Montserratian British community outnumbers the actual population of Montserrat by about six to one. • The Pakistani British community is the second largest Pakistani overseas community in the world. • The British Bangladeshi community is the largest overseas Bangladeshi community in the Western world and the third largest in the world. • The Cypriot British community is the largest overseas Cypriot community on earth, it is over half the size of the almost one million strong population of Cyprus. • Indian British people make up the country’s single largest ethnic minority group, which is also the West’s second largest Indian community.

Multiculturalism and integration
Beginning during the postwar immigration boom, United Kingdom has gradually developed a robust policy of multiculturalism. The rapidity of ethnic transition in the United Kingdom has caused much discussion about the policies that have developed under the rubric of multiculturalism. Critics believe policies that stress integration between


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethnic group White British White Irish White (other) Mixed race Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian (non-Chinese) Black Caribbean Black African Black (others) Chinese Other Population

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
% of total* 85.7% 1.2% 5.3% 1.2% 1.8% 1.3% 0.8% 0.4% 1.0% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4%

&0000000050366497.00000050,366,497 &0000000000691232.000000691,232 &0000000003096169.0000003,096,169 &0000000000677117.000000677,117 &0000000001053411.0000001,053,411 &0000000000747285.000000747,285 &0000000000500000.000000500,000 &0000000000247644.000000247,644 &0000000000565876.000000565,876 &0000000000485277.000000485,277 &0000000000097585.00000097,585 &0000000000247403.000000247,403 &0000000000230615.000000230,615

* Percentage of total UK population groups are more appropriate. They point to the differing successes and relative failures of various groups in the United Kingdom to integrate with one another and British society.[16][17][18][19] In 2005 the Commission for Racial Equality published a report entitled Citizenship and Belonging : What is Britishness?, to examine the way in which British people of different ethnic backgrounds thought about Britishness. The Commission reported that: “As White people involved in the study were asked to talk about Britishness, many immediately and spontaneously changed the topic of discussion slightly talking instead about a perceived decline in Britishness. This happened in all focus groups with White people. They attributed the decline to four main causes: the arrival of large numbers of migrants; the ‘unfair’ claims made by people from ethnic minorities on the welfare state; the rise in moral pluralism; and the failure to manage ethnic minority groups properly, due to what participants called political correctness.” And that: “Most White participants were distressed by this perceived decline in Britishness. They felt victimised and frustrated and many anticipated that social unrest would become inevitable.”[20] • • 1958 - London - Notting Hill race riots • 1981 - London - Brixton riot (1981) • 1981 & 1987 - Leeds - Chapeltown Riots • 1981 - Liverpool - Toxteth Riots • 1981 & 1985 - Birmingham Handsworth Riots • 1981 - Manchester - Moss Side • 1985 -London - Brixton riot (1985) • 1985 -London - Broadwater Farm riot • 1989 - Dewsbury - Dewsbury riot • 1995 - Bradford - Manningham Riot • 1995 - London - Brixton riot (1995) • 2001 - Bradford - Bradford Riot • 2001 - Burnley - Burnley Riots • 2001 - Oldham - Oldham Riots • 2004 - Peterborough - Peterborough Riots • 2005 - Birmingham - 2005 Birmingham Riot

2001 Census
Further information: United Kingdom Census 2001 According to the 2001 Census, the ethnic composition of the United Kingdom was:

2008 Estimates References
[1] The CIA World Factbook reports that in the 2001 UK census 92.1% of the UK

Race riots
Since the beginning of mass immigration there have been a number of race riots, the most prominent being:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethnic group White British British South Asian Black British Mixed race British East Asian Population

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
% of total* 82.4% 6.2% 3.5% 1.6% 1.1%

&0000000050400000.00000050,400,000 &0000000003800000.0000003,800,000 &0000000002200000.0000002,200,000 &0000000001000000.0000001,000,000 &0000000000600000.000000600,000

* Percentage of total UK population population were in the White ethnic group, and that 83.6% of this group are in the English ethnic group. The UK Office for National Statistics reports a total population in the UK census of 58,789,194. A quick calculation shows this is equivalent to 45,265,093 people in the English ethnic group; however, this number may not represent a self-defined ethnic group because the 2001 census did not in fact offer "English" as an option under the ’ethnicity’ question (the CIA’s figure was presumably arrived at by calculating the number of people in England who listed themselves as "white"). BBC[1] BBC [2] Guardian [3] ^ "Polish London". BBC London. articles/2005/05/26/ polish_london_feature.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. "Jewish migration: Origins". Moving Here. galleries/histories/jewish/origins/ origins.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. Kay, Diana; Miles, Robert (1998). "Refugees or migrant workers? The case of the European Volunteer Workers in Britain (1946–1951)". Journal of Refugee Studies 1 (3-4): 214–236. doi:10.1093/jrs/ 1.3-4.214. cgi/content/abstract/1/3-4/214. Holmes, Colin (1988). John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society 1871-1971. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Burrell, Kathy (2002). "Migrant memories, migrant lives: Polish national identity in Leicester since 1945" (PDF). Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society (76): 59–77. downloads/2002/burrell2002-3.pdf.

[2] [3] [4] [5]





[10] "Poland". Born Abroad. BBC News. 05/born_abroad/countries/html/ poland.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. [11] ^ Pollard, Naomi; Latorre, Maria; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan (April 2008). "Floodgates or turnstiles? Post-EU enlargement migration to (and from) the UK". Institute for Public Policy Research. 21. download.asp?f=%2Fecomm%2Ffiles%2Ffloodgates% Retrieved on 2008-06-15. [12] "Half EU migrants ’have left UK’". BBC News. 2008-04-29. 1/hi/uk/7372025.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. [13] [14] Norman Davies, The Isles A History 1999 ISBN 0-333-69283-7 ’The first major modern influx of foreign immigrants (into the British Isles) was that of the East European Jews in the period 1885-1905. Fleeing the poverty of the pale of Jewish Settlement in the Russian Empire, as well as fear of persecution, Yiddish speaking Jewish immigrants arrived in a sudden uncontrolled flood, quickly transforming the East End of London and similar districts in other major cities into predominantly Jewish districts.....Their numbers - perhaps a hundred thousand caused the British Government to pass the Aliens Act 1906’. (page 822) [15] John Harlow, The Sunday Times (London), 9 April 2000, quoting Professor Richard Berthoud of the Institute for Social and Economic Research [16] BBC[4] [17] The Times [5] [18] BBC [6] [19] BBC [7] [20] The decline of Britishness: a research study


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom
• Demographics of the United Kingdom • Languages of the United Kingdom • Immigration to the United Kingdom (1922-present day)

See also
• British people • Lists of UK locations with large ethnic minority populations • Ethnic groups in London • Census 2001 Ethnic Codes • Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland • Historical immigration to Great Britain

External links
• The Office for National Statistics on Ethnic Group Statistics

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