Canadian_Forces by zzzmarcus

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Canadian Forces

Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces Available for military service Fit for military service Active personnel Reserve personnel Expenditures Budget Percent of GDP Canadian Forces emblem Founded Service branches 1968 Maritime Command Land Force Command Air Command Operational Support Command Expeditionary Force Command Special Operations Forces Command Canada Command NDHQ, Ottawa Related articles History Ranks Military history of Canada Canadian Forces ranks and insignia $19.5 billion,[4] (2009) (ranked 15th) 1.1% (132nd in world) 8,072,010 males, age 16–60[3], 7,813,462 females, age 16–60[3] 6,646,281 males, age 16–60[3], 6,417,924 females, age 16–60[3] 65 890[2] (ranked 55th) 25 674 paid, 34,913 total, (plus 4 323 Canadian Rangers)[2]

Headquarters Leadership Commanderin-Chief Minister of National Defence Chief of the Defence Staff
[1]

Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by Governor General Michaëlle Jean Peter MacKay

General Walter Natynczyk

Manpower Military age Conscription 16 – 60 years old[N 1] No

The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes; FC), officially the Canadian Armed Forces (French: Forces armées canadiennes),[5] are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."[5] This singular institution consists of three main branches: Maritime Command (MARCOM), Land Force Command (LFC), and Air Command (AIRCOM), which are together overseen by the Armed Forces Council, chaired by the Chief of the Defence Staff. At the pinnacle of the command structure is the Commander-in-Chief, who is the reigning Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II,[6] represented by the Governor General.[7] The current incarnation of the Canadian Forces dates from 1 February 1968,[8] when the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force were merged into a unified structure. Its roots, however, lie in colonial militia groups that served

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alongside garrisons of the French and British armies and navies; a structure that remained in place until the early 20th century. Thereafter, a distinctly Canadian army and navy was established, followed by an air force, that, because of the constitutional arrangements at the time, remained effectively under the control of the British government until Canada gained legislative independence from the United Kingdom in 1931, partly due to the performance and sacrifice of the Canadian Corps in the First World War.[9][10] The Canadian forces were then heavily involved in the Second World War (which, as with the previous world war, involved conscription) and Korean War, and, from the 1950s on, adopted more the role of a peacekeeping force within United Nations sanctioned conflicts. The forces are today funded by approximately $19 billion annually,[4] and are presently ranked 46th in size compared to the world’s other armed forces, and 55th in terms of active personnel, standing at a population of roughly 65,000, not including the 26,000 reservists.[2] These individuals serve on numerous CF bases located in all regions of the country, and are governed by the Queen’s Regulations and Orders and the National Defence Act.

Canadian Forces
the Prime Minister, a Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) as the highest ranking commissioned officer in the forces, and who, as head of the Armed Forces Council, commands the CF from the Department of National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) in Ottawa, Ontario. On the Armed Forces Council sit the heads of the three environmental commands – the Maritime Command, the Land Force Command, and the Air Command – who collectively oversee the operational commands of the Canadian Forces – the Canada Command, the Expeditionary Force Command, the Special Operations Forces Command, and the Operational Support Command. The sovereign and most other members of the Canadian Royal Family also act as colonels-inchief, honorary air commodores, aircommodores-in-chief, admirals, and captainsgeneral of Canadian Forces regiments, though these positions are ceremonial. Canada’s forces operate out of 27 branchspecific Canadian Forces bases (CFB) across the country, as well as six shared bases, including the NDHQ; this number has been gradually reduced since the 1970s with bases either being closed or merged into others as defence spending by the government was reduced. New recruits are indoctrinated at various training centres, such as the Connaught National Army Cadet Training Centre in Nepean, Ontario, and the Blackdown Cadet Training Centre at CFB Borden, while CF officer cadets are educated and trained at either of two collegiate institutions: the Royal Military College of Canada and the Royal Military College Saint-Jean.

Command structure
Further information: The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Forces Per the Canadian constitution, command-inchief of the Canadian Forces is vested in the country’s sovereign,[6] who, since 1904, has allowed his or her viceroy, the Governor General, to exercise the duties ascribed to the post of Commander-in-Chief, and to hold the associated title since 1905.[7] All troop deployment and disposition orders, including declarations of war, fall within the Royal Prerogative and are issued as orders-in-council, which must be signed by either the monarch or governor general. Under the Westminster system’s parliamentary customs and practices, however, the monarch and viceroy must generally follow the advice of his or her ministers in Cabinet, including the Prime Minister and Minister of National Defence. The forces’ 65,000 personnel are divided into a hierarchy of numerous ranks of commissioned and non-commissioned officers, and other non-commissioned positions. The Governor General appoints, on the advice of

Maritime Command

HMCS Victoria. The Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) (in French: Commandement maritime des Forces canadiennes), also called the Canadian Navy,[8] is the naval branch of the CF and is a descendant of the Royal Canadian Navy. Headed by the Chief of the Maritime Staff, the MARCOM includes 33

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Canadian Forces

A Leopard C1 tank. at CFB Valcartier and Quebec City. Each contains one regiment each of artillery, armour, and combat engineers, three battalions of infantry (all scaled in the British fashion), one for logistics, a squadron for headquarters/signals, and several minor organisations. A tactical helicopter squadron and a field ambulance are co-located with each brigade, but do not form part of the brigade’s command structure. Each land force area has, in addition to the Regular Force troops, reserve forces organized into a total of 10 reserve brigade groups. LFAA and LFQA each have two reserve brigade groups, while LFCA and LFWA have three apiece. Major training establishments and non-brigaded troops exist at CFB Gagetown, ASU Saint-Jean (now attached to CFB Montreal), and CFB Wainwright, which is home to the Canadian Manoeuvre Training Centre and provides state-of-the-art force-onforce training in preparation for overseas deployments.

HMCS Regina. warships and submarines deployed in two fleets: the Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC) at the Esquimalt Royal Navy Dockyard on the west coast, and the Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT) at Her Majesty’s Canadian Dockyard on the east coast, as well as one formation: the Naval Reserve Headquarters (NAVRESHQ) at Quebec City, Quebec. The fleet is augmented by various aircraft and supply vessels. MARCOM participates in NATO exercises, and ships are deployed all over the world in support of the Canadian military as well as in conjunction with multinational deployments, including the current Operation APOLLO.

Land Force Command
The Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LFC) (in French: Commandement de la Force terrestre des Forces canadiennes), also known as the Canadian Army,[11] is the land based branch of the CF, and is a descendant of the Canadian Army. Headed by the Chief of the Land Staff, the LFC is administered through four geographically determined formations, or areas: the Land Force Atlantic Area (LFAA), headquartered at CFB Halifax in Halifax, Nova Scotia; the Land Force Quebec Area (LFQA), headquartered in Montreal, Quebec; the Land Force Central Area (LFCA), located at Denison Armoury in Toronto, Ontario; and the Land Force Western Area (LFWA), headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta. Currently, the Regular Force component of the LFC consists of three field-ready brigade groups: 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, at CFB Edmonton and CFB Shilo; 2 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, at CFB Petawawa and CFB Gagetown; and 5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group,

Air Command

A CF-18A fighter jet. The Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) (in French: Force aérienne des Forces canadiennes), is the aerially operating branch of the CF. Led by the Chief of the Air Staff, the AIRCOM is deployed at 13 bases

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across Canada, under the overall direction of 1 Canadian Air Division, and constitutes the Canadian NORAD Region. Major air bases are located in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador, while administrative and command-control facilities are located in Winnipeg and North Bay. A Canadian component of the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force is also based at NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen near Geilenkirchen, Germany. Wings vary in size from several hundred personnel to several thousand. AIRCOM and JFTN also maintain at various points throughout Canada’s northern region a chain of forward operating locations, each capable of supporting fighter operations. Elements of CF-18 squadrons periodically deploy to these FOLs for short training exercises or Arctic sovereignty patrols.

Canadian Forces
setting standards to ensure units and personnel selected for deployment are fully qualified and ready to conduct overseas duties. The organizations under command of CEFCOM include: a standing contingency force (SCF) capable of rapidly responding to international crises, mission-specific task forces (MSTFs) task-tailored to meet missionspecific requirements, and the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART).

Special Operations Forces Command
The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) is a unit capable of operating as an independent formation, but is primarily focused on generating Special Operations Forces (SOF) elements to support CANCOM and CEFCOM, and includes Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2), the newlyformed Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR), the Joint Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defence Company (JNBCD), and a special operations aviation unit based on 427 Special Operations Aviation Squadron (SOAS) at CFB Petawawa.

Canada Command
The Canada Command (CANCOM) is an operational element created on 31 January 2006, to improve response time to domestic terrorism and natural disasters, and is commanded by a commissioned officer who reports directly to the CDS. CANCOM is responsible for the management of NAVCOM, LFC, and AIRCOM to ensure national security, both in emergency and routine situations, and is analogous to and works closely with the United States Northern Command, as well as the United States Department of Homeland Security. The command directs operations through six regional joint task forces, with Joint Task Force North responsible for activities previously carried out by Canadian Forces North Area.

Information Management Group
Among other things, the Information Management Group is responsible for the conduct of electronic warfare and the protection of the Forces communications and computer networks. Within the group, this operational role is fulfilled by the Canadian Forces Information Operations Group, headquartered at CFS Leitrim in Ottawa, which operates the following units: the Canadian Forces Information Operations Group Headquarters (CFIOGHQ), the Canadian Forces Electronic Warfare Centre (CFEWC), the Canadian Forces Network Operation Centre (CFNOC), the Canadian Forces Signals Intelligence Operations Centre (CFSOC), the Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Leitrim, and the 764 Communications Squadron.

Expeditionary Force Command
In response to the international security environment of the time, the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM) was created on 31 January 2006 in order to plan and conduct all CF international operations, with the exception of operations conducted solely by the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM). The organization brings together, under one operational command, maritime, land, air, and special operations forces assets to conduct humanitarian, peace support, or combat operations wherever they are required internationally. CEFCOM was also made responsible for

Canadian Forces Reserve Force
Approximately 26,000 citizen soldiers, sailors, and aircrew,[2] trained to the level of and interchangeable with their Regular Force counterparts, and posted to CF operations or duties on a casual or ongoing basis, make up

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Canadian Forces
component to Canada’s exercise of sovereignty over its northern territory.

Uniforms

Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations, c. 2004. Reserve training focuses on real world situations and the needs of the Regular Force, who rely on the reserves for augmentation on operational deployments. the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve. This group is represented, though not commanded, at NDHQ by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets, who is usually a major general or rear admiral, and is divided into four components that are each operationally and administratively responsible to its corresponding environmental command in the Regular Force – the Naval Reserve (NAVRES), Land Force Reserve (LFR), and Air Reserve (AIRRES) – in addition to one force that does not fall under an environmental command, the Health Services Reserve. The reserve force is enlarged by the Canadian Forces Supplementary Reserve, which comprises a voluntary call-up list for trained former CF regular- and reserve-force personnel who can be considered for reactivation in the event of a national emergency. From this group of reserves is formed the Cadet Instructors Cadre, a sub-component of the CF reserve consisting of approximately 7,500 commissioned officers and officer cadets. Their primary duty is the training, safety, supervision, and administration of nearly 60,000 cadets between the ages of 12 and 19 in the Canadian Cadet Movement, which is divided into the three environmental divisions – the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, and the Royal Canadian Air Cadets – and located in approximately 1,150 corps and squadrons across Canada.[12] Also part of the CF reserve are the Canadian Rangers, who provide surveillance and patrol services in Canada’s arctic and other remote areas, and are an essential

A gunner of the The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught’s Own) wearing the ceremonial dress of the regiment. Though the Canadian Forces are a single service, each of the three environmental commands possesses a distinctive uniform, each sub-divided into four orders of dress: Ceremonial Dress, including regimental full dress, patrol dress, and Service Dress uniforms with ceremonial accoutrements such as swords, white web belts, gloves, etc.; Mess Dress, which ranges from full mess kit with dinner jacket, cummerbund, or waistcoat, etc., to Service Dress with bow tie; Service Dress, also called a walking-out or duty uniform, is the military equivalent of the business suit, with an optional white summer uniform for naval CF members; and Operational Dress, an originally specialized uniform for wear in an operational now for everyday wear in garrison. Generally, after the elimination of Base Dress (or Garrison Dress for the Army), Operational Dress is the daily uniform worn by all members of the CF, unless Service Dress is prescribed (such as at the NDHQ, on parades, at public events, etc.). Also, most army and some other units have for very specific occasions a regimental full dress, such as the scarlet uniforms of the Royal Military College.[13] The beret is still the most widely worn headgear, is worn with almost all orders of dress (with the exception of the more formal orders of Navy and Air Force dress), and the

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colour of which is determined by the wearer’s environment, branch, or mission. Soldiers in highland, Scottish, and Irish regiments generally wear alternate headdress, including the glengarry, balmoral, tam o’shanter, and caubeen instead of the beret.

Canadian Forces
Navy was formed, and, with the advent of military aviation, came the Royal Canadian Air Force. These forces were organised under the Department of Militia and Defence, and split into the Permanent and Non-Permanent Active Militias – frequently shortened to simply The Militia. By 1923, the department was merged into the Department of National Defence, but land forces in Canada were not referred to as the Canadian Army until November 1940.

Military expenditures
The Constitution of Canada gives the Federal Government exclusive responsibility for Defense, and expenditures are thus outlined in the federal budget. For the 2008 – 2009 fiscal year, the amount allocated for defence spending was CAD$18.9 billion.[14] This regular funding was augmented in 2005 with an additional CAD$12.5 billion over five years, as well as a commitment to increasing Regular Force troop levels by 5,000 persons, and the Primary Reserve by 3,000 over the same period.[15] In 2006, a further CAD$5.3 billion over five years was provided to allow for 13,000 more Regular Force members, and 10,000 more Primary Reserve personnel, as well as CAD$17.1 billion for the purchase of new trucks for the LFC, transport aircraft and helicopters for the AIRCOM, and joint support ships for the MARCOM,[16] though the latter was later postponed indefinitely.[17]

Canadian troops of the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders welcomed by liberated crowds in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 16 April 1945. The first overseas deployment of Canadian military forces occurred during the Second Boer War, when several units were raised to serve under British command. Similarly, when the United Kingdom entered into conflict with Germany in the First World War, Canadian troops were called to participate in European theatres. The Canadian Crown-inCouncil then decided to send its forces into the Second World War, as well as the Korean War. Since 1947, Canadian military units have participated in more than 200 operations worldwide, and completed 72 international operations. Canadian soldiers, sailors, and aviators came to be considered worldclass professionals through conspicuous service during these conflicts, as well as the country’s integral participation in NATO during the Cold War, First Gulf War, Kosovo War, and in United Nations Peacekeeping operations, such as the Suez Crisis, Golan Heights, Cyprus, Croatia, Bosnia, and Afghanistan. Battles which are particularly notable to the Canadian military include the Battle of Vimy Ridge, the Dieppe Raid, the Battle of Ortona, the Normandy Landings,

History
Origins and establishment
Prior to Confederation in 1867, residents of the colonies in what is today Canada served as regular members of French and British forces, as well as in local militia groups. The latter aided in the defence of their respective territories against raids conducted by other European powers, aboriginals, and later American forces in the American Revolution and War of 1812, as well as in the Fenian raids and North-West Rebellion. Consequently, the lineages of some Canadian army units stretch back to the early 19th century, when militia units were formed to assist in the defence of British North America against invasion by the United States. The responsibility for military command remained with the British Crown-in-Council, with a commander-in-chief for North America stationed at Halifax until the final withdrawal of British Army and Royal Navy units from that city in 1906. Thereafter, the Royal Canadian

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the Battle for Caen, the Battle of the Scheldt, the Battle of Britain, the Battle of the Atlantic, and the strategic bombing of German cities. At the end of the Second World War, Canada possessed the third-largest navy and fourth-largest air force in the world, as well as the largest volunteer army ever fielded by the country; conscription for overseas service was introduced only near the end of the war, and only 2,400 conscripts actually made it into battle.

Canadian Forces
soldiers, and airmen and women" who "risk their lives to serve,"[20] Hellyer wanted loyalty to the new, all-encompassing Canadian Forces; this, it was said, caused damage to the troops’ esprit de corps.[20]

Unification and beyond
The March 1964 White Paper on Defence outlined a major restructuring of the three separate armed services, describing a reorganization that would include the integration of operations, logistics support, personnel, and administration of the separate branches under a functional command system. The proposal met with strong opposition from personnel in all three services, and resulted in the dismissal of the navy’s senior operational commander, Rear Admiral William Landymore, as well as the forced retirements of other senior officers in the nation’s military forces.[18] The protests of service personnel and their superiors had no effect, however, and on 1 February 1968, Bill C-243, The Canadian Forces Reorganization Act, was granted Royal Assent and the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Air Force were combined into one service: the Canadian Armed Forces. The public explanation for the reorganization was that unification would achieve cost savings and provide improved command, control, and integration of the military forces. The then Minister of National Defence, Paul Hellyer, stated on 4 November 1966 that "the amalgamation... will provide the flexibility to enable Canada to meet in the most effective manner the military requirements of the future. It will also establish Canada as an unquestionable leader in the field of military organization."[19] However, the then serving Liberal ministers of the Crown were accused of not caring for the traditions behind each individual service, especially as the longstanding navy, army, and air force identities were replaced with common army style ranks and rifle green uniforms. Rather than loyalty to each service, which, as military historian Jack Granatstein put it, was "vital for sailors,

Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in the Kandahar Province of Afghanistan. Over the ensuing decades, restructuring continued, with the Communication Command established on 1 September 1970, and the Air Defence Command and Air Transport Command united into the present day AIRCOM on 2 September 1975. For a period during the Cold War, the CF also maintained two bases in West Germany, under the command of Canadian Forces Europe. These were themselves closed in the early 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the unification of Germany, Materiel Command was disbanded during the 1980s, and Communications Command was disbanded during a mid-1990s reorganization, with its units merged into the Defence Information Services Organization (DISO), later renamed Information Management Group (IM Gp). Force Mobile Command was also re-branded at this time, becoming Land Force Command (LFC). On 1 February 2006, the CF added four operational commands to the existing structure: the Canada Command, the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command, the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command, and the Canadian Operational Support Command. Defence spending and troop strengths remained high during the early years of the Cold War, but began to decline in the late 1960s and 1970s, as the perceived threat from the Warsaw Pact diminished. Throughout the 1990s, successive budget cuts forced further reductions in personnel, the number of bases, and the fighting ability

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of the CF. There was criticism of these budget cuts, as military spending was reduced to 1.4% of Canada’s gross domestic product. However, the Conservative Cabinet appointed in 2006 made efforts through the Canada First Defence Strategy to purchase new equipment and training, as well as the re-establishment of an airborne land force, now called the Canadian Special Operations Regiment. More funds were also put towards recruitment, which had been dwindling throughout the 1980s and ’90s, possibly because the Canadian populace had come to perceive the CF as peacekeepers rather than as soldiers, as shown in a 2008 survey conducted for the Department of National Defence. The poll found that nearly two thirds of Canadians agreed with the country’s participation in the invasion of Afghanistan, and that the military should be stronger, but also that the purpose of the forces should be different, such as more focused on responding to natural disasters.[21] The current CDS, Walter Natynczyk, said later that year that while recruiting has become more successful, the CF was facing a problem with its rate of loss of existing members, which increased between 2006 and 2008 from 6% to 9.2% annually.[22]

Canadian Forces

Notes
[1] Persons 16 years of age, with parental permission, can join the Canadian Forces.

References
[1] Department of National Defence. "National Defence and the Canadian Forces > Chief of the Defence Staff". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.cds.forces.gc.ca/indexeng.asp. Retrieved on 16 October 2008. [2] ^ Department of National Defence (19 December 2008). "National Defence and the Canadian Forces > About DND/CF". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/newsnouvelles/view-news-afficher-nouvelleseng.asp?id=2865. Retrieved on 2 January 2009. [3] "The World Factbook > Canada > Military". Central Intelligence Agency. 18 December 2008. https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/ca.html#Military. Retrieved on 19 January 2009. [4] ^ Treasury Board Secretariat. "Estimates > Reports on Plans and Priorities > 2008-2009". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpp/ 2008-2009/inst/dnd/ dnd01-eng.asp#sec1g_e. Retrieved on 16 April 2008. [5] ^ Elizabeth II (1985), National Defence Act, II.14, Ottawa: Queen’s Printer for Canada, http://www.canlii.org/ca/loi/n-5/ tout.html, retrieved on 20 January 2009 [6] ^ Victoria (29 March 1867), Constitution Act, 1867, III.15, Westminster: Queen’s Printer, http://www.solon.org/ Constitutions/Canada/English/ ca_1867.html, retrieved on 15 January 2009 [7] ^ "Governor General of Canada > Commander-in-Chief". Rideau Hall. http://gg.ca/gg/rr/cc/index_e.asp. Retrieved on 15 January 2009. [8] ^ Gilmour, Sarah (17 May), "Navy celebrates 96 years", The Maple Leaf 9: 10, http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/ community/MapleLeaf/vol_9/vol9_19/ 919_10.pdf [9] Nersessian, Mary (9 April 2007). "Vimy battle marks birth of Canadian

See also
Canadian Forces
• Canada First Defence Strategy • Canadian Forces order of precedence • Authorized marches of the Canadian Forces • Code of Service Discipline • Cadets Canada • Canadian Forces Radio and Television • List of infantry weapons and equipment of the Canadian military • List of Canadian military operations • List of conflicts in Canada

Other countries
• • • • • Australian Defence Force British Armed Forces Irish Defence Forces New Zealand Defence Force South African National Defence Force

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nationalism" (in English). CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/ story/CTVNews/20070402/ vimy_90years_070402. Retrieved on 20 January 2009. [10] Cook, Tim (2008), Shock troops: Canadians fighting the Great War, 1917-1918, Toronto: Viking, ISBN 0670067350 [11] Department of National Defence. "Join the Canadian Army". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/ lfwa/join.htm. Retrieved on 21 January 2009. [12] Department of National Defence. "Cadet Instructors > Get Work and Training". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.cadets.forces.gc.ca/cic/ get_work_traning_e.html. Retrieved on 6 August 2008. [13] Government of Canada. "Canadian Military Heritage > Officer cadet, Royal Military College of Canada, 1954". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://phmc.gc.ca/cmh/en/ image_504.asp?page_id=548. Retrieved on 23 January 2009. [14] Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. "Departmental Planned Spending and Full-Time Equivalents". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpp/ 2008-2009/inst/dnd/images/sec1ftable1-lg-eng.jpg. Retrieved on 2 February 2009. [15] Department of Finance (2005), The Budget Speech 2005, Canada in the World, Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, p. 20, http://www.fin.gc.ca/budget05/pdf/ speeche.pdf, retrieved on 2 February 2009 [16] Department of National Defence. ""Canada First" National Defence Procurement". Queen’s Printer for Canada. http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/ focus/first-premier/index-eng.asp. Retrieved on 2 February 2009. [17] "Canada’s military priorities: more troops, closer relations with U.S." (in English). CBC. 20 February 2008. http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/ 2006/02/23/defence060223.html. Retrieved on 20 February 2008. [18] "Integration and Unification of the Canadian Forces". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum.

Canadian Forces
http://www.navalandmilitarymuseum.org/ resource_pages/controversies/ unification.html. Retrieved on 20 February 2008. [19] Milberry, Larry (1984). Sixty Years—The RCAF and CF Air Command 1924–1984. Toronto: Canav Books. pp. 367. ISBN 0-9690703-4-9. [20] ^ Granatstein, Jack (2004). Who Killed the Canadian Military. Toronto: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.. pp. 78, 82-83. ISBN 0002006758. [21] The Canadian Press (5 September 2005). "Canadians still view troops as peacekeepers: DND poll" (in English). CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080905/ dnd_poll_080905/ 20080905?hub=TopStories. Retrieved on 5 September 2008. [22] The Canadian Press (21 November 2008). "Military as message for job seekers: we want you" (in English). CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/ story/CTVNews/20081121/ forces_canada_081121/ 20081121?hub=Canada. Retrieved on 22 November 2008. • Unification of the Canadian Forces • Department of National Defence site Canadian Forces • canadiansoldiers.com • The Canadian War Museum • CASR: An Illustrated Guide to the Canadian Forces • Canadian World War II Newspaper Archives - The Canadian Armed Forces • Maritime Coastal Defence Vessels, used by Canada’s naval reserve • Ceremonial dress of the Canadian army, with specific attention to the Calgary Highlanders • The Canadian Army Journal • The Canadian Military Journal • Communication Reserve • CanadianAlly (Website of the Canadian Embassy to the United States) • TMW ~ Support and Information for Spouses and Partners of Canadian Forces members.

Further reading
• Faces of War at Library and Archives Canada

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• Gosselin, Daniel (2008). "Hellyer’s Ghosts: Unification of the Canadian Forces is 40 Years Old – Part One". Canadian Military Journal 9 (2). http://www.journal.dnd.ca/ vo9/no2/03-gosselin-eng.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-23. Chris Madsen, Military Law and Operations. loose-leaf publication up-dated 1-2 times per year. Aurora, Ontario: Canada Law Book, 2008. http://www.canadalawbook.ca/

Canadian Forces
catalogue_detail.cfm?ProductID=1302&CategoryID=48

External links
• • • • Official website of the Canadian Army Official website of the Canadian Navy Official website of the Canadian Air Force Duty & Valour, Canada’s military history encyclopedia at Wikia

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