Selectivity in evaluating the impacts of the Athens 2004

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					Selectivity in evaluating the
impacts of the Athens 2004
     Olympic Games


      Dr. Eleni Theodoraki
• Many single aspect
  impact studies
• Multidimensionality
  of concept of impact
• IOC as ultimate
  franchiser
• Current focus of
  event impact on
  environment of
  franchisee
The lists of factors that can be evaluated is
endless and includes dimensions such as:
environmental impact, opportunity costs,
job creation, effects of traffic, city
marketing, etc.

Therefore, any research into the effects
which events have must be customised to
suit the objectives of those who require
specific information (UKSport, 1999; p. 4).
Masks for role playing
               Pre Games

For Greece, the birthplace of the Olympic
spirit and the Olympic idea, the Athens
Games will be a matter of supreme national
and cultural significance (Athens Bid
Committee, 1996 p. 20).
              Pre Games

The Athens 2004 Olympic Games will leave a
legacy to Athens, the Greece and to the
world, that will remain for generations to
come. For the people of Greece, the legacy
will begin with the economic benefits of
investing in upgrades to the transportation
infrastructure, telecommunications system,
and the environment (ATHENS 2004, 2000).
      Post Games Opinion poll 1

The survey of success and benefits focussed
on whether the success of the Olympic
Games enhanced the position of Greece in
the international scene and whether people
felt that the successful organisation was of
benefit to the country
         Figure 1 The Image of the 2004 Olympic Games
Average rating of emotions on a 0-100 scale International Olympic
             Committee & Olympic Games in Greece

100
 90
 80
 70
 60
                                                              IOC
 50
                                                              OG
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
       2001     2002     2003    May-04    Jun-04    Sep-04
                                Source: MRB –VPRC (2004)
     Figure 2 The Image of the 2004 Olympic Games
Compared to one year ago, what happened to the position of
           Greece in the international scene?




                                                      Unchanged
                                                      Weakened
                                                      Strengthened
                                                      Do not know




                  Source: MRB –VPRC (2004)
        Post Games opinion poll 2

• Perceptions of Greece and role/success of
  the Olympic Games held by people in the
  USA, Spain, Germany, France and the UK
Figure 3 To what degree is Greece a country for which you feel positive?
         Scale 1-7 1=Not feel positive at all 7=Feel very positive
   Comparable results on research before and after Olympic Games

    100%
     90%
     80% 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7
     70%
     60%
     50%
     40% 3,4,5                                                       3,4,5
     30%       3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5       3,4,5
     20%
     10% 1,2
      0%        1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2
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                                                       Source: MRB –VPRC (2004b)
       ta




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                Discussion

• Lack of holistic approach, bias and
  selectivity in evaluation of impact by
  ATHENS 2004
• Impact reports as communication
  exercises of a self producing Olympic
  system
• Positive image of Olympism reinforces
  perceptions of positive games impact
A blind love affair with the Games
                Conclusion

• Multidimensionality of concept of impact
• Subjective rationality in Games rationale
• Completion of long-needed infrastructure
  projects
• Unknown opportunity costs
• Meeting legacy requirements versus
  games requirements
    Impact studies as pieces of a puzzle




What does a viewpoint allow you to see?

				
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posted:5/19/2009
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