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Bruce Castle

Bruce Castle

Bruce Castle’s south facade Bruce Castle (formerly the Lordship House) is a Grade I listed 16th-century[1] manor house in Lordship Lane, Tottenham, London. It is named after the House of Bruce who formerly owned the land on which it is built. Believed to lie on the site of an earlier building, about which little is known, the current house is one of the oldest surviving English brick houses. It was remodelled in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The house has been home to Sir William Compton, Richard Sackville, the Barons Coleraine and Sir Rowland Hill, among others. After serving as a school during the 19th century, when a large extension was built to the west, it was converted into a museum exploring the history of the areas which constitute the present London Borough of Haringey and the history of the postal service. The building also houses the archives of the London Borough of Haringey. Since 1892 the grounds have been a public park, Tottenham’s oldest.

The earliest known depiction of the house; detail of the 1619 Earl of Dorset’s Survey of Tottenham. The Norman All Hallows Church and priory, then as now the oldest surviving buildings in the area, are also shown.[2] Tottenham was granted to Richard Spigurnell and Thomas Hethe.[4] The three parts of the manor of Tottenham were united in the early 15th century under the Gedeney family and have remained united since.[4] In all early records, the building is referred to as the Lordship House. The name Bruce Castle first appears to have been adopted by Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine (1635–1708),[3] although Daniel Lysons speculates in The Environs of London (1795) that the usage of the name dates to the late 13th century.[4]

Origins of the name
The name Bruce Castle is derived from the House of Bruce, who had historically owned a third of the manor of Tottenham. However, there was no castle in the area, and it is unlikely that the family lived nearby.[3] Upon his accession to the Scottish throne, Robert I of Scotland forfeited his lands in England, including the Bruce holdings in Tottenham,[3] ending the connection between the Bruce family and the area. The former Bruce land in

Architecture
A detached, cylindrical Tudor tower stands immediately to the southeast of the house, and is generally considered to be the earliest part of the building;[5] however, Lysons believes it to have been a later addition.[4] The tower is built of local red brick, and is 21 feet (6.4 m) tall, with walls 3 feet (0.91 m) thick. The purpose of the tower is unknown, but speculation suggests it might have been a dovecote.[5] In 2006, excavations revealed

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Bruce Castle
existing south facade dates from that time. The end bays were heightened, and the central porch was rebuilt with stone quoins and pilasters, a balustraded top and a small tower and cupola.[8] A plan from 1684 shows the hall in the centre of the house, with service rooms to the west and the main parlour to the east. On the first floor, the dining room was over the hall, the main bedchamber over the kitchen, and a lady’s chamber over the porch.[8] In the early 18th century Henry Hare, 3rd Baron Coleraine (1694–1749) oversaw a remodelling of the north of the house, in which an extra range of rooms was added to the north and a large crest of the Coleraine arms added to the pediment of the north facade.[8] In the late 18th century under the ownership of James Townsend, the narrow east facade of the house was remodelled into an entrance front, and given the appearance of a typical Georgian house. At the same time, the gabled attics on the south front were removed, giving the southern elevation of the house its current appearance.[8] An inventory of the house made in 1789 in preparation for its sale listed a hall, saloon, drawing room, dining room and breakfast parlour on the ground floor, with a library and billiard room on the first floor.[8] In the early 19th century the west wing of the house was demolished, leaving it with the asymmetrical appearance that it retains today.[10] The house was converted into a school, and in 1870 a three-story extension was built in the Gothic Revival style to the northwest of the house.[8] The 2006 excavations by the Museum of London uncovered the chalk foundations of an earlier building on the site, of which nothing is currently known.[6] Court rolls of 1742 refer to the repair of a drawbridge, implying that the building then had a moat.[5] A 1911 archaeological journal made passing reference to "the recent levelling of the moat".[11]

The round tower that the tower continues for some distance below the current ground level.[6] Sources disagree on the house’s initial construction date, and no records survive of its construction. There is some archaeological evidence dating parts of the building to the 15th century;[5] Robinson’s 1840 History and Antiquities of the Parish of Tottenham suggests a date of about 1514,[7] although the Royal Commission on Historic Monuments attributes it to the late 16th century. Nikolaus Pevsner speculates that the front may have formed part of a courtyard house of which the remainder has disappeared.[8] The principal facade of the Grade I mansion has been substantially remodelled over time. The house is constructed of red brick with ashlar quoining and the principal facade, terminated by symmetrical matching bays, has tall paned windows. The house and detached tower are among the earliest uses of brick as the principal building material for an English house.[9] Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine (1635–1708) oversaw a substantial remodelling of the house in 1684, and much of the

Early residents
It is generally believed that the first owner of the house was Sir William Compton, Groom of the Stool to Henry VIII and one of the most prominent courtiers of the period, who acquired the manor of Tottenham in 1514.[5] However, there is no recorded evidence of Compton’s living in the house, and there is

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some evidence that the current building dates to a later period.[5] The earliest known reference to the building dates from 1516, when Henry VIII met his sister Margaret, Queen of Scots, at "Maister Compton’s House beside Tottenham".[7] The Comptons owned the building throughout the 16th century, but few records of the family or the building survive from the period.[12]

Bruce Castle

17th century: the Hare family
Hugh Hare, 1st Baron Coleraine
Hugh Hare (1606–1667) had inherited a large amount of money from his great-uncle Sir Nicholas Hare, Master of the Rolls. On the death of his father, his mother had remarried Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester, allowing the young Hugh Hare to rise rapidly in Court and social circles. He married Montagu’s daughter by his first marriage and purchased the manor of Tottenham, including the Lordship House, in 1625, and was ennobled as Baron Coleraine shortly thereafter.[15] Being closely associated with the court of Charles I, Hare’s fortunes went into decline during the English Civil War. His castle at Longford and his house in Totteridge were seized by Parliamentary forces, and returned upon the Restoration in a severe state of disrepair.[15] Records of Tottenham from the period are now lost, and the ownership of and condition of the Lordship House during the Commonwealth of England are unknown.[15] Hugh Hare died at his home in Totteridge in 1667, having choked to death on a bone eating turkey whilst laughing and drinking,[15] and was succeeded by his son Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine.

Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine
Henry Hare (1635–1708) settled at the Lordship House, renaming it Bruce Castle in honour of the area’s historic connection with the House of Bruce.[3] Hare was a noted historian and author of the first history of Tottenham. He grew up at the Hare family house at Totteridge, and it is not known when he moved to Tottenham. At the time of the birth of his first child, Hugh, in 1668, the family were still living in Totteridge, while by the time of the death of his first wife Constantia, in 1680, the family were living in Bruce Castle. According to Hare, Constantia was buried in All Hallows Church in Tottenham. However, the parish register for the period is complete and makes no mention of her death or burial.[16] Following the death of Constantia, Hare married Sarah Alston. They had been

Richard Sackville, by William Larkin.[13] Sackville’s large debts led to the sale of the house to Hugh Hare. In the early 17th century the house was owned by Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset and Lady Anne Clifford. Sackville ran up high debts through gambling and extravagant spending; the house (then still called "The Lordship House") was leased to Thomas Peniston. Peniston’s wife, Martha, daughter of Sir Thomas Temple was said to be the Earl of Dorset’s mistress.[14] The house was later sold to wealthy Norfolk landowner Hugh Hare.[15]

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Bruce Castle

Bruce Castle in the late 17th century, following Hare’s alterations engaged in 1661, but she had instead married John Seymour, 4th Duke of Somerset. There is evidence that during Sarah’s marriage to Seymour and Hare’s marriage to Constantia, a close relationship was sustained between them.[17] The house was substantially remodelled in 1684, following Henry Hare’s marriage to the dowager Duchess of Somerset, and much of the existing south facade dates from this time.[8] The facade’s dominating feature is a central tower with a belvedere, a motif of the English Renaissance of the late 16th/early 17th centuries (the Compton family’s Warwickshire home Castle Ashby was also given Renaissance features during the 17th century). Hatfield House, also close to London, had a similar central tower constructed in 1611, as does Blickling Hall in Norfolk, built circa 1616. However, in resemblance the house appears to favour the style of Burton Agnes Hall constructed between 1601 and 1610.

The grounds of Bruce Castle, now a public park from Tottenham, eagerly asked if she had seen the Ghostly Lady of Bruce Castle. Some years before he had been told the following story by a brother officer when encamped on a march in India. One of the Lords Coleraine had married a beautiful lady and while she was yet in her youth had been seized with a violent hatred against her – whether from jealousy or not is not known. He first confined her to the upper part of the house and subsequently still more closely to the little rooms of the clock turret. These rooms looked on the balconies: the lady one night succeeded in forcing her way out and flung herself with child in arms from the parapet. The wild despairing shriek aroused the household only to find her and her infant in death’s clutches below. Every year as the fearful night comes round (it is in November) the wild form can be seen as she stood on the fatal parapet, and her despairing cry is heard floating away on the autumnal blast.[16][19] The legend has now been largely forgotten, and there have been no reported sightings of the ghost in recent times.[18]

The Ghostly Lady of Bruce Castle
Although sources such as Pegram speculate that Constantia committed suicide in the face of a continued relationship between Hare and the Duchess of Somerset,[17] little is known about her life and the circumstances of her early death, and her ghost reputedly haunts the castle.[18] The earliest recorded reference to the ghost appeared in 1858 – almost two hundred years after her death – in the Tottenham & Edmonton Advertiser. A lady of our acquaintance was introduced at a party to an Indian Officer who, hearing that she came

Residents in the 18th century
Sarah Hare died in 1692 and was buried in Westminster Abbey,[17] and Hare in 1708, to

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Bruce Castle
James Townsend was a leading citizen of the day. He served as a magistrate, was Member of Parliament for West Looe, and in 1772 became Lord Mayor of London, whilst Henrietta was a prominent artist, many of whose engravings of 18th century Tottenham survive in the Bruce Castle Museum.[20] After 1764, under the ownership of James Townsend, the house was remodelled again. The narrow east front was remodelled into an entrance front, and given the appearance of a typical Georgian house, while the gabled attics on the south front were removed, giving the south facade the appearance it has today.[8] James and Henrietta Townsend’s son, Henry Hare Townsend, showed little interest in the area or in the traditional role of the Lord of the Manor. After leasing the house to a succession of tenants, the house and grounds were sold in 1792 to Thomas Smith of Gray’s Inn as a country residence.[20]

North elevation, showing the Coleraine crest on the north pediment be succeeded by his grandson Henry Hare, 3rd Baron Coleraine. Henry Hare was a leading antiquary, residing only briefly at Bruce Castle between lengthy tours of Europe. The house was remodelled again under the 3rd Baron Coleraine’s ownership. An extra range of rooms was added to the north, and the pediment of the north front ornamented with a large crest of the Coleraine arms.[8] Hare’s marriage was not consummated, and following an affair with a French woman, Rosa du Plessis, du Plessis bore him his only child, a daughter named Henrietta Rosa Peregrina, born in France in 1745.[20] Hare died in 1749 leaving his estates to the four-yearold Henrietta, but her claim was rejected due to her French nationality. After many years of legal challenges, the estates, including Bruce Castle, were granted to her husband James Townsend, who she had married at age 18.[20]

John Eardley Wilmot
John Eardley Wilmot (c. 1749 – 23 June 1815) was Member of Parliament for Tiverton (1776–1784) and Coventry (1784–1796), and in 1783 led the Parliamentary Commission investigating the events that had led to the American Revolution. He also led the processing of compensation claims, and the supply of basic housing and provisions, for the 60,000 Loyalist refugees who arrived in England in the aftermath of the independence of the United States.[10] Following the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, a second wave of refugees arrived in England. Although the British government on this occasion did not offer organised relief to refugees, Wilmot, in association with William Wilberforce, Edmund Burke and George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, founded "Wilmot’s Committee", which raised funds to provide accommodation and food, and found employment for refugees from France, large numbers of whom settled in the Tottenham area.[10] In 1804, Wilmot retired from public life and moved to Bruce Castle to write his memoirs of the American Revolution, and his role in the investigations of its causes and consequences. They were published shortly before his death in 1815.[10]

James Townsend remodelled the east facade to have the appearance of a typical Georgian house.

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After Wilmot’s death London merchant John Ede purchased the house and its grounds, and demolished the building’s west wing.[10] It was never rebuilt, resulting in the current skewed shape of the building. In 1827, Ede sold the house and grounds to Worcestershire educationalist Rowland Hill, for use as a school.

Bruce Castle
In 1839 Rowland Hill, who had written an influential proposal on postal reform, was appointed as head of the General Post Office (where he introduced the world’s first postage stamps), leaving the school in the hands of his younger brother Arthur Hill.[22] Arthur retired in 1868, leaving the school in the hands of his son Birkbeck Hill.

The Hill School

19th-century extension to house the school During the period of the School’s operation, the character of the area had changed beyond recognition. Historically, Tottenham had consisted of four villages on Ermine Street (later the A10 road), surrounded by marshland and farmland.[24] The construction of the Northern and Eastern Railway in 1840, with stations at Tottenham Hale and Marsh Lane (later Northumberland Park), made commuting from Tottenham to central London feasible for the first time (albeit by a circuitous eight-mile route via Stratford, more than double the distance of the direct road route), as well as providing direct connections to the Port of London.[25] In 1872 the Great Eastern Railway opened a direct line from Enfield to Liverpool Street station,[26] including a station at Bruce Grove, close to Bruce Castle;[27] the railway provided subsidised workmen’s fares to allow poor commuters to live in Tottenham and commute to work in central London.[28] As a major rail hub, Tottenham grew into a significant residential and industrial area; by the

Sir Rowland Hill Hill and his brothers had taken over the management of their father’s school in Birmingham in 1819, which moved to Bruce Castle in 1827 with Rowland Hill as Headmaster. The school was run along radical lines inspired by Hill’s friends Thomas Paine, Richard Price and Joseph Priestley;[21] all teaching was on the principle that the role of the teacher is to instill the desire to learn, not to impart facts, corporal punishment was abolished and alleged transgressions were tried by a court of pupils, while the school taught a radical (for the time) curriculum including foreign languages, science and engineering.[22][23] Amongst other pupils, the school taught the sons of many London-based diplomats, particularly from the newly independent nations of South America, and the sons of computing pioneer Charles Babbage.[22]

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end of the 19th century, the only remaining undeveloped areas were the grounds of Bruce Castle itself, and the waterlogged floodplains of the River Lee at Tottenham Marshes and of the River Moselle at Broadwater Farm.[24]

Bruce Castle
Silent and lone, and on the greensward dies— But when on ye her heavenly slumber lies, TOWERS OF BRUS! ’tis more than lovely then.— For such sublime associations rise, That to young fancy’s visionary ken, ’Tis like a maniac’s dream — fitful and still again.[34]

Present day

Historic postboxes on display Bruce Castle is now a museum, holding the archives of the London Borough of Haringey, and housing a permanent exhibition on the past, present and future of Haringey and its predecessor boroughs, and temporary displays on the history of the area.[30] Other exhibits include an exhibition on Rowland Hill and postal history,[33] a significant collection of early photography, a collection of historic manorial documents and court rolls related to the area,[35] and one of the few copies available for public reading of the Spurs Opus, the complete history of Tottenham Hotspur.[36] In 1949, the building was Grade I listed;[37] the round tower was separately Grade I listed at the same time,[38] and the 17th-century southern and western boundary walls of the park were Grade II listed in 1974.[39][40] In 1969 the castle additionally became home to the regimental museum of the Middlesex Regiment;[41] whose collection was subsequently transferred to the National Army Museum.[42] In July 2006 a major community archaeological dig was organised in the grounds by the Museum of London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre, as part of the

Rear entrance to the extension. The inscription over the doorway reads: "Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap". In 1877 Birkbeck Hill retired from the post of headmaster, ending his family’s association with the school. The school closed in 1891, and Tottenham Council purchased the house and grounds. The grounds of the house were opened to the public as Bruce Castle Park in June 1892,[29] the first public park in Tottenham.[30] The house opened to the public as Bruce Castle Museum in 1906.[31][32]

Heraud’s Tottenham
Bruce Castle was among the buildings mentioned in John Abraham Heraud’s 1820 Spenserian epic, Tottenham, a romantic depiction of the life of Robert the Bruce:[33] Lovely is moonlight to the poet’s eye, That in a tide of beauty bathes the skies, Filling the balmy air with purity,

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centenary celebrations of the opening of Bruce Castle Museum,[6] in which large numbers of local youths took part.[43][44] As well as large quantities of discarded everyday objects, the chalk foundations of what appears to be an earlier house on the site were discovered.[6]

Bruce Castle
[11] Page, William (1911), "Ancient Earthworks", A History of the County of Middlesex 2: 1–14, http://www.britishhistory.ac.uk/ report.aspx?compid=22152, retrieved on 2008-10-02 [12] Pegram 1987, p. 4 [13] An added inscription on this painting misidentifies the sitter as Edward Sackville, Richard’s younger brother, later 4th Earl of Dorset. See Karen Hearn, ed. Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630. New York: Rizzoli, 1995. ISBN 0-8478-1940-X, p. 198–199 [14] Clifford 1990, p. 83 [15] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 5 [16] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 6 [17] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 7 [18] ^ Underwood 1992, pp 46–147 [19] "The Ghostly Lady of Bruce Castle", Tottenham & Edmonton Advertiser (March 1858) [20] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 8

Notes and references

[1] Sources differ as to the date of construction; some date the current building to the 15th century, but most agree that the house dates from the 16th century, although there is no consensus as to the exact date. [2] As with most other English maps of the period, the map is aligned south-north (i.e. "upside down" when compared to modern maps). The alignment of streets in the area is preserved today; the road running east-west is the present day Lordship Lane, and the road running north-south past the church is the present day Church Lane; Bruce Grove [21] Dick, Malcolm (2004) (65 KB DOC), does not yet exist, but its eventual route Joseph Priestley and his Influence on can be seen in the field boundaries Education in Birmingham, Revolutionary running diagonally immediately south of Players of Industry and Innovation, the castle. The large field opposite the http://www.search.revolutionaryplayers.org.uk/ house (marked "Lease") is the northeast content/files/88/83/366.doc, retrieved on corner of the water-meadow which 2009-03-16 became Broadwater Farm. The fields to [22] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 10 the east of Church Lane are the present [23] A printing press designed by Rowland Bruce Castle Park, while those to the Hill and built by pupils of the school is on west surrounding the church now form display at London’s Science Museum. At part of Tottenham Cemetery. this time, school curricula were almost [3] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 2 always restricted to the classics; for a [4] ^ Lysons, Daniel (1795), "Tottenham", school to include engineering in the The Environs of London (London) 3: curriculum was almost unique. 517–557, http://www.british[24] ^ "Tottenham Growth after 1850", A history.ac.uk/ History of the County of Middlesex report.aspx?compid=45450, retrieved on (Victoria County History) 5: 317–324, 2008-10-02 1976, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/ [5] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 3 report.asp?compid=26986, retrieved on [6] ^ Bruce Castle Park community 2007-06-06 excavation, 2006, Museum of London, [25] Lake 1945, pp. 12–13 2006, [26] Lake 1945, p. 22 http://www.museumoflondonarchaeology.org.uk/Connor 2004, § 54 [27] English/ComLearn/ComExcav/ [28] Olsen 1976, p. 290 BruceCastle.htm, retrieved on [29] Cherry and Pevsner 1998, p. 57 2008-10-02 [30] ^ Bruce Castle Museum, London [7] ^ Robinson 1840, p. 216 Borough of Haringey, [8] ^ Cherry and Pevsner 1998, p. 584 http://www.haringey.gov.uk/leisure/ [9] Cherry and Pevsner 1998, p. 11 brucecastlemuseum.htm#about, [10] ^ Pegram 1987, p. 9 retrieved on 2008-10-02

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[31] Pegram 1987, p. 11 report.aspx?compid=26987, retrieved on [32] Haringey, Museum of London, 2009-03-23 http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/ [42] Middlesex Regiment Collection, Army English/Collections/OnlineResources/ Museums Ogilby Trust, X20L/Boroughs/haringey.htm, retrieved http://www.armymuseums.org.uk/ on 2008-10-02 museums/0000000069-Middlesex[33] ^ Haringey, Hidden London, Regiment-Collection.htm, retrieved on http://www.hidden-london.com/ 2009-04-21 brucegrove.html, retrieved on [43] (PDF) Financial statement, year ending 2008-10-02 31 March 2007, Museum of London, [34] Heraud, John Abraham (1820), 2007-10-04, p. 17, Tottenham: A Poem, http://www.molg.org.uk/NR/rdonlyres/ http://198.82.142.160/spenser/ 10A84A59-BDCA-410A-9227-B24A71AD1BC3/ TextRecord.php?action=GET&textsid=39266, 0/MoLAccounts07.pdf, retrieved on retrieved on 2008-10-02 2008-10-02 [35] New Bruce Castle document sheds light [44] Locals invited to muck in at Bruce on Tottenham history, London Borough Castle, Museum of London, 2006-07-03, of Haringey, 2007-08-31, http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/ http://www.haringey.gov.uk/index/ english/aboutus/newsroom/archived06/ news_and_events/latest_news/ brucecastle.htm, retrieved on deed_tottenham.htm, retrieved on 2008-10-02 2008-10-02 Bibliography [36] Fontaine, Valley (2008-09-26), Spurs well • Cherry, Bridget; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1998), and truly books, Bruce Castle Museum, The Buildings of England, London 4: BBC News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/ North, London: Penguin, ISBN content/articles/2008/09/26/ 0-14-071049-3, OCLC 40453938 haringey_spurs_opus_feature.shtml, • Clifford, Anne (1990), The Diaries of Lady retrieved on 2008-10-02 Anne Clifford, Stroud: Alan Sutton, ISBN 0 [37] Images of England: Bruce Castle, English 862995 60 4, OCLC 59978239 Heritage, • Connor, Jim (2004), Branch Lines to http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/ Enfield Town and Palace Gates, Midhurst: Details/Default.aspx?id=201424, Middleton Press, ISBN 1-904474-32-2, retrieved on 2009-03-23 http://www.middletonpress.co.uk/ [38] Images of England: Tower to the index.php Southwest of Bruce Castle, English • Lake, G.H. (1945), The Railways of Heritage, Tottenham, London: Greenlake http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/ Publications Ltd, ISBN 1-899890-26-2 details/default.aspx?id=201423, • Olsen, Donald J (1976), The Growth of retrieved on 2009-03-23 Victorian London, London: Batsford, ISBN [39] Images of England: Southern boundary 0713432292, OCLC 185749148 wall to Bruce Castle Park, English • Pegram, Jean (1987), From Manor Heritage, House... to Museum, Haringey History http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/ Bulletin, 28, London: Hornsey Historical details/default.aspx?id=201422, Society, ISBN 0-903481-05-7 retrieved on 2009-04-08 • Robinson, William (1840), History and [40] Images of England: Wall along western Antiquities of the Parish of Tottenham (2 boundary to grounds of Bruce Castle, ed.), London, OCLC 78467199 English Heritage, • Underwood, Peter (1992), The A-Z of http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/ British Ghosts, London: Chancellor Press, details/default.aspx?id=201328, ISBN 1-85152-194-1 retrieved on 2009-04-08 [41] "Tottenham: Manors", A History of the County of Middlesex (Victoria County • Bruce Castle Museum History) 5: 324–330, 1976, Coordinates: 51°35′56″N 0°04′30″W / http://www.british-history.ac.uk/ 51.599°N 0.075°W / 51.599; -0.075

External links

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Bruce Castle

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Castle" Categories: Art museums and galleries in London, Houses in London, Buildings and structures in Haringey, Grade I listed buildings in London, Grade I listed houses, History of Haringey This page was last modified on 14 May 2009, at 16:15 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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