Abstract submittal for the 2004 Utah Water Users Conference by kyliemc


									             Intermountain Section of American Water Works Association
                              2003 Annual Conference

            Water Savings of an Ultra-Low-Flush Toilet Replacement Program:
                      Leaks, Flapperless, Dual-Flushers and More!

               Presenter: Paula Mohadjer, Conservation Programs Coordinator
                          Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District
                          8215 S 1300 W, West Jordan, UT 84088
               Phone: 565-4300, Fax: 801-565-4399, email: paulam@jvwcd.org

Presenter’s Bio: Currently Conservation Coordinator for JWVCD. Conservation Horticulturist
  and Demonstration Garden Manager for JVWCD. Horticulturist at Red Butte Garden and
  Arboretum. Masters of Science in Horticulture from Oregon State University. Bachelors of
                    Science in Horticulture from Utah State University.

Brief Abstract: Replacing existing high-volume toilets with Ultra Low Flush Toilets (ULFTs)
can save a substantial amount of water. In this study, 275 residential toilets were replaced with
3 models of ULFTs: Caroma Tasman 270, a dual flush toilet (a small volume flush of 0.8 g for
liquids and a large volume flush for solids 1.6 g); Niagara Flapperless, a ULFT with a tipping
bucket flushing mechanism instead of a flapper (flappers are the most common cause of toilet
leaks), and a Gerber Aquasaver. A follow-up telephone survey was administered and water
savings was measured in three ways: the water use per flush of every old toilet and every new
ULFT was metered, 15% of the ULFTs were monitored with flush counting devices, and water
use records the winter before and after installed were compared.

On average, there were 3 people and 2.7 toilets per household. Over 85% of the participants
said they would recommend the new ULFT (Caroma 96%, Niagara 92%, Gerber 69%). Almost
80% of the participants said the new ULFT clogged or required double flushing at a rate equal to
or less than their old toilet. The old toilets averaged 4.16 gallons per flush (gpf), with a range of
2.1 to 6.7 gpf. The new ULFTs averaged 1.62 gpf, and the dual-flush toilet offered the greatest
savings per flush because the small volume flush was used 60% of the time.

Forty-two of the ULFTs were installed with flush counters for an average period of 50 days. The
new ULFTs were flushed an average of 8.9 times a day, with an average savings of 22.7
gallons per toilet per day or 8,286 gallons per toilet per year. When comparing winter water use
records of the participants with 10 of the 42 ULFTs fitted with flush counters, 69 gallons of water
were saved per toilet per day, or 25,080 gallons per toilet per year. This suggests a good portion
of the water savings achieved with the new ULFT installations are associated with leak repair,
since the study shows an average water savings of 8,286 gallons per toilet per is due to flush
volume reduction. By March of 2004, water use records for all 42 ULFTs will be available.

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