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					On the Potential Impact to Los Angeles of Local
    Vendor Preferences for City Contracts




                  Charles Swenson
       Professor and Leventhal Research Fellow
             Marshall School of Business
           University of Southern California




                     July, 2010
Executive Summary
The City of Los Angeles is considering providing procurement preferences for
Los Angeles based firms which bid for City contracts. This paper predicts that
such preferences would increase City of Los Angeles jobs at no cost to the City.

Background
Los Angeles (LA) based businesses face competition from around the world. One
stimulant to LA businesses would be to level the playing field relative to other
firms in the awarding of Los Angeles City contracts. The awarding of such
contracts could be a major boost to the local economy; currently, the City spends
$1,112,589,290 annually on contracts to outside vendors, of which only
$180,468,792 (or 16.22%) is spent on City of Los Angeles based firms. This
means that almost $1 billion more in contracts could potentially be awarded to LA
firms. Using standard Type II economic multipliers, a local preference ordinance
would potentially result in approximately 10,000 direct and indirect jobs in greater
Los Angeles. The impact of a procurement preference policy would be more
significant if it were concurrently implemented at the Los Angeles Department of
Water and Power, the Port of Los Angeles, and Los Angeles World Airports

The awarding of such contract to local firms is hindered by the absence of a local
business preference on bids for City contracts. A number of cities in the U.S.
award preference points for contractors for numerous vendor attributes, such as
women owned businesses, minority owned businesses, etc. One major
preference offered is if the bidder is based in the same geography, commonly
known as a local purchasing preference. In a national survey of state and local
governments, Qiao et. al (2009)1 found that 31.9 per cent of respondents
indicated that their governments had local preferences. Los Angeles does not
have such a preference.

Bidding preferences are translated into “preference points”. To illustrate this,
suppose a city has an 8% local preference rule. If a local company’s bid for a
project is $100,000, a non-local bidder would have to bid 8% lower than this, or
$92,000, to at least tie the local bidder for the contract. There are important
economic gains for the City associated with having a local preference rule. One
important gain is the increase in local jobs, aided by the “multiplier” effect of jobs
on the local economy. Another potential gain can occur from the “multiplier effect”
resulting from a local firm’s increased effect on the City’s tax revenues.

Leveling the Playing Field
As mentioned above, a number of cities have such local vendor preferences2.
California cities include Oakland, Pasadena, Redding, San Jose, and San
Francisco. Major US cities include Albuquerque, Columbus, Madison (Wisconsin)
1
   Qiao,Y., Thai, K., and L. Cummings (2009).”State and Local Procurement Preferences: A Survey”. Journal
of Public Procurement (9): 371-410
2
   20 states also have local bid preferences: Alaska; Arizona; Arkansas; California; Georgia; Hawaii; Idaho;
Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Montana; New Mexico; New York; Ohio; South Carolina;
South Dakota; Texas; and Wyoming.
and Philadelphia. As pointed out in Qiou et al (2009), the most common local
preference rates are in the 5% to 10% range. The 8% rate contemplated by Los
Angeles is within this range.

Creating a bid preference in Los Angeles would help “level the playing field” for
Los Angeles-based firms. Operating costs in Los Angeles are quite high relative
to California cities, and relative to other U.S. cities. Firms located in such other
cities can afford to bid lower than LA-based firms based on such lowered
operating costs. Some of the more expensive operating costs in Los Angeles
include office rents, labor, and business taxes.

To facilitate an analysis of LA versus other cities, I have compiled, in Appendix II,
a series of tables showing “business climates.” The data are reported in 284
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), which are metropolitan centers based on
U.S. government definitions3. The data are divided into the following topics: labor
force; logistics; local market potential; quality of life; and taxes. Because
business climates are affected by state-wide policies and attributes, some of the
data are state (as opposed to city) specific.

The data shows that while Los Angeles has a very favorable business climate in
terms of available labor supply, logistics, and local markets, it is extremely costly
to do business in terms of labor costs, infrastructure costs, and taxes, relative to
almost all other areas of the country.

While LA ranks a favorable 6th in terms of labor availability (44th in unemployment
rate), labor costs are 9th highest in the nation. The Long Beach-Los Angeles-
Glendale metropolitan area’s average hourly wage rate is $17.39, and average
annual earnings are $49,010. This is significantly higher than the national
average wage rate of $15.95 per hour ($43,460 annually). Los Angeles area
labor costs are more than 5% higher than competing neighboring states’ hourly
(annual) wages of $15.49 ($40,910) for Arizona, $15.26 ($40,000) for Nevada,
and $16.16 ($42,540) for Oregon. Locally, the average annual wages for Santa-
Ana-Anaheim-Irvine metropolitan area ($48,940) and the Ontario-San
Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area ($41,840) are also lower than Los
Angeles.

Los Angeles is 13% higher than the rest of the U.S. with respect to construction
costs. Average office rents in the greater Los Angeles area are $2.45 per square
foot; this rate is higher than all other major metropolitan areas of the U.S., more
than 40% higher than the national average, and almost 30% higher than the
$1.89/sq. ft. average for the Inland Empire area.4



3
  There are 25,374 separately incorporated cities in the U.S (1082 in California alone). The U.S.
government complies contiguous, economically-interdependent areas into MSAs.
4
  General Office Rents, C.B. Richard Ellis (May, 2010). Available at www.cbre.com
With respect to local taxes and fees, Los Angeles is one of the 10 most
expensive places to do business nationally.5 Similarly, Los Angeles ranks higher
in cost than virtually all cities in Riverside and San Bernardino counties6. Also,
corporations in California are subject to the States’ 8.84% corporate income tax
rate, which is among the highest in the country.

It is difficult to quantify the extra expense of a “typical” business in LA versus the
rest of the country, since each business faces a different set of labor, rent, etc.
cost structures. However, the above statistics indicate that LA is well in excess of
10% more costly than other cities in virtually all dimensions.

Direct (Bid-Related) Effects Resulting From a Local Preference Option
For cities which have local bid preferences, there is no empirical evidence as to:
1. how often a local bidder wins; 2. when the local firm wins, if its price is inflated
beyond the price offered by a non-local vendor; and 3. when the non-local bidder
wins, how much the City gains in terms of more competitive pricing resulting from
the bidder preference option. The latter two effects depend on whether the local
firm has a similar cost structure to the non-local firm. In many cases, a local
bidder is smaller than a regional/national (non-local) bidder, and as such it likely
has higher marginal operating costs than a non-local bidder. Without a bidding
preference, the national bidder can submit a slightly inflated bid and still win the
bid.

To see this, suppose the local firm cannot bid below $100,000 if it wants to make
a profit. Further, suppose the national firm, which has a 10% cost advantage over
the local firm, can bid as low as $90,000 and still make a profit. If there is no
preference rule, and the national firm has some sense for what the local firm
might bid, the national firm can bid $99,000 and win the contract. With an 8%
preference rule, the national firm would be forced to bid slightly below $92,000 to
win the bid. If it wins the bid, the preference structure has forced a “fully
revealing” cost structure for the national firm, and the City is better of by $8,000
($99,000 - $92,000) from the lower bid induced by the local preference rule.7 In
this scenario, the City saves on the bid price, but there are no other benefits to
the City in terms of increased employment and tax revenues.

In contrast, if the local firm has the same cost structure as the non-local firm, and
the local firm has a sense of the national firm’s cost structure, it can inflate its
normal bid up the point of where it barely exceeds the national bidder’s price by


5
  See Cost of Doing Business Survey (2009) by Kosmont and Associates and the Rose Institute of State and
Local Government (Claremont McKenna College). This annual survey collects data nationally on property
taxes, sales taxes, and other business licenses and fees for cities. See www.kosmont-rose.com
6
  Ibid.
7
  Note that there are also potentially higher administrative costs for having a local preference rule, since City
personnel would have to vet the “local” qualifications of the firm. Unfortunately, there is no economic
evidence as to whether this is a material amount in light of City personnel already having to vet other
preference criteria.
the preference points8. Here, where the local firm wins the bid, the City potentially
pays a higher price on the bid, but gains local jobs and tax revenues.9 Given the
higher operating costs in Los Angeles, this scenario is likely to occur infrequently,
if at all. Nonetheless, the following paragraphs discuss this scenario.


Multiplier Effect to the City From Local Firm Winning a Bid10
If the local firm wins the contract, the City would have economic benefit in terms
of increased jobs and tax revenues, which are enhanced by the multiplier effect.
In many cases, the economic gain to the City can still be positive from a local bid
preference, so long as the local preference results in tax revenue gains
exceeding any potential bid “inflation” by the local bidder.

To see how this works, consider the following example. Suppose a local firm bids
$1 million for a contract, and non-local firm bids $990,000, and there is an 8%
local preference. Since the non-local firm has bid above $920,000, it loses the
bid. The direct cost to the City of the higher bid is $10,000 (the $10,000 higher
price it pays by using the local firm). Using standard multiplier analysis, increased
local demand would create an additional demand for local goods and services;
such Type II multipliers in California average about 2, depending on industry.
Thus,, there would be about $2 million in increased local sales, much of which
would be subject to the City’s gross receipts tax. Assuming an average City
gross receipts tax rate of .4%, the City’s gross receipts taxes would go up by
$8,000. Similarly, local firms would buy local items subject sales tax; the
increased revenue to the City in this case would be about $6,00011. Finally,
additional local employees (after the multiplier effect) would buy additional goods
subject to sales tax, generating an additional $1250 in revenue to the City12 . In
this simple example, the City is better off by: $8,000+$6,000+$1250-$10,000 or
$5,250. More importantly, using standard multiplier analysis, the City would also
be better off by approximately 10 jobs.

In Appendix I, we see that, at a preference rate of 8%, the City should make
money on local preferences.

8
  Survey results reported in Qioa et al (2009) indicate that local governments believed prices on average
slightly increased due to bid preferences. It is important to note that respondents were asked about price
inflation due to all types of preferences (gender, ethnicity, disabled, etc) and not just local preferences.
9
  For a good discussion on the theory of bid preferences in local contracts (and related incentive effects), the
reader is referred to Marion, J. (2007). “Are Bid Preferences Benign? The Effect of Small Business
Subsidies in Highway Procurement Auctions”. Journal of Public Economics (91): 1591-1624.
10
   For a good illustration of Type II multipliers, as well actual by industry California multipliers, the reader is
referred to http://www.labor.ca.gov/panel/pdf/Using_Multipliers_to_Measure_Economic_Impacts.pdf
11
   Firms typically spend about 30% of their purchases on items subject to sales tax. Accordingly, $2
million*30%*1%=$6,000 in increased City sales taxes, for this example.
12
   Standard California Type II multipliers would give an additional10 jobs (depending on industry) created for
each additional million dollars in final demand. Assuming an average wage of about $45,000 for a California
job (from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, or BLS), local wages would increase about $450,000. Since the
BLS indicates people spend about 90% of earnings, and an estimated 30% of that is spent on items subject
to a sales tax, the City would gain another $1250 in sales taxes
Conclusion
A local bidding preference of 8% for City of Los Angeles contracts would appear
to be beneficial to the City in terms of increased local employment at no net cost
to the City.
References
Branco, F. (1994) “Favoring Domestic Firms in Procurement Contracts”. Journal
of International Economics 37:65-80

Marion, J. (2007). “Are Bid Preferences Benign? The Effect of Small Business
Subsidies in Highway Procurement Auctions”. Journal of Public Economics (91):
1591-1624.

Naegelen, F. and M. Mougeot (1998) “Discriminatory Public Procurement Policy
and Cost Reduction Incentives’. Journal of Public Economics 67:349-367.

Qiao,Y., Thai, K., and L. Cummings (2009).”State and Local Procurement
Preferences: A Survey”. Journal of Public Procurement (9): 371-410
                             About the Author


Charles (Chuck) Swenson, PhD, CPA, is Professor and Leventhal Research
Fellow at the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern
California, where he has taught since 1987. Chuck has previously served as a
Visiting Professor at UCLA and Caltech. Author of more than 50 academic
research and professional articles on taxation which have appeared in such
economics journals as the National Tax Journal, the Journal of Public
Economics, and the Journal of Law and Economics, Dr. Swenson has won
the Tax Manuscript Award from the American Taxation three times. He is
author of two tax texts and is the General Editor of the treatise State Taxation:
Principles and Practice (LexisNexis, 2009). He has presented his research
before the California Senate Revenue and Taxation Committee, and the
California Assembly Committee on Jobs. His bio and curriculum vitae can be
found at:


http://marshallapps.usc.edu/portal/subapps/digitalmeasures/faculty.jsp?surve
yId=48871
                          Appendix I
Demonstrating the Profit Neutrality of a Local Bid Preference for
                   the City of Los Angeles

To illustrate the likely profit neutrality of a local bid preference, consider a simple
decision-theoretic model of a single bid. The results can be generalized to any
number (and size of) bids over time. The City tries to maximize its net profit as
follows.

The city’s problem is:

Max π = x[m(g +sb + sb)]-l]                                                             (1)
 x

Where:

Π=          City profit on any local bid,
x=           winning contract bid,
l=           loss % to City in terms of higher contract price paid to local bidder
 m=          local area Type II output multiplier for City,13 (here, set to 2)
g=           average City gross receipts tax rate.(here, set to .004)
sb=         effective sales tax rate on final demand(here, assumes Type II output
multiplier of 2, 30% of purchases are subject to sales tax, and City sales tax rate
of .01).
si=        effective sales tax rate on spending form new employees (here,
assumes Type II labor multiplier of 10/$million of final demand, average wage
rate of $45k, 90% of earnings spent on consumption, 30% of purchases are
subject to sales tax, and City sales tax rate of .01).

Solving, we have:

dπ/dx           =. m(g +sb + sb)-l                                                        (2)

Assuming the above parameters, whether City makes/loses money depends on l.
Whether the local’s bid be inflated or not, and if so, the amount of the inflation, is
an unanswered empirical question. A simple way to view this is as a binomial
probability, where half of the time the local’s bid is inflated, and half the time not.
Again simplifying, assume that on average, the amount of the bid’s inflation
(which occurs half the time) would be half of the preference amount. Using the
above 1.7% revenue gain estimation, this would mean that if the City makes a
small profit on average, in the long run, on any particular bid, with a bid
preference rate of 8%.

13
  RIMS Type II multipliers are available for general MSA areas (such as Long Beach-Los Angeles-Orange
County) but not for specific cities. Here, I use general California multipliers
The above comparative statics appear reasonable since many cities and states
have retained their local preferences over many years.
                 Appendix II
Business Climates in U.S. Cities: How Does Los
             Angeles Compare?
Introduction
Cities vary widely in their appeals to businesses, or “business climates”. This
Appendix reports objective data on a number of characteristics of U.S. cities to
allow the reader to determine which cities offer more business climate-friendly
environments. The data are reported in 284 Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(MSAs), which are metropolitan centers based on U.S. government definitions14.
The data are divided into the following topics: labor force; logistics; local market
potential; quality of life; and taxes. Because business climates in cities are
affected by state-wide policies and attributes, some of the data reported are state
(as opposed to city) specific.

The report finds that while Los Angeles has a very favorable business climate in
terms of available labor supply, logistics, local market structure, it is extremely
costly to do business in terms of labor costs, rents, and taxes, relative to almost
all other areas of the country.

Labor Issues
Table A1 reports the most recent data on mean and median hourly wage rates,
annual wages, and unemployment rates, by MSA. Next to each number appears
that MSA’s rank in the U.S. As shown in the Table, while L.A. ranks a favorable
6th in terms of labor availability (44th in unemployment rate), labor costs are 9th
highest in the nation. The L.A.-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan area’s average
hourly wage rate is $17.39, and the average annual earnings are $49,010. This is
significantly higher than the national average wage rate of $15.95/hour, and
$43,460 annually. The Los Angeles are labor costs are more than 5% higher
than those of competing neighboring states’ hourly (annual) wages of $15.49
($40,910) for Arizona, $15.26 ($40,400) for Nevada, and $16.16 ($42,540) for
Oregon.15 Locally, the average annual wages for Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine
metropolitan area ($48,940) and the Ontario-San Bernardino-Riverside
metropolitan area ($41,840) are also lower than those of Los Angeles.16



Table A1
Labor Costs and Availability
                                                                                            Median        Unemply 
                                                                        Mean 
                                City                                           Rank         Annual  Rank  ‐ment  Rank
                                                                        Hourly
                                                                                            Wages           Rate 
Abilene, TX MSA                                                         $16.24      262 $33,770       262     6.3    243
Albany, GA MSA                                                          $16.78      242 $34,890       242    10.6     69
Albany‐Schenectady ‐Troy, NY MSA                                        $21.78       29 $45,310        29     6.5    237


14
   There are 25,374 separately incorporated cities in the U.S. (1082 in California alone). The U.S.
government combines contiguous, economically interdependent areas into MSAs.
15
   See the most recent labor cost data form the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics at www.bls.gov
16
   Ibid.
Albuquerque, NM MSA                       $19.31    102   $40,170    102     8.2    158
Alexandria, LA MSA                        $16.42    258   $34,160    258     6.6    233
Allentown‐Bethlehem ‐Easton, PA‐NJ MSA    $19.60     90   $40,780     90     9.9     92
Altoona, PA MSA                           $16.03    270   $33,340    270     7.9    173
Amarillo, TX MSA                          $17.55    205   $36,510    205     5.4    265
Anchorage, AK MSA                         $23.91      7   $49,730      7     7.3    208
Anderson, IN MSA                          $16.39    259   $34,090    259    10.9     58
Anderson, SC MSA                          $16.75    246   $34,840    246    11.0     53
Anniston, AL MSA                          $16.64    249   $34,610    249     6.3    244
Appleton‐Oshkosh ‐Neenah, WI MSA          $18.89    127   $39,280    127     7.1    215
Asheville, NC MSA                         $17.31    215   $36,010    215     8.2    159
Athens, GA MSA                            $18.32    164   $38,110    164     7.3    209
Atlanta, GA MSA                           $21.88     27   $45,520     27     9.9     93
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                     $19.53     93   $40,620     93    12.4     25
Augusta, GA‐SC MSA                        $18.70    137   $38,890    137     8.6    141
Austin, TX MSA                            $21.72     32   $45,180     32     6.9    226
Bakersfield, CA MSA                       $20.40     60   $42,430     60    15.7      7
Baltimore, MD MSA                         $23.40     11   $48,670     11     7.4    202
Bangor, ME MSA                            $17.90    184   $37,230    185     7.5    197
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                       $18.35    161   $38,170    162     7.1    216
Battle Creek, MI MSA                      $20.09     73   $41,780     73    11.5     41
Beaumont‐Port Arthur, TX MSA              $18.65    141   $38,800    141    10.6     70
Bellingham, WA MSA                        $19.17    113   $39,870    113     8.3    148
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                     $18.66    140   $38,810    140    12.8     22
Billings, MT MSA                          $17.37    211   $36,140    210     5.2    269
Biloxi‐Gulfport, MS MSA                   $17.09    227   $35,540    227     9.4    104
Binghamton, NY MSA                        $19.08    116   $39,680    116     7.8    176
Birmingham, AL MSA                        $19.26    106   $40,060    107     9.6    100
Bismarck, ND MSA                          $17.90    185   $37,230    186     3.1    280
Bloomington, IN MSA                       $16.81    240   $34,960    240     7.5    198
Bloomington‐Normal, IL MSA                $21.29     40   $44,280     40     6.9    227
Boise City, ID MSA                        $19.04    118   $39,600    118     8.9    123
Boston‐Lawrence‐ Salem, MA‐NH CMSA        $26.74      3   $55,620      3     8.2    160
Bradenton, FL MSA                         $18.15    171   $37,750    172    11.5     42
Bremerton, WA MSA                         $22.12     24   $46,020     24     7.6    189
Brownsville‐Harlingen, TX MSA             $14.94    279   $31,080    279    10.9     59
Bryan‐College Station, TX MSA             $18.57    145   $38,620    146     5.8    257
Buffalo‐Niagara Falls, NY CMSA            $19.69     87   $40,960     87     7.6    190
Burlington, NC MSA                        $16.73    247   $34,800    247    10.9     60
Burlington, VT MSA                        $21.36     37   $44,430     37     4.8    273
Canton, OH MSA                            $21.36     38   $44,430     38    11.6     38
Casper, WY MSA                              $21.36     39   $44,430     39     7.0    220
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                        $19.74     84   $41,070     84     6.4    240
Champaign‐Urbana ‐Rantoul, IL MSA           $21.38     36   $44,470     36     7.8    177
Charleston, SC MSA                          $18.57    146   $38,630    145     8.8    133
Charleston, WV MSA                          $17.90    186   $37,240    184     7.8    178
Charlotte‐Gastonia‐ Rock Hill, NC‐SC MSA    $21.10     43   $43,890     43    10.9     61
Charlottesville, VA MSA                     $20.99     47   $43,660     47     5.9    254
Chattanooga, TN‐GA MSA                      $17.78    192   $36,990    192     8.7    135
Cheyenne, WY MSA                            $18.82    130   $39,160    130     7.0    221
Chicago‐Gary‐Lake County, IL‐IN‐WI CMSA     $23.16     16   $48,180     16    10.3     75
Chico, CA MSA                               $19.05    117   $39,630    117    13.3     17
Cincinnati‐Hamilton, OH‐KY‐IN CMSA          $20.35     62   $42,340     62     9.7     98
Clarksville‐Hopkinsville, TN‐KY MSA         $16.55    254   $34,420    254    10.5     72
Cleveland‐Akron‐Lorain, OH CMSA             $20.16     70   $41,930     70     9.1    116
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                    $21.05     44   $43,790     44     8.3    149
Columbia, MO MSA                            $18.07    178   $37,570    179     5.8    258
Columbia, SC MSA                            $18.76    134   $39,020    134     8.9    124
Columbus, GA‐AL MSA                         $17.63    199   $36,680    199     9.2    112
Columbus, OH MSA                            $20.70     54   $43,070     54     8.7    136
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                      $16.93    235   $35,210    235     8.0    169
Cumberland, MD‐WV MSA                       $17.36    212   $36,100    212     8.3    150
Dallas‐Fort Worth, TX CMSA                  $21.46     35   $44,640     35     8.1    166
Danville, VA MSA                            $16.09    269   $33,460    269    11.7     34
Davenport‐Rock Island ‐Moline, IA‐IL MSA    $18.61    142   $38,700    143     7.8    179
Dayton‐Springfield, OH MSA                  $20.07     74   $41,750     74    10.9     62
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                       $16.62    250   $34,560    250    11.7     35
Decatur, AL MSA                             $17.04    231   $35,440    231    10.5     73
Decatur, IL MSA                             $22.31     21   $46,400     21    10.9     63
Denver‐Boulder, CO CMSA                     $23.35     13   $48,560     14     7.7    184
Des Moines, IA MSA                          $20.25     67   $42,120     67     6.1    250
Detroit‐Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                  $22.41     20   $46,620     20    13.7     14
Dothan, AL MSA                              $16.44    257   $34,190    257     9.0    119
Dubuque, IA MSA                             $17.10    226   $35,570    226     6.2    246
Duluth, MN‐WI MSA                           $18.45    153   $38,380    153     7.0    222
Eau Claire, WI MSA                          $17.59    202   $36,580    202     6.4    241
El Paso, TX MSA                             $16.37    260   $34,050    260     9.3    109
Elkhart‐Goshen, IN MSA                      $17.91    183   $37,250    183    13.7     15
Elmira, NY MSA                              $19.02    119   $39,560    119     7.9    174
Erie, PA MSA                                $17.41    208   $36,220    208    10.0     86
Eugene‐Springfield, OR MSA                  $18.94    125   $39,390    125    10.3     76
Evansville, IN‐KY MSA                       $18.49    149   $38,450    151     8.5    142
Fargo‐Moorhead, ND‐MN MSA                       $17.77    193   $36,960    193     3.5    279
Fayetteville, NC MSA                            $16.90    236   $35,150    236     8.7    137
Fayetteville‐Springdale, AR MSA                 $17.69    196   $36,790    196     6.1    251
Fitchburg‐Leominster, MA MSA                    $19.26    107   $40,060    108    11.8     32
Flint, MI MSA                                   $19.26    108   $40,060    109    14.7     10
Florence, AL MSA                                $15.71    276   $32,670    276     9.7     99
Florence, SC MSA                                $17.18    221   $35,730    221    11.1     51
Fort Collins‐Loveland, CO MSA                   $20.78     53   $43,210     53     6.2    247
Fort Myers‐Cape CoraL, FL MSA                   $18.43    155   $38,330    155    12.5     24
Fort Smith, AR‐OK MSA                           $15.88    271   $33,030    271     7.8    180
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                       $18.61    143   $38,710    142     7.4    203
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                              $18.72    135   $38,930    135    10.0     87
Fresno, CA MSA                                  $19.45     98   $40,460     98    15.9      6
Gadsden, AL MSA                                 $19.45     99   $40,460     99    10.0     88
Gainesville, FL MSA                             $19.83     81   $41,250     81     7.6    191
Glens Falls, NY MSA                             $19.83     82   $41,250     82     7.1    217
Grand Forks, ND MSA                             $17.05    230   $35,460    230     3.8    278
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                            $19.57     92   $40,710     92    10.9     64
Great Falls, MT MSA                             $16.19    265   $33,680    265     5.7    260
Greeley, CO MSA                                 $19.23    110   $40,000    110     8.7    138
Green Bay, WI MSA                               $18.67    139   $38,830    139     7.2    214
Greensboro‐Winston‐Salem ‐High Point, NC MSA    $18.78    133   $39,060    133    10.6     71
Greenville‐Spartanburg, SC MSA                  $18.36    159   $38,190    159     9.5    102
Hagerstown, MD MSA                              $18.36    160   $38,190    160     9.3    110
Harrisburg‐Lebanon‐Carlisle, PA MSA             $20.26     66   $42,140     66     8.3    151
Hartford‐New Britain ‐Middletown, CT CMSA       $24.77      6   $51,520      6     8.9    125
Hickory‐Morganton, NC MSA                       $16.84    238   $35,020    238    13.0     20
Honolulu, HI MSA                                $21.04     45   $43,760     45     5.2    270
Houma‐Thibodaux, LA MSA                         $17.80    190   $37,010    190     5.3    267
Houston‐Galveston‐ Brazoria, TX CMSA            $21.58     33   $44,880     33     8.3    152
Huntington‐Ashland, WV‐KY‐OH MSA                $16.58    251   $34,480    252     8.3    153
Huntsville, AL MSA                              $22.22     22   $46,220     22     7.7    185
Indianapolis, IN MSA                            $20.15     72   $41,900     72     8.9    126
Iowa City, IA MSA                               $19.42    100   $40,390    100     4.4    276
Jackson, MI MSA                                 $19.10    115   $39,740    115    13.0     21
Jackson, MS MSA                                 $17.60    201   $36,600    201     8.9    127
Jackson, TN MSA                                 $16.76    245   $34,870    245    10.2     79
Jacksonville, FL MSA                            $18.97    123   $39,460    123    10.8     66
Jacksonville, NC MSA                            $15.33    278   $31,880    278     7.5    199
Janesville‐Beloit, WI MSA                       $18.23    169   $37,910    169    10.4     74
Johnson City‐Kingsport ‐Bristol, TN‐VA MSA      $16.58    252   $34,480    253     8.9    128
Johnstown, PA MSA                          $16.88    237   $35,110    237    10.0     89
Joplin, MO MSA                             $15.84    273   $32,940    273     7.8    181
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                          $18.50    147   $38,480    147    11.2     47
Kankakee, IL MSA                           $17.86    188   $37,160    188    11.7     36
Kansas City, MO‐KS MSA                     $20.79     52   $43,240     52     8.3    154
Killeen‐Temple, TX MSA                     $17.15    224   $35,680    224     7.3    210
Knoxville, TN MSA                          $18.18    170   $37,820    170     8.0    170
Kokomo, IN MSA                             $19.72     85   $41,020     85    12.0     29
La Crosse, WI MSA                          $18.15    172   $37,750    173     5.8    259
Lafayette, LA MSA                          $17.45    207   $36,300    207     5.6    262
Lafayette‐West Lafayette, IN MSA           $18.49    150   $38,460    149     8.9    129
Lake Charles, LA MSA                       $17.28    217   $35,940    217     6.7    231
Lakeland‐Winter Haven, FL MSA              $17.80    191   $37,010    191    12.0     30
Lancaster, PA MSA                          $18.49    151   $38,460    150     8.0    171
Lansing‐East Lansing, MI MSA               $20.57     58   $42,790     58    10.2     80
Laredo, TX MSA                             $15.41    277   $32,050    277     8.5    143
Las Cruces, NM MSA                         $18.00    180   $37,450    180     7.8    182
Las Vegas, NV MSA                          $19.26    109   $40,070    106    14.1     11
Lawrence, KS MSA                           $17.32    214   $36,030    214     5.6    263
Lawton, OK MSA                             $16.23    263   $33,750    263     6.2    248
Lewiston‐Auburn, ME MSA                    $17.61    200   $36,630    200     8.1    167
Lexington‐Fayette, KY MSA                  $18.95    124   $39,410    124     8.2    161
Lima, OH MSA                               $17.94    182   $37,310    182    10.9     65
Lincoln, NE MSA                            $18.14    175   $37,730    175     4.2    277
Little Rock‐North Little Rock, AR MSA      $18.50    148   $38,470    148     6.8    229
Longview‐Marshall, TX MSA                  $17.34    213   $36,070    213     7.4    204
Los Angeles‐Anaheim ‐Riverside, CA CMSA    $23.55      9   $48,990      9    11.4     44
Louisville, KY‐IN MSA                      $19.22    112   $39,970    112     9.9     94
Lubbock, TX MSA                            $17.18    222   $35,730    222     5.7    261
Lynchburg, VA MSA                          $17.03    232   $35,420    232     7.6    192
Macon‐Warner Robins, GA MSA                $17.38    210   $36,140    211    10.1     83
Madison, WI MSA                            $21.23     41   $44,150     41     5.5    264
Manchester, NH MSA                         $21.75     31   $45,240     31     5.9    255
Mansfield, OH MSA                          $17.25    218   $35,880    218    11.6     39
Mcallen‐Edinburg ‐Mission, TX MSA          $14.93    280   $31,060    280    11.2     48
Medford, OR MSA                            $18.29    166   $38,040    166    12.2     27
Melbourne‐Titusville ‐Palm Bay, FL MSA     $20.45     59   $42,530     59    11.0     54
Memphis, TN‐AR‐MS MSA                      $18.93    126   $39,380    126    10.2     81
Merced, CA MSA                             $18.29    167   $38,040    167    18.1      3
Miami‐Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA             $19.85     79   $41,280     79    11.2     49
Midland, TX MSA                            $19.60     91   $40,770     91     5.4    266
Milwaukee‐Racine, WI CMSA                                  $21.19     42   $44,080     42     8.2    162
Minneapolis‐St. Paul, MN‐WI MSA                            $23.40     12   $48,670     12     6.4    242
Mobile, AL MSA                                             $17.72    194   $36,850    194    11.0     55
Modesto, CA MSA                                            $19.77     83   $41,120     83    17.3      4
Monroe, LA MSA                                             $15.81    274   $32,890    274     7.5    200
Montgomery, AL MSA                                         $17.95    181   $37,330    181     9.5    103
Muncie, IN MSA                                             $17.66    197   $36,730    198    10.7     68
Muskegon, MI MSA                                           $17.89    187   $37,220    187    14.0     12
Naples, FL MSA                                             $19.00    120   $39,520    120    11.3     45
Nashville, TN MSA                                          $19.13    114   $39,790    114     9.0    120
New Bedford, MA MSA                                        $19.66     88   $40,890     88    12.6     23
New Haven‐Meriden, CT MSA                                  $23.74      8   $49,380      8     9.0    121
New London‐Norwich, CT‐RI MSA                              $20.92     49   $43,520     49     8.4    146
New Orleans, LA MSA                                        $18.85    129   $39,210    129     7.0    223
New York‐Northern New Jersey ‐Long Island, NY‐NJ‐CT CMSA   $26.08      4   $54,240      4     8.7    139
Norfolk‐Virginia Beach ‐Newport News, VA MSA               $19.28    104   $40,100    105     7.3    211
Ocala, FL MSA                                              $17.19    220   $35,760    220    13.6     16
Odessa, TX MSA                                             $18.40    156   $38,280    156     8.2    163
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                      $18.31    165   $38,090    165     6.5    238
Olympia, WA MSA                                            $21.91     26   $45,570     26     7.7    186
Omaha, NE‐IA MSA                                           $19.23    111   $40,000    111     5.1    272
Orlando, FL MSA                                            $18.48    152   $38,430    152    11.1     52
Owensboro, KY MSA                                          $16.77    243   $34,890    243     8.9    130
Panama City, FL MSA                                        $17.14    225   $35,640    225     9.2    113
Parkersburg‐Marietta, WV‐OH MSA                            $16.80    241   $34,940    241     9.2    114
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                         $18.40    157   $38,270    157    10.1     84
Pensacola, FL MSA                                          $17.66    198   $36,740    197     9.9     95
Peoria, IL MSA                                             $19.31    103   $40,170    103     9.3    111
Philadelphia‐Wilmington‐ Trenton, PA‐NJ‐DE‐MD CMSA         $23.07     17   $47,990     17     9.4    105
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                            $20.16     71   $41,930     71     8.7    140
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                         $16.10    267   $33,490    267     9.1    117
Pittsburgh‐Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                          $19.93     77   $41,450     77     8.5    144
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                         $19.84     80   $41,260     80     8.9    131
Portland, ME MSA                                           $20.01     75   $41,620     75     6.6    234
Portland‐Vancouver, OR‐WA CMSA                             $22.15     23   $46,080     23    10.2     82
Portsmouth‐Dover‐ Rochester, NH‐ME MSA                     $22.79     18   $47,400     18     5.2    271
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                       $21.87     28   $45,480     28     7.4    205
Providence‐Pawtucket‐ Fall River, RI‐MA CMSA               $20.96     48   $43,600     48    12.1     28
Provo‐Orem, UT MSA                                         $18.33    163   $38,120    163     7.3    212
Pueblo, CO MSA                                             $17.56    204   $36,530    204     8.8    134
Raleigh‐Durham, NC MSA                                     $20.85     50   $43,370     50     8.2    164
Rapid City, SD MSA                          $16.18    266   $33,650    266     4.8    274
Reading, PA MSA                             $19.00    121   $39,520    121    10.0     90
Redding, CA MSA                             $19.51     94   $40,570     96    15.4      9
Reno, NV MSA                                $19.92     78   $41,440     78    13.3     18
Richland‐Kennewick ‐Pasco, WA MSA           $22.09     25   $45,950     25     7.0    224
Richmond‐Petersburg, VA MSA                 $21.03     46   $43,740     46     7.6    193
Roanoke, VA MSA                             $17.71    195   $36,840    195     7.4    206
Rochester, MN MSA                           $23.17     15   $48,190     15     5.3    268
Rochester, NY MSA                           $20.32     63   $42,270     63     7.3    213
Rockford, IL MSA                            $19.28    105   $40,110    104    13.9     13
Sacramento, CA MSA                          $23.35     14   $48,580     13    12.0     31
Saginaw‐Bay City ‐Midland, MI MSA           $19.49     97   $40,530     97    12.3     26
St. Cloud, MN MSA                           $18.35    162   $38,180    161     6.2    249
St. Joseph, MO MSA                          $16.26    261   $33,830    261     7.7    187
St. Louis, MO‐IL MSA                        $20.63     56   $42,900     56     9.2    115
Salem, OR MSA                               $18.82    131   $39,140    131    10.3     77
Salinas‐Seaside‐ Monterey, CA MSA           $20.65     55   $42,950     55    11.0     56
Salt Lake City‐ Ogden, UT MSA               $19.97     76   $41,530     76     7.0    225
San Angelo, TX MSA                          $16.52    255   $34,370    255     6.1    252
San Antonio, TX MSA                         $18.25    168   $37,970    168     7.1    218
San Diego, CA MSA                           $23.49     10   $48,860     10    10.0     91
San Francisco‐Oakland ‐San Jose, CA CMSA    $28.01      2   $58,250      2    10.1     85
Santa Barbara‐Santa Maria‐Lompoc, CA MSA    $21.78     30   $45,310     30     8.3    155
Santa Fe, NM MSA                            $20.20     69   $42,010     69     6.6    235
Sarasota, FL MSA                            $18.15    173   $37,750    174    11.5     43
Savannah, GA MSA                            $18.72    136   $38,930    136     8.3    156
Scranton‐Wilkes‐Barre, PA MSA               $17.41    209   $36,210    209    10.3     78
Seattle‐Tacoma, WA CMSA                     $24.93      5   $51,850      5     8.4    147
Sheboygan, WI MSA                           $18.59    144   $38,670    144     8.1    168
Sherman‐Denison, TX MSA                     $16.69    248   $34,720    248     8.3    157
Shreveport, LA MSA                          $16.84    239   $35,020    239     6.6    236
Sioux City, IA‐NE MSA                       $16.10    268   $33,490    268     6.7    232
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                         $17.23    219   $35,840    219     4.6    275
South Bend‐Mishawaka, IN MSA                $18.07    179   $37,590    178    11.3     46
Spokane, WA MSA                             $19.72     86   $41,010     86     8.9    132
Springfield, IL MSA                         $20.63     57   $42,900     57     7.1    219
Springfield, MO MSA                         $16.58    253   $34,490    251     7.9    175
Springfield, MA MSA                         $20.80     51   $43,250     51     9.9     96
State College, PA MSA                       $19.39    101   $40,330    101     6.5    239
Steubenville‐Weirton, OH‐WV MSA             $16.23    264   $33,750    264    13.1     19
Stockton, CA MSA                            $20.22     68   $42,060     68    16.2      5
Syracuse, NY MSA                                     $20.32     64   $42,270     64        7.6       194
Tallahassee, FL MSA                                  $19.00  122     $39,520  122          8.0       172
Tampa‐St. Petersburg ‐Clearwater, FL MSA             $19.51     95   $40,590     94       11.7        37
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                  $19.51     96   $40,590     95       10.8        67
Texarkana, TX‐ Texarkana, AR MSA                     $16.94  234     $35,240  234          7.4       207
Toledo, OH MSA                                       $18.86  128     $39,230  128         11.2        50
Topeka, KS MSA                                       $18.37  158     $38,200  158          6.3       245
Tucson, AZ MSA                                       $19.65     89   $40,870     89        8.5       145
Tulsa, OK MSA                                        $18.09  177     $37,620  177          7.7       188
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                   $17.51  206     $36,430  206          9.0       122
Tyler, TX MSA                                        $17.08  228     $35,530  228          7.5       201
Utica‐Rome, NY MSA                                   $18.45  154     $38,370  154          6.9       228
Victoria, TX MSA                                     $17.06  229     $35,490  229          7.6       195
Visalia‐Tulare‐ Porterville, CA MSA                  $18.15  174     $37,760  171         15.5         8
Waco, TX MSA                                         $17.03  233     $35,420  233          6.8       230
Washington, DC‐MD‐VA MSA                             $28.59      1   $59,470      1        6.0       253
Waterbury, CT MSA                                    $21.47     34   $44,650     34       11.8        33
Waterloo‐Cedar Falls, IA MSA                         $17.29  216     $35,960  216          5.9       256
Wausau, WI MSA                                       $18.14  176     $37,730  176          8.2       165
West Palm Beach‐Boca Raton ‐Delray Beach, FL MSA     $20.38     61   $42,380     61       11.0        57
Wheeling, WV‐OH MSA                                  $15.75  275     $32,750  275          9.4       106
Wichita, KS MSA                                      $18.81  132     $39,110  132          7.8       183
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                $16.50  256     $34,320  256          7.6       196
Williamsport, PA MSA                                 $16.77  244     $34,890  244          9.6       101
Wilmington, NC MSA                                   $17.58  203     $36,570  203          9.4       107
Worcester, MA MSA                                    $22.49     19   $46,790     19        9.8        97
Yakima, WA MSA                                       $17.85  189     $37,140  189          9.1       118
York, PA MSA                                         $18.69  138     $38,880  138          9.4       108
Youngstown‐Warren, OH MSA                            $17.18  223     $35,720  223         11.6        40
Yuba City, CA MSA                                    $20.32     65   $42,260     65       19.3         2
Yuma, AZ MSA                                         $15.87  272     $33,010  272         27.2         1
                                                                                                  
                             Average                 $19.00          $39,512               9.0    


Table A2 reports state-wide union activity and state right to work laws. Los
Angeles is average insofar as union membership in California is close to the
national average. However, since California is not a right to work state
(employees may be required to join unions), this is generally viewed as a non-
business friendly setting.
Table A2
Union Activity and Right to Work Laws
                       Location           Union Activity    Right To     
                                               (%)           Work 
 Abilene, TX MSA                                    5.70%      Yes  
 Albany, GA MSA                                     7.20%      Yes  
 Albany‐Schenectady‐Troy, NY MSA                  26.70%       No  
 Albuquerque, NM MSA                                8.00%      No  
 Alexandria, LA MSA                                 7.80%      Yes  
 Allentown‐Bethlehem‐Easton, PA‐NJ MSA            18.30%       No  
 Altoona, PA MSA                                  17.10%       No  
 Amarillo, TX MSA                                   5.70%      Yes  
 Anchorage, AK MSA                                22.00%       No  
 Anderson, IN MSA                                 14.50%       No  
 Anderson, SC MSA                                   4.90%      Yes  
 Anniston, AL MSA                                   9.90%      Yes  
 Appleton‐Oshkosh‐Neenah, WI MSA                  16.40%       No  
 Asheville, NC MSA                                  3.70%      Yes  
 Athens, GA MSA                                     7.20%      Yes  
 Atlanta, GA MSA                                    7.20%      Yes  
 Atlantic City, NJ MSA                            19.50%       No  
 Augusta, GA‐SC MSA                                 4.90%      Yes  
 Austin, TX MSA                                     5.70%      Yes  
 Bakersfield, CA MSA                              16.40%       No  
 Baltimore, MD MSA                                13.70%       No  
 Bangor, ME MSA                                   12.80%       No  
 Baton Rouge, LA MSA                                7.80%      Yes  
 Battle Creek, MI MSA                             21.80%       No  
 Beaumont‐Port Arthur, TX MSA                       5.70%      Yes  
 Bellingham, WA MSA                               18.60%       No  
 Benton Harbor, MI MSA                            21.80%       No  
 Billings, MT MSA                                 13.20%       No  
 Biloxi‐Gulfport, MS MSA                          13.50%       No  
 Binghamton, NY MSA                               26.70%       No  
 Birmingham, AL MSA                                 9.90%      Yes  
 Bismarck, ND MSA                                   7.20%      Yes  
 Bloomington, IN MSA                              14.50%       No  
 Bloomington‐Normal, IL MSA                       18.30%       No  
 Boise City, ID MSA                                 7.60%      Yes  
 Boston‐Lawrence‐Salem, MA‐NH CMSA                12.20%       No  
 Bradenton, FL MSA                                  6.60%      Yes  
 Bremerton, WA MSA                                18.60%       No  
 Brownsville‐Harlingen, TX MSA                      5.70%      Yes  
 Bryan‐College Station, TX MSA                      5.70%      Yes  
 Buffalo‐Niagara Falls, NY CMSA             26.70%    No  
 Burlington, NC MSA                          3.70%    Yes  
 Burlington, VT MSA                         10.70%    No  
 Canton, OH MSA                             17.70%    No  
 Casper, WY MSA                              9.00%    Yes  
 Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                       13.30%    Yes  
 Champaign‐Urbana‐Rantoul, IL MSA           18.30%    No  
 Charleston, SC MSA                          4.90%    Yes  
 Charleston, WV MSA                         14.60%    No  
 Charlotte‐Gastonia‐Rock Hill, NC‐SC MSA     4.30%    Yes  
 Charlottesville, VA MSA                     5.30%    Yes  
 Chattanooga, TN‐GA MSA                      7.50%    Yes  
 Cheyenne, WY MSA                            9.00%    Yes  
 Chicago‐Gary‐Lake County, IL‐IN‐WI CMSA    16.37%    No  
 Chico, CA MSA                              16.40%    No  
 Cincinnati‐Hamilton, OH‐KY‐IN CMSA         14.53%    No  
 Clarksville‐Hopkinsville, TN‐KY MSA         9.60%    No  
 Cleveland‐Akron‐Lorain, OH CMSA            17.70%    No  
 Colorado Springs, CO MSA                    9.20%    No  
 Columbia, MO MSA                           13.50%    No  
 Columbia, SC MSA                            4.90%    Yes  
 Columbus, GA‐AL MSA                         8.55%    Yes  
 Columbus, OH MSA                           17.70%    No  
 Corpus Christi, TX MSA                      5.70%    Yes  
 Cumberland, MD‐WV MSA                      14.15%    No  
 Dallas‐Fort Worth, TX CMSA                  5.70%    Yes  
 Danville, VA MSA                            5.30%    Yes  
 Davenport‐Rock Island‐Moline, IA‐IL MSA    33.60%    No  
 Dayton‐Springfield, OH MSA                  6.60%    Yes  
 Daytona Beach, FL MSA                      17.70%    No  
 Decatur, AL MSA                             9.90%    Yes  
 Decatur, IL MSA                            18.30%    No  
 Denver‐Boulder, CO CMSA                     9.20%    No  
 Des Moines, IA MSA                         13.30%    Yes  
 Detroit‐Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                 21.80%    No  
 Dothan, AL MSA                              9.90%    Yes  
 Dubuque, IA MSA                            13.30%    Yes  
 Duluth, MN‐WI MSA                          17.10%    No  
 Eau Claire, WI MSA                         16.40%    No  
 El Paso, TX MSA                             5.70%    Yes  
 Elkhart‐Goshen, IN MSA                     14.50%    No  
 Elmira, NY MSA                             26.70%    No  
 Enid, OK MSA                                8.40%    No  
 Erie, PA MSA                               17.10%    No  
 Eugene‐Springfield, OR MSA                      15.50%    No  
 Evansville, IN‐KY MSA                           12.95%    No  
 Fargo‐Moorhead, ND‐MN MSA                       12.50%    No  
 Fayetteville, NC MSA                             3.70%    Yes  
 Fayetteville‐Springdale, AR MSA                  6.30%    Yes  
 Fitchburg‐Leominster, MA MSA                    14.80%    No  
 Flint, MI MSA                                   21.80%    No  
 Florence, AL MSA                                 9.90%    Yes  
 Florence, SC MSA                                 4.90%    Yes  
 Fort Collins‐Loveland, CO MSA                    9.20%    No  
 Fort Myers‐Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                    6.60%    Yes  
 Fort Pierce, FL MSA                              6.60%    Yes  
 Fort Smith, AR‐OK MSA                            7.35%    No  
 Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                        6.60%    Yes  
 Fort Wayne, IN MSA                              14.50%    No  
 Fresno, CA MSA                                  16.40%    No  
 Gadsden, AL MSA                                  9.90%    Yes  
 Gainesville, FL MSA                              6.60%    Yes  
 Glens Falls, NY MSA                             26.70%    No  
 Grand Forks, ND MSA                              7.20%    Yes  
 Grand Rapids, MI MSA                            21.80%    No  
 Great Falls, MT MSA                             13.20%    No  
 Greeley, CO MSA                                  9.20%    No  
 Green Bay, WI MSA                               16.40%    No  
 Greensboro‐Winston‐Salem ‐High Point, NC MSA     3.70%    Yes  
 Greenville‐Spartanburg, SC MSA                   4.90%    Yes  
 Hagerstown, MD MSA                              13.70%    No  
 Harrisburg‐Lebanon‐Carlisle, PA MSA             17.10%    No  
 Hartford‐New Britain ‐Middletown, CT CMSA       15.10%    No  
 Hickory‐Morganton, NC MSA                        3.70%    Yes  
 Honolulu, HI MSA                                23.40%    No  
 Houma‐Thibodaux, LA MSA                          7.80%    Yes  
 Houston‐Galveston‐Brazoria, TX CMSA              5.70%    Yes  
 Huntington‐Ashland, WV‐KY‐OH MSA                14.57%    No  
 Huntsville, AL MSA                               9.90%    Yes  
 Indianapolis, IN MSA                            14.50%    No  
 Iowa City, IA MSA                               13.30%    Yes  
 Jackson, MI MSA                                 21.80%    No  
 Jackson, MS MSA                                  5.50%    Yes  
 Jackson, TN MSA                                  7.80%    Yes  
 Jacksonville, FL MSA                             6.60%    Yes  
 Jacksonville, NC MSA                             3.70%    Yes  
 Jamestown‐Dunkirk, NY                           26.70%    No  
 Janesville‐Beloit, WI MSA                       16.40%    No  
 Johnson City‐Kingsport‐Bristol, TN‐VA MSA     6.55%    Yes  
 Johnstown, PA MSA                            17.10%    No  
 Joplin, MO MSA                               13.50%    No  
 Kalamazoo, MI MSA                            21.80%    No  
 Kankakee, IL MSA                             18.30%    No  
 Kansas City, MO‐KS MSA                       11.40%    No  
 Killeen‐Temple, TX MSA                        5.70%    Yes  
 Knoxville, TN MSA                             7.80%    Yes  
 Kokomo, IN MSA                               14.50%    No  
 La Crosse, WI MSA                            16.40%    No  
 Lafayette, LA MSA                             7.80%    Yes  
 Lafayette‐West Lafayette, IN MSA             14.50%    No  
 Lake Charles, LA MSA                          7.80%    Yes  
 Lakeland‐Winter Haven, FL MSA                 6.60%    Yes  
 Lancaster, PA MSA                            17.10%    No  
 Lansing‐East Lansing, MI MSA                 21.80%    No  
 Laredo, TX MSA                                5.70%    Yes  
 Las Cruces, NM MSA                            8.00%    No  
 Las Vegas, NV MSA                            16.70%    Yes  
 Lawrence, KS MSA                              9.30%    Yes  
 Lawton, OK MSA                                8.40%    No  
 Lewiston‐Auburn, ME MSA                      12.80%    No  
 Lexington‐Fayette, KY MSA                    11.40%    No  
 Lima, OH MSA                                 17.70%    No  
 Lincoln, NE MSA                               8.00%    Yes  
 Little Rock‐North Little Rock, AR MSA         6.30%    Yes  
 Longview‐Marshall, TX MSA                     5.70%    Yes  
 Los Angeles‐Anaheim‐Riverside, CA CMSA       16.40%    No  
 Louisville, KY‐IN MSA                        11.40%    No  
 Lubbock, TX MSA                               5.70%    Yes  
 Lynchburg, VA MSA                             5.30%    Yes  
 Macon‐Warner Robins, GA MSA                   7.20%    Yes  
 Madison, WI MSA                              16.40%    No  
 Manchester, NH MSA                            9.60%    No  
 Mansfield, OH MSA                            17.70%    No  
 Mcallen‐Edinburg‐Mission, TX MSA              5.70%    Yes  
 Medford, OR MSA                              15.50%    No  
 Melbourne‐Titusville‐Palm Bay, FL MSA         6.60%    Yes  
 Memphis, TN‐AR‐MS MSA                         9.20%    No  
 Merced, CA MSA                               16.40%    No  
 Miami‐Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                6.60%    Yes  
 Midland, TX MSA                               5.70%    Yes  
 Milwaukee‐Racine, WI CMSA                    16.40%    No  
 Minneapolis‐St. Paul, MN‐WI MSA              17.10%    No  
 Mobile, AL MSA                                         9.90%    Yes  
 Modesto, CA MSA                                       16.40%    No  
 Monroe, LA MSA                                         7.80%    Yes  
 Montgomery, AL MSA                                     9.90%    Yes  
 Muncie, IN MSA                                        14.50%    No  
 Muskegon, MI MSA                                      21.80%    No  
 Naples, FL MSA                                         6.60%    Yes  
 Nashville, TN MSA                                      7.80%    Yes  
 New Bedford, MA MSA                                   14.80%    No  
 New Haven‐Meriden, CT MSA                             15.10%    No  
 New London‐Norwich, CT‐RI MSA                         15.95%    No  
 New Orleans, LA MSA                                    7.80%    Yes  
 New York‐Northern New Jersey‐Long Island, NY‐NJ‐CT    20.43%    No  
CMSA 
 Norfolk‐Virginia Beach‐Newport News, VA MSA            5.30%    Yes  
 Ocala, FL MSA                                          6.60%    Yes  
 Odessa, TX MSA                                         5.70%    Yes  
 Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                  8.40%    No  
 Olympia, WA MSA                                       18.60%    No  
 Omaha, NE‐IA MSA                                       8.00%    Yes  
 Orlando, FL MSA                                        6.60%    Yes  
 Owensboro, KY MSA                                     11.40%    No  
 Panama City, FL MSA                                    6.60%    Yes  
 Parkersburg‐Marietta, WV‐OH MSA                       16.15%    No  
 Pascagoula, MS MSA                                     5.50%    Yes  
 Pensacola, FL MSA                                      6.60%    Yes  
 Peoria, IL MSA                                        18.30%    No  
 Philadelphia‐Wilmington‐Trenton, PA‐NJ‐DE‐MD CMSA     15.67%    No  
 Phoenix, AZ MSA                                        5.90%    Yes  
 Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                     6.30%    Yes  
 Pittsburgh‐Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                     17.10%    No  
 Pittsfield, MA MSA                                    14.80%    No  
 Portland, ME MSA                                      12.80%    No  
 Portland‐Vancouver, OR‐WA CMSA                        17.05%    No  
 Portsmouth‐Dover‐Rochester, NH‐ME MSA                 11.20%    No  
 Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                  26.70%    No  
 Providence‐Pawtucket‐Fall River, RI‐MA CMSA           15.80%    No  
 Provo‐Orem, UT MSA                                     6.90%    Yes  
 Pueblo, CO MSA                                         9.20%    No  
 Raleigh‐Durham, NC MSA                                 3.70%    Yes  
 Rapid City, SD MSA                                     5.80%    Yes  
 Reading, PA MSA                                       17.10%    No  
 Redding, CA MSA                                       16.40%    No  
 Reno, NV MSA                                          16.70%    Yes  
 Richland‐Kennewick‐Pasco, WA MSA            18.60%    No  
 Richmond‐Petersburg, VA MSA                  5.30%    Yes  
 Roanoke, VA MSA                              5.30%    Yes  
 Rochester, MN MSA                           17.80%    No  
 Rochester, NY MSA                           26.70%    No  
 Rockford, IL MSA                            18.30%    No  
 Sacramento, CA MSA                          16.40%    No  
 Saginaw‐Bay City‐Midland, MI MSA            21.80%    No  
 St. Cloud, MN MSA                           17.80%    No  
 St. Joseph, MO MSA                          13.50%    No  
 St. Louis, MO‐IL MSA                        15.90%    No  
 Salem, OR MSA                               15.50%    No  
 Salinas‐Seaside‐Monterey, CA MSA            16.40%    No  
 Salt Lake City‐Ogden, UT MSA                 6.90%    Yes  
 San Angelo, TX MSA                           5.70%    Yes  
 San Antonio, TX MSA                          5.70%    Yes  
 San Diego, CA MSA                           16.40%    No  
 San Francisco‐Oakland‐San Jose, CA CMSA     16.40%    No  
 Santa Barbara‐Santa Maria‐Lompoc, CA MSA    16.40%    No  
 Santa Fe, NM MSA                             8.00%    No  
 Sarasota, FL MSA                             6.60%    Yes  
 Savannah, GA MSA                             7.20%    Yes  
 Scranton‐Wilkes‐Barre, PA MSA               17.10%    No  
 Seattle‐Tacoma, WA CMSA                     18.60%    No  
 Sharon, PA MSA                              17.10%    No  
 Sheboygan, WI MSA                           16.40%    No  
 Sherman‐Denison, TX MSA                      5.70%    Yes  
 Shreveport, LA MSA                           7.80%    Yes  
 Sioux City, IA‐NE MSA                       10.65%    Yes  
 Sioux Falls, SD MSA                          5.80%    Yes  
 South Bend‐Mishawaka, IN MSA                14.50%    No  
 Spokane, WA MSA                             18.60%    No  
 Springfield, IL MSA                         18.30%    No  
 Springfield, MO MSA                         13.50%    No  
 Springfield, MA MSA                         14.80%    No  
 State College, PA MSA                       17.10%    No  
 Steubenville‐Weirton, OH‐WV MSA             16.15%    No  
 Stockton, CA MSA                            16.40%    No  
 Syracuse, NY MSA                            26.70%    No  
 Tallahassee, FL MSA                          6.60%    Yes  
 Tampa‐St. Petersburg‐Clearwater, FL MSA      6.60%    Yes  
 Terre Haute, IN MSA                         14.50%    No  
 Texarkana, TX‐Texarkana, AR MSA              6.00%    Yes  
 Toledo, OH MSA                              17.70%    No  
     Topeka, KS MSA                                                    9.30%         Yes  
     Tucson, AZ MSA                                                    5.90%         Yes  
     Tulsa, OK MSA                                                     8.40%         No  
     Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                                9.90%         Yes  
     Tyler, TX MSA                                                     5.70%         Yes  
     Utica‐Rome, NY MSA                                               26.70%         No  
     Victoria, TX MSA                                                  5.70%         Yes  
     Visalia‐Tulare‐Porterville, CA MSA                               16.40%         No  
     Waco, TX MSA                                                      5.70%         Yes  
     Washington, DC‐MD‐VA MSA                                         11.90%         No  
     Waterbury, CT MSA                                                15.10%         No  
     Waterloo‐Cedar Falls, IA MSA                                     13.30%         Yes  
     Wausau, WI MSA                                                   16.40%         No  
     West Palm Beach‐Boca Raton‐Delray Beach, FL MSA                   6.60%         Yes  
     Wheeling, WV‐OH MSA                                              16.15%         No  
     Wichita, KS MSA                                                   5.70%         Yes  
     Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                             9.30%         Yes  
     Williamsport, PA MSA                                             17.10%         No  
     Wilmington, NC MSA                                                3.70%         Yes  
     Worcester, MA MSA                                                14.80%         No  
     Yakima, WA MSA                                                   18.60%         No  
     York, PA MSA                                                     17.10%         No  
     Youngstown‐Warren, OH MSA                                        17.70%         No  
     Yuba City, CA MSA                                                16.40%         No  
     Yuma, AZ MSA                                                      5.90%         Yes  


                          Average                                   12.31%
 
                                                                                               
                                                                                               


Table A3 report educational attainment of local workforces. Here, data is available only
at the state level. California ranks highly in terms of colleges (even after adjusting for
population) and is above the national median for average educational attainment.
Table A3
Education of Workforce
                                                                   Ave.  
                                          Num. of    Num. of    Educational  
                      Location              2yr        4yr      Attainment 
                                          College    College     (Num. of 
                                                                    yrs) 
 Abilene, TX MSA                                99       261          10.73 
 Albany, GA MSA                                 58       171          10.53 
 Albany‐Schenectady‐Troy, NY MSA               101       504          10.97 
 Albuquerque, NM MSA                            24        58          10.77 
 Alexandria, LA MSA                             58        98          10.44 
 Allentown‐Bethlehem‐Easton, PA‐NJ MSA          68       224          10.77 
 Altoona, PA MSA                               112       368          10.77 
 Amarillo, TX MSA                               99       261          10.73 
 Anchorage, AK MSA                               3        12          10.97 
 Anderson, IN MSA                               38       144            10.3 
 Anderson, SC MSA                               27        85          10.46 
 Anniston, AL MSA                               36        98          10.56 
 Appleton‐Oshkosh‐Neenah, WI MSA                21       102          10.76 
 Asheville, NC MSA                              62       162          10.71 
 Athens, GA MSA                                 58       171          10.53 
 Atlanta, GA MSA                                58       171          10.53 
 Atlantic City, NJ MSA                          23        79          11.31 
 Augusta, GA‐SC MSA                             27        85          10.46 
 Austin, TX MSA                                 99       261          10.73 
 Bakersfield, CA MSA                           188       618          10.97 
 Baltimore, MD MSA                              18        83          11.62 
 Bangor, ME MSA                                 12        46          10.72 
 Baton Rouge, LA MSA                            58        98          10.44 
 Battle Creek, MI MSA                           32       169          10.56 
 Beaumont‐Port Arthur, TX MSA                   99       261          10.73 
 Bellingham, WA MSA                             40       107            11.2 
 Benton Harbor, MI MSA                          32       169          10.56 
 Billings, MT MSA                               13        29          10.81 
 Biloxi‐Gulfport, MS MSA                        40       179          10.32 
 Binghamton, NY MSA                            101       504          10.97 
 Birmingham, AL MSA                             36        98          10.56 
 Bismarck, ND MSA                               11        25          10.63 
 Bloomington, IN MSA                            38       144            10.3 
 Bloomington‐Normal, IL MSA                     66       284            10.9 
 Boise City, ID MSA                              6        18          10.51 
 Boston‐Lawrence‐ Salem, MA‐NH CMSA             20       117          11.33 
 Bradenton, FL MSA                              70       247          10.56 
 Bremerton, WA MSA                              40       107            11.2 
 Brownsville‐Harlingen, TX MSA                99   261   10.73 
 Bryan‐College Station, TX MSA                99   261   10.73 
 Buffalo‐Niagara Falls, NY CMSA              101   504   10.97 
 Burlington, NC MSA                           62   162   10.71 
 Burlington, VT MSA                            3    42   11.16 
 Canton, OH MSA                               81   245    10.9 
 Casper, WY MSA                                8     9   10.69 
 Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                         21   104   10.63 
 Champaign‐Urbana‐Rantoul, IL MSA             66   284    10.9 
 Charleston, SC MSA                           27    85   10.46 
 Charleston, WV MSA                           14    46   10.18 
 Charlotte‐Gastonia‐ Rock Hill, NC‐SC MSA     45   123   10.71 
 Charlottesville, VA MSA                      35   142    11.4 
 Chattanooga, TN‐GA MSA                       44   153   10.21 
 Cheyenne, WY MSA                              8     9   10.69 
 Chicago‐Gary‐Lake County, IL‐IN‐WI CMSA      42   177    10.9 
 Chico, CA MSA                               188   618   10.97 
 Cincinnati‐Hamilton, OH‐KY‐IN CMSA           51   162    10.9 
 Clarksville‐Hopkinsville, TN‐KY MSA          30   116   10.21 
 Cleveland‐Akron‐Lorain, OH CMSA              81   245    10.9 
 Colorado Springs, CO MSA                     31   104      12 
 Columbia, MO MSA                             40   179   10.69 
 Columbia, SC MSA                             27    85   10.46 
 Columbus, GA‐AL MSA                          47   140   10.53 
 Columbus, OH MSA                             81   245    10.9 
 Corpus Christi, TX MSA                       99   261   10.73 
 Cumberland, MD‐WV MSA                        17    65   11.62 
 Dallas‐Fort Worth, TX CMSA                   99   261   10.73 
 Danville, VA MSA                             35   142    11.4 
 Davenport‐Rock Island ‐Moline, IA‐IL MSA     44   195   10.63 
 Dayton‐Springfield, OH MSA                   70   247   10.56 
 Daytona Beach, FL MSA                        81   245    10.9 
 Decatur, AL MSA                              36    98   10.56 
 Decatur, IL MSA                              66   284    10.9 
 Denver‐Boulder, CO CMSA                      31   104      12 
 Des Moines, IA MSA                           21   104   10.63 
 Detroit‐Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                   32   169   10.56 
 Dothan, AL MSA                               36    98   10.56 
 Dubuque, IA MSA                              21   104   10.63 
 Duluth, MN‐WI MSA                            42   129   11.47 
 Eau Claire, WI MSA                           21   102   10.76 
 El Paso, TX MSA                              99   261   10.73 
 Elkhart‐Goshen, IN MSA                       38   144    10.3 
 Elmira, NY MSA                              101   504   10.97 
 Enid, OK MSA                                    81   245   10.73 
 Erie, PA MSA                                   112   368   10.77 
 Eugene‐Springfield, OR MSA                      16    69   11.01 
 Evansville, IN‐KY MSA                           36   121    10.3 
 Fargo‐Moorhead, ND‐MN MSA                       36   110   10.63 
 Fayetteville, NC MSA                            62   162   10.71 
 Fayetteville‐Springdale, AR MSA                 26    57   10.17 
 Fitchburg‐Leominster,  MA MSA                   25   194   11.33 
 Flint, MI MSA                                   32   169   10.56 
 Florence, AL MSA                                36    98   10.56 
 Florence, SC MSA                                27    85   10.46 
 Fort Collins‐Loveland, CO MSA                   31   104      12 
 Fort Myers‐Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                   70   247   10.56 
 Fort Pierce, FL MSA                             70   247   10.56 
 Fort Smith, AR‐OK MSA                           21    64   10.17 
 Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                       70   247   10.56 
 Fort Wayne, IN MSA                              38   144    10.3 
 Fresno, CA MSA                                 188   618   10.97 
 Gadsden, AL MSA                                 36    98   10.56 
 Gainesville, FL MSA                             70   247   10.56 
 Glens Falls, NY MSA                            101   504   10.97 
 Grand Forks, ND MSA                             11    25   10.63 
 Grand Rapids, MI MSA                            32   169   10.56 
 Great Falls, MT MSA                             13    29   10.81 
 Greeley, CO MSA                                 31   104      12 
 Green Bay, WI MSA                               21   102   10.76 
 Greensboro‐Winston‐Salem‐High Point, NC MSA     62   162   10.71 
 Greenville‐Spartanburg, SC MSA                  27    85   10.46 
 Hagerstown, MD MSA                              18    83   11.62 
 Harrisburg‐Lebanon‐Carlisle, PA MSA            112   368   10.77 
 Hartford‐New Britain‐Middletown, CT CMSA        16    66   11.52 
 Hickory‐Morganton, NC MSA                       62   162   10.71 
 Honolulu, HI MSA                                10    29   10.98 
 Houma‐Thibodaux, LA MSA                         58    98   10.44 
 Houston‐Galveston‐Brazoria, TX CMSA             99   261   10.73 
 Huntington‐Ashland, WV‐KY‐OH MSA                43   129   10.18 
 Huntsville, AL MSA                              36    98   10.56 
 Indianapolis, IN MSA                            38   144    10.3 
 Iowa City, IA MSA                               21   104   10.63 
 Jackson, MI MSA                                 32   169   10.56 
 Jackson, MS MSA                                 21    54   10.32 
 Jackson, TN MSA                                 29   135   10.21 
 Jacksonville, FL MSA                            70   247   10.56 
 Jacksonville, NC MSA                            62   162   10.71 
 Jamestown‐Dunkirk, NY                        101   504   10.97 
 Janesville‐Beloit, WI MSA                     21   102   10.76 
 Johnson City‐Kingsport‐Bristol, TN‐VA MSA     35   142   10.21 
 Johnstown, PA MSA                            112   368   10.77 
 Joplin, MO MSA                                40   179   10.69 
 Kalamazoo, MI MSA                             32   169   10.56 
 Kankakee, IL MSA                              66   284    10.9 
 Kansas City, MO‐KS MSA                        35   132   10.69 
 Killeen‐Temple, TX MSA                        99   261   10.73 
 Knoxville, TN MSA                             29   135   10.21 
 Kokomo, IN MSA                                38   144    10.3 
 La Crosse, WI MSA                             21   102   10.76 
 Lafayette, LA MSA                             58    98   10.44 
 Lafayette‐West Lafayette, IN MSA              38   144    10.3 
 Lake Charles, LA MSA                          58    98   10.44 
 Lakeland‐Winter Haven, FL MSA                 70   247   10.56 
 Lancaster, PA MSA                            112   368   10.77 
 Lansing‐East Lansing, MI MSA                  32   169   10.56 
 Laredo, TX MSA                                99   261   10.73 
 Las Cruces, NM MSA                            24    58   10.77 
 Las Vegas, NV MSA                              8    19   10.48 
 Lawrence, KS MSA                              28    81      11 
 Lawton, OK MSA                                81   245   10.73 
 Lewiston‐Auburn, ME MSA                       12    46   10.72 
 Lexington‐Fayette, KY MSA                     34    96   10.37 
 Lima, OH MSA                                  81   245    10.9 
 Lincoln, NE MSA                               16    53   10.52 
 Little Rock‐North Little Rock, AR MSA         26    57   10.17 
 Longview‐Marshall, TX MSA                     99   261   10.73 
 Los Angeles‐Anaheim‐Riverside, CA CMSA       188   618   10.97 
 Louisville, KY‐IN MSA                         34    96    10.3 
 Lubbock, TX MSA                               99   261   10.73 
 Lynchburg, VA MSA                             35   142    11.4 
 Macon‐Warner Robins, GA MSA                   58   171   10.53 
 Madison, WI MSA                               21   102   10.76 
 Manchester, NH MSA                             5    40   11.04 
 Mansfield, OH MSA                             81   245    10.9 
 Mcallen‐Edinburg‐Mission, TX MSA              99   261   10.73 
 Medford, OR MSA                               16    69   11.01 
 Melbourne‐Titusville ‐Palm Bay, FL MSA        70   247   10.56 
 Memphis, TN‐AR‐MS MSA                         32   123   10.32 
 Merced, CA MSA                               188   618   10.97 
 Miami‐Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                70   247   10.56 
 Midland, TX MSA                               99   261   10.73 
 Milwaukee‐Racine, WI CMSA                               21   102   10.76 
 Minneapolis‐St. Paul, MN‐WI MSA                         21   102   11.47 
 Mobile, AL MSA                                          36    98   10.56 
 Modesto, CA MSA                                        188   618   10.97 
 Monroe, LA MSA                                          58    98   10.44 
 Montgomery, AL MSA                                      36    98   10.56 
 Muncie, IN MSA                                          38   144    10.3 
 Muskegon, MI MSA                                        32   169   10.56 
 Naples, FL MSA                                          70   247   10.56 
 Nashville, TN MSA                                       29   135   10.21 
 New Bedford, MA MSA                                     25   194   11.33 
 New Haven‐Meriden, CT MSA                               16    66   11.52 
 New London‐Norwich, CT‐RI MSA                            9    45   11.52 
 New Orleans, LA MSA                                     58    98   10.44 
 New York‐Northern New Jersey ‐Long Island, NY‐NJ‐CT     46   216   10.97 
CMSA 
 Norfolk‐Virginia Beach ‐Newport News, VA MSA            35   142    11.4 
 Ocala, FL MSA                                           70   247   10.56 
 Odessa, TX MSA                                          99   261   10.73 
 Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                   81   245   10.73 
 Olympia, WA MSA                                         40   107    11.2 
 Omaha, NE‐IA MSA                                        19    79   10.52 
 Orlando, FL MSA                                         70   247   10.56 
 Owensboro, KY MSA                                       34    96   10.37 
 Panama City, FL MSA                                     70   247   10.56 
 Parkersburg‐Marietta, WV‐OH MSA                         48   146   10.18 
 Pascagoula, MS MSA                                      21    54   10.32 
 Pensacola, FL MSA                                       70   247   10.56 
 Peoria, IL MSA                                          66   284    10.9 
 Philadelphia‐Wilmington‐ Trenton, PA‐NJ‐DE‐MD CMSA      40   136   10.77 
 Phoenix, AZ MSA                                         44   101   10.77 
 Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                      26    57   10.17 
 Pittsburgh‐Beaver Valley,  PA CMSA                     112   368   10.77 
 Pittsfield, MA MSA                                      25   194   11.33 
 Portland, ME MSA                                        12    46   10.72 
 Portland‐Vancouver, OR‐WA CMSA                          28    89   11.01 
 Portsmouth‐Dover‐ Rochester, NH‐ME MSA                   9    43   11.04 
 Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                   101   504   10.97 
 Providence‐Pawtucket‐ Fall River, RI‐MA CMSA            14   109   10.95 
 Provo‐Orem, UT MSA                                      11    31   11.14 
 Pueblo, CO MSA                                          31   104      12 
 Raleigh‐Durham, NC MSA                                  62   162   10.71 
 Rapid City, SD MSA                                       6    35   10.94 
 Reading, PA MSA                                        112   368   10.77 
 Redding, CA MSA                             188   618   10.97 
 Reno, NV MSA                                  8    19   10.48 
 Richland‐Kennewick ‐Pasco, WA MSA            40   107    11.2 
 Richmond‐Petersburg,  VA MSA                 35   142    11.4 
 Roanoke, VA MSA                              35   142    11.4 
 Rochester, MN MSA                            61   154   11.47 
 Rochester, NY MSA                           101   504   10.97 
 Rockford, IL MSA                             66   284    10.9 
 Sacramento, CA MSA                          188   618   10.97 
 Saginaw‐Bay City ‐Midland, MI MSA            32   169   10.56 
 St. Cloud, MN MSA                            61   154   11.01 
 St. Joseph, MO MSA                           40   179   10.97 
 St. Louis, MO‐IL MSA                         53   232   11.14 
 Salem, OR MSA                                16    69   10.73 
 Salinas‐Seaside‐ Monterey, CA MSA           188   618   10.73 
 Salt Lake City‐ Ogden, UT MSA                11    31   10.97 
 San Angelo, TX MSA                           99   261   10.97 
 San Antonio, TX MSA                          99   261   10.97 
 San Diego, CA MSA                           188   618   10.77 
 San Francisco‐Oakland ‐San Jose, CA CMSA    188   618   10.56 
 Santa Barbara‐Santa Maria‐Lompoc, CA MSA    188   618   10.53 
 Santa Fe, NM MSA                             24    58   10.77 
 Sarasota, FL MSA                             70   247    11.2 
 Savannah, GA MSA                             58   171   10.77 
 Scranton‐Wilkes‐Barre,  PA MSA              112   368   10.76 
 Seattle‐Tacoma,  WA CMSA                     40   107   10.73 
 Sharon, PA MSA                              112   368   10.44 
 Sheboygan, WI MSA                            21   102   10.63 
 Sherman‐Denison, TX MSA                      99   261   10.94 
 Shreveport, LA MSA                           58    98    10.3 
 Sioux City, IA‐NE MSA                        15    62    11.2 
 Sioux Falls, SD MSA                           6    35    10.9 
 South Bend‐Mishawaka, IN MSA                 38   144   11.33 
 Spokane, WA MSA                              40   107   10.69 
 Springfield, IL MSA                          66   284   11.47 
 Springfield, MO MSA                          40   179   10.69 
 Springfield, MA MSA                          25   194   10.69 
 State College, PA MSA                       112   368   10.77 
 Steubenville‐Weirton,  OH‐WV MSA             48   146    10.9 
 Stockton, CA MSA                            188   618   10.97 
 Syracuse, NY MSA                            101   504   10.97 
 Tallahassee, FL MSA                          70   247   10.56 
 Tampa‐St. Petersburg ‐Clearwater, FL MSA     70   247   10.56 
 Terre Haute, IN MSA                          38   144    10.3 
 Texarkana, TX‐ Texarkana, AR MSA                                  63         159          10.17 
 Toledo, OH MSA                                                    81         245           10.9 
 Topeka, KS MSA                                                    28          81             11 
 Tucson, AZ MSA                                                    44         101          10.77 
 Tulsa, OK MSA                                                     81         245          10.73 
 Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                                36          98          10.56 
 Tyler, TX MSA                                                     99         261          10.73 
 Utica‐Rome, NY MSA                                               101         504          10.97 
 Victoria, TX MSA                                                  99         261          10.73 
 Visalia‐Tulare‐ Porterville, CA MSA                              188         618          10.97 
 Waco, TX MSA                                                      99         261          10.73 
 Washington, DC‐MD‐VA MSA                                          17          86           11.4 
 Waterbury, CT MSA                                                 16          66          11.52 
 Waterloo‐Cedar Falls, IA MSA                                      21         104          10.63 
 Wausau, WI MSA                                                    21         102          10.76 
 West Palm Beach‐Boca Raton ‐Delray Beach, FL MSA                  70         247          10.56 
 Wheeling, WV‐OH MSA                                               48         146          10.18 
 Wichita, KS MSA                                                   99         261          10.73 
 Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                             28          81             11 
 Williamsport, PA MSA                                             112         368          10.77 
 Wilmington, NC MSA                                                62         162          10.71 
 Worcester, MA MSA                                                 25         194          11.33 
 Yakima, WA MSA                                                    40         107           11.2 
 York, PA MSA                                                     112         368          10.77 
 Youngstown‐Warren,  OH MSA                                        81         245           10.9 
 Yuba City, CA MSA                                                188         618          10.97 
 Yuma, AZ MSA                                                      44         101          10.77 




Logistics

Los Angeles offers favorable logistics for firms. The data are for California, but LA’s
logistics are very similar to (if not much better than) the rest of the state. California is well
above the national median in access to rail service, deep water ports, and airports.
Table A4
Logistics
                                          Rail
                                        Service
                                        (Miles
                                                             Air Ports
                                           of     Large
                       Location                             (Per 1000
                                         Track    Ports
                                                           Population)
                                          per
                                           sq
                                         Mile)
Abilene, TX MSA                            0.05    No             4.89
Albany, GA MSA                             0.08    Yes            5.25
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA             0.1    Yes             7.9
Albuquerque, NM MSA                        0.02    No             1.17
Alexandria, LA MSA                         0.07    Yes            4.73
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA      0.15    Yes           10.33
Altoona, PA MSA                            0.15    Yes           10.33
Amarillo, TX MSA                           0.05    No             4.89
Anchorage, AK MSA                             0    Yes            0.75
Anderson, IN MSA                           0.14    Yes           13.63
Anderson, SC MSA                           0.08    No             4.78
Anniston, AL MSA                           0.07    Yes            3.45
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA            0.08    Yes            7.44
Asheville, NC MSA                          0.07    No             6.06
Athens, GA MSA                             0.08    Yes            5.25
Atlanta, GA MSA                            0.08    Yes            5.25
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                      0.18    Yes           15.37
Augusta, GA-SC MSA                         0.08    Yes            4.78
Austin, TX MSA                             0.05    Yes            4.89
Bakersfield, CA MSA                        0.05    Yes             3.5
Baltimore, MD MSA                          0.12    Yes           14.83
Bangor, ME MSA                             0.04    Yes             3.3
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                        0.07    Yes            4.73
Battle Creek, MI MSA                       0.07    Yes            6.76
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX MSA               0.05    Yes            4.89
Bellingham, WA MSA                         0.05    Yes            4.73
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                      0.07    Yes            6.76
Billings, MT MSA                           0.02    No             1.48
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS MSA                    0.06    Yes            3.75
Binghamton, NY MSA                          0.1    Yes             7.9
Birmingham, AL MSA                         0.07    Yes            3.45
Bismarck, ND MSA                           0.06    No             6.09
Bloomington, IN MSA                        0.14    Yes           13.63
Bloomington-Normal, IL MSA                 0.18    Yes            11.8
Boise City, ID MSA                         0.02    No             2.27
Boston-Lawrence- Salem, MA-NH CMSA         0.16    Yes     10.33
Bradenton, FL MSA                          0.05    Yes      8.74
Bremerton, WA MSA                          0.05    Yes      4.73
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX MSA              0.05    Yes      4.89
Bryan-College Station, TX MSA              0.05    Yes      4.89
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY CMSA              0.1    Yes       7.9
Burlington, NC MSA                         0.07    Yes      6.06
Burlington, VT MSA                         0.07    Yes      5.73
Canton, OH MSA                             0.15    Yes     13.01
Casper, WY MSA                             0.02    No        0.9
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                       0.08    No       4.06
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, IL MSA           0.18    Yes      11.8
Charleston, SC MSA                         0.08    Yes      4.78
Charleston, WV MSA                         0.11    Yes       2.7
Charlotte-Gastonia- Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA   0.07    No       6.06
Charlottesville, VA MSA                    0.09    Yes      6.44
Chattanooga, TN-GA MSA                     0.07    Yes         4
Cheyenne, WY MSA                           0.02    No        0.9
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI CMSA    0.18    Yes      11.8
Chico, CA MSA                              0.05    Yes       3.5
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN CMSA         0.15    Yes     13.01
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY MSA        0.07    Yes         4
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA            0.15    Yes     13.01
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                   0.03    No        2.2
Columbia, MO MSA                           0.07    Yes      5.56
Columbia, SC MSA                           0.08    Yes      4.78
Columbus, GA-AL MSA                        0.08    Yes      5.25
Columbus, OH MSA                           0.15    Yes     13.01
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                     0.05    Yes      4.89
Cumberland, MD-WV MSA                      0.12    Yes     14.83
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA                 0.05    No       4.89
Danville, VA MSA                           0.09    Yes      6.44
Davenport-Rock Island -Moline, IA-IL MSA   0.08    Yes      4.06
Dayton-Springfield, OH MSA                 0.05    Yes      8.74
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                      0.15    Yes     13.01
Decatur, AL MSA                            0.07    Yes      3.45
Decatur, IL MSA                            0.18    Yes      11.8
Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA                    0.03    No        2.2
Des Moines, IA MSA                         0.08    Yes      4.06
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                 0.07    Yes      6.76
Dothan, AL MSA                             0.07    Yes      3.45
Dubuque, IA MSA                            0.08    Yes      4.06
Duluth, MN-WI MSA                          0.08    Yes      4.61
Eau Claire, WI MSA                         0.08    Yes      7.44
El Paso, TX MSA                               0.05    No       4.89
Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA                        0.14    Yes     13.63
Elmira, NY MSA                                 0.1    Yes       7.9
Enid, OK MSA                                  0.06    Yes      4.66
Erie, PA MSA                                  0.15    Yes     10.33
Eugene-Springfield, OR MSA                    0.03    Yes      3.27
Evansville, IN-KY MSA                         0.14    Yes     13.63
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN MSA                     0.06    No       6.09
Fayetteville, NC MSA                          0.07    Yes      6.06
Fayetteville-Springdale, AR MSA               0.07    Yes      3.65
Fitchburg-Leominster, MA MSA                  0.16    Yes     10.33
Flint, MI MSA                                 0.07    Yes      6.76
Florence, AL MSA                              0.07    Yes      3.45
Florence, SC MSA                              0.08    Yes      4.78
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA                 0.03    No        2.2
Fort Myers-Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                 0.05    Yes      8.74
Fort Pierce, FL MSA                           0.05    Yes      8.74
Fort Smith, AR-OK MSA                         0.07    Yes      3.65
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                     0.05    Yes      8.74
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                            0.14    Yes     13.63
Fresno, CA MSA                                0.05    Yes       3.5
Gadsden, AL MSA                               0.07    Yes      3.45
Gainesville, FL MSA                           0.05    Yes      8.74
Glens Falls, NY MSA                            0.1    Yes       7.9
Grand Forks, ND MSA                           0.06    No       6.09
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                          0.07    Yes      6.76
Great Falls, MT MSA                           0.02    No       1.48
Greeley, CO MSA                               0.03    No        2.2
Green Bay, WI MSA                             0.08    Yes      7.44
Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA   0.07    No       6.06
Greenville-Spartanburg, SC MSA                0.08    No       4.78
Hagerstown, MD MSA                            0.12    Yes     14.83
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA MSA           0.15    Yes     10.33
Hartford-New Britain-Middletown, CT CMSA      0.15    Yes     11.35
Hickory-Morganton, NC MSA                     0.07    No       6.06
Honolulu, HI MSA                                 0    Yes      4.67
Houma-Thibodaux, LA MSA                       0.07    Yes      4.73
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA           0.05    Yes      4.89
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA              0.11    Yes       2.7
Huntsville, AL MSA                            0.07    Yes      3.45
Indianapolis, IN MSA                          0.14    Yes     13.63
Iowa City, IA MSA                             0.08    No       4.06
Jackson, MI MSA                               0.07    Yes      6.76
Jackson, MS MSA                               0.06    Yes      3.75
Jackson, TN MSA                             0.07    Yes         4
Jacksonville, FL MSA                        0.05    Yes      8.74
Jacksonville, NC MSA                        0.07    Yes      6.06
Jamestown-Dunkirk, NY                        0.1    Yes       7.9
Janesville-Beloit, WI MSA                   0.08    Yes      7.44
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA MSA   0.07    Yes         4
Johnstown, PA MSA                           0.15    Yes     10.33
Joplin, MO MSA                              0.07    Yes      5.56
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                           0.07    Yes      6.76
Kankakee, IL MSA                            0.18    Yes      11.8
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA                      0.07    Yes      5.56
Killeen-Temple, TX MSA                      0.05    No       4.89
Knoxville, TN MSA                           0.07    Yes         4
Kokomo, IN MSA                              0.14    Yes     13.63
La Crosse, WI MSA                           0.08    Yes      7.44
Lafayette, LA MSA                           0.07    Yes      4.73
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN MSA            0.14    Yes     13.63
Lake Charles, LA MSA                        0.07    Yes      4.73
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL MSA               0.05    Yes      8.74
Lancaster, PA MSA                           0.15    Yes     10.33
Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA                0.07    Yes      6.76
Laredo, TX MSA                              0.05    Yes      4.89
Las Cruces, NM MSA                          0.02    No       1.17
Las Vegas, NV MSA                           0.02    No       0.86
Lawrence, KS MSA                            0.09    Yes      4.22
Lawton, OK MSA                              0.06    No       4.66
Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA                     0.04    Yes       3.3
Lexington-Fayette, KY MSA                   0.07    Yes      3.27
Lima, OH MSA                                0.15    Yes     13.01
Lincoln, NE MSA                             0.05    No        3.5
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR MSA       0.07    Yes      3.65
Longview-Marshall, TX MSA                   0.05    Yes      4.89
Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside, CA CMSA      0.05    Yes       3.5
Louisville, KY-IN MSA                       0.14    Yes     13.63
Lubbock, TX MSA                             0.05    No       4.89
Lynchburg, VA MSA                           0.09    Yes      6.44
Macon-Warner Robins, GA MSA                 0.08    Yes      5.25
Madison, WI MSA                             0.08    Yes      7.44
Manchester, NH MSA                          0.05    Yes      5.24
Mansfield, OH MSA                           0.15    Yes     13.01
Mcallen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA            0.05    Yes      4.89
Medford, OR MSA                             0.03    Yes      3.27
Melbourne-Titusville -Palm Bay, FL MSA      0.05    Yes      8.74
Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA                       0.06    Yes      3.75
Merced, CA MSA                                             0.05    Yes       3.5
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                             0.05    Yes      8.74
Midland, TX MSA                                            0.05    No       4.89
Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA                                  0.08    Yes      7.44
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA                            0.08    Yes      4.61
Mobile, AL MSA                                             0.07    Yes      3.45
Modesto, CA MSA                                            0.05    Yes       3.5
Monroe, LA MSA                                             0.07    Yes      4.73
Montgomery, AL MSA                                         0.07    Yes      3.45
Muncie, IN MSA                                             0.14    Yes     13.63
Muskegon, MI MSA                                           0.07    Yes      6.76
Naples, FL MSA                                             0.05    Yes      8.74
Nashville, TN MSA                                          0.07    Yes         4
New Bedford, MA MSA                                        0.16    Yes     10.33
New Haven-Meriden, CT MSA                                  0.15    Yes     11.35
New London-Norwich, CT-RI MSA                              0.15    Yes     11.35
New Orleans, LA MSA                                        0.07    Yes      4.73
New York-Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA    0.1    Yes       7.9
Norfolk-Virginia Beach -Newport News, VA MSA               0.09    Yes      6.44
Ocala, FL MSA                                              0.05    Yes      8.74
Odessa, TX MSA                                             0.05    No       4.89
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                      0.06    Yes      4.66
Olympia, WA MSA                                            0.05    Yes      4.73
Omaha, NE-IA MSA                                           0.05    Yes       3.5
Orlando, FL MSA                                            0.05    Yes      8.74
Owensboro, KY MSA                                          0.07    Yes      3.27
Panama City, FL MSA                                        0.05    Yes      8.74
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH MSA                            0.11    Yes       2.7
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                         0.06    Yes      3.75
Pensacola, FL MSA                                          0.05    Yes      8.74
Peoria, IL MSA                                             0.18    Yes      11.8
Philadelphia-Wilmington- Trenton, PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA         0.15    Yes     10.33
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                            0.02    No       1.63
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                         0.07    Yes      3.65
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                          0.15    Yes     10.33
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                         0.16    Yes     10.33
Portland, ME MSA                                           0.04    Yes       3.3
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA CMSA                             0.03    Yes      3.27
Portsmouth-Dover- Rochester, NH-ME MSA                     0.05    Yes      5.24
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                        0.1    Yes       7.9
Providence-Pawtucket- Fall River, RI-MA CMSA                0.1    Yes      9.57
Provo-Orem, UT MSA                                         0.03    No       1.07
Pueblo, CO MSA                                             0.03    No        2.2
Raleigh-Durham, NC MSA                                     0.07    Yes      6.06
Rapid City, SD MSA                         0.03    No       1.87
Reading, PA MSA                            0.15    Yes     10.33
Redding, CA MSA                            0.05    No        3.5
Reno, NV MSA                               0.02    Yes      0.86
Richland-Kennewick -Pasco, WA MSA          0.05    No       4.73
Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA                0.09    Yes      6.44
Roanoke, VA MSA                            0.09    Yes      6.44
Rochester, MN MSA                          0.08    Yes      4.61
Rochester, NY MSA                           0.1    Yes       7.9
Rockford, IL MSA                           0.18    Yes      11.8
Sacramento, CA MSA                         0.05    Yes       3.5
Saginaw-Bay City -Midland, MI MSA          0.07    Yes      6.76
St. Cloud, MN MSA                          0.03    Yes      3.27
St. Joseph, MO MSA                         0.05    Yes       3.5
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA                       0.03    Yes      1.07
Salem, OR MSA                              0.05    Yes      4.89
Salinas-Seaside- Monterey, CA MSA          0.05    Yes      4.89
Salt Lake City- Ogden, UT MSA              0.05    No        3.5
San Angelo, TX MSA                         0.05    No        3.5
San Antonio, TX MSA                        0.05    Yes       3.5
San Diego, CA MSA                          0.02    Yes      1.17
San Francisco-Oakland -San Jose, CA CMSA   0.05    Yes      8.74
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA MSA   0.08    Yes      5.25
Santa Fe, NM MSA                           0.15    No      10.33
Sarasota, FL MSA                           0.05    Yes      4.73
Savannah, GA MSA                           0.15    Yes     10.33
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA MSA              0.08    Yes      7.44
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA                    0.05    Yes      4.89
Sharon, PA MSA                             0.07    Yes      4.73
Sheboygan, WI MSA                          0.08    Yes      4.06
Sherman-Denison, TX MSA                    0.03    No       1.87
Shreveport, LA MSA                         0.14    Yes     13.63
Sioux City, IA-NE MSA                      0.05    No       4.73
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                        0.18    No       11.8
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN MSA               0.16    Yes     10.33
Spokane, WA MSA                            0.07    No       5.56
Springfield, IL MSA                        0.08    Yes      4.61
Springfield, MO MSA                        0.07    Yes      5.56
Springfield, MA MSA                        0.07    Yes      5.56
State College, PA MSA                      0.15    Yes     10.33
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV MSA            0.15    Yes     13.01
Stockton, CA MSA                           0.05    Yes       3.5
Syracuse, NY MSA                            0.1    Yes       7.9
Tallahassee, FL MSA                        0.05    Yes      8.74
Tampa-St. Petersburg -Clearwater, FL MSA           0.05    Yes      8.74
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                0.14    Yes     13.63
Texarkana, TX- Texarkana, AR MSA                   0.07    Yes      3.65
Toledo, OH MSA                                     0.15    Yes     13.01
Topeka, KS MSA                                     0.09    Yes      4.22
Tucson, AZ MSA                                     0.02    No       1.63
Tulsa, OK MSA                                      0.06    Yes      4.66
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                 0.07    Yes      3.45
Tyler, TX MSA                                      0.05    Yes      4.89
Utica-Rome, NY MSA                                  0.1    Yes       7.9
Victoria, TX MSA                                   0.05    Yes      4.89
Visalia-Tulare- Porterville, CA MSA                0.05    Yes       3.5
Waco, TX MSA                                       0.05    No       4.89
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA                           0.09    Yes      6.44
                                                                    Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                    Sort)
Waterbury, CT MSA                                  0.15    Yes     11.35
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA MSA                       0.08    Yes      4.06
Wausau, WI MSA                                     0.08    Yes      7.44
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton -Delray Beach, FL MSA   0.05    Yes      8.74
Wheeling, WV-OH MSA                                0.11    Yes       2.7
Wichita, KS MSA                                    0.05    Yes      4.89
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                              0.09    No       4.22
Williamsport, PA MSA                               0.15    No      10.33
Wilmington, NC MSA                                 0.07    Yes      6.06
Worcester, MA MSA                                  0.16    Yes     10.33
Yakima, WA MSA                                     0.05    Yes      4.73
York, PA MSA                                       0.15    Yes     10.33
Youngstown-Warren, OH MSA                          0.15    Yes     13.01
Yuba City, CA MSA                                  0.05    Yes       3.5
Yuma, AZ MSA                                       0.02    Yes      1.63
Table A5 details infrastructure costs in terms of construction, energy, and office rentals.
Los Angeles is 13% higher than the rest of the U.S. with respect to construction costs.
Similarly, energy costs in LA are 13% higher than the rest of the country. Average office
rents in the Los Angeles central business district (CBD) are $28.74 per square foot; this
rate is higher than all but five other major metropolitan areas of the U.S. Contact the
author for specific rental price data.

Table A5
Infrastructure Costs
                                                                                                     Commercia
                                                                     Construction
                                                                                                       Office
                                                                         Costs           Energy
                                                                                                       Rental
                                                                       (Index;            Costs
                            Location                                                                    Rates
                                                                        higher           ($ per
                                                                                                        (Per
                                                                        value=            BTU)
                                                                                                       Square
                                                                     higher cost)
                                                                                                        foot)
Abilene, TX MSA                                                                $0.88       $6.65  
Albany, GA MSA                                                                 $0.88       $8.20  
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA                                                $1.07      $10.00  
Albuquerque, NM MSA                                                            $0.95       $8.99  
Alexandria, LA MSA                                                             $0.90       $5.77  
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA                                          $1.11       $8.84  
Altoona, PA MSA                                                                $1.06       $8.76  
Amarillo, TX MSA                                                               $0.91       $6.65  
Anchorage, AK MSA                                                              $1.28       $5.99  
Anderson, IN MSA                                                               $1.02       $7.14  
Anderson, SC MSA                                                               $0.88       $8.96  
Anniston, AL MSA                                                               $0.86       $7.83  
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA                                                $1.03       $8.17  
Asheville, NC MSA                                                              $0.90       $9.76  
Athens, GA MSA                                                                 $0.91       $8.20  
Atlanta, GA MSA                                                                $0.96       $8.20  
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                                                          $1.20       $8.92  
Augusta, GA-SC MSA                                                             $0.88       $8.58  
Austin, TX MSA                                                                 $0.88       $6.65  
Bakersfield, CA MSA                                                            $1.12       $9.37  
Baltimore, MD MSA                                                              $1.04      $10.35  
Bangor, ME MSA                                                                 $1.02       $8.56  
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                                                            $0.90       $5.77  
Battle Creek, MI MSA                                                           $1.05       $8.19  
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX MSA                                                   $0.88       $6.65  
Bellingham, WA MSA                                                             $1.09       $7.40  
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                                                  Not Available       $8.19  
Billings, MT MSA                                                               $0.96       $7.75  
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS MSA                                                        $0.88       $8.00  
Binghamton, NY MSA                                                             $1.02      $10.00  
Birmingham, AL MSA                                  $0.91      $7.83  
Bismarck, ND MSA                                    $0.98      $6.21  
Bloomington, IN MSA                                 $1.04      $7.14  
Bloomington-Normal, IL MSA                          $1.06      $8.61  
Boise City, ID MSA                                  $1.02     $12.34  
Boston-Lawrence- Salem, MA-NH CMSA                  $1.19     $10.55  
Bradenton, FL MSA                                   $0.94     $10.27  
Bremerton, WA MSA                           Not Available      $7.40  
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX MSA               Not Available      $6.65  
Bryan-College Station, TX MSA               Not Available      $6.65  
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY CMSA              Not Available     $10.00  
Burlington, NC MSA                                  $0.00      $9.76  
Burlington, VT MSA                                  $1.02     $11.56  
Canton, OH MSA                                      $1.01      $8.54  
Casper, WY MSA                                      $0.98      $6.54  
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                                $1.02      $7.88  
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, IL MSA                    $1.04      $8.61  
Charleston, SC MSA                                  $0.88      $8.96  
Charleston, WV MSA                                  $1.04      $7.52  
Charlotte-Gastonia- Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA            $0.90  $9,036.00  
Charlottesville, VA MSA                             $0.88      $8.78  
Chattanooga, TN-GA MSA                              $0.94      $8.42  
Cheyenne, WY MSA                                    $0.95      $6.54  
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI CMSA             $1.20      $7.97  
Chico, CA MSA                               Not Available      $9.37  
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN CMSA                  $1.01      $7.72  
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY MSA         Not Available      $8.06  
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA                     $1.08      $8.54  
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                            $1.02      $8.63  
Columbia, MO MSA                                    $0.98      $8.79  
Columbia, SC MSA                                    $0.90      $8.96  
Columbus, GA-AL MSA                                 $0.87      $8.02  
Columbus, OH MSA                                    $1.01      $8.54  
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                              $0.83      $6.65  
Cumberland, MD-WV MSA                               $0.96      $8.94  
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA                          $0.90      $6.65  
Danville, VA MSA                                    $0.88      $8.78  
Davenport-Rock Island -Moline, IA-IL MSA            $1.06      $8.25  
Dayton-Springfield, OH MSA                          $0.89      $8.54  
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                               $0.99     $10.27  
Decatur, AL MSA                             Not Available      $7.83  
Decatur, IL MSA                                     $1.06      $8.61  
Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA                             $1.02      $8.63  
Des Moines, IA MSA                                  $0.99      $7.88  
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                             $1.16      $8.19     Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                            Sort)
Dothan, AL MSA                                         $0.88      $7.83  
Dubuque, IA MSA                                        $1.06      $7.88  
Duluth, MN-WI MSA                                      $1.08      $8.18  
Eau Claire, WI MSA                                     $1.05      $8.17  
El Paso, TX MSA                                        $0.86      $6.65  
Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA                                 $1.09      $7.14  
Elmira, NY MSA                                         $1.01     $10.00  
Enid, OK MSA                                           $0.87      $7.84  
Erie, PA MSA                                           $1.06      $8.76  
Eugene-Springfield, OR MSA                             $1.05      $8.65  
Evansville, IN-KY MSA                                  $1.01      $7.31  
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN MSA                              $1.00      $7.20  
Fayetteville, NC MSA                                   $0.90      $9.76  
Fayetteville-Springdale, AR MSA                        $0.88      $7.42  
Fitchburg-Leominster, MA MSA                   Not Available     $10.05  
Flint, MI MSA                                          $1.10      $8.19  
Florence, AL MSA                                       $0.86      $7.83  
Florence, SC MSA                                       $0.90      $8.96  
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA                          $1.03      $8.63  
Fort Myers-Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                          $0.92     $10.27  
Fort Pierce, FL MSA                                    $0.86     $10.27  
Fort Smith, AR-OK MSA                                  $0.86      $7.63  
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                      Not Available     $10.27  
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                                     $1.03      $7.14  
Fresno, CA MSA                                         $1.12      $9.37  
Gadsden, AL MSA                                        $0.87      $7.83  
Gainesville, FL MSA                                    $0.89     $10.27  
Glens Falls, NY MSA                            Not Available     $10.00  
Grand Forks, ND MSA                                    $0.97      $6.21  
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                                   $1.00      $8.19  
Great Falls, MT MSA                                    $0.96      $7.75  
Greeley, CO MSA                                        $1.02      $8.63  
Green Bay, WI MSA                                      $1.02      $8.17  
Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA            $0.89      $9.76  
Greenville-Spartanburg, SC MSA                         $0.89      $8.96  
Hagerstown, MD MSA                                     $0.96     $10.35  
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA MSA                    $1.00      $8.76  
Hartford-New Britain-Middletown, CT CMSA               $1.12     $11.62  
Hickory-Morganton, NC MSA                              $0.88      $9.76  
Honolulu, HI MSA                                       $1.40     $12.34  
Houma-Thibodaux, LA MSA                        Not Available      $5.77  
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA                    $0.90      $6.65  
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA                       $1.04      $7.85  
Huntsville, AL MSA                                   $0.90      $7.83  
Indianapolis, IN MSA                                 $1.04      $7.14  
Iowa City, IA MSA                                    $1.02      $7.88  
Jackson, MI MSA                                      $1.05      $8.19  
Jackson, MS MSA                                      $0.87      $8.00  
Jackson, TN MSA                                      $0.90      $8.64  
Jacksonville, FL MSA                                 $0.90     $10.27  
Jacksonville, NC MSA                                 $0.88      $9.76  
Jamestown-Dunkirk, NY                                $1.06     $10.00  
Janesville-Beloit, WI MSA                            $1.05      $8.17  
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA MSA            $0.88      $8.71  
Johnstown, PA MSA                                    $1.05      $8.76  
Joplin, MO MSA                                       $0.87      $8.79  
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                                    $1.05      $8.19  
Kankakee, IL MSA                                     $1.18      $8.61  
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA                               $1.06      $8.61  
Killeen-Temple, TX MSA                       Not Available      $6.65  
Knoxville, TN MSA                                    $0.93      $8.64  
Kokomo, IN MSA                                       $1.02      $7.14  
La Crosse, WI MSA                                    $1.04      $8.17  
Lafayette, LA MSA                                    $0.89      $5.77  
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN MSA                     $1.03      $7.14  
Lake Charles, LA MSA                                 $0.86      $5.77  
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL MSA                        $0.93     $10.27  
Lancaster, PA MSA                                    $1.02      $8.76  
Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA                         $1.06      $8.19  
Laredo, TX MSA                                       $0.83      $6.65  
Las Cruces, NM MSA                                   $0.86      $8.99  
Las Vegas, NV MSA                                    $1.12      $9.89  
Lawrence, KS MSA                                     $1.02      $8.43  
Lawton, OK MSA                                       $0.85      $7.84  
Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA                              $1.01      $8.56  
Lexington-Fayette, KY MSA                            $0.95      $7.48  
Lima, OH MSA                                         $0.96      $8.54  
Lincoln, NE MSA                                      $0.95      $8.05  
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR MSA                $0.90      $7.42  
Longview-Marshall, TX MSA                            $0.89      $6.65  
Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside, CA CMSA               $1.13      $9.37  
Louisville, KY-IN MSA                                $0.96      $7.48  
Lubbock, TX MSA                                      $0.85      $6.65  
Lynchburg, VA MSA                                    $0.87      $8.78  
Macon-Warner Robins, GA MSA                          $0.90      $8.20  
Madison, WI MSA                                      $1.07      $8.17  
Manchester, NH MSA                                   $1.00     $11.05  
Mansfield, OH MSA                                                   $1.00      $8.54  
Mcallen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA                            Not Available      $6.65  
Medford, OR MSA                                                     $1.09      $8.65  
Melbourne-Titusville -Palm Bay, FL MSA                              $0.90     $10.27  
Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA                                               $0.92      $8.02  
Merced, CA MSA                                                      $1.04      $9.37  
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                                      $0.88     $10.27  
Midland, TX MSA                                                     $0.86      $6.65  
Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA                                           $1.09      $8.17  
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA                                     $1.12      $8.18  
Mobile, AL MSA                                                      $0.92      $7.83  
Modesto, CA MSA                                                     $1.05      $9.37  
Monroe, LA MSA                                                      $0.90      $5.77  
Montgomery, AL MSA                                                  $0.88      $7.83  
Muncie, IN MSA                                                      $0.99      $7.14  
Muskegon, MI MSA                                                    $0.99      $8.19  
Naples, FL MSA                                                      $0.92     $10.27  
Nashville, TN MSA                                                   $0.93      $8.64  
New Bedford, MA MSA                                                 $1.10     $10.05  
New Haven-Meriden, CT MSA                                           $1.11     $11.62  
New London-Norwich, CT-RI MSA                                       $1.03     $10.00  
New Orleans, LA MSA                                                 $0.91      $5.77  
New York-Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA            $1.39     $10.18  
Norfolk-Virginia Beach -Newport News, VA MSA                        $0.94      $8.78  
Ocala, FL MSA                                                       $0.89     $10.27  
Odessa, TX MSA                                                      $0.84      $6.65  
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                               $0.92      $7.84  
Olympia, WA MSA                                                     $1.14      $7.40  
Omaha, NE-IA MSA                                                    $0.96      $7.97  
Orlando, FL MSA                                                     $0.96     $10.27  
Owensboro, KY MSA                                                   $0.94      $7.48  
Panama City, FL MSA                                                 $0.82     $10.27  
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH MSA                                     $1.02      $8.03  
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                          Not Available      $8.00  
Pensacola, FL MSA                                                   $0.85     $10.27  
Peoria, IL MSA                                                      $1.05      $8.61  
Philadelphia-Wilmington- Trenton, PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA                  $1.20      $9.39  
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                                     $0.96     $11.23  
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                          Not Available      $7.42  
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                                   $1.08      $8.76  
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                                  $1.00     $10.05  
Portland, ME MSA                                                    $1.00      $8.56  
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA CMSA                                      $1.09      $8.03  
Portsmouth-Dover- Rochester, NH-ME MSA                              $1.02      $9.81  
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                    $1.15     $10.00  
Providence-Pawtucket- Fall River, RI-MA CMSA            $1.09      $9.21  
Provo-Orem, UT MSA                                      $0.95      $7.44  
Pueblo, CO MSA                                          $0.99      $8.63  
Raleigh-Durham, NC MSA                                  $0.93      $9.76  
Rapid City, SD MSA                                      $0.91      $8.57  
Reading, PA MSA                                         $1.08      $8.76  
Redding, CA MSA                                         $1.14      $9.37  
Reno, NV MSA                                            $1.09      $9.89  
Richland-Kennewick -Pasco, WA MSA                       $1.08      $7.40  
Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA                             $0.92      $8.78  
Roanoke, VA MSA                                         $0.93      $8.78  
Rochester, MN MSA                                       $1.05      $8.18  
Rochester, NY MSA                                       $1.11     $10.00  
Rockford, IL MSA                                        $1.11      $8.61  
Sacramento, CA MSA                                      $1.14      $9.37  
Saginaw-Bay City -Midland, MI MSA                       $1.05      $8.19  
St. Cloud, MN MSA                                       $1.08      $8.18  
St. Joseph, MO MSA                                      $1.13      $8.79  
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA                                    $0.96      $8.70  
Salem, OR MSA                                           $0.84      $8.65  
Salinas-Seaside- Monterey, CA MSA                       $0.87      $9.37  
Salt Lake City- Ogden, UT MSA                           $1.09      $7.44  
San Angelo, TX MSA                                      $1.32      $6.65  
San Antonio, TX MSA                                     $1.13      $6.65  
San Diego, CA MSA                                       $0.98      $9.37  
San Francisco-Oakland -San Jose, CA CMSA                $0.94      $9.37  
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA MSA                $0.90      $9.37  
Santa Fe, NM MSA                                        $1.00      $8.99  
Sarasota, FL MSA                                        $1.17     $10.27  
Savannah, GA MSA                                Not Available      $8.20  
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA MSA                           $1.06      $8.76  
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA                                 $0.00      $7.40  
Sharon, PA MSA                                          $0.89      $8.76  
Sheboygan, WI MSA                                       $0.97      $8.17  
Sherman-Denison, TX MSA                                 $0.96      $6.65  
Shreveport, LA MSA                                      $1.11      $5.77  
Sioux City, IA-NE MSA                                   $1.06      $7.97  
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                                     $1.06      $8.57  
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN MSA                            $1.09      $7.14  
Spokane, WA MSA                                         $0.94      $7.40  
Springfield, IL MSA                                     $1.04      $8.61  
Springfield, MO MSA                                     $1.00      $8.79  
Springfield, MA MSA                                     $1.11     $10.05  
State College, PA MSA                                       $1.02      $8.76  
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV MSA                     Not Available      $8.03  
Stockton, CA MSA                                            $1.11      $9.37  
Syracuse, NY MSA                                            $1.05     $10.00  
Tallahassee, FL MSA                                         $0.92     $10.27  
Tampa-St. Petersburg -Clearwater, FL MSA                    $0.94     $10.27  
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                         $1.02      $7.14  
Texarkana, TX- Texarkana, AR MSA                            $0.86      $7.04  
Toledo, OH MSA                                              $1.09      $8.54  
Topeka, KS MSA                                              $0.98      $8.43  
Tucson, AZ MSA                                              $0.95     $11.23  
Tulsa, OK MSA                                               $0.89      $7.84  
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                          $0.88      $7.83  
Tyler, TX MSA                                               $0.87      $6.65  
Utica-Rome, NY MSA                                          $1.04     $10.00  
Victoria, TX MSA                                            $0.82      $6.65  
Visalia-Tulare- Porterville, CA MSA                         $1.06      $9.37  
Waco, TX MSA                                                $0.87      $6.65  
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA                                    $1.03     $10.79     Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                                 Sort)
Waterbury, CT MSA                                           $1.09     $11.62  
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA MSA                                $1.01      $7.88  
Wausau, WI MSA                                              $1.02      $8.17  
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton -Delray Beach, FL MSA            $0.90     $10.27  
Wheeling, WV-OH MSA                                         $1.08      $8.03  
Wichita, KS MSA                                             $0.88      $8.43  
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                       $0.92      $6.65  
Williamsport, PA MSA                                        $1.01      $8.76  
Wilmington, NC MSA                                          $0.91      $9.76  
Worcester, MA MSA                                           $1.05     $10.50  
Yakima, WA MSA                                              $1.06      $7.40  
York, PA MSA                                                $1.02      $8.76  
Youngstown-Warren, OH MSA                                   $1.07      $8.54  
Yuba City, CA MSA                                           $1.06      $9.37  
Yuma, AZ MSA                                                $0.99     $11.23  
Quality of Life
An important aspect of attracting business to an area is the quality of life it offers it
owners and employees. As shown in the below Table, LA offers a very favorable climate
relative to the nation.




Table A6
Lifestyle (weather)


                                                                   Temperature        Rainfall     Snowfall
                                                                       (Avg.           (Avg.         (Avg.
                           Location
                                                                      Annual          Annual        Annual
                                                                     Degrees)         Inches)      Inches)



Abilene, TX MSA                                                               76.2        24.4           4.6
Albany, GA MSA                                                                 N/A         N/A          N/A 
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA                                               58.1       36.17         63.6
Albuquerque, NM MSA                                                           70.1        8.88         10.9
Alexandria, LA MSA                                                             N/A         N/A          N/A 
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA                                         60.8       43.52         32.3
Altoona, PA MSA                                                                N/A         N/A          N/A 
Amarillo, TX MSA                                                              70.5       19.56         15.5
Anchorage, AK MSA                                                             42.7       15.91         70.5
Anderson, IN MSA                                                               N/A         N/A          N/A 
Anderson, SC MSA                                                               N/A         N/A          N/A 
Anniston, AL MSA                                                               N/A         N/A          N/A 
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA                                                N/A         N/A          N/A 
Asheville, NC MSA                                                             66.6       47.59         15.4
Athens, GA MSA                                                                72.3       49.74           2.4
Atlanta, GA MSA                                                               71.2       50.77             2
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                                                         63.2       40.29         15.7
Augusta, GA-SC MSA                                                            75.6       44.66           1.1
Austin, TX MSA                                                                78.9       31.88           0.9
Bakersfield, CA MSA                                                           77.7        5.72             0
Baltimore, MD MSA                                                               65       40.76         21.1
Bangor, ME MSA                                                                 N/A         N/A          N/A 
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                                                             78       60.89           0.2
Battle Creek, MI MSA                                                          60.5       41.03         60.4
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX MSA                                                   N/A         N/A          N/A 
Bellingham, WA MSA                                                             N/A         N/A          N/A 
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                                                          N/A         N/A          N/A 
Billings, MT MSA                                                              58.3       15.08         57.2
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS MSA                                                        N/A         N/A          N/A 
Binghamton, NY MSA                         54.1    36.99     83.4
Birmingham, AL MSA                           73    54.58       1.9
Bismarck, ND MSA                           53.8    15.47     44.1
Bloomington, IN MSA                         N/A      N/A      N/A 
Bloomington-Normal, IL MSA                  N/A      N/A      N/A 
Boise City, ID MSA                         62.8    12.11     20.8
Boston-Lawrence- Salem, MA-NH CMSA           59    41.51     42.4
Bradenton, FL MSA                           N/A      N/A      N/A 
Bremerton, WA MSA                           N/A      N/A      N/A 
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX MSA              82.9    26.61         0
Bryan-College Station, TX MSA               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY CMSA             55.8    38.58     91.3
Burlington, NC MSA                          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Burlington, VT MSA                           54    34.47     78.3
Canton, OH MSA                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Casper, WY MSA                             58.5    12.52     79.4
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                        N/A      N/A      N/A 
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, IL MSA            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Charleston, SC MSA                         75.5    51.53     35.9
Charleston, WV MSA                         65.8    42.53        34
Charlotte-Gastonia- Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA   70.4    43.09       5.4
Charlottesville, VA MSA                     N/A      N/A      N/A 
Chattanooga, TN-GA MSA                       70    53.46       4.3
Cheyenne, WY MSA                             58     14.4     55.4
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI CMSA    58.6    35.82     37.6
Chico, CA MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN CMSA          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY MSA         N/A      N/A      N/A 
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA            58.7    36.63     55.8
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                   61.6    16.24     42.7
Columbia, MO MSA                           64.1    39.05        23
Columbia, SC MSA                           75.1    49.91       1.7
Columbus, GA-AL MSA                          76       51       0.5
Columbus, OH MSA                           61.2    38.09     27.9
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                       81    30.13         0
Cumberland, MD-WV MSA                       N/A      N/A      N/A 
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA                 76.3     33.7       2.5
Danville, VA MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Davenport-Rock Island -Moline, IA-IL MSA    N/A      N/A      N/A 
Dayton-Springfield, OH MSA                 61.5    36.64     27.6
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                      79.8    47.89         0
Decatur, AL MSA                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Decatur, IL MSA                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA                    64.2     15.4     60.3
Des Moines, IA MSA                            59.8    33.12           33.4
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                    58.1    32.62           40.7
                                                                Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                Sort)  N/A 
Dothan, AL MSA                                 N/A      N/A  
Dubuque, IA MSA                               55.8    38.36           43.2
Duluth, MN-WI MSA                             47.9       30           80.5
Eau Claire, WI MSA                             N/A      N/A            N/A 
El Paso, TX MSA                               77.5     8.81             5.3
Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA                         N/A      N/A            N/A 
Elmira, NY MSA                                 N/A      N/A            N/A 
Enid, OK MSA                                   N/A      N/A            N/A 
Erie, PA MSA                                    57    41.53           86.1
Eugene-Springfield, OR MSA                    63.2    49.37             6.4
Evansville, IN-KY MSA                         66.3    43.14              14
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN MSA                     51.5    19.45           40.4
Fayetteville, NC MSA                           N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fayetteville-Springdale, AR MSA                N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fitchburg-Leominster, MA MSA                   N/A      N/A            N/A 
Flint, MI MSA                                 56.3    30.28           44.6
Florence, AL MSA                               N/A      N/A            N/A 
Florence, SC MSA                               N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA                  N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fort Myers-Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                 83.9    53.37               0
Fort Pierce, FL MSA                            N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fort Smith, AR-OK MSA                         72.4     40.9             6.2
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                      N/A      N/A            N/A 
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                            59.4    34.75           32.6
Fresno, CA MSA                                76.5     10.6             0.1
Gadsden, AL MSA                                N/A      N/A            N/A 
Gainesville, FL MSA                           79.7    51.81               0
Glens Falls, NY MSA                            N/A      N/A            N/A 
Grand Forks, ND MSA                            N/A      N/A            N/A 
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                          56.9    36.04           71.6
Great Falls, MT MSA                           56.4    15.21           58.4
Greeley, CO MSA                                N/A      N/A            N/A 
Green Bay, WI MSA                             53.3    28.83           47.6
Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA   68.4    42.62             8.8
Greenville-Spartanburg, SC MSA                70.7    51.27             6.1
Hagerstown, MD MSA                             N/A      N/A            N/A 
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA MSA            N/A      N/A            N/A 
Hartford-New Britain-Middletown, CT CMSA      60.2    44.14              49
Hickory-Morganton, NC MSA                      N/A      N/A            N/A 
Honolulu, HI MSA                              84.4    22.02               0
Houma-Thibodaux, LA MSA                        N/A      N/A            N/A 
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA           78.6    46.07             0.4
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA            64.9    41.49     26.2
Huntsville, AL MSA                            71    57.18       2.7
Indianapolis, IN MSA                        62.1    39.94     23.3
Iowa City, IA MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Jackson, MI MSA                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Jackson, MS MSA                             76.4    55.37         1
Jackson, TN MSA                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Jacksonville, FL MSA                        78.9    51.32         0
Jacksonville, NC MSA                         N/A      N/A      N/A 
Jamestown-Dunkirk, NY                        N/A      N/A      N/A 
Janesville-Beloit, WI MSA                    N/A      N/A      N/A 
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA MSA    N/A      N/A      N/A 
Johnstown, PA MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Joplin, MO MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Kankakee, IL MSA                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA                      63.6    37.62        20
Killeen-Temple, TX MSA                       N/A      N/A      N/A 
Knoxville, TN MSA                           68.9    47.14     11.5
Kokomo, IN MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
La Crosse, WI MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lafayette, LA MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN MSA             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lake Charles, LA MSA                        77.3    54.84       0.3
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL MSA                N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lancaster, PA MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA                56.7    30.62     48.8
Laredo, TX MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Las Cruces, NM MSA                           N/A      N/A      N/A 
Las Vegas, NV MSA                           80.5     4.13       1.2
Lawrence, KS MSA                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lawton, OK MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA                     63.1    12.43     15.8
Lexington-Fayette, KY MSA                   64.7    44.55        16
Lima, OH MSA                                 N/A      N/A      N/A 
Lincoln, NE MSA                             62.5    28.26     27.6
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR MSA       72.5    50.86       5.2
Longview-Marshall, TX MSA                    N/A      N/A      N/A 
Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside, CA CMSA      75.1    14.77         0
Louisville, KY-IN MSA                         66    44.39     16.6
Lubbock, TX MSA                             73.5    18.65       9.9
Lynchburg, VA MSA                           66.4    40.88     18.4
Macon-Warner Robins, GA MSA                 76.3    44.63       0.9
Madison, WI MSA                             55.6    30.88     44.2
Manchester, NH MSA                                          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Mansfield, OH MSA                                          58.7    39.66        42
Mcallen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Medford, OR MSA                                            67.2    18.86       7.3
Melbourne-Titusville -Palm Bay, FL MSA                      N/A      N/A      N/A 
Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA                                      72.1     52.1       5.1
Merced, CA MSA                                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                             82.8    55.91         0
Midland, TX MSA                                            77.2    14.96       4.5
Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA                                  54.3    32.93     47.1
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA                            54.3    28.32     49.7
Mobile, AL MSA                                             77.4    63.96       0.4
Modesto, CA MSA                                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Monroe, LA MSA                                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Montgomery, AL MSA                                         75.8    53.43       0.4
Muncie, IN MSA                                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Muskegon, MI MSA                                           55.5    32.56     97.8
Naples, FL MSA                                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Nashville, TN MSA                                          69.8     47.3        10
New Bedford, MA MSA                                         N/A      N/A      N/A 
New Haven-Meriden, CT MSA                                   N/A      N/A      N/A 
New London-Norwich, CT-RI MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
New Orleans, LA MSA                                        77.6    61.88       0.2
New York-Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA   62.3    47.25     28.4
Norfolk-Virginia Beach -Newport News, VA MSA               67.8    44.64       7.7
Ocala, FL MSA                                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Odessa, TX MSA                                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                      71.1    33.36       9.3
Olympia, WA MSA                                            60.2    50.59     16.7
Omaha, NE-IA MSA                                           61.5    29.86     29.8
Orlando, FL MSA                                            82.6    48.11         0
Owensboro, KY MSA                                           N/A      N/A      N/A 
Panama City, FL MSA                                         N/A      N/A      N/A 
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH MSA                             N/A      N/A      N/A 
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Pensacola, FL MSA                                          76.5    62.25       0.2
Peoria, IL MSA                                             60.4    36.25     24.8
Philadelphia-Wilmington- Trenton, PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA         63.4    41.41     20.4
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                            85.9     7.66         0
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                          59.9    36.85     43.5
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Portland, ME MSA                                           54.9    44.34     70.7
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA CMSA                             62.6     36.3       6.5
Portsmouth-Dover- Rochester, NH-ME MSA          N/A      N/A      N/A 
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                            N/A      N/A      N/A 
Providence-Pawtucket- Fall River, RI-MA CMSA   59.8    45.53     20.5
Provo-Orem, UT MSA                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
Pueblo, CO MSA                                 68.6    11.19     33.7
Raleigh-Durham, NC MSA                         70.1    41.43         7
Rapid City, SD MSA                             59.4    16.64     39.8
Reading, PA MSA                                74.8     33.3         4
Redding, CA MSA                                66.8     7.53     24.3
Reno, NV MSA                                   68.8    43.16     13.7
Richland-Kennewick -Pasco, WA MSA               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA                     N/A      N/A      N/A 
Roanoke, VA MSA                                66.6    41.13        23
Rochester, MN MSA                              53.3    29.66     49.1
Rochester, NY MSA                              56.7    31.96     90.7
Rockford, IL MSA                               57.6    36.28     35.5
Sacramento, CA MSA                             73.5    17.52         0
Saginaw-Bay City -Midland, MI MSA               N/A      N/A      N/A 
St. Cloud, MN MSA                              52.7    27.43     45.1
St. Joseph, MO MSA                              N/A      N/A      N/A 
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA                           65.4    37.51     19.5
Salem, OR MSA                                  63.2    39.16       6.6
Salinas-Seaside- Monterey, CA MSA               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Salt Lake City- Ogden, UT MSA                  63.6    16.18     58.6
San Angelo, TX MSA                             78.1    20.45         3
San Antonio, TX MSA                            79.5    30.98       0.7
San Diego, CA MSA                              70.8       9.9        0
San Francisco-Oakland -San Jose, CA CMSA       65.2     19.7         0
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA MSA       69.3    16.25         0
Santa Fe, NM MSA                                N/A      N/A      N/A 
Sarasota, FL MSA                                N/A      N/A      N/A 
Savannah, GA MSA                               76.5    49.22       0.4
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA MSA                   N/A      N/A      N/A 
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA                        59.4    37.19     11.4
Sharon, PA MSA                                  N/A      N/A      N/A 
Sheboygan, WI MSA                               N/A      N/A      N/A 
Sherman-Denison, TX MSA                         N/A      N/A      N/A 
Shreveport, LA MSA                             76.2    46.11       1.5
Sioux City, IA-NE MSA                          59.2    25.86     31.5
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                            56.8    23.86        41
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN MSA                   58.5    39.14     70.8
Spokane, WA MSA                                57.5    16.49        49
Springfield, IL MSA                            62.3    35.25     23.4
Springfield, MO MSA                              67    43.04     17.2
Springfield, MA MSA                                                             N/A          N/A            N/A 
State College, PA MSA                                                           N/A          N/A            N/A 
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV MSA                                                 N/A          N/A            N/A 
Stockton, CA MSA                                                               74.4        13.95               0
Syracuse, NY MSA                                                               56.9        38.93          115.3
Tallahassee, FL MSA                                                            79.3        65.71               0
Tampa-St. Petersburg -Clearwater, FL MSA                                       81.6        43.92               0
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                                             N/A          N/A            N/A 
Texarkana, TX- Texarkana, AR MSA                                                N/A          N/A            N/A 
Toledo, OH MSA                                                                 58.6        32.97           36.6
Topeka, KS MSA                                                                 65.1        35.23           20.8
Tucson, AZ MSA                                                                 82.2           12             1.2
Tulsa, OK MSA                                                                    71        40.59             9.4
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                                              N/A          N/A            N/A 
Tyler, TX MSA                                                                   N/A          N/A            N/A 
Utica-Rome, NY MSA                                                              N/A          N/A            N/A 
Victoria, TX MSA                                                               79.8        37.41             0.1
Visalia-Tulare- Porterville, CA MSA                                             N/A          N/A            N/A 
Waco, TX MSA                                                                   77.7        31.96             1.4
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA                                                       66.9        38.63           16.7
                                                                                                     Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                                                     Sort)  N/A 
Waterbury, CT MSA                                                               N/A          N/A  
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA MSA                                                   56.9         33.7           32.5
Wausau, WI MSA                                                                  N/A          N/A            N/A 
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton -Delray Beach, FL MSA                               82.9        60.75               0
Wheeling, WV-OH MSA                                                             N/A          N/A            N/A 
Wichita, KS MSA                                                                 N/A          N/A            N/A 
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                                          75.2         28.9             5.8
Williamsport, PA MSA                                                           59.7        40.72           41.8
Wilmington, NC MSA                                                             73.8        54.27             1.9
Worcester, MA MSA                                                              55.7        47.75           67.6
Yakima, WA MSA                                                                 62.8         7.97           24.6
York, PA MSA                                                                    N/A          N/A            N/A 
Youngstown-Warren, OH MSA                                                      57.7        37.32           55.9
Yuba City, CA MSA                                                               N/A          N/A            N/A 
Yuma, AZ MSA                                                                   87.9         3.17               0




Table A7 shows that LA’s non-weather aspects of quality of life are poor relative to the
rest of the U.S. Crime rates, average student:teacher ratios, and housing costs are
among the highest in the country. Similarly, hospital beds per capita are among the
lowest in the country.
Table A7
Quality of Life: Crime, Education, Housing Costs, and Healthcare
                                                             Crime                      Housing
                                                                        Quality of
                                                              Rate                        Costs
                                                                          Public
                                                              (FBI                     (National
                                                                        Education
                                                             index;                      index:
                         Location                                         (Avg.
                                                             higher                      higher
                                                                         Student:
                                                             value=                     value=
                                                                         Teacher
                                                              more                        more       P
                                                                          ratio)
                                                             crime)                   expensive)

Abilene, TX MSA                                                0.0039         20.6        $166.67 
Albany, GA MSA                                                      0         15.9        $248.98 
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA                                0.0045         13.9        $356.58 
Albuquerque, NM MSA                                            0.0872         15.2        $210.85 
Alexandria, LA MSA                                             0.0467         14.9        $164.11 
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA                          0.0018         14.3        $244.84 
Altoona, PA MSA                                                     0         15.5        $244.84 
Amarillo, TX MSA                                               0.1322         14.8        $166.67 
Anchorage, AK MSA                                              0.1057         16.9        $162.34 
Anderson, IN MSA                                                    0         16.7        $214.92 
Anderson, SC MSA                                                    0         14.9        $225.02 
Anniston, AL MSA                                                    0         15.4        $212.04 
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA                                     0         14.1        $227.62 
Asheville, NC MSA                                                   0         15.5        $248.80 
Athens, GA MSA                                                      0         15.9        $248.98 
Atlanta, GA MSA                                                0.5648         15.9        $248.98 
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                                               0         13.1        $290.08 
Augusta, GA-SC MSA                                                  0         15.4        $225.02 
Austin, TX MSA                                                 0.0256         14.8        $166.67 
Bakersfield, CA MSA                                            0.0174         20.6        $268.72 
Baltimore, MD MSA                                                   0         16.3        $241.52 
Bangor, ME MSA                                                      0         12.5        $266.90 
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                                            0.2234         14.9        $164.11 
Battle Creek, MI MSA                                                0          18         $263.29 
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX MSA                                   0.0036         14.8        $166.67 
Bellingham, WA MSA                                                  0         19.7        $277.64 
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                                               0          18         $263.29 
Billings, MT MSA                                                    0         14.9        $212.72 
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS MSA                                             0         16.1        $185.78 
Binghamton, NY MSA                                                  0         15.2        $356.58 
Birmingham, AL MSA                                             0.0238         15.4        $212.04 
Bismarck, ND MSA                                                    0         13.4        $161.93 
Bloomington, IN MSA                                                 0         16.7        $214.92 
Bloomington-Normal, IL MSA                                          0         16.1        $241.79 
Boise City, ID MSA                                             0.0902         17.9        $201.33 
Boston-Lawrence- Salem, MA-NH CMSA         0.2745    14.5    $426.14 
Bradenton, FL MSA                               0    18.4    $211.51 
Bremerton, WA MSA                               0    19.7    $277.64 
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX MSA              0.0013    14.8    $166.67 
Bryan-College Station, TX MSA                   0    14.8    $166.67 
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY CMSA             0.0386    13.9    $356.58 
Burlington, NC MSA                              0    15.5    $248.80 
Burlington, VT MSA                              0    12.1    $261.39 
Canton, OH MSA                                  0    15.5    $226.34 
Casper, WY MSA                                  0    13.3    $156.48 
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                       0.0147    14.3    $193.50 
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, IL MSA                0    16.1    $241.79 
Charleston, SC MSA                              0    14.9    $225.02 
Charleston, WV MSA                              0    13.7    $188.66 
Charlotte-Gastonia- Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA   0.0531    15.2    $248.80 
Charlottesville, VA MSA                         0    12.5    $239.92 
Chattanooga, TN-GA MSA                     0.0063    15.9    $230.80 
Cheyenne, WY MSA                                0    13.3    $156.48 
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI CMSA         0   15.63    $241.79 
Chico, CA MSA                                   0    20.6    $268.72 
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN CMSA         0.1045   16.33    $226.34 
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY MSA             0   15.85    $230.80 
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA            0.1182    15.5    $226.34 
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                   0.0464    17.3    $268.88 
Columbia, MO MSA                                0    14.1    $213.00 
Columbia, SC MSA                                0    14.9    $225.02 
Columbus, GA-AL MSA                        0.0354   16.65    $248.98 
Columbus, OH MSA                           0.0469    15.5    $226.34 
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                      0.143    14.8    $166.67 
Cumberland, MD-WV MSA                           0      15    $241.52 
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA                 0.1908    14.8    $166.67 
Danville, VA MSA                                0    12.5    $239.92 
Davenport-Rock Island -Moline, IA-IL MSA        0    15.2    $193.50 
Dayton-Springfield, OH MSA                      0    15.5    $211.51 
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                      0.0018    18.4    $226.34 
Decatur, AL MSA                                 0    15.4    $212.04 
Decatur, IL MSA                                 0    16.1    $241.79 
Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA                    0.0081    17.3    $268.88 
Des Moines, IA MSA                         0.0814    14.3    $193.50 
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                      0      18    $263.29  Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                             Formatted:
                                                             Sort)
Dothan, AL MSA                                  0    15.4    $212.04 
Dubuque, IA MSA                                 0    14.3    $193.50 
Duluth, MN-WI MSA                               0   15.05    $241.23 
Eau Claire, WI MSA                              0    14.1    $227.62 
El Paso, TX MSA                               0.1253    14.8    $166.67 
Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA                             0    16.7    $214.92 
Elmira, NY MSA                                     0    15.2    $356.58 
Enid, OK MSA                                       0    15.1    $149.07 
Erie, PA MSA                                  0.0017    15.5    $244.84 
Eugene-Springfield, OR MSA                       N/A    19.4    $259.15 
Evansville, IN-KY MSA                         0.0318   16.75    $214.92 
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN MSA                          0    14.7    $161.93 
Fayetteville, NC MSA                               0    15.5    $248.80 
Fayetteville-Springdale, AR MSA                    0    14.1    $189.43 
Fitchburg-Leominster, MA MSA                       0    14.5    $426.14 
Flint, MI MSA                                 0.1023      18    $263.29 
Florence, AL MSA                                   0    15.4    $212.04 
Florence, SC MSA                                   0    14.9    $225.02 
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA                    N/A    17.3    $268.88 
Fort Myers-Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                      0    18.4    $211.51 
Fort Pierce, FL MSA                                0    18.4    $211.51 
Fort Smith, AR-OK MSA                              0    14.6    $189.43 
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                          0    18.4    $211.51 
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                            0.0435    16.7    $214.92 
Fresno, CA MSA                                0.3145    20.6    $268.72 
Gadsden, AL MSA                                    0    15.4    $212.04 
Gainesville, FL MSA                                0    18.4    $211.51 
Glens Falls, NY MSA                                0    13.9    $356.58 
Grand Forks, ND MSA                                0    13.4    $161.93 
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                               0      18    $263.29 
Great Falls, MT MSA                                0    14.9    $212.72 
Greeley, CO MSA                                    0    17.3    $268.88 
Green Bay, WI MSA                             0.0345    14.1    $227.62 
Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA   0.1008    15.5    $248.80 
Greenville-Spartanburg, SC MSA                     0    14.9    $225.02 
Hagerstown, MD MSA                                 0    16.3    $241.52 
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA MSA                0    15.5    $244.84 
Hartford-New Britain-Middletown, CT CMSA      0.0765    13.7    $274.66 
Hickory-Morganton, NC MSA                          0    15.5    $248.80 
Honolulu, HI MSA                              0.0445    16.9    $242.37 
Houma-Thibodaux, LA MSA                            0    14.9    $164.11 
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA           0.2155    14.8    $166.67 
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA                   0   15.33    $188.66 
Huntsville, AL MSA                             0.062    15.4    $212.04 
Indianapolis, IN MSA                          0.2832    16.7    $214.92 
Iowa City, IA MSA                                  0    14.3    $193.50 
Jackson, MI MSA                                    0      18    $263.29 
Jackson, MS MSA                               0.0445    16.1    $185.78 
Jackson, TN MSA                                   0    14.9    $230.80 
Jacksonville, FL MSA                        0.0354     18.4    $211.51 
Jacksonville, NC MSA                              0    15.5    $248.80 
Jamestown-Dunkirk, NY                             0    15.2    $356.58 
Janesville-Beloit, WI MSA                         0    14.1    $227.62 
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA MSA         0    13.7    $230.80 
Johnstown, PA MSA                                 0    15.5    $244.84 
Joplin, MO MSA                                    0    14.1    $213.00 
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                                 0      18    $263.29 
Kankakee, IL MSA                                  0    16.1    $241.79 
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA                      0.2755    14.25    $213.00 
Killeen-Temple, TX MSA                            0    14.8    $166.67 
Knoxville, TN MSA                           0.0574     14.9    $230.80 
Kokomo, IN MSA                                    0    16.7    $214.92 
La Crosse, WI MSA                                 0    14.1    $227.62 
Lafayette, LA MSA                           0.1101     14.9    $164.11 
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN MSA                  0    16.7    $214.92 
Lake Charles, LA MSA                              0    14.9    $164.11 
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL MSA                     0    18.4    $211.51 
Lancaster, PA MSA                           0.0022     15.5    $244.84 
Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA                0.0325       18    $263.29 
Laredo, TX MSA                              0.1094     14.8    $166.67 
Las Cruces, NM MSA                                0    15.2    $210.85 
Las Vegas, NV MSA                            0.022     18.6    $193.46 
Lawrence, KS MSA                                  0    14.4    $187.86 
Lawton, OK MSA                                    0    15.1    $149.07 
Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA                           0    12.5    $266.90 
Lexington-Fayette, KY MSA                   0.1434     16.8    $228.93 
Lima, OH MSA                                      0    15.5    $226.34 
Lincoln, NE MSA                             0.0313     13.6    $210.25 
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR MSA          0.05    14.1    $189.43 
Longview-Marshall, TX MSA                         0    14.8    $166.67 
Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside, CA CMSA      0.2893     20.6    $268.72 
Louisville, KY-IN MSA                       0.1223     16.8    $214.92 
Lubbock, TX MSA                             0.1239     14.8    $166.67 
Lynchburg, VA MSA                                 0    12.5    $239.92 
Macon-Warner Robins, GA MSA                 0.0038     15.9    $248.98 
Madison, WI MSA                             0.0144     14.1    $227.62 
Manchester, NH MSA                          0.0231     14.5    $273.33 
Mansfield, OH MSA                                 0    15.5    $226.34 
Mcallen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA            0.0209     14.8    $166.67 
Medford, OR MSA                                   0    19.4    $259.15 
Melbourne-Titusville -Palm Bay, FL MSA            0    18.4    $211.51 
Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA                       0.2642    15.03    $185.78 
Merced, CA MSA                                                N/A    20.6    $268.72 
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                             0.5077    18.4    $211.51 
Midland, TX MSA                                            0.0303    14.8    $166.67 
Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA                                  0.3374    14.1    $227.62 
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA                            0.0457   15.05    $241.23 
Mobile, AL MSA                                             0.0598    15.4    $212.04 
Modesto, CA MSA                                            0.0267    20.6    $268.72 
Monroe, LA MSA                                                  0    14.9    $164.11 
Montgomery, AL MSA                                              0    15.4    $212.04 
Muncie, IN MSA                                                N/A    16.7    $214.92 
Muskegon, MI MSA                                                0      18    $263.29 
Naples, FL MSA                                                  0    18.4    $211.51 
Nashville, TN MSA                                          0.4779    14.9    $230.80 
New Bedford, MA MSA                                             0    14.5    $426.14 
New Haven-Meriden, CT MSA                                  0.0105    13.7    $274.66 
New London-Norwich, CT-RI MSA                                 N/A   14.25    $274.66 
New Orleans, LA MSA                                        0.0303    14.9    $164.11 
New York-Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA    1.698      14    $356.58 
Norfolk-Virginia Beach -Newport News, VA MSA                    0    12.5    $239.92 
Ocala, FL MSA                                                   0    18.4    $211.51 
Odessa, TX MSA                                             0.0291    14.8    $166.67 
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                      0.2984    15.1    $149.07 
Olympia, WA MSA                                                 0    19.7    $277.64 
Omaha, NE-IA MSA                                           0.1379   13.95    $210.25 
Orlando, FL MSA                                            0.0154    18.4    $211.51 
Owensboro, KY MSA                                               0    16.8    $228.93 
Panama City, FL MSA                                             0    18.4    $211.51 
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH MSA                                 0    14.6    $188.66 
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                              0    16.1    $185.78 
Pensacola, FL MSA                                               0    18.4    $211.51 
Peoria, IL MSA                                                  0    16.1    $241.79 
Philadelphia-Wilmington- Trenton, PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA         0.2922   15.05    $244.84 
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                            0.2803    19.8    $208.03 
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                              0    14.1    $189.43 
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                           0.089    15.5    $244.84 
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                              0    14.5    $426.14 
Portland, ME MSA                                                0    12.5    $266.90 
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA CMSA                             0.0084   19.55    $259.15 
Portsmouth-Dover- Rochester, NH-ME MSA                     0.0129    13.5    $273.33 
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                            0    13.9    $356.58 
Providence-Pawtucket- Fall River, RI-MA CMSA               0.0739   14.65    $287.13 
Provo-Orem, UT MSA                                         0.0064    21.9    $244.20 
Pueblo, CO MSA                                             0.0204    17.3    $268.88 
Raleigh-Durham, NC MSA                                     0.0891    15.5    $248.80 
Rapid City, SD MSA                               0    13.7    $205.51 
Reading, PA MSA                               N/A     15.5    $244.84 
Redding, CA MSA                                  0    20.6    $268.72 
Reno, NV MSA                                  N/A     18.6    $193.46 
Richland-Kennewick -Pasco, WA MSA                0    19.7    $277.64 
Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA                0.0256     12.5    $239.92 
Roanoke, VA MSA                                  0    12.5    $239.92 
Rochester, MN MSA                                0      16    $241.23 
Rochester, NY MSA                             N/A     15.2    $356.58 
Rockford, IL MSA                                 0    16.1    $241.79 
Sacramento, CA MSA                         0.1697     20.6    $268.72 
Saginaw-Bay City -Midland, MI MSA                0      18    $263.29 
St. Cloud, MN MSA                          0.0278       16    $259.15 
St. Joseph, MO MSA                         0.0495     14.1    $268.72 
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA                             0    15.1    $244.20 
Salem, OR MSA                                    0    19.4    $166.67 
Salinas-Seaside- Monterey, CA MSA          0.1874     20.6    $166.67 
Salt Lake City- Ogden, UT MSA              0.1404     21.9    $268.72 
San Angelo, TX MSA                         0.1751     14.8    $268.72 
San Antonio, TX MSA                              0    14.8    $268.72 
San Diego, CA MSA                                0    20.6    $210.85 
San Francisco-Oakland -San Jose, CA CMSA         0    20.6    $211.51 
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA MSA   0.1058     20.6    $248.98 
Santa Fe, NM MSA                                 0    15.2    $244.84 
Sarasota, FL MSA                           0.1388     18.4    $277.64 
Savannah, GA MSA                                 0    15.9    $244.84 
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA MSA                    0    15.5    $227.62 
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA                          0    19.7    $166.67 
Sharon, PA MSA                             0.0197     15.5    $164.11 
Sheboygan, WI MSA                                0    14.1    $193.50 
Sherman-Denison, TX MSA                    0.0028     14.8    $205.51 
Shreveport, LA MSA                          0.022     14.9    $214.92 
Sioux City, IA-NE MSA                      0.0733    13.95    $277.64 
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                              0    13.7    $241.79 
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN MSA               0.0138     16.7    $426.14 
Spokane, WA MSA                            0.0305     19.7    $213.00 
Springfield, IL MSA                              0    16.1    $241.23 
Springfield, MO MSA                              0    14.1    $213.00 
Springfield, MA MSA                        0.1043     14.5    $213.00 
State College, PA MSA                            0    15.5    $244.84 
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV MSA                  0    14.6    $226.34 
Stockton, CA MSA                              0.18    20.6    $268.72 
Syracuse, NY MSA                           0.0428     13.9    $356.58 
Tallahassee, FL MSA                        0.0991     18.4    $211.51 
Tampa-St. Petersburg -Clearwater, FL MSA                         0.062        18.4    $211.51 
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                                  0        16.7    $214.92 
Texarkana, TX- Texarkana, AR MSA                                     0       14.45    $189.43 
Toledo, OH MSA                                                  0.0959        15.5    $226.34 
Topeka, KS MSA                                                  0.0285        14.4    $187.86 
Tucson, AZ MSA                                                   0.092        19.8    $208.03 
Tulsa, OK MSA                                                   0.1895        15.1    $149.07 
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                                 N/A        15.4    $212.04 
Tyler, TX MSA                                                        0        14.8    $166.67 
Utica-Rome, NY MSA                                                   0        13.9    $356.58 
Victoria, TX MSA                                                     0        14.8    $166.67 
Visalia-Tulare- Porterville, CA MSA                                  0        20.6    $268.72 
Waco, TX MSA                                                    0.0741        14.8    $166.67 
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA                                        0.0513       14.23    $239.92  Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                                      Formatted:
                                                                                      Sort)
Waterbury, CT MSA                                               0.0386        13.7    $274.66 
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA MSA                                         0        14.3    $193.50 
Wausau, WI MSA                                                       0        14.1    $227.62 
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton -Delray Beach, FL MSA                     0        18.4    $211.51 
Wheeling, WV-OH MSA                                                  0        15.5    $188.66 
Wichita, KS MSA                                                 0.0448        14.4    $166.67 
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                           0.0238        14.8    $187.86 
Williamsport, PA MSA                                                 0        15.5    $244.84 
Wilmington, NC MSA                                                   0        15.5    $248.80 
Worcester, MA MSA                                               0.0498        14.5    $426.14 
Yakima, WA MSA                                                       0        19.7    $277.64 
York, PA MSA                                                         0        15.5    $244.84 
Youngstown-Warren, OH MSA                                            0        15.5    $226.34 
Yuba City, CA MSA                                                    0        20.6    $268.72 
Yuma, AZ MSA                                                         0        19.8    $208.03 

Table A8 reports local market conditions. The data are from the 2000 Census
(2010 Census data are not yet available). LA is a favorable market insofar as it
has a large and growing population, with relatively high personal incomes.
Table A8
Local Market Conditions



                                                                        Per
                                                       Projected
                                                                       Capita
                                                       Population
                Local Market Location   Population                    Income
                                                        Growth
                                                                       (Avg.
                                                          (%)
                                                                      Annual)
Abilene, TX MSA                             126,555          2.46      $16,124 
Albany, GA MSA                              120,822            4.3     $14,878 
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA             875,583          0.72      $20,280 
Albuquerque, NM MSA                         712,738         14.74      $17,118 
Alexandria, LA MSA                          126,337         ‐3.61      $15,130 
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA       637,958          3.68      $19,917 
Altoona, PA MSA                             129,144         ‐0.51      $15,251 
Amarillo, TX MSA                            217,858         11.31      $16,861 
Anchorage, AK MSA                           260,283         13.28      $26,235 
Anderson, IN MSA                                N/A           N/A          N/A 
Anderson, SC MSA                                N/A           N/A          N/A 
Anniston, AL MSA                            112,249          0.37      $14,871 
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI MSA             358,365         10.15      $18,225 
Asheville, NC MSA                           225,965         12.06      $17,505 
Athens, GA MSA                              153,444         10.68      $15,914 
Atlanta, GA MSA                           4,112,198         29.53      $21,063 
Atlantic City, NJ MSA                       846,630          5.38      $23,342 
Augusta, GA-SC MSA                          477,441         10.29      $17,548 
Austin, TX MSA                            1,249,763         34.73      $18,092 
Bakersfield, CA MSA                         661,645         16.98      $16,576 
Baltimore, MD MSA                           846,630          4.27      $21,988 
Bangor, ME MSA                               90,864         ‐0.71      $15,831 
Baton Rouge, LA MSA                         602,894          9.38      $17,007 
Battle Creek, MI MSA                            N/A           N/A          N/A 
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX MSA                385,090          4.15      $16,183 
Bellingham, WA MSA                          166,814         24.27      $17,360 
Benton Harbor, MI MSA                       162,453         ‐1.02      $16,450 
Billings, MT MSA                            129,352         12.11      $17,538 
Biloxi-Gulfport, MS MSA                     363,988         13.11      $14,187 
Binghamton, NY MSA                          252,320         ‐6.47      $18,126 
Birmingham, AL MSA                          921,106          8.71      $18,724 
Bismarck, ND MSA                             94,719          9.58      $16,594 
Bloomington, IN MSA                         120,563          6.97      $15,585 
Bloomington-Normal, IL MSA                  150,433         12.24      $18,532 
Boise City, ID MSA                          432,345         36.79      $18,036 
Boston-Lawrence- Salem, MA-NH CMSA         5,819,100     2.17       $23,559 
Bradenton, FL MSA                                N/A      N/A            N/A 
Bremerton, WA MSA                            846,630    23.21       $19,090 
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX MSA                335,227    25.77         $9,947 
Bryan-College Station, TX MSA                152,415    10.04       $13,245 
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY CMSA             1,170,111    ‐4.04       $18,813 
Burlington, NC MSA                               N/A      N/A            N/A 
Burlington, VT MSA                           169,391         0      $19,649 
Canton, OH MSA                               406,934     2.02       $17,650 
Casper, WY MSA                                66,533     3.18       $21,349 
Cedar Rapids, IA MSA                         191,701       9.3      $19,998 
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, IL MSA             179,669      ‐1.6      $17,118 
Charleston, SC MSA                           549,033       8.6      $16,631 
Charleston, WV MSA                           251,662     0.34       $18,110 
Charlotte-Gastonia- Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA   1,499,293    21.34       $19,724 
Charlottesville, VA MSA                      159,576     14.6       $20,394 
Chattanooga, TN-GA MSA                       465,161     6.48       $17,529 
Cheyenne, WY MSA                              81,607     7.87       $19,073 
Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL-IN-WI CMSA    9,157,540     7.64       $22,457 
Chico, CA MSA                                203,171     6.39       $15,735 
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN CMSA         1,979,202     6.43       $19,855 
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY MSA          207,033    18.15       $13,746 
Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, OH CMSA            2,945,831       1.7      $20,960 
Colorado Springs, CO MSA                     516,929    25.85       $17,802 
Columbia, MO MSA                             135,454    15.48       $17,178 
Columbia, SC MSA                             536,691    13.21       $18,647 
Columbus, GA-AL MSA                          274,624     3.87       $15,682 
Columbus, OH MSA                           1,540,157    10.31       $19,686 
Corpus Christi, TX MSA                       380,783    10.44       $15,059 
Cumberland, MD-WV MSA                        102,008    ‐3.28       $14,688 
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CMSA                 5,221,801    21.95       $20,818 
Danville, VA MSA                             110,156    ‐1.31       $14,709 
Davenport-Rock Island -Moline, IA-IL MSA     359,062     2.23       $18,381 
Dayton-Springfield, OH MSA                   950,558       0.7      $19,000 
Daytona Beach, FL MSA                        493,175    17.68       $16,568 
Decatur, AL MSA                              145,867     8.62       $16,426 
Decatur, IL MSA                              114,706    ‐3.41       $18,071 
Denver-Boulder, CO CMSA                    2,581,506    21.72       $21,649 
Des Moines, IA MSA                           456,022    12.44       $21,098 
Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI CMSA                 5,456,428     5.34       $21,015 
                                                                  Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                  Sort)
Dothan, AL MSA                               137,916     3.07       $15,911 
Dubuque, IA MSA                               89,143     1.94       $16,913 
Duluth, MN-WI MSA                            243,815      ‐1.6      $16,575 
Eau Claire, WI MSA                           148,337     4.92       $15,735 
El Paso, TX MSA                                 679,622   17.78    $12,391 
Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA                          182,791    11.7    $17,922 
Elmira, NY MSA                                   91,070   ‐3.74    $16,328 
Enid, OK MSA                                     57,813    0.54    $17,245 
Erie, PA MSA                                    280,843    0.43    $16,880 
Eugene-Springfield, OR MSA                      322,959   10.84    $16,852 
Evansville, IN-KY MSA                           296,195    4.27    $18,311 
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN MSA                       174,367   10.69    $16,978 
Fayetteville, NC MSA                            302,963    2.99    $15,141 
Fayetteville-Springdale, AR MSA                 311,121   34.14    $16,293 
Fitchburg-Leominster, MA MSA                    846,630    3.06        N/A 
Flint, MI MSA                                   846,630    1.47    $17,494 
Florence, AL MSA                                142,950    3.93    $15,845 
Florence, SC MSA                                125,761    9.19    $15,512 
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA                   251,494   26.61    $17,698 
Fort Myers-Cape CoraL, Fl MSA                   440,888   18.41    $20,585 
Fort Pierce, FL MSA                             319,426   17.96    $21,561 
Fort Smith, AR-OK MSA                           207,290      11    $14,729 
Fort Walton Beach, FL MSA                       170,498   17.71    $16,966 
Fort Wayne, IN MSA                              502,141    5.95    $18,828 
Fresno, CA MSA                                  922,516   15.66    $16,709 
Gadsden, AL MSA                                 103,459    3.68    $14,655 
Gainesville, FL MSA                             217,955     8.9    $17,180 
Glens Falls, NY MSA                             124,345    2.19    $16,291 
Grand Forks, ND MSA                              97,478    ‐7.4    $15,836 
Grand Rapids, MI MSA                          1,088,514   11.71    $18,274 
Great Falls, MT MSA                              80,357    0.73    $17,261 
Greeley, CO MSA                                 846,630   25.62    $15,696 
Green Bay, WI MSA                               226,778   10.88    $18,995 
Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC MSA   1,251,509   11.93    $19,612 
Greenville-Spartanburg, SC MSA                  962,441   11.52    $16,438 
Hagerstown, MD MSA                              846,630    4.87    $16,436 
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA MSA             629,401    4.87    $20,261 
Hartford-New Britain-Middletown, CT CMSA      1,183,110   ‐0.94    $25,378 
Hickory-Morganton, NC MSA                       341,851   11.13    $16,836 
Honolulu, HI MSA                                876,156    3.17    $23,772 
Houma-Thibodaux, LA MSA                         194,477    6.42    $13,156 
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX CMSA           4,669,571   19.73    $20,351 
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA                315,538       0    $14,752 
Huntsville, AL MSA                              342,376   16.63    $19,535 
Indianapolis, IN MSA                          1,607,486   10.92    $20,249 
Iowa City, IA MSA                               111,006    7.65    $18,437 
Jackson, MI MSA                                 158,422    4.75    $16,255 
Jackson, MS MSA                                 440,801    9.17    $16,215 
Jackson, TN MSA                                107,377   11.57    $15,866 
Jacksonville, FL MSA                         1,100,491   15.74    $19,403 
Jacksonville, NC MSA                           150,355   ‐4.92    $13,151 
Jamestown-Dunkirk, NY                          139,750   ‐3.21    $15,200 
Janesville-Beloit, WI MSA                      152,307    8.05    $17,591 
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA MSA      480,091    5.95    $15,407 
Johnstown, PA MSA                              232,621   ‐3.05    $15,414 
Joplin, MO MSA                                 157,322   11.03    $14,577 
Kalamazoo, MI MSA                              452,851     3.9    $17,804 
Kankakee, IL MSA                               846,630    6.41    $16,488 
Kansas City, MO-KS MSA                       1,776,062   10.64    $19,922 
Killeen-Temple, TX MSA                         312,952   15.86    $14,709 
Knoxville, TN MSA                              687,249   14.34    $17,736 
Kokomo, IN MSA                                 101,541    3.39    $18,437 
La Crosse, WI MSA                              126,838    4.51    $17,765 
Lafayette, LA MSA                              385,647   13.43    $14,180 
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN MSA               182,821    8.55    $16,144 
Lake Charles, LA MSA                           183,577    9.29    $15,447 
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL MSA                  483,924   12.31    $15,997 
Lancaster, PA MSA                              470,658    8.31    $19,502 
Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA                   447,728    3.99    $17,815 
Laredo, TX MSA                                 193,117   43.61     $9,437 
Las Cruces, NM MSA                             174,682   24.79    $12,667 
Las Vegas, NV MSA                            1,563,282   59.15    $19,466 
Lawrence, KS MSA                                99,962   19.64    $14,737 
Lawton, OK MSA                                 114,996   ‐4.29    $15,246 
Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA                         90,830   ‐5.22    $16,624 
Lexington-Fayette, KY MSA                      479,198   11.82    $18,704 
Lima, OH MSA                                   155,084   ‐0.28    $16,888 
Lincoln, NE MSA                                250,291   10.84    $18,316 
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR MSA          583,845    8.76    $17,628 
Longview-Marshall, TX MSA                      208,780    8.02    $15,769 
Los Angeles-Anaheim-Riverside, CA CMSA      16,373,645    5.12    $21,948 
Louisville, KY-IN MSA                        1,025,598    5.82    $19,101 
Lubbock, TX MSA                                242,628    2.28    $16,374 
Lynchburg, VA MSA                              214,911    7.38    $16,896 
Macon-Warner Robins, GA MSA                    322,549   10.19    $16,970 
Madison, WI MSA                                426,526   16.29    $21,198 
Manchester, NH MSA                             846,630    9.32        N/A 
Mansfield, OH MSA                              175,818     1.5    $16,395 
Mcallen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA               569,463    38.3     $9,335 
Medford, OR MSA                                181,269   19.36    $16,750 
Melbourne-Titusville -Palm Bay, FL MSA         476,230   16.68    $18,567 
Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA                        1,135,614    9.42    $18,463 
Merced, CA MSA                                                210,554    11.64     $15,166 
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL CMSA                              3,876,380    11.98     $20,550 
Midland, TX MSA                                                   N/A      N/A         N/A 
Milwaukee-Racine, WI CMSA                                   1,689,572     2.39     $20,651 
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA                             2,968,806    12.71     $22,868 
Mobile, AL MSA                                                540,258        12    $14,888 
Modesto, CA MSA                                               446,997     16.4     $16,889 
Monroe, LA MSA                                                147,250     3.17     $14,587 
Montgomery, AL MSA                                            333,055     9.98     $17,588 
Muncie, IN MSA                                                118,769    ‐3.51     $16,602 
Muskegon, MI MSA                                                  N/A      N/A         N/A 
Naples, FL MSA                                                251,377    34.24     $27,934 
Nashville, TN MSA                                           1,231,311    18.51     $19,356 
New Bedford, MA MSA                                           846,630       0.3    $27,796 
New Haven-Meriden, CT MSA                                     542,149    ‐1.47     $29,149 
New London-Norwich, CT-RI MSA                                 293,566      ‐2.8    $21,656 
New Orleans, LA MSA                                         1,337,726     1.67     $17,537 
New York-Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ-CT CMSA   21,199,865     1.93     $26,220 
Norfolk-Virginia Beach -Newport News, VA MSA                1,569,541       7.7    $18,184 
Ocala, FL MSA                                                 258,916    24.93     $15,600 
Odessa, TX MSA                                                237,132     7.47     $18,125 
Oklahoma City, OK MSA                                       1,083,346         9    $17,443 
Olympia, WA MSA                                               207,355    26.04     $18,582 
Omaha, NE-IA MSA                                              716,998     8.97     $19,698 
Orlando, FL MSA                                             1,644,561    23.88     $18,480 
Owensboro, KY MSA                                              91,545     4.48     $15,924 
Panama City, FL MSA                                           148,217    16.22     $15,901 
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH MSA                               151,237     0.12     $16,049 
Pascagoula, MS MSA                                                N/A      N/A         N/A 
Pensacola, FL MSA                                             412,153    16.76     $16,209 
Peoria, IL MSA                                                347,387     1.96     $18,437 
Philadelphia-Wilmington- Trenton, PA-NJ-DE-MD CMSA          6,188,463     0.49     $22,495 
Phoenix, AZ MSA                                             3,251,876    34.19     $18,864 
Pine Bluff, AR MSA                                             84,278    ‐5.38     $14,051 
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA CMSA                           2,358,695    ‐2.66     $19,906 
Pittsfield, MA MSA                                             84,699    ‐5.77     $20,047 
Portland, ME MSA                                              243,537     5.89     $21,633 
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA CMSA                              1,918,009    20.92     $19,843 
Portsmouth-Dover- Rochester, NH-ME MSA                        846,630     6.88         N/A 
Poughkeepsie, NY MSA                                              N/A      N/A         N/A 
Providence-Pawtucket- Fall River, RI-MA CMSA                1,188,613    ‐0.85     $20,036 
Provo-Orem, UT MSA                                            368,536    31.13     $12,043 
Pueblo, CO MSA                                                141,472    11.32     $14,375 
Raleigh-Durham, NC MSA                                      1,187,941    27.92     $20,759 
Rapid City, SD MSA                            88,565    7.86    $16,920 
Reading, PA MSA                              373,638    6.14    $20,093 
Redding, CA MSA                              163,256   10.68    $17,400 
Reno, NV MSA                                 339,486   24.77    $23,623 
Richland-Kennewick -Pasco, WA MSA            191,822   22.09    $17,032 
Richmond-Petersburg, VA MSA                  996,512   10.55    $21,758 
Roanoke, VA MSA                              235,932    1.18    $19,380 
Rochester, MN MSA                            124,277   11.32    $21,311 
Rochester, NY MSA                          1,098,201    1.35    $20,598 
Rockford, IL MSA                             371,236    8.51    $18,399 
Sacramento, CA MSA                         1,628,197   14.98    $20,331 
Saginaw-Bay City -Midland, MI MSA            403,070    0.23    $17,698 
St. Cloud, MN MSA                            167,392    9.89    $15,518 
St. Joseph, MO MSA                           102,490   ‐0.58    $15,623 
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA                       2,603,607    2.92    $20,637 
Salem, OR MSA                                846,630   19.84    $16,808 
Salinas-Seaside- Monterey, CA MSA            401,762    4.15    $20,751 
Salt Lake City- Ogden, UT MSA              1,333,914   18.43    $16,307 
San Angelo, TX MSA                           104,010    4.11    $15,849 
San Antonio, TX MSA                        1,592,383    17.9    $16,344 
San Diego, CA MSA                          2,813,833   12.24    $21,138 
San Francisco-Oakland -San Jose, CA CMSA   7,039,362    9.28    $26,188 
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA MSA     399,347    5.58    $22,979 
Santa Fe, NM MSA                             147,635   21.14    $20,968 
Sarasota, FL MSA                             589,959   11.69    $24,750 
Savannah, GA MSA                             293,000   11.34    $17,804 
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA MSA                624,776   ‐4.29    $17,191 
Seattle-Tacoma, WA CMSA                    3,554,760   15.79    $22,202 
Sharon, PA MSA                               120,293    0.35    $15,621 
Sheboygan, WI MSA                            112,646    5.81    $18,215 
Sherman-Denison, TX MSA                      110,595    9.18    $16,022 
Shreveport, LA MSA                           392,302    0.64    $16,137 
Sioux City, IA-NE MSA                        124,130    4.62    $16,854 
Sioux Falls, SD MSA                          172,412   17.67    $19,301 
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN MSA                 265,559    4.46    $17,790 
Spokane, WA MSA                              417,939   12.91    $16,852 
Springfield, IL MSA                          201,437    7.45    $19,846 
Springfield, MO MSA                          325,721   16.19    $15,760 
Springfield, MA MSA                          591,932   ‐2.44    $19,196 
State College, PA MSA                        135,758    5.62    $16,830 
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV MSA              132,008   ‐6.31    $15,719 
Stockton, CA MSA                             563,598   16.27    $16,976 
Syracuse, NY MSA                             732,117   ‐1.48    $18,449 
Tallahassee, FL MSA                          284,539   10.68    $17,104 
Tampa-St. Petersburg -Clearwater, FL MSA           2,395,997    9.76      $18,991 
Terre Haute, IN MSA                                  149,192    0.43      $15,325 
Texarkana, TX- Texarkana, AR MSA                     129,749    2.13      $14,937 
Toledo, OH MSA                                       618,203   ‐0.88      $18,931 
Topeka, KS MSA                                       169,871    5.85      $18,995 
Tucson, AZ MSA                                       843,746   20.26      $16,232 
Tulsa, OK MSA                                        803,235    10.6      $19,271 
Tuscaloosa, AL MSA                                   164,875     6.9      $15,810 
Tyler, TX MSA                                        174,706   12.03      $17,364 
Utica-Rome, NY MSA                                   299,896   ‐7.52      $16,452 
Victoria, TX MSA                                      84,088   10.09      $17,679 
Visalia-Tulare- Porterville, CA MSA                  368,021    14.2      $14,849 
Waco, TX MSA                                         213,517    7.75      $14,915 
Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA                           4,923,153    9.05      $24,915 
                                                                        Formatted: Spanish (Spain-Modern
                                                                        Sort)  N/A 
Waterbury, CT MSA                                    846,630    0.31 
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA MSA                         128,012   ‐3.22      $16,610 
Wausau, WI MSA                                       125,834    6.81      $16,784 
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton -Delray Beach, FL MSA   1,131,184   20.63      $30,201 
Wheeling, WV-OH MSA                                  153,172   ‐3.15      $15,781 
Wichita, KS MSA                                      545,220   12.81      $19,223 
Wichita Falls, TX MSA                                140,518    4.85      $17,010 
Williamsport, PA MSA                                 120,044   ‐1.74      $16,114 
Wilmington, NC MSA                                   233,450   28.96      $16,701 
Worcester, MA MSA                                    846,630    3.87           N/A 
Yakima, WA MSA                                       222,581   16.55      $15,657 
York, PA MSA                                         381,751    9.57      $19,972 
Youngstown-Warren, OH MSA                            594,746      ‐2      $16,961 
Yuba City, CA MSA                                    139,149   11.77      $15,395 
Yuma, AZ MSA                                         160,026   25.97      $13,497 

				
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