Business Testimonial Letter Samples - PowerPoint

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Business Testimonial Letter Samples - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Business 2000
Neil Gall
Winter 2008
LETTER WRITING
      Part 1:

ROUTINE LETTERS AND
GOODWILL MESSAGES
The Direct Pattern

• Frontload in the opening.
• Explain in the body.
• Be specific and courteous in the
  closing.
Frontloading in the Opening


• Begin with the main idea.

• Tell immediately why you are writing.
Explaining in the Body


 • Present details that explain the request
   or response.

 • Group similar ideas together.

 • Consider using graphic highlighting
   techniques.
Being Specific and Courteous in
the Closing


 • For requests specifically indicate the
   action you want taken and provide an
   end date (deadline), if appropriate.

 • For other direct letters provide a
   courteous concluding thought.
REQUESTING INFORMATION
AND ACTION
Opening

• Ask a question or issue a polite command
  (Will you please answer the following
  questions. . . ?).

• Avoid long explanations that precede the
  main idea.
Body

• Explain your purpose and provide details.
• Express questions in parallel form. Number
  them if appropriate.
• To elicit the most information, use open-
  ended questions rather than yes-or-no
  questions: What training programs do you
  recommend?, instead of, Are training
  programs available?.
• Suggest reader benefits, if possible.
Closing
• State specifically, but courteously, the
  action you wish to be taken.
• Set an end date, if one is significant, and
  explain why.
• Avoid cliché endings. Show appreciation
  but use a fresh expression.
• Make it easy for the receiver to respond.
ORDER LETTERS
Opening

• Use order language to identify the
  message (Please send by UPS the
  following items from your spring
  catalogue).

• Name the information source (the May
  2 advertisement in the Daily News).
Body

• List items vertically.
• Provide quantity, order number,
  complete description, unit price, and
  total price.
• Prevent mistakes by providing as much
  information as possible.
Closing

• Tell how you plan to pay for the
  merchandise.
• Tell when you would like to receive the
  goods, and supply any special
  instructions.
• Express appreciation.
ROUTINE CLAIM
   LETTERS
Opening

• Describe what you want done
  immediately.
• When the remedy is obvious, state it briefly
  (Please send 12 copies of Model Memos to
  replace the copies of Business Proposals
  sent in error).
• When the remedy is less obvious, explain
  your goal (Please clarify your policy
  regarding reservations and late arrivals).
Body

• Clarify the problem and justify your
  request.
• Provide details objectively and
  concisely.
• Don’t ramble. Be organized and
  coherent.
• Avoid becoming angry or trying to fix
  blame.
• Include names of individuals and
  dates of previous actions.
   Closing


• End courteously with a tone that
  promotes goodwill.

• Request specific action, including end
  date, if appropriate.

• Note: Act promptly in making claims,
  and keep a copy of your message.
DIRECT REPLY LETTERS
Subject Line


• Consider including a subject line to
  identify the topic and any previous
  correspondence.

• Use abbreviated style, omitting
  articles (a, an, the).
 Opening

• Deliver the information the reader
  wants.

• When announcing good news, do so
  promptly.
  Body

• Explain the subject logically.

• Use lists, tables, headings, boldface,
  italics, or other graphics devices to
  improve readability.

• In letters to customers, promote your
  products and your organization.
 Closing

• Offer concluding thought, perhaps
  referring to the information or action
  requested.

• Avoid cliché endings (if you have any
  questions, do not hesitate to call).

• Be cordial.
LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION
Opening

• Name the candidate and position
  sought.

• State that your remarks are
  confidential.

• Describe your relationship with the
  candidate.
Body

• Describe applicant’s performance and
  potential.

• Strive to include statements about
  communication skills, organizational
  skills, people skills, ability to work with a
  team, etc.
Body

• Include definite, task-related
  descriptions. (She completed two 50-
  page proposals instead of She works
  hard.)

• Include negative statements only if
  they are objective and supported by
  facts.
Conclusion

• If supportive, summarize candidate’s
  best points.
• Offer ranking of candidate:      Of all
  the accountants I have supervised,
  she ranks in the top 10 percent.
• Offer to supply additional information
  if needed.
GRANTING CLAIMS
Opening



• When approving a customer’s claim,
  announce the good news
  immediately.

• Avoid sounding grudging or reluctant.
 Body

• Strive to win back the customer’s
  confidence; consider explaining what
  went wrong (if you know).
• Concentrate on how diligently your
  organization works to avoid disappointing
  customers.
• Be careful about admitting responsibility;
  check with your boss or legal counsel first.
 Body

• Avoid negative language (trouble,
  neglect, fault).
• Don’t blame customers – even if they are
  at fault.
• Don’t blame individuals or departments in
  your organization.
• Don’t make unrealistic promises.
Closing


• Show appreciation that the customer
  wrote.

• Extend thanks for past business.

• Refer to your desire to be of service.
The Five Ss of
Goodwill Messages
In expressing thanks,
recognition, or sympathy:


 • Be selfless. Discuss the receiver, not the
   sender.
 • Be specific. Cite specifics rather than
   generalities.
 • Be sincere. Show your honest feelings
   with unpretentious language.
In expressing thanks,
recognition, or sympathy:


 • Be spontaneous. Make the message
   sound natural, fresh, and direct. Avoid
   canned phrases.
 • Keep the message short. Although
   goodwill messages may be as long as
   needed, they generally are fairly short.
In answering congratulatory
messages:

• Send a brief note expressing your
  appreciation.

• Tell how good the message made you
  feel.

• Accept praise gracefully. Don’t make
  belittling statements (I’m not really all
  that good!).
Part 2:

    ROUTINE MEMOS AND
     E-MAIL MESSAGES
Characteristics of Successful
Memos and E-Mail Messages

•   Headings: To, From, Date, Subject
•   Single topic
•   Conversational tone
•   Conciseness
•   Graphic highlighting
 Memo Formatting
• Line up all heading words with those
  following Subject.
• Indent the lines following bulleted or
  enumerated items.
• Do not include complimentary close or
  signature.
The Complete Process


1. Prewriting
• Analyze
• Anticipate
• Adapt         2. Writing
                • Research
                • Organize
                • Compose    3. Revising
                             • Revise
                             • Proofread
                             • Evaluate
Organization of Memos


    • Subject line

    • Opening

    • Body

    • Closing
Subject Line

• Summarize the main idea.
  Budget Meeting June 3, 10 a.m.
Opening

Start directly; restate and amplify the
  main idea.
• Indirect (ineffective) opening:
 This is to inform you that we must complete the annual
  operating budgets shortly. Over the past two months many
  supervisors have met to discuss their departmental needs.
• Direct (effective) opening:
 All supervisors and coordinators will meet June 3 at 10 a.m. to
  work out the annual operating budgets for their
  departments.
Body

• Explain and discuss the topic.
• Use graphic highlighting to facilitate
  reading, comprehension, and
  retention.
• Consider columns, headings, bulleted
  lists, and so forth.
Closing


• Request action, including an end
  date.

• Summarize the message or provide a
  closing thought.
Communicating in the New
World of E-Mail

To succeed, you must be able to:
• Express yourself concisely and quickly.
• Compose at the keyboard.
• Understand ethics, courtesy, and privacy issues relating
  to e-mail.
• Develop confidence in using e-mail systems.
• Think globally.
• Use time management in prioritizing e-mail messages.
• Write in an error-free style.
    Smart E-Mail Practices
• Get the address right.
• Avoid misleading subject lines.
• Be concise.
• Do not send anything you would not want
  published.
• Do not use e-mail to avoid contact.
• Never respond when you are angry.
 Smart E-Mail Practices
• Care about correctness.
• Resist humour and tongue-in-cheek
  comments.
• Use design elements to improve
  readability of longer messages.
• Consider cultural differences.
• Protect against e-mail break-ins.
The Six Most Common Mistakes
in Sending E-Mail
1. Address errors
2. Lengthy messages or attachments
3. Misleading subject lines
4. Inappropriate content (such as
delivering bad news)
5. Instant indiscretions (angry or
thoughtless statements)
6. Reckless copying
KINDS OF MEMOS



• Procedure and Information Memos

• Request and Reply Memos

• Confirmation Memos
Procedure and Information
Memos

• These routine messages usually flow
  downward; they deliver company
  information and describe procedures.

• Tone is important; managers seek
  employee participation and
  cooperation.
Request and Reply Memos

• Memo requests for information and
  action follow the direct pattern.

• Memo replies are also organized
  directly with the most important
  information first.
Confirmation Memos


• Also called “to-file” reports or “incident”
  reports.
• Record oral decisions, directives, and
  discussions.
• Include names and titles of people involved.
• Itemize major issues and request confirmation
  from the receiver.
Part 3:

  SALES AND PERSUASIVE
        MESSAGES
Applying the 3-x-3 Writing
Process


 • Analyzing purpose
   What do you want the receiver to do or think?

 • Anticipating reaction
   Does the receiver need to be persuaded?
 • Adapting to the audience
   How can you adapt your message to appeal to this
  receiver?
Applying the 3-x-3 Writing
Process


  • Researching data
    What information do you need?

    Where can you locate it?

  • Organizing data
    What strategy is best – direct or indirect?
The Indirect Pattern for
Persuasion


    • Gain attention

    • Build interest

    • Reduce resistance

    • Motivate action
MAKING PERSUASIVE REQUESTS
Gaining Attention
• In requesting favours, begin with a
  compliment, unexpected fact, stimulating
  question, reader benefit, summary of the
  problem, or candid plea for help.

• For claims, consider opening with a review
  of action you have taken to resolve the
  problem.
Building Interest


 • Prove the accuracy and merit of your
   request with facts, figures, expert opinion,
   examples, and details.

 • Avoid sounding high-pressured, angry, or
   emotional.

 • Suggest direct and indirect benefits for the
   receiver.
 Building Interest
• Direct Benefit: If you accept our invitation to
  speak, you will have an audience of 50
  potential customers for your products.

• Indirect Benefit: Your appearance would
  prove your professionalism and make us
  grateful for your willingness to give something
  back to our field.
 Reducing Resistance
• Identify possible obstacles; offer counter
  arguments.

• Demonstrate your credibility by being
  knowledgeable.

• In requesting favours or making
  recommendations, show how the receiver or
  others will benefit.
Reducing Resistance

• Example: Although your gift to the
  Neonatal Centre is not tax
  deductible, it would help us
  purchase one Intensive Care
  Ventilator that would be put to use
  immediately in caring for critically ill
  and premature newborn infants.
Motivating Action


 • Ask for specific action confidently.

 • Include an end date, if appropriate.

 • Repeat a key benefit.
How to Write a Good
Complaint Letter
• Begin with a compliment, point of agreement,
  statement of the problem, or brief review of
  the action you have taken to resolve the
  problem.
• Provide identifying data.
• Prove that your claim is valid; explain why the
  receiver is responsible.
• Enclose copies of documents supporting your
  claim.
How to Write a Good
Complaint Letter

• Appeal to the receiver’s fairness, ethical and
  legal responsibilities, and desire for customer
  satisfaction.

• Describe your feelings and your
  disappointment.

• Avoid sounding angry, emotional, or irrational.
  Close by telling exactly what you want done.
WRITING SALES LETTERS
Gaining Attention

• Offer something valuable, promise a
  significant result, or describe a product
  feature.

• Present a testimonial, make a startling
  statement, or show the reader in an
  action setting.
Building Interest

• Describe the product in terms of what
  it does for the reader.

• Show how the product or service
  saves or makes money, reduces effort,
  improves health, produces pleasure, or
  boosts status.
 Reducing Resistance
• Counter reluctance with testimonials, money-
  back guarantees, attractive warranties, trial
  offers, or free samples.

• Build credibility with results of performance
  tests, polls, or awards.
Motivating Action

• Close with repetition of the central selling
  point and clear instructions for an easy
  action to be taken.

• Prompt the reader to act immediately with a
  gift, incentive, limited offer, or deadline.

• Put the strongest motivator in a postscript.

				
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