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Bratislava

Bratislava
Density 1,167 /km² (3,023 /sq mi) 907 City council Andrej Ďurkovský CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) 8XX XX 421-2 BA

Coordinates: 48.14472°N 17.11278
Bratislava City

48°08′41″N 17.11278°E

17°06′46″E / / 48.14472;

First mentioned Government Mayor Timezone - summer (DST) Postal code Phone prefix Car plate

Bratislava’s Old Town

Flag Coat of arms Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, Little Big City, Country Region Districts Rivers Elevation Coordinates Slovakia Bratislava Bratislava I, II, III, IV, V Danube, Morava, Little Danube 134 m (440 ft) 48°08′41″N 17°06′46″E / 48.14472°N 17.11278°E / 48.14472; 17.11278 Devínska Kobyla 514 m (1,686 ft) Danube River 126 m (413 ft) 367.584 km² (142 sq mi) 853.15 km² (329 sq mi) 2,053 km² (793 sq mi) 428,791 (2008-12-31) 546,300 616,578 Location in Slovakia

Highest point - elevation Lowest point - elevation Area - urban - metro Population - urban - metro

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Bratislava
Annales Iuvavenses, was Brezalauspurc. Notable alternative names are: German: Pressburg or Preßburg [ˈpʁɛsbʊɐk] (still used in German speaking countries today - mostly in Austria, only seldom in Germany), Hungarian: Pozsony [poʒoɲ][5] (still used in Hungarian today), former Slovak name: Prešporok.[6] Other names are or were: Greek: Istropolis (meaning "Danube City", also used in Latin), Czech: Prešpurk, French: Presbourg, Italian: Presburgo, Latin: Posonium, Croatian: Požun. The name Pressburg was also used in English language publications until 1919, and it is still occasionally used today. For the history and etymology of the various names, see History of Bratislava.

Location in the Bratislava Region Wikimedia Commons: Bratislava Statistics: MOŠ/MIS Website: bratislava.sk

Bratislava — historically Pozsony and Pressburg (see also other names) — is the capital of the Slovak Republic and, with a population of about 429,000, also the country’s largest city.[1] Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia on both banks of the Danube River. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two countries.[2] It and Vienna are also two of Europe’s closest national capitals, at less than 60 kilometres (37 mi) apart. Bratislava is the political, cultural and economic centre of Slovakia. It is the seat of the Slovak president, the parliament, and the executive branch of the government. It is home to several universities, museums, theatres, galleries and other important cultural and educational institutions.[3] Many of Slovakia’s large businesses and financial institutions are also headquartered in it. The history of the city, long known by the German name Pressburg and by the Hungarian Pozsony, has been strongly influenced by people of different nations, namely by Austrians, Czechs, Germans, Hungarians, Jews and Slovaks.[4] The city was the capital of the Kingdom of Hungary under the Habsburg Monarchy[5] from 1536 to 1783, and has been home to many Slovak, Hungarian and German historical figures

History

An original Biatec and its replica on a modern 5-koruna coin. The first known permanent settlement of the area began with the Linear Pottery Culture, around 5000 BC in the Neolithic era. About 200 BC, the Celtic Boii tribe founded the first significant settlement, a fortified town known as an oppidum, and also established a mint which produced silver coins known as biatecs.[7] The area fell under Roman influence from the first to the fourth century AD and formed part of the Limes Romanus, a border defence system.[8] The Romans introduced grape growing to the area and began a tradition of winemaking, which survives to the present.[9] The Slavs arrived between the 5th and 6th centuries during the Migration Period.[10] As a response to onslaughts by Avars, the local Slavic tribes rebelled and established Samo’s Empire (623–658), the first known Slavic political entity. In the 9th century, the castles at Bratislava (Brezalauspurc) and Devín (Dowina) were important centres of the Slavic states the Principality of Nitra and Great Moravia.[11] On the other hand, the

Names
See also: Names of European cities in different languages: B Bratislava ( Slovak pronunciation : [ˈbracɪslava]), as it was renamed in March 6. 1919, has been known by many names in different languages throughout its history. Its first recorded name, in the 10th century

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identification of the two castles as fortresses built in Great Moravia has been under debate based on linguistic arguments and because of the absence of convincing archaeologic evidence.[12][13] The first written reference to the city dates to 907 and is related to a battle during which a Bavarian army was defeated by the Hungarians[12] and which is connected to the fall of Great Moravia under the attacks of the Hungarians.[14]

Bratislava
Nevertheless, the 17th century was marked by anti-Habsburg uprisings, fighting with the Turks, floods, plagues and other disasters.[20]

Pozsony in a drawing from 1787 Pozsony flourished during the 18th century reign of Maria Theresa of Austria[21], becoming the largest and most important town in the territory of present-day Slovakia and Hungary.[22] The population tripled; many new palaces,[21] monasteries, mansions, and streets were built, and the city was the centre of social and cultural life of the region.[23] However, the city started to lose its importance under the reign of Maria Theresa’s son Joseph II[21], especially when the crown jewels were taken to Vienna in 1783 in an attempt to strengthen the union between Austria and Hungary. Many central offices subsequently moved to Buda, followed by a large segment of the nobility.[24] The first newspapers in Hungarian and Slovak were published here, resp. Magyar hírmondó in 1780, and Presspurske Nowiny in 1783.[25] In the course of the 18th century, the city became a centre for the Slovak national movement.

Pressburg/Pozsony in the 17th century In the 10th century, the territory of Pressburg (what would later become Pozsony county) became part of Hungary (called "the Kingdom of Hungary" from 1000) and became a key economic and administrative centre on the kingdom’s frontier.[15] This strategic position destined the city to be the site of frequent attacks and battles, but also brought it economic development and high political status. It was granted its first known town privileges in 1291 by the Hungarian King Andrew III,[16] and was declared a free royal town in 1405 by King Sigismund of Luxemburg, who also entitled the town to use its own coat of arms in 1436.[17] The Kingdom of Hungary was defeated by the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. Thereafter the Turks besieged and damaged Pozsony but failed to conquer it.[18] Owing to Ottoman advances into Hungarian territory, the city was designated the new capital of Hungary in 1536, becoming part of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy and marking the beginning of a new era. The city became a coronation town and the seat of kings, archbishops (1543), the nobility and all major organisations and offices. Between 1536 and 1830, eleven kings and queens were crowned at St. Martin’s Cathedral.[19]

Pozsony, ca. 1840 19th century history was closely tied to the major events in Europe. The Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France was signed in Pozsony in 1805.[26] Theben Castle

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was ruined by Napoleon’s French troops in 1809.[27] In 1825 the Hungarian National Learned Society (the present Hungarian Academy of Sciences) was founded in Pozsony using a donation from István Széchenyi. In 1843 Hungarian was proclaimed the official language in legislation, public administration and education by the Diet in the city.[28] As a reaction to the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand V signed the so-called April laws, which included the abolition of serfdom, at the Primate’s Palace.[29] The city chose the revolutionary Hungarian side, but was captured by the Austrians in December 1848.[30] Industry grew rapidly in the 19th century. The first horse-drawn railway in the Kingdom of Hungary,[31] from Pozsony to Svätý Jur (then Szentgyörgy), was built in 1840.[32] A new line to Vienna using steam locomotives was opened in 1848, and a line to Pest in 1850.[33] Many new industrial, financial and other institutions were founded; for example, the first bank established in present-day Slovakia was founded in 1842.[34] The city’s first permanent bridge over the Danube, Starý most, was built in 1891.[35]

Bratislava
it part of Czechoslovakia.[36] The city became the seat of Slovakia’s political organs and organizations and became Slovakia’s capital on 4-February 5.[37] On February 12, 1919 the German and Hungarian population started a protest against the Czechoslovak occupation, but the Czechoslovak Legions opened fire upon the unarmed demonstrators.[38] On March 27, 1919, the name Bratislava was officially adopted for the first time.[39]. Left without any protection after the retreat of the Hungarian army, many Hungarians were expelled or fled[40] and Czechs and Slovaks took their houses and moved to Bratislava. Education in Hungarian and German was radically reduced.[41]. In the 1930 Czechoslovakian census the Hungarian population of Bratislava had decreased to 15.8% (see the Demographics of Bratislava article for more details). In 1938, Nazi Germany annexed neighbouring Austria in the Anschluss; later that year it also annexed the still-independent Petržalka and Devín boroughs on ethnic grounds.[42][43] Bratislava was declared the capital of the first independent Slovak Republic on March 14, 1939, but the new state quickly fell under Nazi influence. In 1941–1942 and 1944–1945, the new Slovak government expelled most of Bratislava’s approximately 15,000 Jews,[44] with most of them being sent into concentration camps.[45] Bratislava was bombarded by the Allies, occupied by German troops in 1944 and eventually taken by the Soviet Red Army on April 4, 1945.[42][46] At the end of World War II, most Bratislava Germans were evacuated by German authorities; a few returned after the war, but were expelled without their properties under the Beneš decrees.[47]

Allied ordnance damage at the Apollo company industrial plant in Bratislava, September 1944 After World War I and the formation of Czechoslovakia on October 28, 1918, the city was incorporated into the new state despite its representatives’ reluctance.[36] The dominant Hungarian and German population tried to prevent annexation of the city to Czechoslovakia and declared it a free city. However, the Czechoslovak Legions occupied the city on January 1, 1919, thereby making

Slavín war memorial commemorates fallen soldiers during the liberation of Slovakia in World War II

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After the Communist Party seized power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948, the city became part of the Eastern Bloc. The city annexed new land, and the population rose significantly, becoming 90% Slovak. Large residential areas consisting of high-rise prefabricated panel buildings, such as those in the Petržalka borough, were built. The Communist government also built several new grandiose buildings, such as the Nový Most bridge and the Slovak Radio headquarters, sometimes at the expense of the historical cityscape. In 1968, after the unsuccessful Czechoslovak attempt to liberalize the Communist regime, the city was occupied by Warsaw Pact troops. Shortly thereafter, it became capital of the Slovak Socialist Republic, one of the two states of the federalized Czechoslovakia. Bratislava’s dissidents anticipated the fall of Communism with the Bratislava candle demonstration in 1988, and the city became one of the foremost centres of the anti-Communist Velvet Revolution in 1989.[48] In 1993, the city became the capital of the newly formed Slovak Republic following the Velvet Divorce.[49] In the 1990s and the early 21st century, its economy boomed due to foreign investment. The flourishing city also hosted several important cultural and political events, including the Slovakia Summit 2005 between George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin.

Bratislava

Map of Bratislava

Geography
Bratislava is situated in southwest Slovakia, within the Bratislava Region. Its location on the borders with Austria and Hungary makes it the only national capital that borders two countries. It is only 62 kilometres (38.5 mi) from the border with the Czech Republic and only 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the Austrian capital Vienna.[50] The city has a total area of 367.58 square kilometres (141.9 sq mi), making it the second-largest city in Slovakia by area (after the township of Vysoké Tatry).[51] Bratislava straddles the Danube River, which crosses the city from the west to the south-east. The Middle Danube basin begins at Devín Gate in western Bratislava. Other rivers are the Morava River, which forms the north-western border of the city and enters the Danube at Devín, the Little Danube, and the Vydrica,

Bratislava seen from Spot Satellite which enters the Danube in the borough of Karlova Ves. The Carpathian mountain range begins in city territory with the Little Carpathians (Malé Karpaty). The Záhorie and Danubian lowlands stretch into Bratislava. The city’s lowest point is at the Danube’s surface at 126 metres (410 ft) AMSL, and the highest point is Devínska Kobyla at 514 metres (1,690 ft). The average altitude is 140 metres (460 ft).[52]

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Bratislava

Climate
Bratislava lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is often windy with a marked variation between hot summers and cold, humid winters. The city is in one of the warmest and driest parts of Slovakia.[53] Recently, the transitions from winter to summer and summer to winter have been rapid, with short autumn and spring periods. Snow occurs less frequently than previously.[54] Some areas, particularly Devín and Devínska Nová Ves, are vulnerable to floods from the Danube and Morava rivers.[55] New flood protection is being built on both banks.[56]

Cityscape and architecture

Kamzík TV Tower

St. Martin’s Cathedral The cityscape of Bratislava is characterized by medieval towers and grandiose 20th century buildings, but has undergone profound changes in a construction boom at the start of the 21st century.[58] Most historical buildings are concentrated in the Old Town. Bratislava’s Town Hall is a complex of three buildings erected in the 14th–15th centuries and now hosts the

Bratislava Castle at night Bratislava City Museum. Michael’s Gate is the only gate that has been preserved from the medieval fortifications, and it ranks

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among the oldest of the town’s buildings;[59] the narrowest house in Europe is nearby.[60] The University Library building, erected in 1756, was used by the Diet (parliament) of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1802 to 1848.[61] Much of the significant legislation of the Hungarian Reform Era (such as the abolition of serfdom and the foundation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) was enacted there.[61] The historic centre is characterised by many baroque palaces. The Grassalkovich Palace, built around 1760, is now the residence of the Slovak president, and the Slovak government now has its seat in the former Archiepiscopal Palace.[62] In 1805, diplomats of emperors Napoleon and Francis II signed the fourth Peace of Pressburg in the Primate’s Palace, after Napoleon’s victory in the Battle of Austerlitz.[63] Some smaller houses are historically significant; composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel was born in an 18th century house in the Old Town. Notable cathedrals and churches include the Gothic St. Martin’s Cathedral built in the 13th–16th centuries, which served as the coronation church of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1563 and 1830.[64] The Franciscan Church, dating to the 13th century, has been a place of knighting ceremonies and is the oldest preserved sacral building in the city.[65] The Church of St. Elisabeth, better known as the Blue Church due to its colour, is built entirely in the Hungarian Secessionist style. A curiosity is the underground (formerly ground-level) restored portion of the Jewish cemetery where 19th century Rabbi Moses Sofer is buried, located at the base of the castle hill near the entrance to a tram tunnel.[66] The only military cemetery in Bratislava is Slavín, unveiled in 1960 in honour of Soviet Army soldiers who fell when liberating Bratislava from German troops. It offers an excellent view of the city and the Little Carpathians.[67][68] Other prominent 20th century structures include the Nový Most (New Bridge) across the Danube featuring a UFO-like tower restaurant, Slovak Radio’s inverted pyramidshaped headquarters, and the uniquely designed Kamzík TV Tower with an observation deck and rotating restaurant. In the early 21st century, new edifices have transformed the traditional cityscape. The construction boom has spawned new public buildings,[69]

Bratislava
such as the Most Apollo and a new building of the Slovak National Theatre,[70] as well as private real-estate development.[71]

Bratislava Castle
One of the most prominent structures in the city is Bratislava Castle, on a plateau 85 metres (279 ft) above the Danube. The castle hill site has been inhabited since the transition period between the Stone and Bronze ages[72] and has been the acropolis of a Celtic town, part of the Roman Limes Romanus, a huge Slavic fortified settlement, and a political, military and religious centre for Great Moravia.[73] A stone castle was not constructed until the 10th century, when the area was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The castle was converted into a Gothic anti-Hussite fortress under Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1430, became a Renaissance castle in 1562,[74] and was rebuilt in 1649 in the baroque style. Under Queen Maria Theresa, the castle became a prestigious royal seat. In 1811, the castle was inadvertently destroyed and lay in ruins until the 1950s,[75] when it was rebuilt mostly in its former Theresan style. The castle is temporarily closed for reconstruction at the moment.

Devín Castle
The ruined and recently renovated Devín Castle is in Devín, on top of a rock where the Morava River, which forms the border between Austria and Slovakia, enters the Danube. It is one of the most important Slovak archaeological sites, and contains a museum dedicated to its history.[76] Due to its strategic location, Devín Castle was a very important frontier castle of Great Moravia and the early Hungarian state. It was destroyed by Napoleon’s troops in 1809. It is an important symbol of Slovak and Slavic history.[77]

Rusovce
Rusovce mansion, with its English park, is in the Rusovce borough. The house was originally built in the 17th century and was turned into an English neo-Gothic-style mansion in 1841–1844.[78] The borough is also known for the ruins of the Roman military camp Gerulata, part of Limes Romanus, a border defence system. Gerulata was built and used between the 1st and 4th centuries AD.[79]

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Bratislava
east, and Rusovce lake in the south, which is popular with nudists.[83]

Parks and lakes

Demographics
See also: List of personalities from Bratislava 2001 census results[84][85][86] District Population Ethnic group Slovaks Population 391,767

Bratislava 428,672 I–V Bratislava 44,798 I Sad Janka Kráľa in Petržalka Due to its location at the foothills of the Little Carpathians and its riparian vegetation on the Danubian floodplains, Bratislava has forests close to the city centre. The total amount of public green space is 46.8 square kilometres (18.1 sq mi), or 110 square metres (1,200 sq ft) per inhabitant.[80] The largest city park is Horský park (literally, Mountainous Park), in the Old Town. Bratislavský lesný park (Bratislava Forest Park) is located in the Little Carpathians and includes many locales popular among visitors, such as Železná studienka and Koliba. The Forest Park covers an area of 27.3 square kilometres (10.5 sq mi), of which 96% is forested, and contains original flora and fauna such as European badgers, red foxes and mouflons. On the right bank of the Danube, in the borough of Petržalka, is Janko Kráľ Park founded in 1774–76.[81] A new city park is planned for Petržalka between the Malý Draždiak and Veľký Draždiak lakes.[71] Bratislava’s zoological park is located in Mlynská dolina, near the headquarters of Slovak Television. The zoo, founded in 1960, currently houses 152 species of animals, including the rare white lion and white tiger. The Botanical Gardens, which belong to Comenius University, can be found on the Danube riverfront, and house more than 120 species of domestic, foreign, and exotic origin.[82] The city has a number of natural and manmade lakes, most of which are used for recreation. Examples include Štrkovec lake in Ružinov, Kuchajda in Nové Mesto, Zlaté Piesky and the Vajnory lakes in the northBratislava 108,139 II Bratislava 61,418 III Bratislava 93,058 IV Bratislava 121,259 V

Hungarians 16,541 Czechs Germans Moravians Croats 7,972 1,200 635 614

From the city’s origin until the nineteenth century, Germans were the dominant ethnic group.[6] However, after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, active Magyarisation took place, and by the end of World War I 40% of the population of Pressburg spoke Hungarian as native language, 42% German, and 15% Slovak.[6] After the formation of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, Bratislava remained a multi-ethnic city, but with a different demographic trend. Thanks to Slovakization[87][88], the proportion of Slovaks and Czechs increased in the city, while the proportion of Germans and Hungarians fell. In 1938, 59% of population were Slovaks or Czechs, while Germans represented 22% and Hungarians 13% of the city’s population.[89] The creation of the first Slovak Republic in 1939 brought other changes, most notably the expulsion of many Czechs and Jews.[6] In 1945, most of the Germans were evacuated. After the restoration of Czechoslovakia, the Beneš decrees (partly revoked in 1948) collectively punished ethnic German and Hungarian minorities by expropriation and deportation to Germany, Austria, and Hungary for their alleged collaborationism with Nazi Germany and Hungary against Czechoslovakia.[45][90] [91]. The city thereby obtained its clearly Slovak character.[45] Hundreds of

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citizens were expelled during the communist oppression of the 1950s, with the aim of replacing "reactionary" people with the proletarian class.[6][45] Since the 1950s, the Slovaks have been the dominant ethnicity in the town, making up around 90% of the city’s population.[6]

Bratislava
rada),[95] a city council (Mestské zastupiteľstvo),[96] city commissions (Komisie mestského zastupiteľstva),[97] and a city magistrate’s office (Magistrát).[98] The mayor, based at the Primate’s Palace, is the city’s top executive officer and is elected to a four-year term of office. The current mayor of Bratislava is Andrej Ďurkovský, who won the election in 2006 as a candidate of the KDH–SDKÚ coalition and is serving his second term in the office.[99] The city council is the city’s legislative body, responsible for issues such as budget, local ordinances, city planning, road maintenance, education, and culture.[100] The Council usually convenes once a month and consists of 80 members elected to four-year terms concurrent with the mayor’s. Many of the council’s executive functions are carried out by the city commission at the council’s direction.[97] The city board is a 28-member body composed of the mayor and his deputies, the borough mayors, and up to ten city council members. The board is an executive and supervisory arm of the city council and also serves in an advisory role to the mayor.[95] Administratively, Bratislava is divided into five districts: Bratislava I (the city centre), Bratislava II (eastern parts), Bratislava III (north-eastern parts), Bratislava IV (western and northern parts) and Bratislava V (southern parts on the right bank of the Danube, including Petržalka, the most densely populated residential area in Central Europe).[101] For self-governance purposes, the city is divided into 17 boroughs, each of which has its own mayor (starosta) and council. The number of councillors in each depends on the size and population of the borough.[102] Each of the boroughs coincides with the city’s 20 cadastral areas, except for two cases: Nové Mesto is further divided into the Nové Mesto and Vinohrady cadastral areas and Ružinov is divided into Ružinov, Nivy and Trnávka. Further unofficial division recognizes additional quarters and localities.

Government
See also: Boroughs and localities of Bratislava and International relations of Bratislava

Primate’s Palace, the seat of the city’s mayor

Grassalkovich Palace, seat of the president of Slovakia Bratislava is the seat of the Slovak parliament, presidency, ministries, supreme court (Slovak: Najvyšší súd), and central bank. It is the seat of the Bratislava Region and, since 2002, also of the Bratislava Self-Governing Region. The city also has many foreign embassies and consulates. The current local government (Mestská samospráva)[92] structure has been in place since 1990.[93] It is composed of a mayor (primátor),[94] a city board (Mestská

Economy
See also: List of tallest buildings in Bratislava The Bratislava Region is the wealthiest and economically most prosperous region in Slovakia as of 2007, despite being the smallest by area and having the second smallest population of the eight Slovak regions. It accounts for about 26% of the Slovak GDP.[103]

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Bratislava’s territorial divisions (districts and boroughs) Bratislava Bratislava II I Staré Mesto Ružinov Vrakuňa Podunajské Biskupice Bratislava III Nové Mesto Rača Vajnory Bratislava IV Karlova Ves Dúbravka Lamač Devín Devínska Nová Ves Záhorská Bystrica

Bratislava

Bratislava V Petržalka Jarovce Rusovce Čunovo

High-rise buildings at Mlynské Nivy, one of Bratislava’s main business districts The GDP per capita (PPP), valued at €33,124 (2005), is 147.9% of the EU average and is the second-highest level (after Prague) of all regions in the new EU member states and higher than all regions of France except Paris.[104] The average brutto salary in Bratislava in first quarter of 2008 was 29,722 Sk (€ 986.6)[105]. The unemployment rate in Bratislava was 1.83% in December 2007.[106] Many

National Bank of Slovakia governmental institutions and private companies have their headquarters in Bratislava. More than 75% of Bratislava’s population works in the service sector, mainly composed of trade, banking, IT, telecommunications, and tourism.[107] The Bratislava Stock Exchange (BSSE), the organiser of the public securities market, was founded on March 15, 1991.[108] The automaker Volkswagen built a factory in Bratislava in 1991 and has expanded since.[109] Currently, its production focuses

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on SUVs, which represent 68% of all production. The VW Touareg is produced in Bratislava, and the Porsche Cayenne and Audi Q7 are partially built there.[110] In recent years, service and high-tech-oriented businesses have prospered in Bratislava. Many global companies, including IBM, Dell, Lenovo, AT&T, SAP, and Accenture, have built outsourcing and service centres here or plan to do so soon.[111] Reasons for the influx of multi-national corporations include proximity to the Western Europe, skilled labour force and the high density of universities and research facilities.[112] Other large companies and employers with headquarters in Bratislava include Slovak Telekom, Orange Slovensko, Slovenská sporiteľňa, Tatra banka, Doprastav, Hewlett-Packard Slovakia, Slovnaft, Henkel Slovensko, Slovenský plynárenský priemysel, Kraft Foods Slovakia, Whirlpool Slovakia, Železnice Slovenskej republiky, and Tesco Stores Slovak Republic. The Slovak economy’s strong growth in the 2000s has led to a boom in the construction industry, and several major projects have been completed or are planned in Bratislava.[69] Areas attracting developers include the Danube riverfront, where two major projects already under construction: River Park[113] in the Old Town, and Eurovea[114] near the Apollo Bridge. Other locations under development include the areas around the main railway and bus stations,[115] around the former industrial zone near the Old Town[116] and in the boroughs of Petržalka,[101] Nové Mesto and Ružinov. It is expected that investors will spend €1.2 billion on new projects by 2010.[117] The city has a balanced budget of almost six billion Slovak korunas (€182 million, as of 2007), with one fifth used for investment.[118] Bratislava holds shares in 17 companies directly, for example, in the public transport company (Dopravný podnik Bratislava), the waste collection and disposal company, and the water utility.[119] The city also manages municipal organisations such as the City Police (Mestská polícia), Bratislava City Museum and ZOO Bratislava.[120]

Bratislava

New Year’s Eve celebration in 2006, which attracts about 100.000 people every year

Tourist train Prešporáčik in the Old Town hotels) with a total capacity of 9,940 beds.[121] A total of 686,201 visitors, 454,870 of whom were foreigners, stayed overnight. Altogether, visitors made 1,338,497 overnight stays.[121] However, a considerable share of visits is made by those who visit Bratislava for a single day, and their exact number is not known. Largest numbers of foreign visitors come from the Czech Republic, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Poland, and Austria.[121] Among other factors, the growth of lowcost airline flights to Bratislava, led by SkyEurope, has led to conspicuous stag parties, primarily from the UK. While these are a boon to the city’s tourist industry, cultural differences and vandalism have led to concern by local officials.[122]

Tourism
See also: Tourism in Slovakia In 2006, Bratislava had 77 commercial accommodation facilities (of which 45 were

Culture
Bratislava is the cultural heart of Slovakia. Owing to its historical multi-cultural

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character, local culture is influenced by various ethnic groups, including Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians, and Jews.[4][123] Bratislava enjoys numerous theatres, museums, galleries, concert halls, cinemas, film clubs, and foreign cultural institutions.[124]

Bratislava
Solemnis for the first time in Bratislava.[64] It is also the birthplace of the composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel. Bratislava is home to the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra. The city hosts several annual festivals, such as the Bratislava Music Festival and Bratislava Jazz Days.[125] The Wilsonic Festival, held annually since 2000, brings dozens of international musical acts to the city each year.[126] During the summer, various musical events take place as part of the Bratislava Cultural Summer. Apart from musical festivals, it is possible to hear music ranging from underground to well known pop stars.[127]

Performing arts

Museums and galleries

Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra

The Rococo-style "House of the Good Shepherd", home to the Museum of Clocks

The old Slovak National Theatre building on Hviezdoslav Square Bratislava is the seat of the Slovak National Theatre, housed in two buildings. The first is a Neo-Renaissance theatre building situated in the Old Town at the end of Hviezdoslav Square. The new building, opened to the public in 2007, is on the riverfront.[70] The theatre has three ensembles: opera, ballet and drama. Smaller theatres include the Bratislava Puppet Theatre, the Astorka Korzo ’90 theatre, the Arena Theatre, L+S Studio, and the Naive Theatre of Radošina. Music in Bratislava flourished in the 18th century and was closely linked to Viennese musical life. Mozart visited the town at the age of six. Among other notable composers who visited the town were Haydn, Liszt, Bartók and Beethoven, who played his Missa

Slovak National Museum The Slovak National Museum (Slovenské národné múzeum), founded in 1961, has its headquarters in Bratislava on the riverfront in the Old Town, along with the Natural History Museum, which is one of its subdivisions. It is the largest museum and cultural institution in Slovakia. The museum manages

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16 specialised museums in Bratislava and beyond.[128] The Bratislava City Museum (Múzeum mesta Bratislavy), established in 1868, is the oldest museum in continuous operation in Slovakia.[129] Its primary goal is to chronicle Bratislava’s history in various forms from the earliest periods using historical and archaeological collections. It offers permanent displays in eight specialised museums. The Slovak National Gallery, founded in 1948, offers the most extensive network of galleries in Slovakia. Two displays in Bratislava are next to one another at Esterházy Palace (Esterházyho palác,Eszterházy palota) and the Water Barracks (Vodné kasárne,Vizikaszárnya) on the Danube riverfront in the Old Town. The Bratislava City Gallery, founded in 1961, is the secondlargest Slovak gallery of its kind. The gallery offers permanent displays at Pálffy Palace (Pálffyho palác,Pálffy palota) and Mirbach Palace (Mirbachov palác,Mirbach palota), in the Old Town.[130] Danubiana Art Museum, one of the youngest art museums in Europe, is near Čunovo waterworks.[131]

Bratislava
News Agency of the Slovak Republic (TASR) and the Slovak News Agency (SITA).

Sport
Various sports and sports teams have a long tradition in Bratislava, with many teams and individuals competing in Slovak and international leagues and competitions.

Tehelné pole stadium in Nové Mesto, home to the ŠK Slovan Bratislava football club and the Slovakia national football team Football is currently represented by two clubs playing in the top Slovak football league, the Corgoň Liga. ŠK Slovan Bratislava, founded in 1919, has its home ground at the Tehelné pole stadium. ŠK Slovan is the most successful football club in Slovak history, being the only club from the former Czechoslovakia to win the European football competition the Cup Winners’ Cup, in 1969.[132] FC Artmedia Bratislava is the oldest of Bratislava’s football clubs, founded in 1898, and is based at Štadión Pasienky in Nové Mesto (formerly at Štadión Petržalka in Petržalka). Another known club from the city is FK Inter Bratislava. Founded in 1945, they have their home ground at Štadión Pasienky and currently play in the Slovak Second Division. Bratislava is home to three winter sports arenas: Ondrej Nepela Winter Sports Stadium, V. Dzurilla Winter Sports Stadium, and Dúbravka Winter Sports Stadium. The HC Slovan Bratislava ice hockey team represents Bratislava in Slovakia’s top ice hockey league, the Slovak Extraliga. Samsung Arena, a part of Ondrej Nepela Winter Sports Stadium, is home to HC Slovan. The Ice Hockey World Championships in 1959 and 1992 were played in Bratislava, and the 2011 Men’s Ice Hockey World Championships will be held in

Media

Slovak Radio headquarters building As the national capital, Bratislava is home to national and many local media outlets. Notable TV stations based in the city include Slovak Television (Slovenská televízia), Markíza, JOJ and TA3. Slovak Radio (Slovenský rozhlas) has its seat in the centre, and many Slovak commercial radio stations are based in the city. National newspapers based in Bratislava include SME, Pravda, Nový čas, Hospodárske noviny and the English-language The Slovak Spectator. Two news agencies are headquartered there: the

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Bratislava and Košice, for which a new arena is being planned.[133] The Water Sports Centre Čunovo is a whitewater slalom and rafting area, close to the Gabčíkovo dam. It hosts several international and national canoe and kayak competitions annually. The National Tennis Centre, which includes Sibamac Arena, hosts various cultural, sporting and social events. Several Davis Cup matches have been played there, including the 2005 Davis Cup final. The city is represented in the top Slovak leagues in women’s and men’s basketball, women’s handball and volleyball, and men’s water polo. The Devín–Bratislava National run is the oldest athletic event in Slovakia,[134] and the Bratislava City Marathon has been held annually since 2006. A race track is located in Petržalka, where horse racing and dog racing events and dog shows are held regularly.

Bratislava
The first university in Bratislava, in the Kingdom of Hungary (and also in the territory of present-day Slovakia) was Universitas Istropolitana, founded in 1465 by King Matthias Corvinus. It was closed in 1490 after his death.[135] Bratislava is the seat of the largest university (Comenius University, 27,771 students),[136] the largest technical university (Slovak University of Technology, 18,473 students),[137] and the oldest art schools (the Academy of Performing Arts and the Academy of Fine Arts and Design) in Slovakia. Other institutions of tertiary education are the public University of Economics and the first private college in Slovakia, City University of Seattle.[138] In total, about 56,000 students attend university in Bratislava.[139] There are 65 public primary schools, nine private primary schools and ten religious primary schools.[140] Overall, they enroll 25,821 pupils.[140] The city’s system of secondary education (some middle schools and all high schools) consists of 39 gymnasia with 16,048 students,[141] 37 specialized high schools with 10,373 students,[142] and 27 vocational schools with 8,863 students (data as of 2007).[143][144] The Slovak Academy of Sciences is also based in Bratislava. However, the city is one of the few European capitals to have neither an observatory nor a planetarium. The nearest observatory is in Modra, 30 kilometres (19 mi) away, and the nearest planetarium is in Hlohovec, 70 kilometres (43 mi) away. CEPIT, the Central European Park For Innovative Technologies, is slated for development in Vajnory. This science and technology park will combine public and private research and educational institutions.[145] Construction is expected to begin in 2008.[146]

Education and science

Universitas Istropolitana building

Transport
The geographical position of Bratislava in Central Europe has long made it a natural crossroads for international trade traffic.[147] Public transport in Bratislava is managed by Dopravný podnik Bratislava, a city-owned company. The transport system is known as Mestská hromadná doprava (MHD, Municipal Mass Transit) and employs buses, trams, and trolleybuses.[148] An additional service, Bratislavská integrovaná doprava (Bratislava

Comenius University headquarters at Šafárikovo námestie

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Bratislava
United States

• Alexandria, Egypt

* Numbers in brackets list the year of twinning. The first agreement was signed with the city of Perugia, Umbria in Italy on July 18, 1962.

Notes

[1] "Population on December 31, 2006 districts". Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2007-07-23. http://portal.statistics.sk/ showdoc.do?docid=6772. Retrieved on Mercedes Benz CapaCity January 8 2007. [2] Dominic Swire (2006). "Bratislava Blast". Integrated Transport), links train and bus Finance New Europe. http://www.czechroutes in the city with points beyond. transport.com/fne-portal/ As a rail hub, the city has direct connecindex.php?aid=170. Retrieved on May 8 tions to Austria, Hungary, the Czech Repub2007. lic, Poland, Germany and the rest of Slovakia. [3] "Brochure - Welcome to Bratislava" The motorway system provides direct access (PDF). City of Bratislava. 2006. to Brno in the Czech Republic, Trnava and http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/ other points in Slovakia, and Budapest in VismoOnline_ActionScripts/ Hungary. The A6 motorway between BratisFile.aspx?id_org=700014&id_dokumenty=1059. lava and Vienna was opened in November Retrieved on April 25 2007. 2007.[149] The Port of Bratislava provides ac[4] ^ "Brochure - Culture and Attractions" cess to the Black Sea via the Danube and to (PDF). City of Bratislava. 2006. the North Sea through the http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/ Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. M. R. Štefánik VismoOnline_ActionScripts/ Airport is 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north-east of File.aspx?id_org=700014&id_dokumenty=1080. the city centre. It served 2,024,000 passenRetrieved on April 25 2007. gers in 2007.[150] [5] ^ Gruber, Ruth E. (1991-03-10). "Charm and Concrete in Bratislava". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Bratislava is twinned with:[151] fullpage.html?res=9D0CE7D9103DF933A25750C0A9 • • Turku, • Retrieved on 2008-07-27. Yerevan, Finland (1976) Rotterdam, ^ Peter Salner (2001). "Ethnic [6] Armenia • Ulm, Netherlands polarisation in an ethnically (2001) Germany (1991) homogeneous town" (PDF). Czech • • Bremen, • Kraków, Sociological Review 9 (2): 235–246. Vienna, Germany (1989) Poland http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/upl/archiv/files/ Austria • 171_235SALNE.pdf. • • Thessaloniki, Saratov, [7] "History - Celtic settlements". City of Rousse, Greece (1986) Bratislava. 2005. Russia Bulgaria • http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ • • Székesfehérvár, dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1005&p1=156 Ljubljana, Larnaka, Hungary Retrieved on May 15 2007. Slovenia Cyprus [8] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. 73 (1967) • Perugia, (1989) Italy (1962) • Kiev,[9] "History - Bratislava and the Romans". City of Bratislava. 2005. • Ukraine http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ Prague, • Czech Cleveland, dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1006&p1=157 Retrieved on May 15 2007. Republic Ohio,

Sister cities

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[10] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. 90 profile/history/. Retrieved on May 28 [11] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. 95 2008. [12] ^ Kristó, Gyula (editor) (1994). Korai [32] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", pp. Magyar Történeti Lexikon - 9-14. század 426–427 (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian [33] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. 451 History - 9-14th centuries)’. Budapest: [34] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 128, 167. ISBN 430 963 05 6722 9. [35] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 41 [13] http://www.uni-bonn.de/~ntrunte/ [36] ^ Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 42 publikationen8.html#dowina_inhalt [37] Tibenský, Ján et al. (1971). Slovensko: [14] Špiesz, "Bratislava v stredoveku", p. 9 Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor. [15] "History - Bratislava in the Middle Ages". [38] Marcel Jankovics, "Húsz esztendő City of Bratislava. 2005. Pozsonyban", p. 65-67 (Hungarian) http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ [39] "History - First Czechoslovak Republic". dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1008&p1=1572. City of Bratislava. 2005. Retrieved on May 15 2007. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ [16] Špiesz, "Bratislava v stredoveku", p. 43 dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1012&p1=157 [17] Špiesz, "Bratislava v stredoveku", p. 132 Retrieved on May 15 2007. [18] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 30 [40] "History of Hungarians in the first [19] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 62 Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1919 [20] Lacika, "Bratislava", pp. 31–34 section)". 2008. http://www.tankonyv.sk/ [21] ^ Weinberger, Jill Knight (2000-11-19). detail.php?chron=1&theme=4. "Rediscovering Old Bratislava". The New Retrieved on September 5 2008. York Times. The New York Times [41] "History of Hungarians in the first Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Czechoslovak Republic". 2008. fullpage.html?res=9C06E5D91138F93AA25752C1A9669C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. http://www.tankonyv.sk/ Retrieved on 2008-07-27. detail.php?docid=93. Retrieved on June [22] Lacika, "Bratislava", pp. 34–36 22 2008. [23] Lacika, "Bratislava", pp. 35–36 [42] ^ "History - Wartime Bratislava". City of [24] "History - Maria Theresa’s City". City of Bratislava. 2005. Bratislava. 2005. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1014&p1=157 dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1010&p1=1574. Retrieved on May 15 2007. Retrieved on May 15 2007. [43] Kováč et al., "Bratislava 1939–1945", pp. [25] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", pp. 16–17 350–351 [44] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 43. Kováč et al., [26] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. "Bratislava 1939–1945, pp. 174–177 384 [45] ^ "History - Post-war Bratislava". City of [27] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. Bratislava. 2005. 385 http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ [28] Erzsébet Varga, "Pozsony", p. 14 dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1015&p1=157 (Hungarian) Retrieved on May 15 2007. [29] "History - Between the campaigns of the [46] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2", p. Napoleonic troops and the abolition of 300 bondage". City of Bratislava. 2005. [47] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2", pp. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ 307–308 dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1011&p1=1575. [48] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2" p. Retrieved on May 15 2007. 498 Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. [49] "History - Capital city for second time". 444 City of Bratislava. 2005. [30] Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 1", p. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ 457 dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1016&p1=158 [31] "History - Austro-Hungarian Empire". Retrieved on May 15 2007. Železničná spoločnosť Cargo Slovakia. no date. http://www.zscargo.sk/en/company-

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[50] Vojenský kartografický ústav a.s.. univerzitna_kniznica.pdf. Retrieved on Autoatlas - Slovenská republika [map], June 14 2007. 6th edition. (2006) ISBN 80-8042-378-4. [62] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 147 [51] "Vysoké Tatry - Basic characteristics". [63] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 112 Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. [64] ^ "St. Martin’s Cathedral". City of December 31, 2005. Bratislava. 2005. http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/ http://www4.bratislava.sk/en/vismo5/ prvav2.jsp?txtUroven=440706&lstObec=560103&Okruh=zaklad. dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=20 Retrieved on August 16 2007. Retrieved on June 8 2007. [52] "Basic Information - Position". City of [65] "Františkánsky kostol a kláštor" (in Bratislava. February 14, 2005. Slovak). City of Bratislava. February 14, http://www4.bratislava.sk/en/vismo5/ 2005. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/ dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=2011414. vismo/ Retrieved on May 1 2007. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700013&id=1122&p1=200 [53] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 10 Retrieved on June 10 2007. [54] "Bratislava Weather" (in Slovak). City of [66] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 179 Bratislava. March 14, 2007. [67] "Turistické informácie - Slavín" (in http://visit.bratislava.sk/vismo/ Slovak). City of Bratislava. 2005. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700013&id=1109&p1=1996. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/vismo/ Retrieved on November 1 2007. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700013&id=1129&p1=200 [55] Thorpe, Nick (2002-08-16). "Defences Retrieved on May 6 2007. hold fast in Bratislava". BBC. [68] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 135 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/ [69] ^ "Visit Bratislava: Real Estate Market". 2198850.stm. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. City of Bratislava. [56] Handzo, Juraj (2007-01-24). "Začne sa http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ budovať protipovodňový systém mesta dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1084&p1=185 (Construction starts for city’s flood Retrieved on June 3 2007. protection)" (in Slovak). Bratislavské [70] ^ Liptáková, Jana (2007-04-23). "New Noviny. Slovak National Theatre opens after 21 http://www.bratislavskenoviny.sk/buxus/ years". The Slovak Spectator. generate_page.php?page_id=12325. http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ Retrieved on 2007-04-28. clanok.asp?vyd=2007016&cl=27432. [57] "Weather Information for Bratislava". Retrieved on August 16. http://www.worldweather.org/011/ [71] ^ Nahálková, Ela (2007-01-29). c00041.htm. Retrieved on January 04 "Bratislava’s mayors lay out real estate 2009. plans". The Slovak Spectator. [58] Habšudová, Zuzana (2007-04-23). "City http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ to cut tall buildings down to size". The clanok.asp?vyd=2007004&cl=26445. Slovak Spectator. Retrieved on August 16. http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ [72] Lacika, "Bratislava", pp. 11–12 clanok.asp?vyd=2006010&cl=22734. [73] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 121 Retrieved on 2006-03-13. [74] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 124 [59] "Michael’s Gate". Bratislava Culture and [75] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 128 Information Centre. 2007. [76] Beáta Husová (2007). "Bratislava City http://www.bkis.sk/ Museum: Museums: Devín Castle index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=28. Monument". Bratislava National Cultural Retrieved on June 10 2007. City Museum. [60] "Narrowest house in Europe". Bratislava http://www.muzeum.bratislava.sk/en/ Culture and Information Centre. 2007. vismo/ http://www.bkis.sk/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700016&id=1025&p1=52. index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=43&Itemid=29. 21 2007. Retrieved on June Retrieved on June 10 2007. [77] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 191 [61] ^ "University Library in Bratislava - The [78] "Pamiatkové hodnoty Rusoviec Multifunctional Cultural Centre" (PDF). Rusovský kaštieľ (Historical landmarks University Library in Bratislava. 2005. of Rusovce - Rusovce mansion)" (in pp. 34–36. http://phobos.ulib.sk/ Slovak). Rusovce. 2004-05-06.

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http://www.bratislava-rusovce.sk/ REASONS AFTER THE CREATION OF rusovce/architektura_kastiel.html. THE FIRST CZECHOSLOVAK Retrieved on June 1 2007. REPUBLIC, The disintegration of the [79] "Múzeum Antická Gerulata (Ancient Austria–Hungarian Monarchy (In Gerulata Museum)" (in Slovak). Rusovce. Hungarian) May 6, 2004. http://www.bratislava[89] Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 43 rusovce.sk/kultura/ [90] "Germans and Hungarians in Pozsony" kultura_gerulata.html. Retrieved on June (PDF). 2008. http://epa.oszk.hu/00000/ 1 2007. 00033/00020/pdf/ [80] "Natural Environment". City of szemle_2005_1_vadkerty.pdf. Retrieved Bratislava. 2007. on June 22 2008. http://www.visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ [91] "shp.hu". 2008. http://www.shp.hu/hpc/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1039&p1=1816. web.php?a=commorakozigaz&o=SzMCfBlp4x. Retrieved on May 1 2007. Retrieved on June 22 2008. [81] "Environment: Sad Janka Kráľa (Životné [92] "Samospráva" (in Slovak). City of prostredie: Sad Janka Kráľa)" (in Slovak). Bratislava. 2007. Borough of Petržalka. January 29, 2007. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo/ http://www.petrzalka.sk/buxus/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700000&id=74366&p1=76 generate_page.php?page_id=934. Retrieved on November 21 2007. Retrieved on April 25 2007. [93] "Historický vývoj samosprávy" (in [82] "Bratislava Culture and Information Slovak). City of Bratislava. 2005. Centre - Botanical gardens". Bratislava http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ Culture and Information Centre. 2007. dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=74 http://www.bkis.sk/ Retrieved on June 6 2007. index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=55&Itemid=30. [94] "Primátor" (in Slovak). City of Bratislava. Retrieved on July 28 2007. 2005. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ [83] "Rusovce". City of Bratislava. February o_osoba.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id_o=1097 14, 2005. http://www4.bratislava.sk/en/ Retrieved on April 29 2007. vismo5/ [95] ^ "Mestská rada" (in Slovak). City of dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=2005914. http://www.bratislava.sk/ Bratislava. Retrieved on May 1 2007. vismo5/ [84] "Urban Bratislava". Statistical Office of dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=74 the Slovak Republic. December 31, 2005. Retrieved on April 29 2007. http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/ [96] "Mestské zastupiteľstvo" (in Slovak). City prvav2.jsp?txtUroven=410190&lstObec=582000&Okruh=sodb. of Bratislava. 2005. Retrieved on April 25 2007. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ [85] "Population and Housing Census 2001". dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=74 Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved on April 29 2007. 2001. http://portal.statistics.sk/ [97] ^ "Komisie mestského zastupiteľstva" (in showdoc.do?docid=3035. Retrieved on Slovak). City of Bratislava. 2005. April 25 2007. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ [86] Permanently resident population by dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=74 nationality and by regions and districts Retrieved on April 29 2007. archive link [98] "Magistrát" (in Slovak). City of [87] Iris Engemann (European University Bratislava. 2005. Viadrina, Frankfurt/Oder) The http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ Slovakization of Bratislava 1918-1948. dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=74 Processes of national appropriation in Retrieved on April 29 2007. the interwar-period. CEU 07.03.2008 [99] "Bratislava remains blue, Ďurkovský in http://web.ceu.hu/ charge". The Slovak Spectator. urbanstudiesworkshop/documents/ 2006-12-11. http://slovakspectator.sk/ iris_engemann.pdf clanok-25394.html. Retrieved on June 19 [88] http://www.foruminst.sk/publ/szemle/ 2007. 2007_2/szemle_2007_2_lovisek-julia.pdf [100]Bratislava - Local Government System". " NAME CHANGES OF THE STREET IN theparliament.com. 2007. BRATISLAVA FROM POLITICAL http://www.eupolitix.com/EN/Forums/

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Bratislava

City+of+Bratislava/ Basic%20information.htm?LANG=EN. a1801f57-40bd-4caf-9749-21724bc3a1f5.htm. Retrieved on May 3 2007. Retrieved on April 30 2007. [109]effrey Jones (August 27, 1997). "VW J [101] "Petržalka City". City of Bratislava. ^ Bratislava expands production". The 2007-03-01. http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/ Slovak Spectator. vismo/ http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1074&p1=1852. clanok-7923.html. Retrieved on April 25 Retrieved on January 29 2008. "Petržalka 2007. City will transform the largest and most [110]A brief journey through a long history: " densely populated housing estate in 2000-2003". Volkswagen. 2007. Central Europe from a monotone http://www.volkswagen.com/ cement-panel housing scheme into a vwcms_publish/vwcms/master_public/ fully-fledged town with autonomous virtualmaster/en2/unternehmen/ multipurpose centre." geschichte.html. Retrieved on April 25 [102]Local Government". City of Bratislava. " 2007. . "Volkswagen (Slovak Republic)". 2005. http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ Global Auto Systems Europe. 2006. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1044&p1=1811. http://www.globalautoindex.com/ Retrieved on April 29 2007. maker.plt?no=2082. Retrieved on April [103]Bratislavsky Kraj (Bratislava Region) " 25 2007. . "Volkswagen sales up to a Economy". Eurostat. February 2004. record Sk195.5 billion". The Slovak http://forum.europa.eu.int/irc/dsis/ Spectator. April 2, 2007. regportraits/info/data/en/sk01_eco.htm. http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ Retrieved on April 25 2007. clanok-27262.html. Retrieved on April 25 [104]Regional GDP per inhabitant in the " 2007. EU27" (PDF). Eurostat. February 12, [111]Lenovo invests in Slovakia with new " 2008. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/ jobs". Slovak Investment and Trade pls/portal/docs/PAGE/ Development Agency. April 20, 2006. PGP_PRD_CAT_PREREL/ http://www.sario.sk/?news&novinka=58. PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008/ Retrieved on April 25 2007. . "Dell in PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008_MONTH_02/ Bratislava". Dell. 2007. 1-12022008-EN-AP.PDF. Retrieved on http://www.job.dell.sk/buxus/ February 13 2008. generate_page.php?page_id=398. [105]http://www.onlinespravy.sk/clanok/ [ Retrieved on April 25 2007. 90388/Priemerna-mzda-v-Bratislave-na[112] aláž, Vladimír (2007). "Regional B urovni-29-722-Sk Priemerná mzda v Polarization under Transition: The Case Bratislave na úrovni 29 722 Sk (in of Slovakia". European Planning Studies Slovak)] 15 (5): 587–602. doi:10.1080/ [106]Current statistics; Unemployment " 09654310600852639. December 2007 (Aktuálne štatistiky; [113]River Park". City of Bratislava. 2007. " Nezamestnanosť - december 2007)" (in http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ Slovak) (ZIP). Central Office of Labour, dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1072&p1=185 Social Affairs and Family (Ústredie Retrieved on June 6 2007. práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny). [114]EUROVEA International Trade Centre". " December 2007. http://www.upsvar.sk/ City of Bratislava. 2007. rsi/rsi.nsf/0/ http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ 250f977cd12ce5c6c12572bc003184a8/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1072&p1=184 $FILE/0712.ZIP. Retrieved on February Retrieved on June 6 2007. 13 2008. [115]Regeneration of Central Railway Station " [107]Economy and employment". City of " Square Area". City of Bratislava. 2007. Bratislava. February 23, 2006. http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ http://www4.bratislava.sk/en/vismo5/ dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1073&p1=185 dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=2018019. June 3 2007. Retrieved on Retrieved on June 8 2007. [116] om Nicholson (2007-01-29). "Twin City T [108]Basic Information". City of Bratislava. " to uplift bus station". The Slovak 2007. http://www.bsse.sk/Content/EN/ Spectator. StockExchange/ http://www.slovakspectator.sk/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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clanok.asp?vyd=2007004&cl=26446. generate_page.php?page_id=41413. Retrieved on June 6 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. [117]New investments in Bratislava, " [127]Musical Bratislava". Slovak Tourist " especially near the Danube river". City of Board. 2007. http://www.slovakia.travel/ Bratislava. http://www4.bratislava.sk/ entitaview.aspx?l=2&ami=108102&smi=108102&llt vismo5/ Retrieved on July 26 2007. dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=2011114. [128]Slovak national museum - SNM office". " Retrieved on June 6 2007. Slovak National Museum. 2007. [118]Budget". City of Bratislava. 2007. " http://www.snm.sk/ http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/vismo/ ?lang=eng&section=expo&org=1&show. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1034&p1=1812. Retrieved on October 7 2007. Retrieved on April 29 2007. [129] eáta Husová (January 19, 2007). B [119]Obchodné spoločnosti mesta" (in " "Profile of the museum". Bratislava City Slovak). City of Bratislava. 2005. Museum. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo/ http://www.muzeum.bratislava.sk/en/ o_utvar.asp?id_org=700000&id_u=987&p1=52000. vismo/ Retrieved on April 29 2007. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700016&id=1004&p1=51. [120]Mestské organizácie" (in Slovak). City of " Retrieved on May 4 2007. Bratislava. 2005. [130]Bratislava City Gallery - about us " http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo/ buildings". Bratislava City Gallery. 2007. o_utvar.asp?id_org=700000&id_u=988&p1=52000. http://www.gmb.sk/en/. Retrieved on Retrieved on April 29 2007. May 17 2007. [121] "Turistická sezóna v Bratislave ^ [131]Danubiana Meulensteen Art Museum " (Tourist season in Bratislava)" (in About us". Danubiana Meulensteen Art Slovak). City of Bratislava. 2007-05-23. Museum. 2007. http://www.bratislava.sk/vismo5/ http://www.danubiana.sk/eng. Retrieved dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=79947.21 2007. on June Retrieved on June 1 2007. [132]Slovan Bratislava - najväčšie úspechy " [122] uzana Habšudová (2006-05-29). Z (Slovan Bratislava - greatest "Bratislava wearies of stag tourism". The achievements)" (in Slovak). Slovan Slovak Spectator. Bratislava. 2006. http://www.slovakspectator.sk/ http://www.slovanfutbal.com/sk/ clanok-23460.html. Retrieved on April 28 ?go=sien_naj_uspechy. Retrieved on May 2007. "We hope the number of British 15 2007. . "Slovan Bratislava - História tourists visiting Slovakia will continue to (History)" (in Slovak). Slovan Bratislava. increase, but we want it to be 2006. http://www.slovanfutbal.com/sk/ responsible tourism." ?go=klub_historia. Retrieved on May 15 [123]Genius Loci of Bratislava". Slovak " 2007. Tourist Board. 2007. [133] arta Ďurianová (May 22, 2006). M http://www.slovakia.travel/ "Slovakia to host ice hockey World entitaview.aspx?l=2&ami=108102&smi=108102&llt=1&idp=17890. Championships in 2011". The Slovak Retrieved on July 26 2007. Spectator. http://slovakspectator.sk/ [124]Cultural Institutions". Bratislava Culture " clanok.asp?vyd=online&cl=23434. and Information Centre. 2007. Retrieved on April 27 2007. http://www.bkis.sk/ [134]Twin City Journal - The Oldest Athletic " index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=52&Itemid=140. City of Event in Slovakia" (PDF). Retrieved on July 26 2007. Bratislava. April 2006. p. 7. [125]Visit Bratislava - Culture". City of " http://www.bratislava.sk/soubory/ Bratislava. http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/ 700000/ vismo/ 3089784_TwincityApril2006Web.pdf. dokumenty2.asp?id_org=700014&id=1036&p1=1817. Retrieved on April 28 2007. Retrieved on May 1 2007. [135]Academia Istropolitana". City of " [126]Wilsonic ako bratislavský hudobný " Bratislava. 2005-02-14. festival" (in Slovak). Bratislavské Noviny. http://www4.bratislava.sk/en/vismo5/ May 31, 2007. dokumenty2.asp?u=700000&id_org=700000&id=20 http://www.bratislavskenoviny.sk/buxus/ Retrieved on January 5 2008.

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[136]Univerzita Komenského" (in Slovak) " vystavba/projekt-cepit-sa-posunul-o-krok(PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz vpred. Retrieved on 2008-01-29. školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ [147]Bratislava". Encyclopædia Britannica. " VS_P01.PDF. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 2007. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/ [137]Slovenská technická univerzita" (in " article-9357955/Bratislava. Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a [148]Trasy liniek (routes)" (in Slovak). " prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/ Dopravný podnik Bratislava. 2007. statis/pdf/VS_P21.PDF. Retrieved on http://www.dpb.sk/trasy/trasy.htm. 2008-02-15. Retrieved on May 17 2007. [138]Bratislava, Slovakia: Vysoka Skola " [149]Vienna-Bratislava in 50 Minutes (Wien " Manazmentu (VSM)". City University of Bratislava in 50 Minuten)" (in German). Seattle. 2005. http://www.cityu.edu/ ORF. 2007-10-19. loc_bratislava.htm. Retrieved on June 1 http://burgenland.orf.at/stories/229622/. 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. [139]Visit Bratislava - Facts and Figures" " [150]Airport served more than 2 million " (PDF). City of Bratislava. 2007. passengers last year (Letisko vybavilo http://visit.bratislava.sk/en/ vlani viac ako 2 milióny pasažierov)" (in VismoOnline_ActionScripts/ Slovak). TASR, published in Bratislavské File.aspx?id_org=700014&id_dokumenty=1041. Noviny. 2008-01-13. Retrieved on April 30 2007. http://www.bratislavskenoviny.sk/73806/ [140] "Prehľad základných škôl v školskom ^ cestovny-ruch/letisko-vybavilo-vlani-viacroku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav ako-2-miliony-pasazierov. Retrieved on informácií a prognóz školstva. 2006. January 13 2008. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ZS_P1.PDF. [151]Bratislava City - Twin Towns". © " Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 2003-2008 Bratislava-City.sk. [141]Prehľad gymnázií v školskom roku 2006/ " http://www.bratislava-city.sk/bratislava-twin2007" (in Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií towns. Retrieved on 2008-10-26. a prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/ statis/pdf/GYM_P1.PDF. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. • Horváth, V., Lehotská, D., Pleva, J. (eds.) [142]Prehľad stredných odborných škôl v " et al. (1979) (in Slovak). Dejiny Bratislavy školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) (History of Bratislava) (2nd ed.). (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz Bratislava, Slovakia: Obzor. školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ • Janota, Igor (2006) (in Slovak). SOS_P1.PDF. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. Bratislavské rarity (Rarities of Bratislava) [143]Prehľad združených stredných škôl v " (1st ed.). Bratislava, Slovakia: školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovak) Vydavateľstvo PT. ISBN 80-89218-19-9. (PDF). Ústav informácií a prognóz • Kováč, Dušan (2006) (in Slovak). školstva. http://www.uips.sk/statis/pdf/ Bratislava 1939–1945 – Mier a vojna v ZSS_P1.PDF. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. meste (Bratislava 1939–1945 – Peace and [144]Prehľad stredných odborných učilíšť a " war in the town) (1st ed.). Bratislava, učilíšť v školskom roku 2006/2007" (in Slovakia: Vydavateľstvo PT. ISBN Slovak) (PDF). Ústav informácií a 80-89218-29-6. prognóz školstva. http://www.uips.sk/ • Kováč, Dušan et al. (1998) (in Slovak). statis/pdf/SOU_P1.PDF. Retrieved on Kronika Slovenska 1 (Chronicle of 2008-02-15. Slovakia 1). Chronicle of Slovakia (1st [145]Your Innovative Centre in Bratislava" ed.). Bratislava, Slovakia: Fortuna Print. Vajnory". CEPIT Management. 2007. ISBN 80-71531-74-X. http://www.cepit.info/?id=101. Retrieved • Kováč, Dušan et al. (1999) (in Slovak). on April 28 2007. Kronika Slovenska 2 (Chronicle of [146] andzo, Juraj (2007-11-21). "CEPIT H Slovakia 2). Chronicle of Slovakia (1st Project moved one step forward (Projekt ed.). Bratislava, Slovakia: Fortuna Print. CEPIT sa posunul o krok vpred)" (in ISBN 80-88980-08-9. Slovak). Bratislavské Noviny. http://www.bratislavskenoviny.sk/60236/

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava, Slovakia: DAJAMA. ISBN 80-88975-16-6. • Špiesz, Anton (2001) (in Slovak). Bratislava v stredoveku (Bratislava in the Middle Ages) (1st ed.). Bratislava, Slovakia: Perfekt. ISBN 80-8046-145-7. • Varga, Erzsébet (1995) (in Hungarian). Pozsony (1st ed.). Pozsony: MadáchPosonium. ISBN 80-7089-245-5. • Jankovics, Marcell (2000) (in Hungarian). Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban (Twenty years in Bratislava) (2nd ed. ed.). Pozsony: Méry Ratio. ISBN 80-88837-34-0.

Bratislava

External links
• • • • • • • Official website of the City of Bratislava Bratislava Culture and Information Centre Bratislava travel guide from Wikitravel Travel guide to Bratislava Public urban transport in Bratislava Webcam map Gateway to Bratislava - non-commercial

Images
• Contemporary Bratislava Photography • Albums with historical and new photos • Flickr: Photos tagged with "Bratislava"

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bratislava" Categories: Bratislava, Capitals in Europe, Cities and towns in Slovakia, Settlements on the Danube This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 11:34 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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