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    Infrastructure for
    Multi-Professional Education and
    Training Using Shibboleth

Name:      User Needs Analysis

Version:   1.1

Date:      16 December 2004

Author:    Mark Simpson
           De Montfort University, Leicester
           LE1 9BH

Contact:   Ian Bloor
           MLE Project Manager
           Information Services and Systems
           De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH
           Telephone: 0116 250 6041
Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                    09/11/2010

                                 User Needs Analysis

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
The purpose of this User Needs Analysis is to describe the issues, themes and
common areas of concern that users may experience when trying to access learning
resources at the Multi-Professional Education and Training Centre [MPETC] in
Leicester. The centre will be the main location for National Health Service staff
training in Leicestershire and Rutland.

The Analysis was being carried out as part of Workpackage 1 (Requirements
Analysis) of the IMPETUS project (Infrastructure for Multi-Professional Education and
Training Using Shibboleth), which is funded under the JISC Core Middleware
programme. Shibboleth is a technical framework which supports authentication and
authorisation for shared access to secure online services within a group of
collaborating organisations. Its development is being led by the Internet2 Programme
in the US, and its applicability in UK FE and HE is being investigated by the JISC.
The broad aims of IMPETUS are to

1.) Develop and test an authentication and authorisation infrastructure for the
Multi-Professional Education and Training Centre, based on Shibboleth, and

2.) Report to the community on the feasibility of using Shibboleth in this environment,
and the technical, organisational and legal aspects of its implementation.

A series of 15 meetings were held with people from the following organisations:
Leicester University School of Medicine; University Hospitals Leicester NHS Trusts
[General, Infirmary and Glenfield] and also, De Montfort University School of Nursing
and Midwifery and other allied health professionals. A list of the people met is
included as appendix A. Each of these people within their organisations is working on
various aspects of specifying and planning the centre and enabling the learning

The report presents information in the following order. Firstly, a list and description of
issues that were mentioned most often by interviewees. Secondly, the themes that
were mentioned several times in the interviews, which although they may not directly
have implications for users access learning resources they where considered
important by interviewees. Thirdly, a generic scenario for a representative centre
user is described. The last section is the appendixes.

1.2 Writing Scenarios
It was intended that part of the analysis would include developing scenarios of
representative students and users of the centre but, it was not possible to do so at
this stage. This was due to not being able to identify suitable candidates for the
scenarios during the interviews. Therefore, a generic scenario that describes what a
representative user‟s experience of using the centre and the learning resources could
be like has been written. It may be useful at some later stage to develop specific

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                     09/11/2010

scenarios for each major group of users in order to describe the IT needs of those
learners attending the centre.

An activity analogous to developing scenarios is taking place as part of the Pathway
project these are Output Based Specifications [OBS]. These will be used for
determining space requirements, namely: room numbers, capacities and occupancy
rates. OBS are lists of all the courses taken by students at each organisation, over a
teaching period usually taken to be six months and projected for the year 2008. The
OBS allows a reasonable estimate to be made of the number and size of rooms
need to adequately teach the course. Furthermore, they could also be used to
estimate of the level of physical IT provision needed in order to support the students
if the methods of delivering each course in 2008 can also be predicted. At this stage
it is not possible for this to be done in time for this report however, it could be part of
some further work.

2.0 Issues summary

2.1 Who are the users
Every person spoken to knew that there would be many different types of user
attending the centre. However, nobody was able to provide a list of all the different
types of user and their likely learning resources requirements. Each person had a list
of the courses they were connected with, but usually included a proviso statement
such as, “and there will be others”. Although, this was not an unexpected situation
owing to the status of project, when trying to specify the resources needed to meet
the demand, it means that only generic and estimated values can be developed.

There needs to be a full list of all the users that are expected to be using the centre.
Information that should be included is: the predicted student numbers based on
current known figures, the types and names of courses, level of study and the
materials used to support them, the type of activities such as, lecture, tutorial,
laboratory work, practical, or theory instruction.

It is also important to know who the users will be, in order to start planning how to
personalise their access to learning resources. The Pathway team has Output Based
Specifications that will be used for determining physical space requirements - namely
rooms capacities, types of room, occupancy rates. However, these are for the clinical
courses and there will be many other users doing non-clinical training that need to be
included in any specification.

There is an increasing emphasis on Continuing Professional Development [CPD] and
Inter Professional Education [IPE] for all health workers and also returning workers.
The size and composition of these groups of users seem to be changing over time. It
was further mentioned that the centre could be used for conferences and workshops.
These types of activities now tend to be more than just “one-to-many” presentations
and often include hands on activities using equipment and IT facilities. Therefore in
order to produce a good description of the user needs more information about the
variety and number of expected users would be beneficial.

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                 09/11/2010

The centre will also include the Department of Health Sciences which mainly carries
out desk research and Epidemiology studies. The people working in this department
are also users of the learning resources and networks.

Users of the centre will principally come from the following organisations:

      University of Leicester
      Leicester Warwick Medical School Staff and Students
      Allied Health Professions Students
      De Montfort University Nursing and Midwifery Staff and Students
      Other staff and students of both universities
      Students from South Trent Training Centre of the O.D.P
      University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust Staff
      Staff of the Partnership Trust
      Primary Care NHS Staff in Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland.

Appendix B contains generic descriptions of the types of users expected to use the
centre and the implications they will have for learning support when accessing the IT

2.2 Access through Firewalls.
Each organisation currently has its own firewall and or electronic security system.
Each of these needs to be clearly documented and test accounts setup so that the
parameters and their values which are necessary to access each system are known.
It should then be possible to start developing a method for users to get the same
level of access irrespective of physical location or organisation membership. NHS
staff do not have access to the Joint Academic Network [JANET] because they are
not part of the academic organisations that fund and use it. But, students that use it
when based at their university facilities must also be able to use when at the MPETC.

There needs to a shared universal login procedure that authenticates users and then
authorises them to access resources. This will be part of the shibboleth middleware

2.3 VLE’s.
There are three different Virtual Learning Environments [VLE] being used by the

De Montfort University uses Blackboard.

Leicester University uses Blackboard except in the medical school which uses
Fretwell Downing FD Learning.

University Hospitals Leicester uses Kallidus provided by e2train

Although Blackboard is used by both De Montfort and Leicester University, the
installation configuration and versions and internal course material structures are
likely to be different. This means that even though they may appear to be the same

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                    09/11/2010

VLE there may be problems with either moving content between them, or allowing
users from other organisations to have access to them.

The Kallidus system at the hospital is used as part of their Learndirect centre and is
accessed through the Learndirect website.

The modules and courses on each system need to be documented in terms of
learning outcomes and levels of study. This activity will allow a comparison between
learning materials so that any user who needs to gain knowledge of a particular
subject can be given access. This should also avoid learning materials on the same
subject being developed by each organisation and will help contribute to any team
and group training scheme.

2.4 Access to e-learning resources
This refers mainly to library resources such as online journals and databases and
some self study information modules. Although each organisation currently uses the
Athens authentication system, the manner in which students gain access and are
given passwords is different. Similar to the MLE a list of what each organisation has
and currently gives users access to needs to be written. This should include the
current methods of registering students and the protocols used for giving them
access to online resources.

2.5 Physical Access to centre
The centre is planned to be located on a hospital site in Leicester which will allow
medics and other health professionals to visit when ever they need to. In addition,
because of the twenty four hour a day nature of the health service, users on training
placements and shift working, there needs to continuous access to the building. This
could be done in a secure manner using traditional security staff with signing in
books, however owing to the number of people using the centre it is suggested that
technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification [RFID] and secure Identification
Cards with embedded memory chips are investigated for this purpose. For the casual
conference attendee, or a person on a one off course, a traditional signing in method
could be retained or they could be issued with time limited ID cards.

2.6 Timetabling
In order to make the most effective use of the centre and its resources and enable
shared and team training, there must be a reliable method of timetabling all the
activities at the centre. This is particularly important as each group of students
operates to different term dates and durations and many different but complimentary
courses are run. It is suggested that the timetable be designed to operate primarily in
an electronic format and that it should be given to students in a personalised format.
In addition, it must allow changes to be made after the start of term so that it provides
a correct timetable for users throughout a teaching period rather than being based on
information gathered before the beginning of any given term.

2.7 Varying levels of ability and knowledge
There will be a wide range of abilities, skills and knowledge across all the centre‟s
users. The IT systems must be sufficiently simple and intuitive that there is little or no
Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                    09/11/2010

need for training. This must include logging in to and out of systems and being able
to access learning resources. Ideally, it should be possible to self register on
systems with users being authenticated by a central system that interfaces with each
organisations “home” system. The centre will must include support staff as well as
training programs that can help users with very basic IT problems. These staff need
to be available when the users are scheduled to be in the centre. For users that are
taking part-time courses this could result in support staff working in the evenings and

2.8 Administration of students and staff.
There are three main organisations involved in the MPETC and it is appealing to
have an administration office for each. However, as one of the main purposes of the
centre is to facilitate shared and team based learning a similar approach should
ideally be followed by the support and administration of the centre. This should be
supported by IT facilities that give staff access to all the relevant user records and
databases. Furthermore, owing to the emphasis of using IT to support many of the
learning resources, the administration should plan to provide information primarily in
electronic formats. The use of kiosk enquiry points distributed around the building
should be investigated for providing routine information to the centre users. The
current practice of keeping paper backup copies of records for students should be
discouraged by the providing a better electronic record keeping system.

2.9 Computers and Networks
In order to deliver learning resources to every user in a timely manner it is critical that
the centre be equipped with capable computers that are connected to networks
through out the building. Requests for systems that will deliver lectures and
multimedia presentations using real-time streaming have been made by some of the
interviewees. This means that good quality reliable systems must be planned and
installed in the centre. It is suggested that coupled with desk top PCs physically
connected to networks, that wireless technology is used as the primary means of
delivering network connections. Wireless access is already available in some parts of
the hospitals and universities. Access in the hospital tends to be determined by either
the physical constraints of buildings blocking the signal, this is usually the metal
supports in buildings or funding, rather than any problems with interfering with
medical equipment. The system must be designed to allow users to bring in their own
portable machines, of any type, and „plugging‟ them into the network.

It is also suggested that handheld computer systems such as Personal Digital
Assistants [PDA] and pocket PCs enable with wireless technology are investigated.
Ideally, such devices would, together with other content, display timetables and
announcements and email messages to users. This technology is already in the
hospitals. This year, 2004, doctors who are doing their Junior Rotation at the General
Hospital are each being issued with versions of the medical references books on a
Palm PDA. Also, PDA‟s are used for the management training courses at the Royal

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                  09/11/2010

3.0 Themes

These are items that were mention by a number of the interviewees which will have a
bearing on the design and operation of the centre but were not regarded as being
directly related to the learning resources of the centre.

3.1 Transport between the centre and other sites
This is particularly important for users that may be training for part of the day and
being on a placement or working during the other part. Transport needs to be
frequent and effective and also not car based owing to space and political issues
connect with the centre. DMU already operates dedicated bus services at both
Leicester and Bedford to move students and staff effectively between campus and
the town centres.

3.2 Compromise and ownership
Each organisation will have to compromise on some issues in order get the centre
running. This may include permitting teaching to be carried out across traditional
academic boundaries and allowing resources to be shared. Every person
interviewed regarded this as a potential major stumbling block to the development of
the centre and its successful operation, and also felt it was one of the most difficult
factors to overcome because of traditional and historic approaches. But every person
also thought that this was a major opportunity to overcome any barriers and improve
the learning opportunities for all of the centre‟s users and where optimistic about the
benefits that would result.

3.3 Library
There should be one library containing all of the physical learning resources that will
be needed by users of the centre. The library and its contents should belong to the
centre and not one of the partner organisations. It is expected that the collections
currently held by partners for their courses, which will be moved to centre, will also
move any associated collections. The library needs to be provided with computers
capable of showing multimedia streaming presentations as well as for the less
demanding role of searching collections and supporting users doing their
coursework, research or reading emails. Furthermore, provision must also be made
for supporting the new methods of publishing such as e-books and electronic only
versions of journals and research papers.

4.0 Generic Scenario

4.1 The representative user
A generic scenario has been written that describes a representative user‟s
experience of using the centre and its learning resources.

1.    A user is at home and logs on to “the system” using the desktop computer.
      They check their timetable, the announcements - noticing that there is a
      reminder to bring a lab coat and physiology guides to the lab, and their email.
      The email has replies from friends about the night out planned for the weekend.

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                    09/11/2010

2.    The user picks up their equipment for the day, which includes a 3G mobile
      telephone, a memory stick with some course work and lecture notes on it,
      paper, pens and text books and a chip enabled [such as RFID] identity card.

3.    The user travels to the centre. During the journey they listen, via their
      telephone, to a summary of yesterdays lecture this available on the course web
      site. The telephone also, displays a number images used by the lecturer to
      explain certain teaching points.

4.    The user arrives at the centre ensuring that their identification card is in their
      outside coat pocket the entrance door opens as they approach and the centre‟s
      computer records that they have entered the building. It then looks at their
      timetable and caches the resources that they may need for the day. Also, the
      computer will check if there are any new messages for the user and if there is, it
      will send them to the student‟s telephone.

5.    The student goes to the room where the first activity is being held. Next to the
      door is a display panel that states what is happening in the room and who is the
      main target audience. This allows other learners who are not part of the main
      target group to locate and attend activities that can supplement and broaden
      their studies.

6.    The activity begins and the instructor uses a built-in LCD projector that is
      connected to a computer, [using wireless blue tooth type technology] that is
      linked to: the learning materials in the VLE; the accompanying text book
      publisher‟s web site; the learning materials on the instructor‟s site and links to
      library elearning resources.

7.    The lecture is completed and as the student leaves the room the attendance
      recording system reads the students identity card and marks them as attending.

8.    The student visits the refreshment area, buys a drink and sits with some other
      students that are taking the same course. One of the student users a notebook
      computer to view some of the course guidance materials connecting to the
      centres wireless network. Some of the students make a note of the website
      address on their telephones.

9.    The student attends the laboratory activity and uses the physiology guidance
      notes to identify the parts. The lecturer uses the room‟s presentation system to
      show an animation of the parts and how they interact. The students are
      presented with a summary of the lecture as a handout, which includes internet
      links to further supporting materials.

10. When the activity is finished and the student leaves the room, the attendance
    monitoring system operates recording their presence.

11. The student visits the library and returns the DVD about working in Primary
    Care Trusts.

12. The student travels home, checking the telephone for emails from the centre
    and text messages from friends.
Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                               09/11/2010

13. The student arrives home turns on the desktop computer and logs in to the VLE
    to view the supplementary learning materials from that days activities. The
    students also looks at some other supporting material, which is covering the
    same topic, not realising that it is from a completely different course.

The generic users scenario is intended to give a sample of what a user might do
when both attending the centre and studying away from it. It also provides a means
of walking through what needs to be available in a straightforward manner and helps
designers “see” the various systems operating in the centre. It is expected that the
scenario will evolve and include more detail as information about the design of the
centre becomes available.

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                 09/11/2010

5.0 Comment and Conclusion

5.1 Comment and Conclusion
Every person spoken to during this analysis was optimistic and enthusiastic about the
MPETC and the benefits it would provide to both learners and the health community.
Furthermore, everybody was realistic about the issues and problems presented by
such an opportunity. However, the desire to improve training and opportunities for
medics, nurses and allied health professionals was apparent throughout the
discussions irrespective of the person‟s role or position.

A list of issues that need to addressed in order to ease the development and design
learning resources for the centre has been made. Many of the resources already
exist but are currently customized to a specific group of learners and courses. But,
given the more team based training intended to be carried out at the centre many of
these need to repurposed and made available to any person that requires them.

This analysis is the beginning of a process to describe the learning needs of users in
the centre and is intended mainly as a discussion document from which a more
detailed specification can be written when more information and resources are

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                       09/11/2010

Appendix A

A 1 The people spoken to for this analysis

      Name                       Role

      De Montfort University

      Angela North Rose          Head of Nursing and Midwifery

      Norman Long                Associate Head of Nursing School Children‟s
      Bryan Thomas               Pathway manager at DMU and MPET manager at
      Eric Loveridge             Library Services Manager

      Prof Larry Goodyear Head of Leicester School of Pharmacy

      Roy Adams                  Head of IT services DMU

      Leicester Hospitals

      David Rose                 Technical Architect

      Helen Miller               Associate Director of Clinical Education

      John Whittingham           Associate Director Human Resources Pathway

      Claire Honeybourne         Library Services Manager

      Cindy West                 Senior Training Manager

      University of Leicester

      Stewart Peterson           Head of Medical School

      Grant Charman              Capital Development Manager

      Hazel Derbyshire           IT service to Medical School

      John Wilson                Head of IT Leicester

Impetus / User needs Analysis / Draft                                   09/11/2010

Appendix B

B 1 Types of user

There are no users at present, however many of the resources and systems that will
be available in the centre are already being used in the different organisations and
are in a very similar manner. This experience of how they are supported, installed
and operated must be used as a guide to implementing them in the centre. The types
of user described in this appendix are novice, advanced beginner and competent. It
is useful to provide a description of the different types of user because it can be used
as a basis for further analysis and for estimating the amount of support needed for
each type of user.

B 2 Novice
Novice users have a fear of the unknown and simply want to do the work required as
simply and quickly as possible. Novice users needs to be made comfortable with
technology and subject being study in order to progress. All users start at this level
with a new system and speed of progress will depend on their level of motivation and
previous experience. All users occasionally drop into this group when starting
something new or when they have had a break from the centre. This group will
require introductory sessions with support staff in order to start using the IT systems.
This will be at the level of how to login and access programmes. Novice users with
little of no IT experience will need support and training at an introductory level.

It is expected that because many of the learning resources at the centre will have
some elearning or IT components that novice users will progress quickly because
they are using it for more than one purpose. Additionally, owing to this previous
matter, users that have difficulty with the IT could also follow on problems with
learning, so it is important that they are well supported. Novice users will tend to use
the computers in the centre until they gain confidence then they may use machines
at remote locations away from the centre, for example on the hospital wards.

B 3 Advanced Beginners
Most users will be regarded as advanced beginners. This is because they will have
used computer and IT systems before they arrive at the centre. They are typically
impatient with learning concepts and systems when they have a job to do. This is
probably the result of having some previous experience and knowledge. However,
because they have more experienced than Novice users they have less fear of failure
and may experiment with shortcuts and accessing new functions. Advanced
beginners will have a mental model of how the different systems work and interact
with each other. This type of user will have several weeks experience. They typically
will have accessed the various systems or programmes such as email, VLE,
discussion boards, internet, library, assessment software. But they will still be unsure
about navigating across and through all the software and will not have used any
programme to any great depth.

Advanced beginner is the level at which most of the centre users will be. They will
need support when carrying out new tasks, using new functions or if they have been
on a placement for a long period. The remainder of the time they will be able to work
on their own, either at the centre or on a remote computer provided there are no
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changes to the operation of the system. This type of user may have their own
computer and may want to operate them wirelessly when visiting the centre.

B 4 Competent users
Competent user will be able to do everything that an advanced beginner can and be
able to diagnose simple problems and have knowledge sufficient to do a complex
series of tasks. They are willing to learn how components work together and have a
good mental model of each of the systems. This type of person is likely to have been
in the centre doing a variety of tasks for six months or more and will only need
occasional support. It is common for them to be used as support staff by other less
experienced users.

Many of the users in this group will be doing training or learning at a higher level than
the majority of the MPETC users. They may be in their second or third year of study.
They have time to really exploit the learning systems potential and can use a majority
of the functionality to a high level. There will be a fewer people at this level, they are
likely to own computers and will be able to easily use the system at remote locations.
They will use the computers as the main source of non contact hours support both for
learning, research and perhaps communication. This group are most likely to use
wireless access to the system networks.

Many of the staff in the research centre will be regarded as competent users. This is
because they will have time to learn the systems, experience problems and reach