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					     CHAPTER 3
CAMPAIGNS & ELECTIONS




       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   1
 ELECTIONS IMPORTANT IN
      DEMOCRACY
• We pick representatives who make policy
  decisions which determine who gets what
• We judge official’s past actions and decide
  at the ballot box whether to re-elect him or
  kick him out – called retrospective voting
• People tend to vote their pocketbooks
  – 1980 Carter lost to Reagan (economy bad)
  – 1992 Bush lost to Clinton (economy bad)

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      2
 ELECTIONS IMPORTANT IN
      DEMOCRACY
• Elections provide protection against official abuse
  (we get to vote the bums out)
   – In California, Democratic Governor Gray Davis
     became the first governor to be recalled and removed
     from office by voters before his term was up – was
     replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger
   – In 2006 the Democrats took control of the U.S. House
     of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, partly due to
     several high-profile Republicans being convicted of
     fraud and corruption (Cunningham from California and
     Ney from Ohio).

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)              3
      TIMING OF ELECTIONS
• Presidential elections
  –   Held every four years, even years
  –   1992 Clinton vs. Bush
  –   1996 Clinton vs. Doyle
  –   2000 Bush 2 vs. Gore
  –   2004 Bush 2 vs. Kerry
  –   2008 ??? Vs. ??? McCain/Romney??? Vs.
      Obama/Clinton????
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   4
    TIMING OF ELECTIONS
• Texas gubernatorial elections
  – Elections held every four years, even non-
    presidential election years
     •   1990 Ann Richards vs. Clayton Williams
     •   1994 Ann Richards vs. George W. Bush
     •   1998 George W. Bush vs. Gary Mauro
     •   2002 Rick Perry vs. Tony Sanchez (Perry actually
         became governor in 2000 when Bush was elected
         president – Perry, the Lt. Governor, assumed the
         governor’s spot)

                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            5
    TIMING OF ELECTIONS
• 2006:
  – Republican: Rick Perry
  – Democrat: Chris Bell (used to be a member of the
    U.S. House of Representatives until the Texas
    Legislature in 2003 redrew the districts to help elect
    more Republicans [Tom DeLay’s idea] – Bell also
    served on the Houston City Council and ran
    unsuccessfully for Mayor of Houston several times)
  – Independent: Kinky Friedman (lives in Austin and
    sings with the Texas Jew Boys Band – has had several
    best-selling records and books—his campaign slogans
    were: ―Why the hell not‖ and ―How hard can it be‖)

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)              6
  TIMING OF ELECTIONS
– Independent: Carol Keeton Strayhorn (was the Texas
  Comptroller of Public Accounts— a Republican—but ran as an
  independent because she thought she would have trouble beating
  Rick Perry in the Republican primary—billed herself as ―one
  tough grandma‖)
– During the 2006 gubernatorial campaign, Texas Secretary of State
  Roger Williams ruled that Carol Strayhorn couldn’t put
  ―Grandma‖ by her name on the November ballot, but Kinky
  Friedman could have Kinky on the ballot—he appeared on the
  ballot as Richard ―Kinky‖ Friedman—the Secretary of State ruled
  that ―Grandma‖ was more of a political slogan than a nickname




                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                     7
    TIMING OF ELECTIONS
• 2010
  – There’s some talk that Kinky Friedman may run for
    governor again, but this time as a Democrat—many
    Democrats hope that Houston Mayor Bill White
    (former head of the Democratic Party in Texas) will run
    for Governor as a Democrat.
  – There’s some talk that U.S. Senator Kay Bailey
    Hutchison will return to Texas and run for Governor as
    a Republican—and, of course, Lt. Governor David
    Dewhurst plans to run for Governor as a Republican—
    still no word from Governor Rick Perry as to whether
    he will seek re-election.

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           8
    TIMING OF ELECTIONS
• Houston mayoral race
  – Every two years, odd-numbered years
  – Houston has term limits of 3 two-year terms
     •   1997 (Lee Brown)
     •   1999 (Lee Brown)
     •   2001 (Lee Brown)
     •   2003 (Bill White)
     •   2005 (Bill White)
     •   2007 Bill White ran for the last time
  – Houston mayoral candidates do not run as Democrats
    or Republicans—Houston mayoral elections are
    nonpartisan elections.

                          Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     9
         CONSTITUTIONAL
          REQUIREMENTS
• President
  – Must be a natural-born citizen of U.S. [Arnold
    Swartzenegger could not run]
  – Must be a resident of U.S. for at least 14 years
  – Must be at least 35 years old
  – Cannot be elected for more than two terms
    (22nd Amendment)


                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          10
        CONSTITUTIONAL
         REQUIREMENTS
• There are ongoing discussions about
  amending the constitution to remove the
  requirement that the President must be born
  in America (would allow people like former
  Secretaries of State Henry Kissinger and
  Madeline Albright and California
  Governor Arnold Schwartzenegger to be
  considered).
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   11
            CONSTITUTIONAL
             REQUIREMENTS
• New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson became the first
  Hispanic to run for president when he threw his hat in the
  ring for the Democratic nomination in the 2008
  presidential election—Richardson’s father is an Anglo who
  married a Mexican while working in Mexico—Richardson
  was able to run for the presidency because his father sent
  Richardson’s mother to the United States to have her
  baby—afterwards, both mother and baby returned to
  Mexico until Richardson was in the seventh grade—
  Richardson ultimately dropped out of the presidential race.



                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           12
       CONSTITUTIONAL
        REQUIREMENTS
– In September 2004 a California Congressmen
  introduced a constitutional amendment that
  would remove the ―born-in-America‖
  presidential requirement and would substitute a
  requirement that presidential candidates must
  have lived in the U.S. for at least 20 years
  (Arnold’s OK since he came here in 1983).



                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      13
           CONSTITUTIONAL
            REQUIREMENTS
• Also some individuals feel we should change the
  22nd amendment to the constitution so it only
  limits the President to two consecutive terms
  rather than two terms in a lifetime. Presidents
  would have to leave at the end of two terms, but
  could be called back down the road if the voters so
  chose—that’s the way it is in Russia—President
  Vladimir Putin will have to step down as
  President in Spring 2008 because of term limits—
  he could, however, come back in 2012 to run for
  president again.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      14
           CONSTITUTIONAL
            REQUIREMENTS
• U.S. Senator
  –    Must be at least 30 years old
  –   Must be a citizen of U.S. for at least 9 years
  –   No term limits
  –   Must be a resident of state from which elected
      (residency requirements vary state to state)
       • Hillary Clinton moved to New York in 2000 election year so
         she could run for Daniel Patrick Moynihan's open Seat and
         won
       • Elizabeth Doyle moved to North Carolina to run for Senate
         seat after her husband Bob Doyle’s unsuccessful 1996
         presidential campaign against Bill Clinton—she won.


                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                15
         CONSTITUTIONAL
          REQUIREMENTS
• U.S. Representative
  – Must be a resident of state from which elected (not
    necessarily congressional district)
     • Tom DeLay claimed he was ineligible to run for re-election in
       November 2006 because he had moved his residency to
       Virginia—Republicans wanted to put another Republican on
       the ballot, but a judge said no – DeLay had won the March
       primary so he had to stay on the ballot – DeLay withdrew his
       name – Shelley Sekulah-Gibbs (a Republican) got on the
       ballot as a write-in candidate, but lost to Democrat Nick
       Lampson.


                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                  16
        CONSTITUTIONAL
         REQUIREMENTS
– Must be at least 25 years old
– Must be a citizen of U.S. for at least 7 years
– No term limits




                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        17
OTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR
        SUCCESS
• Must be able to sell themselves
• Must be willing to live politics daily
• Must be able to communicate well with
  others
• Often begin political careers at early age
  and make politics their career
• Frequently lawyers (2/3’s of Senators and ½
  of Representatives)
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   18
      GAY AND LESBIAN
    CANDIDATES WINNING
• As of Summer 2002, there were 223 openly
  gay politicians at the local, state and federal
  level (approximately 1% of the 511,039
  elective offices in the U.S.)
• Most served at the local and state level.
• About 94% were Democrats and 6% were
  Republicans.

                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    19
       GAY AND LESBIAN
     CANDIDATES WINNING
• There are three openly gay lawmakers at the federal level:
   – Barney Frank, a Massachusetts Democrat
   – Jim Kolbe, an Arizona Republican
   – Tammy Baldwin, a Wisconsin Democrat
• Mark Foley, a Republican representative from Florida,
  came out of the closet that he was gay after he resigned in
  the wake of the page scandal.
• Larry Craig, a Republican senator from Idaho, continues
  to deny he is gay or has ever been gay in spite of the
  pending criminal charges against him for soliciting gay sex
  from an undercover police officer in the adjacent stall in
  the Minneapolis/St. Paul airport restroom.

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          20
      HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR
        BECOMES MAYOR
• In November 2005 an 18-year-old high
  school student was elected mayor of
  Hillsdale, Michigan, a town of about 9,000
  people – he defeated the 51-year-old
  incumbent mayor and may now be the
  youngest mayor in America (his high school
  government teacher was his political
  advisor).
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   21
   INCUMBENTS USUALLY
          WIN
• Incumbents have strong advantage in
  fundraising because they:
  – Get more PAC money
  – Can do favors for contributors
• Since 1950 more than 90% of incumbent
  Representatives have won re-election and
  70% of incumbent Senators have won re-
  election

                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   22
        WHY INCUMBENTS
         USUALLY WIN
• Incumbents have better name recognition
• Incumbents have familiar faces
• Incumbents have the franking privilege – get to
  mail self-promotional materials free while their
  opponents have to pay for postage
• Incumbents have generous travel allowances
• Incumbents have large professional staffs who can
  perform services for constituents

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     23
   CAMPAIGN STRATEGIES
• Candidates have to sell themselves just like
  manufacturers sell commercial products –
  sometimes try to tweak their image
  – When Jesse Ventura ran for governor of
    Minnesota, he posed as Rodin’s The Thinker in
    one campaign advertisement.
  – Former Texas Governor Ann Richards posed
    astride a motorcycle for a 1992 Texas Monthly
    cover

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     24
CAMPAIGN STRATEGIES
– Orlando Sanchez, who ran in 2003 for the second time
  to be Houston’s mayor, appeared on the cover of the
  May 2003 biker magazine called Full Throttle
  straddling his Harley Davidson Road King and sporting
  a black leather jacket – during his 2001 campaign he
  rode around Houston in a bright yellow Hummer
  suggesting it was the only way to navigate Houston’s
  pot-filled streets
– Al Gore, who ran against Bush for president in 2000,
  hired a dress consultant to help him look less stuffy (not
  surprisingly she told him to ditch the suit and tie)

                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            25
   CAMPAIGN STRATEGIES
• Loretta Nall, the Libertarian Party’s write-in
  candidate for Governor of Alabama in 2006,
  campaigned on her cleavage.
• Her campaign offered T-shirts and marijuana stash
  boxes adorned with a photo of Nall with a
  plunging neckline and the words: ―More of these
  boobs.‖ Below that were pictures of the
  Republican and Democratic candidates and the
  words: ―And less of these boobs.‖
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    26
   CAMPAIGN STRATEGIES
• Nall’s Website featured a cartoon of
  someone stuffing bills down the front of her
  low-cut top. If you donated $50 to her
  campaign, you got to see a cartoon of Nall
  flashing her breasts.
• P.S. She lost.


                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   27
       CAMPAIGN THEMES
• Candidates often pick a catchy theme the voters
  will remember:
   – 1840 presidential candidate William Henry Harrison:
     ―Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too‖
   – 1928 presidential candidate Herbert Hoover: ―A
     chicken in every pot, a car in every garage‖
   – 1964 theme of presidential candidate Barry
     Goldwater: ―In your heart you know he’s right‖
      • Converted by Lyndon Johnson to ―In your guts you know
        he’s nuts‖

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)               28
    CAMPAIGN THEMES
– 1992 theme of presidential candidate Bill
  Clinton: ―Time for a change‖
– 1996 theme of presidential candidate Bill
  Clinton: ―Building a bridge to the 21st
  century‖
– 2000 theme of presidential candidate George
  Bush: ―Compassionate Conservative‖
– 2000 theme of presidential candidate Al Gore:
  ??? (maybe that’s part of the problem?)

                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        29
      CAMPAIGN THEMES
• 2004 theme Bush: ―Steady Leadership in
  Times of Change‖ or ―A Tested Leader‖
• 2004 theme Kerry: ―The Real Deal‖ or
  ―Stronger at Home, Respected in the
  World‖



               Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   30
         CAMPAIGN SONGS
• Get a theme song – a bad campaign song can tank
  a candidate
   – Ex. Michael Dukakis’ theme song: Neil Diamond’s
     ―Coming to America‖
   – Ex. Ronald Reagan’s misuse of Bruce Springsteen’s
     song ―Born in the U.S.A.‖ – sounds patriotic, but it’s
     really about a worn-out Vietnam veteran who can’t get
     a break despite living in the land of opportunity—bad
     song or not, Reagan won election to two terms.


                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          31
         CAMPAIGN SONGS
• A good theme song can boost a candidate
   – Ex. Bill Clinton’s theme song: Fleetwood Mac’s
     ―Don’t Stop Thinking About Tomorrow‖
• During the 2004 Democratic presidential primary
  season, the candidates picked the following songs:
   – John Edwards: ―Small Town‖ by John Mellencamp
   – John Kerry: ―No Surrender‖ by Bruce Springsteen
     and ―I Won’t Back Down‖ by Tom Petty


                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        32
     CAMPAIGN SONGS
– Howard Dean: Elvis’ ―A Little Less
  Conversation‖
– Al Sharpton: Bob Marley’s ―Get Up, Stand
  Up‖
– Joe Lieberman: Sister Sledge’s ―We Are
  Family‖
– Dick Gephardt: Tina Turner’s ―Simply the
  Best‖

              Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     33
          CAMPAIGN SONGS
• George W. Bush during the 2000 presidential election
  campaign used a song entitled ―We The People‖ which
  was written by pop artist/song writer Anna Wilson.
• Hillary Clinton’s 2008 campaign theme song is Celine
  Dion’s ―You and I.‖
• Interesting Tidbit about William Howard Taft’s
  campaign jingle over a 100 years ago (he was the 27th
  President): It was entitled ―Get on the Raft with Taft‖ –
  many mocked the song since Taft weighed 300-plus
  pounds and was unlikely to share a raft with anyone.


                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)             34
  IDENTIFY OPPONENT WITH
      NEGATIVE IMAGE
• 1988 presidential election between George
  Bush I and Michael Dukakis most
  negative campaign of recent times (but the
  2004 campaign gave it a run for the money)
  – Bush portrayed Dukakis as weak on crime
    (famous Willie Horton ad)
  – Dukakis painted Bush as frolicking with
    Manual Noriega and drug dealers in Panama
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     35
   IDENTIFY OPPONENT WITH
       NEGATIVE IMAGE
• 1964 ―Daisy girl‖ commercial by Lyndon
  Johnson left impression that Goldwater
  would start a nuclear holocaust
• 2000 Bush ad criticized Gore for his
  exaggerations – ex., I invented the internet



                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      36
  IDENTIFY OPPONENTS WITH
      NEGATIVE IMAGE
• Negative ads often used at the end of campaign
   – 2000 Gore ad disclosed that Bush had been arrested for drunk
     driving in 1976
• In 2004 campaign negative ads were run by independent
  groups (called 527 groups).
   – Swift Boat Group ran ads saying Kerry was unfit to be president
     because he came back from Vietnam, threw his medals away, and
     gave congressional testimony about the atrocities he witnessed in
     Viet Nam – the group alleged that this hurt soldiers still fighting in
     South Viet Nam and the POW’s locked up in North Viet Nam
     [P.S. During Hillary Clinton’s victory speech in New York on
     Super Tuesday 2008, she assured her supporters that she would not
     allow herself to be ―swift-boated.‖.

                           Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                    37
IDENTIFY OPPONENT WITH
    NEGATIVE IMAGE
– Texans for Justice group ran ads saying Bush should
  not be re-elected president because he used his father’s
  influence to get into the Texas Air National Guard
  during the Viet Nam War and was able to fly airplanes
  around Texas rather than be shot at in Viet Nam – to
  make matters worse, he got permission to transfer his
  last year to Alabama to help a Bush family friend
  campaign for a congressional seat and there is some
  question whether he fulfilled his last-year duties or
  whether he received preferential treatment to get an
  honorable discharge without really performing his last-
  year duties.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            38
         OTHER CAMPAIGN
           STRATEGIES
• Focus groups and polling are essential to
  success
• Media campaign professionals identify ―hot
  button‖ issues
• Seek free airtime for candidates
  – Debates, talk shows, news shows
  – Paid advertising spots are the most expensive
    part of a political campaign

                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        39
         OTHER CAMPAIGN
           STRATEGIES
• Get your name out in public by distributing
  lots of bumper stickers, campaign buttons,
  and T-shirts – here are some 2004 bumper
  stickers:
  – Kerry is Scary
  – John Kerry? No thanks – I already have a
    wafflemaker.
  – I won’t vote for a son of a Bush.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     40
       OTHER CAMPAIGN
         STRATEGIES
– Bush bin-Lyin
– John Kerry for President . . . of France (with
  picture of Kerry in beret)
– Better hair for a better America –
  Kerry/Edwards 2004
– Don’t be a girlie man – vote Republican!



                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        41
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• In 2004 YouTube didn’t exist.
• In 2007 YouTube became a vital part of the 2008
  presidential campaign.
• More than 2.5 million people viewed ―I’ve Got a
  Crush . . . On Obama‖ about Democratic
  presidential candidate Barack Obama.
• A rebuttal video of women fighting over Obama
  and leading Republican contender Rudy Guiliani
  was watched by more than half a million viewers
  in just four days.

                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        42
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• In July 2007 and November 2007, CNN
  aired the first-ever presidential debates (first
  the Democrats and then the Republicans) in
  which Americans submitted questions to the
  2008 presidential candidates via videos
  submitted to YouTube—one of the
  questions in the first Democratic debate
  came from a melting snowman about global
  warming.
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     43
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• A YouTube video contributed to the defeat of
  incumbent U.S. Senator George Allen from
  Virginia in the November 2006 mid-term
  congressional election—the video captured Allen
  referring to a person of Indian descent from an
  opposing camp (who was following Allen around)
  as ―macaca‖—which means ―monkey.‖
• Nowadays, you have to assume that everything
  you do could be caught on someone’s cell phone
  and end up on YouTube.
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    44
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• In January 2007 Hillary Clinton announced
  her presidential candidacy and participated
  in three live online chats—the campaign
  solicited questions in advance and Clinton
  responded on her Website.




                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   45
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• The night before John Edward formally
  announced his presidential candidacy from New
  Orleans to a battery of cameras from the
  traditional media, his advisers posted a 2-1/2-
  minute video on YouTube.com and
  Rocketboom.com in which the candidate outlined
  the themes of his campaign. To draw attention to
  that video, the campaign bought advertising on a
  variety of political blogs and e-mailed bloggers.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         46
 TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT IN
    MODERN ELECTIONS
• When Barack Obama set up his
  exploratory committee, his campaign sent
  an e-mail to supporters with a link to a
  video of the candidate describing why he
  was preparing to run for President.




                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   47
 MONEY: MOTHER’S MILK OF
        POLITICS
• Raising money is the most important task of a
  candidate—technology has made it easier—today
  if you do well in a debate on Tuesday night, you
  can begin raising large sums of money on
  Wednesday morning via the Internet.
   – All candidates combined in 2000 presidential election
     year spent over $1 billion – Bush set record highs
   – Professional fundraisers hold the key to success
   – Bush and Kerry set new records in campaign
     expenditures during the 2004 election.

                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)             48
 MONEY: MOTHER’S MILK OF
        POLITICS
• Federal Elections Commission (FEC)
  (begun in 1972) is responsible for enforcing
  campaign finance laws
• One of their rules is that corporations and
  unions cannot give directly to a political
  candidate—they must donate to political
  action committees (PACs) and the PACs
  contribute to the political candidates.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   49
       TOP 10 PACS IN 2006
• National Association of Realtors
   – 51% Democrats
   – 49% Republicans
• National Beer Wholesalers Association
   – 31% Democrats
   – 69% Republicans
• National Association of Home Builders
   – 26% Democrats
   – 72% Republicans

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   50
       TOP 10 PACS IN 2006
• National Auto Dealers Association
   – 30% Democrats
   – 70% Republicans
• International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
   – 97% Democrats
   – 3% Republicans
• International Union of Operating Engineers
   – 75% Democrats
   – 24% Republicans

                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    51
       TOP 10 PACS IN 2006
• American Bankers Association
   – 35% Democrats
   – 64% Republicans
• Laborers International Union of North America
   – 84% Democrats
   – 15% Republicans
• American Association for Justice
   – 96% Democrats
   – 3% Republicans

                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   52
      TOP 10 PACS IN 2006
• Credit Union National Association
  – 45% Democrats
  – 54% Republicans




                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   53
   TEXAS PACS FAVOR GOP
• In the first nine months of 2007, the 46 Texas
  companies that are included in the Fortune 500
  gave 73% of their PAC contributions to
  Republican House and Senate candidates in Texas.
• The top two recipients were U.S. Senator John
  Cornyn (R-Texas) and U.S. Representative Joe
  Barton (R-Ennis, who is the top Republican on the
  House Energy and Commerce Committee).

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    54
WHAT DO CONTRIBUTORS GET
      FOR THEIR $$?
• Access to government officials or agencies
• Help with navigating through government
  bureaucracy (cutting red tape)
• Not quid pro quo because that’s illegal
  (group gives money in exchange for a
  Senator voting a certain way)


                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    55
           $$ IN PRESIDENTIAL
                ELECTIONS
• Money for presidential candidates comes from:
   –   Their own independent organization
   –   Their particular political party
   –   Personal finances
   –   PACs
   –   Federal government
   –   In the 2000 presidential election between Bush and
       Gore over $600 million was spent for primary and
       general elections

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           56
       $$ IN CONGRESSIONAL
             ELECTIONS
• Cost of U.S. House and Senate races varies
   – Avg. Senate Seat costs $5 to $7 million
      • 2000 open Senate seat in New York: Democrat Hillary
        Clinton and Republican Rick Lazio spent over $85 million
        combined
      • 2004 Tom Daschle spent $17.4 million trying to hold on to his
        South Dakota seat but lost
   – Avg. House Seat costs $700 million
      • 1988 re-election campaign of Newt Gingrich most expensive:
        $7.5 million
      • 2005 Martin Frost spent $3.9 million but lost

                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                 57
 CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• In the aftermath of Watergate, Congress passed the Federal Election
  Campaign Act, instituting a system of partial public financing for
  presidential primary candidates and full public financing for general
  election candidates. Candidates who qualify and agree to abide by
  certain restrictions receive payments from U.S. Treasury. The federal
  payments come out of the Presidential Election Campaign Fund, which
  is filled by the $3 check-off on federal income tax forms.
• In 1996 the campaign finance system experienced a catastrophic
  failure. Laws were bent, if not broken, and stories about White House
  coffees, Lincoln bedroom sleepovers, and Chinese money filled the
  headlines through much of 1997. The Federal Election Commission
  proved ineffective at enforcing campaign finance laws that were
  themselves in need of an overhaul. Large soft money contributions to
  the political parties drew particular criticism.



                          Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                 58
 CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• After years of work campaign finance reform advocates
  achieved a major victory on March 20, 2002 when the
  Senate passed the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of
  2002 (BCRA, also known as McCain-Feingold) in a 60 to
  40 vote. President Bush quietly signed the measure into
  law (Public Law No. 107-155) on March 27, 2002; it took
  effect on November 6, 2002 although its constitutionality
  was challenged in the U.S. Supreme Court and legal
  wrangling continued well after the 2004 election. There
  were concerns that cutting off the flow of soft money to
  the parties would harm those institutions, but the parties
  adapted well to the new environment.
                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          59
 CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• One small but noteworthy change brought about by BCRA was to raise
  the $1,000 limit on individual contributions to $2,000. The $1,000
  limit had not been adjusted for inflation since the law was enacted in
  1974 and was worth about one-third of the original level.
• BCRA did not address shortcomings of the system of partial public
  funding. The federal income tax check-off is plagued by a low level of
  citizen participation -- in recent years only about 11 percent of filers
  have done the check off compared to 27.5 percent on 1976
  returns. Another problem is that leading primary candidates, not
  wishing to be constrained by limits, are opting not to take primary
  matching funds (in 2004 Bush, Dean and Kerry opted out). In 2004
  the Fund distributed a total of $207.5 million: $28.4 million in
  matching funds to eight primary candidates, $29.8 million for the two
  major party conventions, and $149.2 million to the two major party
  candidates for their general election campaigns.


                           Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                   60
 CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• BCRA stemmed the flow of soft money to the
  parties, but the large soft money contributions
  quickly found a new channel in the so called
  "Section 527" political organizations. 527s,
  named after a section of the tax code, can engage
  in voter mobilization efforts, issue advocacy and
  other activity short of expressly advocating the
  election or defeat of a federal candidate. There are
  no limits to how much they can raise.
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      61
CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• In 2004 election, independent ―527‖ groups
  spent millions (ex., Swift Boat Group
  against Kerry and Texans for Justice against
  Bush).




                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   62
   CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS

• In 2008, Hillary Clinton indicated early on
  that she planned to opt out of public
  financing in both the primary elections and
  the general election (a first).




                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     63
 CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS
• FEDERAL PROPERTY: The old and
  new campaign finance laws ban solicitation
  of campaign funds at the White House,
  Capitol, or on other federal property.
• FOREIGNERS: The old and new
  campaign finance laws ban foreigners from
  giving to federal, state or local elections.

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   64
  REPAIR PLAN PROPOSED IN
          SENATE
• To fix the problem of presidential
  candidates abandoning public financing’s
  meager amounts to pursue private sector’s
  enormous sums, Senator Russ Feingold (a
  Wisconsin Democrat) and Representatives
  Martin Meehan (a Massachusetts Democrat)
  and Christopher Shays (a Connecticut
  Republican) proposed the following
  improvements:
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   65
REPAIR PLAN PROPOSED IN
        SENATE
– Raise the spending limits for public subsidy in
  the primary and general elections to more
  realistic levels, scrapping the current 1:1 match
  of individual contributions for a 4:1 match that
  makes a $200 donation worth $1,000.
– Provide extra subsidies for participating
  candidates who find themselves running against
  a rival tapping private donations to far outspend
  the public financing guidelines.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      66
REPAIR PLAN PROPOSED IN
        SENATE
– Make public funds available six months before
  the first primary to encourage competitiveness
  in the cycle’s front-loading frenzy that
  produces the two finalists by March.
– Raise the current $3 voluntary checkoff on an
  individual’s tax return and institute an
  education program about the merits of public
  financing and the fact that a checkoff does not
  affect tax liability.
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          67
  WHICH POLITICAL PARTY
    RAISES MOST $$$?
• Republicans have always been more
  successful than Democrats in raising money
• But, in 1992/1996 elections Clinton helped
  the Democrats close the gap
• Rewards for contributions to Democratic
  Party during Clinton’s administration:
  – $250: Got to attend briefing by White House
    staff and receive a lapel pin

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       68
WHICH POLITICAL PARTY
  RAISES MOST $$$?
– $1000: Got to attend a coffee with Hillary or
  Tipper
– $5000: Got to attend a coffee with Bill Clinton
  and got a tour of the Oval Office
– $25,000 - $50,000: Got to attend a dinner with
  Bill Clinton in small groups of 10 to 20
– $50,000 - $100,000: Got invited to a dinner, an
  evening get-together and a sleepover in the
  Lincoln bedroom

                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      69
  WHICH POLITICAL PARTY
    RAISES MOST $$$?
  – Unknown large amounts?: Got to play golf
    with Bill at the Congressional Country Club in
    Potomac, Maryland
• 2004 Election: Bush and Kerry raised
  records sums of money – the 2004
  presidential election was the most expensive
  one ever
• 2008 Election: When the final numbers
  come in, they will be record-breaking.
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         70
          VOTING IN TEXAS
• Requirements for voting in Texas
   – Must be 18 years of age or older
   – Must be a citizen of the U.S.
   – Must not have been adjudged mentally incompetent by
     a court
   – Must be a resident of Texas
   – Since 1997 felons who have completed their sentence,
     probation, parole or other criminal justice supervision
     can vote


                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           71
      VOTING IN TEXAS
– Must be registered to vote (must be registered
  30 days before election to vote in election)
– To vote in the March 4, 2008, primary
  elections, you must be registered to vote by
  Monday, February 4, 2008.
– To inquire about your voter registration status
  in Brazoria County, contact the Brazoria
  County Tax Assessor-Collector at 979-864-
  1320.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         72
      VOTING IN TEXAS
Interesting side note about other states:
In Main and Vermont imprisoned felons
can vote.
In Massachusetts felons could vote until
2000 when citizens changed the state
constitution so they couldn’t


               Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   73
          VOTING IN TEXAS
• Texans receive a new voter registration card every
  two years as long as their registrations are not
  canceled.
• What if you move within county?
   – After moving, notify the county voter registrar in
     writing of your new address. You should transfer your
     registration to your new address as soon as possible.
   – You may vote at your previous precinct for one year
     after you move (or until your registration is transferred,
     whichever comes first).

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)             74
        VOTING IN TEXAS
• What if you move from one county to
  another county?
  – You must re-register in the county of your new
    residence.
  – You may be eligible to vote a limited ballot for
    90 days after you move if your new registration
    is not yet effective. However, the limited
    ballot is available only during early voting, not
    on election day.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       75
           VOTING IN TEXAS
• While students live on college campuses (Texas A & M or
  UT for example), they can vote in College Station or
  Austin (must reregister in the new county) or they can
  request a ballot be mailed to them from their home district
  to the college they are attending or they can come home on
  election day or during early voting period and vote back
  home.
• There was a recent controversy in Waller County, home to
  Prairie View A & M – some Republican officials
  questioned whether Prairie View students should be
  allowed to vote in local elections – students got lawyers
  who filed lawsuits and marched in protest – students won
  because they were right!

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           76
          VOTING IN TEXAS
• If a person can’t find his voter registration card, he
  can still vote as long as he is registered to vote and
  can produce one of the following documents:
   – A driver’s license or personal ID card issued by the
     Department of Public Safety or a similar document
     issued by an agency of another state, regardless of
     whether the license or card has expired;
   – A form of ID containing your photograph that
     establishes your identity;

                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            77
       VOTING IN TEXAS
– A birth certificate or other document confirming birth
  that is admissible in a court of law and establishes your
  identity;
– United States citizenship papers issued to you.
– A United States passport issued to you;
– Official mail addressed to you, by name, from a
  governmental entity;
– A copy of a current utility bill, bank statement,
  government check, paycheck or other government.


                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            78
VOTING IN HARRIS COUNTY
• In July 2002 the Justice Department notified
  Harris County election officials that voting
  materials must be translated into Vietnamese.
• Harris County planned to do this by the 2003
  election, but were not able to because the software
  could not be upgraded in time. Therefore,
  Vietnamese was not included on the eSlate
  electronic voting machine. Instead, Vietnamese-
  speaking voters were given a paper template in
  Vietnamese to use with the eSlate.
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      79
VOTING IN HARRIS COUNTY
• Now Harris County is trying to hire a full-time
  coordinator to the Vietnam election program and
  to have interpreters at polling places where more
  than 50 Vietnamese surnames are registered. An
  early voting location was opened up in a
  Vietnamese social service agency.
• Harris County also has hired a full-time Hispanic
  coordinator.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         80
  EARLY VOTING IN TEXAS
• Early voting in Texas
  – More people voting early
  – No longer necessary to give a reason for being
    absent on election day
  – Lasts for 16 days – begins 20 days before an
    election and ends 4 days before
  – Polls usually open from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and at
    least 1 weekend
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          81
  EARLY VOTING IN TEXAS
• Each early voting site contains every ballot in the
  county (perhaps 25-30).
• If you wait until election day to vote, you must
  vote only in the precinct shown on your voter
  registration card and will probably stand in very
  long lines.
• Early voting for the March 4 primary begins
  Tuesday, February 19 (usually begins on a
  Monday, but Monday, February 18, is President’s
  Day, a holiday).
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      82
   EARLY VOTING SITES IN
     BRAZORIA COUNTY
• Angleton: Brazoria County Courthouse
  Annex
• Clute: Reliant Energy/HL&P Building
• Manvel: JP, Pct. 2, Pl. 1 Courtroom
• Alvin: Alvin Library
• Brazoria: Precinct 4 Commissioner
  Headquarters
• Pearland: JP, Pct. 3, Pl. 2 Courtroom
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   83
 VOTING BY MAIL IN TEXAS
• You can vote by mail in Texas if you are:
   –   65 years of age or older
   –   Confined in jail
   –   Disabled
   –   Absent from the county on election day AND absent
       during the early-voting period
• To vote by mail you request an application from
  the county clerk and file it within a certain time
  period.
                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          84
 VOTING BY MAIL IN TEXAS
• You can go the Secretary of State’s website and
  download the form:
   – www.sos.state.tx.us:80/
   – Don’t get your mother to get the form, forge your name
     and send it in.
   – Why? Because when the County Clerk sends you the
     ballot in the mail, you have to sign the envelope. When
     the County Clerk compares the signature on the
     application and the ballot envelope, they won’t match,
     and your vote will be thrown out.
                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          85
         WHY DO WE VOTE ON
             TUESDAY?
• Congress passed a law in 1845 setting Tuesday as election
  day (previously voting days varied among the states).
• Congress deemed Tuesday the most convenient day for
  what was then mostly a largely rural society because:
   – Saturday was workday on the farm.
   – Sunday was the Lord’s Day.
   – Monday was out because many farmers could not reach the county
     seat to vote in their horse-drawn carriages in just one day.
   – Wednesday was market day for many communities.
• There’s a movement underway by some to change election
  day to the weekend (often done in other parts of the world)
  – many feel that doing so would increase voter
  participation.
                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)               86
        BALLOTS IN TEXAS
• Ballots in Texas
   – Who goes first? In primary election, candidates draw
     straws. In general election, party that controls the
     governor’s office goes first
      • 2000 ballot: Bush before Gore (because Perry, a Republican,
        was governor)
      • 2004 ballot: Bush before Kerry (Perry was still governor)
   – Can vote a straight-party ticket
   – Long ballots – often contain numerous constitutional
     amendments

                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)                    87
   EASY FOR FOREIGNERS TO
      ILLEGALLY VOTE
• When foreigners apply for a Texas voter
  card, they are asked if they are a U.S.
  citizen.
• If they say yes, they are sent a card.
• There’s no data base that county clerks can
  use to check to see if a voter applicant really
  is a U.S. citizen – it’s an honor system.
• Sometimes foreigners do vote illegally here.
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   88
    WRITE-IN CANDIDATES
• Write-in candidates for state offices or
  congressional seats in Texas must file a
  ―declaration of write-in candidacy‖ with the Texas
  Secretary of State and either pay a filing fee or
  submit a petition with signatures from 500
  registered voters in the counties where they are
  running.
• Easier for write-in-candidates for president to get
  on the ballot: Candidates must file a declaration
  and a slate of 34 electors.
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      89
         NADER A WRITE-IN
           CANDIDATE
• Ralph Nader did not get on the Texas ballot
  in 2004 (Texas is a difficult state to get on
  the ballot), but he did qualify as an official
  write-in candidate.




                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   90
 VOTING IN STATES OTHER
      THAN TEXAS
• Arizona and Michigan: Experimented in
  some elections with voting over the internet
• Oregon: Since 1998 all elections in Oregon
  conducted with mail-in ballots
  – Convenient
  – Allows voters to make better-informed choices
  – In 2000 primary elections, # people voting
    increased by 16%
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    91
 VOTING IN OTHER STATES
  – In 2000 presidential election 80% of registered
    voters in Oregon voted, compared with 51%
    nationwide
  – To prevent fraud, voters have to sign ballots –
    every signature on ballot compared with
    signature on registration card
• Washington: Voters can vote by mail if
  they want to or they can vote in person –
  about half voted by mail in 2000
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      92
 VOTING IN OTHER STATES
• Six states permit voters to register and vote on the
  same day (called same-day voter registration)
   –   Minnesota
   –   Maine
   –   Wisconsin
   –   New Hampshire
   –   Wyoming
   –   Idaho


                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    93
 VOTING IN OTHER STATES
• All six states showed higher voter turnouts
  between 1996 and 2000
• California: Believe it or not, a constitutional
  amendment has been proposed in California
  which, if passed, would allow kids as young as 14
  to vote:
   – A 14-15-year-old voter: Vote would count for ¼ a
     vote.
   – A 16-17-year-old voter: Vote would count for ½ a
     vote.

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         94
 2 VOTING BILLS FILED IN U.S.
   SENATE (109th CONGRESS)
• The Republican-sponsored bill would have
  required electronic voting machines to produce
  paper records of the votes cast.
• The Democratic-sponsored bill would have:
   – Made election day a holiday.
   – Required paper receipts for votes.
   – Authorized $500 million to help states make necessary
     changes.


                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          95
 2 VOTING BILLS FILED IN U.S.
   SENATE (109TH CONGRESS)
  – Allowed ex-felons to vote (currently an
    estimated 4.7 million Americans are barred
    from voting because of their criminal records)
  – Required adoption of changes in time for the
    2006 election.
• No final bill was passed.



                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         96
       CARTER/BAKER PRIVATE
          COMMISSION
• A private commission led by former
  President Jimmy Carter and former
  Secretary of State James Baker III studied
  changes that would strengthen state election
  procedures (to correct flaws exposed in
  2000 and 2004 elections)
• Their main recommendations were:

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   97
  CARTER/BAKER PRIVATE
      COMMISSION
– States, not local jurisdictions, should be in
  charge of voter registration, and state
  registration lists should be interconnected so
  voters could be purged automatically from the
  rolls in one state when they registered in
  another.
– Voters should be required to present photo ID
  cards at the polls, and states should provide free
  cards to voters without driver’s licenses (24
  states, including Texas, already require this).
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       98
  CARTER/BAKER PRIVATE
      COMMISSION
– States should make registration and voting more
  convenient with innovations like mobile registration
  vans and voting by mail and on the Internet.
– Electronic voting machines should make paper copies
  for auditing.
– In presidential election years, after the Iowa caucuses
  and New Hampshire primaries, the other states should
  hold regional primaries and caucuses at monthly
  intervals in March, April, May and June, with the order
  rotated.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           99
  1965 VOTING RIGHTS ACT
• Was a cornerstone achievement of the civil rights
  movement.
• Overturned decades of laws preventing blacks
  from voting, especially in the south.
• Parts of the act were set to expire in 2007, but
  were recently extended by Congress for another
  25 years.
• The original act outlawed poll taxes and literacy
  tests.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     100
  1965 VOTING RIGHTS ACT
• In 1960 there were only 22,000 registered blacks
  in Mississippi—by 1966 there were 175,000.
• Section 5 of the act required Texas and eight other
  states with a history of discrimination in voting
  practices to get federal permission to change their
  election-related procedures—the act also requires
  these states to provide bilingual ballots and ballot
  assistance.

                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      101
     P DIDDY ENCOURAGING
         YOUNG TO VOTE
• Sean ―P. Diddy‖ Combs teamed up with
  MTV in 2004 in an initiative called ―Citizen
  Change‖ which encouraged young people
  and minorities to vote.
• The group sold ―Vote or Die‖ T-shirts.



                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   102
  RECENT VOTER TURNOUT
• 2002 mid-term election: 39.7% of the voting age
  population voted.
• 2006 mid-term election: 40.4% of the voting age
  population voted.
• More people turn out to vote during presidential election
  years:
   – 2000 51.3%
   – 2004 55.3%
• 2008: If the primaries are any indication, voter turnout in
  2008 is going to be huge. The 2008 presidential election
  is, in one word, exciting!

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)             103
 RECENT VOTER TURNOUT IN
         FRANCE
• In France’s April 2007 presidential election,
  an astonishing 84% of eligible citizens
  voted in the first round.




                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   104
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
   THE PRIMARY RACE
• The 2008 presidential race will last almost two
  years from start to finish, which makes it the
  longest campaign ever.
• In the primaries, presidential candidates must gain
  attention of the media
   – Especially important in early stages
   – Helpful if prior job made their names familiar
• Prior political experience is increasingly essential
   – Since 1960 all presidential contenders have held major
     political offices before entering race
   – Experience counts in the public’s eye
                      Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          105
   PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
     THE PRIMARY RACE
• Timing is important.
  – In 2008 Fred Thompson didn’t announce his
    campaign until a half a year after the other
    Republican competitors—it didn’t work –
    voters perceived Thompson to be lazy and to
    have little enthusiasm for the job—his
    campaign never caught fire and he eventually
    dropped out – the American people expect
    people to sweat and bleed for the most
    important job in the world.
                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       106
   PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
     THE PRIMARY RACE
• Television ads don’t matter as much as they
  used to. In 2008 Mitt Romney spent $.4
  million on TV ads in Iowa for almost a year
  before the caucus and still came in a distant
  second. In 2008 Voters seem to be relying
  more on personal exposure and information
  from social networks, talk radio, the
  Internet and local media coverage.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   107
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• The 2008 primary campaigns have utilized the
  Internet, cable TV, and YouTube—the candidates
  know there are multiple news cycles in one day
  and they need to be ready for an instantaneous
  response.
• Candidates know they can’t just appeal to one part
  of the party. Winners know they have to draw
  support from the greatest number of diverse
  elements within the party.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     108
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
   THE PRIMARY RACE
• It’s always been important to make a good
  showing in the early caucuses (Iowa) and
  primaries (New Hampshire).
  – Rudy Guiliani’s strategy to not campaign in the
    early primary states but instead to put all his
    efforts into winning the seventh primary in
    Florida (where lots of ex-New Yorkers retire)
    didn’t work – he made a poor showing and
    dropped out of the race.

                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     109
PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE PRIMARY RACE
– John McCain’s 2008 first-place showing in the
  New Hampshire primary breathed new life into
  a campaign many had written off—after the
  New Hampshire win, money started flowing in
  to McCain’s near-bankrupt campaign coffers.




                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    110
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• The Republicans and Democrats allocate delegates
  differently in the primary elections.
• On the Republican side, most states assign all of their
  delegates from the primary election to the candidate who
  gets the most votes (winner-take-all elections), with
  California as a notable exception.
• However, on the Democratic side, delegates are awarded at
  the state and congressional district levels. At both levels, a
  candidate who gets less than 15% of the vote receives no
  delegates. Of the 4,049 Democratic delegates, 796 are so-
  called super delegates—almost 20% of the total delegates
  at the national convention.

                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            111
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
   THE PRIMARY RACE
• According to a 1981 decision by the U.S. Supreme
  Court, national parties, not the states, determine
  the rules governing their respective presidential
  nominating processes. The states decide their
  primary election dates, but the national parties
  make the rules.
• Before the 2008 campaign, presidential candidates
  relied on a nominating system that was easy to
  understand. Iowa and New Hampshire got to go
  first and the states abided by the calendar set by
  national party rules and waited their turn.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     112
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• In 2008 that all changed. The national parties made a rule
  for the 2008 campaign that if states held their primaries too
  early (before February 5), they would lose at least half of
  their delegates to the convention.
• In spite of the rule, Florida and Michigan moved their
  primaries earlier in January, which then forced Iowa and
  New Hampshire to move their elections up earlier. The
  Iowa caucus was held on January 3, 2008, the earliest ever
  – voters were barely over their New Year’s hangover when
  they were going to the caucus. Michigan’s primary was
  held on January 15 and Florida’s primary was held on
  January 29.
                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            113
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• The Democratic National Committee’s Rules and
  Bylaws Committee voted in September 2007 to
  enforce their rule and strip Florida and Michigan
  of their voting delegates.
• Texas considered moving its primary from early
  March back to February 5 (Super Tuesday) during
  the 2007 session of the Texas Legislature, but it
  didn’t pass.
• California did, however, vote to move its primary
  back earlier to February 5.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    114
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• February 5, 2008, better known as Super Tuesday, was a
  de facto national primary—on the Democratic side, 22
  states held primaries and caucuses – on the Republican
  side, 21 states held contests.
• On the Democratic side, it was very tight – both Hillary
  Clinton and Barack Obama had something to brag about.
  While Clinton won delegate-rich Democratic goldmines
  like New York, New Jersey, and California, Obama scored
  victories in 13 states to Clinton’s eight. Clinton ended up
  with a few more delegates. The stage has been set for a
  contentious Democratic battle in post-February 5 primary
  elections in states like Maryland, Virginia, Texas, Ohio
  and Pennsylvania.

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          115
   PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGIN
      THE PRIMARY RACE
• On the Republican side, John McCain was the
  clear Super Tuesday winner, with impressive
  primary victories in the delegate-rich states of
  California, New York and Illinois. Mike
  Huckabee surprised many by winning five
  southern states: West Virginia, Tennessee,
  Arkansas, Georgia and Alabama. Mitt Romney
  vowed to continue his campaign, even though he
  only won the relatively delegate-poor states of
  Alaska, Colorado, Massachusetts, Minnesota,
  Montana, North Dakota and Utah.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        116
 NATIONAL CONVENTIONS
    FOR THE PARTIES
• The Democratic Party held its national
  convention in Boston in July 2004.
• The Republican Party held their national
  convention in New York City in August
  2004.
• In 2008 the Democrats are going to Denver
  and the Republicans are going to
  Minneapolis-St. Paul.

                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   117
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE GENERAL ELECTION
• Winner determined by electoral college, NOT
  POPULAR VOTE—set up this way to protect
  residents of small states—every congressional
  district gets an electoral vote.
   – In 2000 Gore won popular vote, but Bush won
     presidency in electoral college
• 538 total delegates in electoral college, one each
  for:
   – 435 members U.S. House
   – 100 members U.S. Senate
   – 3 Washington, D.C.

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)        118
  PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
   THE GENERAL ELECTION
• Must win majority of electoral vote (half plus one). 270 is
  the magic number.
• If no one gets 270 electoral votes or if there is a tie:
   – U.S. House of Representatives picks President from top 3
   – U.S. Senate picks Vice President from top 2
   – Only two presidents have been picked by the House of
     Representatives: Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams
• In the 2000, 2004 and 2008 elections, Texas had or will
  have 32 electoral votes.
• In the 2012 election, Texas will likely have 37 or 38
  electoral votes-- after the 2010 census and
  reapportionment, Texas is expected to get 3-4 more
  representatives due to population growth.
                        Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)              119
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
     THE GENERAL ELECTION
• Each party selects its own electors and places their
  names on file in the Secretary of State’s office in
  Austin.
• The U.S. Constitution stipulates that of the
  president and vice president elected, at least one of
  those candidates must not be from the same state
  as the state of electors in that state—as a result, the
  candidates for president and vice president may
  not be from the same state.
                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       120
   PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
    THE GENERAL ELECTION
• The 2000 presidential election came down
  to Florida’s 25 electoral votes.
• When the U.S. Supreme Court stopped the
  recount, Bush had 537 more votes than
  Gore so he got all of Florida’s 25 electoral
  votes (they and most states have a winner-
  take-all system).

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      121
    PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
     THE GENERAL ELECTION
• The electoral picture before Florida was:
   – Bush 246 electoral votes
   – Gore 267 electoral votes
• When Bush got the most votes in Florida, he was
  able to add all 25 electoral votes to his 246
  electoral votes and have 271 electoral votes, one
  more than he needed to win the presidency.
• Ralph Nader got 97,000 votes in Florida. If 538
  of them had voted for Gore, he would have
  received all of Florida’s 25 electoral votes and
  become the president.
                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   122
   PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
    THE GENERAL ELECTION
• The 2004 presidential election came down
  to which candidate carried Ohio
• Bush got 51% of the vote in Ohio and Kerry
  got 48%
• Therefore, Bush got all 20 of Ohio’s
  electoral votes and won the presidency with
  286 electoral votes.

                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   123
        INTERESTING TIDBIT
• Only 4 times in our history has the person who
  received the most votes not been elected president
  by the electoral college:
   –   1824
   –   1876
   –   1888
   –   2000
• No president has ever won re-election after
  ―losing the popular vote‖ except for Bush in 2004.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     124
   COLORADO VOTED ON
CHANGE IN ELECTORAL VOTE
• Colorado voted in November 2004 on whether to
  replace its winner-take-all system with another
  system which would divvy up its 9 electoral votes
  in proportion to a candidate’s popular vote.
• The voters said no so Colorado remains a winner-
  take-all state.
• Only Main and Nebraska allocate electors on the
  basis of votes received.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     125
         DIRECT ELECTION OF
             PRESIDENT
• The National Popular Vote Plan passed both houses of the
  Maryland Legislature and was signed into law by the
  Governor—the California legislature passed a similar bill.
• The scheme, invented by John R. Koza, a Stanford
  professor, relies on the provision of the Constitution giving
  legislatures the power to ―appoint‖ their presidential
  electors. If legislatures in enough states to make up a
  majority of the Electoral College (270 electoral votes)
  pledge to commit those votes to the candidate winning the
  NATIONAL popular vote, no constitutional amendment is
  needed.

                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)            126
       DIRECT ELECTION OF
           PRESIDENT
• If this had been in effect in 2000, Al Gore,
  who got half a million more votes than
  George W. Bush, would have become
  President.




                  Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     127
        DIRECT ELECTION OF
            PRESIDENT
• Critics argue that direct elections would lead to a
  multi-candidate, multi-party system instead of the
  two-party system we have—many candidates
  would run on narrow issues (anti-immigration,
  pro-gun, environment, national security, anti-war,
  etc.) rather than focus on what’s best for the nation
  as a whole.
• Also, candidates would focus on the urban areas
  rather than rural areas.
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       128
 ANOTHER POSSIBLE REFORM

• Some people think the U.S. should consider
  reforming the system so that we elect the
  president for a single six-year term.
• This is not a new idea – support for it comes
  from such people as former Chief Justice
  John Marshall, President Andrew Jackson,
  Henry Clay and Mike Mansfield.

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   129
 ANOTHER POSSIBLE REFORM

• Why a single six-year term? The incredible
  challenges of today’s presidency are so
  great that a chief executive should be
  running for the history books—not another
  term.
• Who else does this? Mexico.


                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   130
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE GENERAL ELECTION
• We vote at the ballot box the first Tuesday after
  the first Monday in November—in 2008, we will
  vote on November 2.
• Electoral college meets in 50 state capitols on the
  Monday following second Wednesday in
  December (never meets in one location)
• Strategies to win vary by candidates
• Nixon was last presidential candidate to campaign
  in all 50 states (1960)

                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     131
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE GENERAL ELECTION
• Wins in the big states can add up electoral votes
  quickly
• For the first time ever, the 2004 U.S. presidential
  election was monitored by a team of international
  observers (the Organization for Security and
  Cooperation in Europe).
• Nationally televised debates are very important in
  helping some voters decide who to vote for.
   – From 1976 to 1984 presidential debates were sponsored
     by the League of Women Voters.
                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         132
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE GENERAL ELECTION
   – In 1986 the Democratic and Republican Parties took
     over.
   – Established the Commission on Presidential Debates in
     1987.
• In 1996 the Commission on Presidential Debates
  kept Ross Perot from the presidential debates
  (even though Perot had received almost $30
  million in federal matching funds and a substantial
  majority of likely voters wanted him included).

                     Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)         133
  2008 PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE
          SCHEDULE
• In November 2007, the Commission on
  Presidential Debates announced the sites,
  dates, formats and candidate-selection
  criteria for the 2008 general election
  presidential debates.
• First presidential debate: Friday, September
  26, University of Mississippi in Oxford,
  Mississippi (focus on domestic policy).
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   134
  2008 PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE
          SCHEDULE
• Vice presidential debate: Thursday, October 2,
  Washington University in St. Louis, MO.
• Second presidential debate: Tuesday, October 7,
  Belmont University in Nashville, TN (town
  meeting format with issues raised by members of
  the audience).
• Third presidential debate: Wednesday, October
  15, Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York
  (focus on foreign policy).
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   135
 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
  THE GENERAL ELECTION
• 2000 and 2004 presidential elections
  – Both candidates focused on swing states that
    could go either way – Florida, Michigan,
    Pennsylvania, etc.
  – Both candidates spent little time in states where
    they had little chance of winning
     • Bush in California (even though it had 54 electoral
       votes)
     • Gore and Kerry in Texas (Governor Bush had
       home-town advantage)
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           136
     WHAT’S WRONG WITH
   PRESIDENTIAL SELECTION?
• It starts too early, takes too long and ends too abruptly.
• It excludes many serious candidates—there’s an
  assumption that anyone who hasn’t held elective office is
  ineligible.
• It gives too much power to Iowa and New Hampshire, and
  neither state is typical of the nation.
• It gives one person, the presidential nominee, the power to
  determine who is vice president, a person who could
  become president any time and who often becomes a
  serious presidential candidate.


                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)          137
 SOME PECULIAR ASPECTS
   OF 2000 ELECTIONS
• Elections extremely close in some states
  such as Florida, New Hampshire,
  Wisconsin, Oregon, and New Mexico (less
  than 10,000 votes)
• TV networks called elections for one
  candidate and then switched later to another
  candidate in Florida, Oregon, and New
  Mexico
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   138
 SOME PECULIAR ASPECTS
   OF 2000 ELECTIONS
• For first time in American history, the
  spouse of a President ran for public office
  (Hillary for New York Senate – won by 10
  percentage points over Republican Rick
  Lazio – had never lived in New York until
  she bought home in New York and
  established legal residency during election
  year).
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     139
 SOME PECULIAR ASPECTS
   OF 2000 ELECTIONS
• A dead man won a senate seat – Mel
  Carnahan, governor of Missouri and
  Democratic nominee, was killed in an
  airplane crash several weeks before election
  day – he beat incumbent Senator John
  Ashcroft (Republican) – later new governor
  of Missouri appointed Carnahan’s wife,
  Jean Carnahan, to fill the senate seat until
  next general election in 2002
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   140
FIX-UP BILL PASSED BY U.S.
        CONGRESS
• A bill to overhaul the nation’s election
  system, making it easier to vote and harder
  to cheat passed the U.S. Congress in the
  Fall of 2002 and went into effect in 2004.
• The bill created a new federal agency, the
  Election Assistance Commission, to oversee
  the reforms that states were required to
  enact.
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   141
FIX-UP BILL PASSED BY U.S.
        CONGRESS
• First-time voters will have to produce
  identification in order to vote, but it does not have
  to be a photo ID (could be a utility bill, for
  example) – currently only 12 states require voters
  to show ID (Texas is one of them).
• Voters must have the right to double-check their
  ballots and fix them if they think they made a
  mistake.

                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)       142
FIX-UP BILL PASSED BY U.S.
        CONGRESS
• States must make it easier for disabled people to
  vote (for example, blind people must have a
  method of filling out their own ballots)
• States must develop uniform and
  nondiscriminatory standards for counting ballots.
• States will be given $3.9 billion over a three-year
  period which can be used for purchasing new
  equipment, training, and voter education
  programs.
                    Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      143
  FIX-UP BILL PASSED IN U.S.
          CONGRESS
• These changes were supposed to be
  implemented in time for the November
  2004 election, but many of the most
  important reforms were not in place in the
  most closely contested states due to
  bureaucratic delays and concerns about the
  accuracy and security of high-tech
  electronic voting machines.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   144
     STILL PROBLEMS IN 2006
           ELECTIONS
• Voting experts say it is impossible to know how
  many votes were not counted that should have
  been in the November 2006 elections.
• In Florida the discrepancies reported across
  Sarasota County and three others amount to more
  than 60,000 votes.
• In Colorado as many as 20,000 people gave up
  trying to vote when new on-line systems for
  verifying voter registrations crashed repeatedly.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     145
   STILL PROBLEMS IN 2006
• In Arkansas election officials tallied votes
  three times in one county, and each time the
  number of ballots cast changed by more
  than 30,000.




                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   146
        TEAM SOFTWARE
• In January 2007 a special voter software
  called TEAM went into operation in Texas.
  It cost $13 million. The software connects
  counties through the Internet to a central
  computer in Austin—Texas purchased the
  system to comply with the Help America
  Vote Act of 2002, enacted in response to
  allegations of fraud during the 2000
  presidential election.
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   147
        TEAM SOFTWARE
• Major problems with the software came to
  light in the run-up to the May 12, 2007,
  election, when many counties were unable
  to obtain voter lists, names were kicked off
  the rolls, and voters waited in line for as
  long as 10 minutes each while the system
  verified eligibility.

                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   148
        TEAM SOFTWARE
• Galveston County and several other
  counties (Fort Bend, Harris and
  Montgomery) have announced they will not
  use TEAM any more. Instead, they will use
  their own software, but will remain in
  compliance with federal law by uploading
  voter registration information to TEAM at
  the end of each day.
                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   149
     VOTING CHANGES IN
      HARRIS COUNTY
• By the 2002 midterm election Harris
  County had dumped all its punch-card
  voting machines and had replaced them
  with new eSlate electronic voting machines
  produced by Hart InterCivic
• Total cost: $25 million – 30% more
  expensive than optical scanners

                Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   150
     VOTING CHANGES IN
      HARRIS COUNTY
• These new machines prevent voters from
  inadvertently picking two candidates in the
  same race (overvotes)
• Allow voters to double-check ballot and
  change decisions
• Counting went much faster


                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   151
VOTING IN BRAZORIA COUNTY
• The November 8, 2005, election was the last
  election in which Brazoria County used its punch-
  card machines.
• Volunteers at each polling place for the November
  8, 2005 election demonstrated the new electronic
  voting machines (the same eSlate voting machines
  that Harris County uses) and showed voters how
  they work – the new eSlate voting machines were
  used for the first time in Brazoria County in the
  March 2006 primary elections.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)    152
    FLORIDA GOING BACK TO
        PAPER BALLOTS
• On Thursday, February 1, 2007, the new governor
  of Florida, Charlie Crist, announced plans to
  abandon the touch-screen voting machines that
  many of Florida’s largest counties installed after
  the disputed 2000 presidential election—during
  the November 2006 mid-term election in Florida,
  new touch-screen machines somehow lost 18,000
  votes in Sarasota Florida—the Republican
  Representative won by 369 votes in a machine
  recount.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     153
   FLORIDA GOING BACK TO
       PAPER BALLOTS
• The Florida legislature passed a new law
  that tossed out all the touch-screen
  electronic voting machines by Summer
  2008—instead, Florida will start using
  optical-scanning machines that are based on
  paper ballots, much like a school
  achievement test, which will be counted by
  computers. If a vote recount is needed,
  there will be paper ballots to recount.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   154
 OTHER STATES CONSIDERING
      PAPER BALLOTS
• Other states that rushed to buy the touch-screen
  machines are also abandoning them.
• In late January 2007 the Virginia Senate passed a
  bill that would phase out the machines as they
  wear out and replace them with optical scanners.
• The Maryland Legislature may also switch from
  the paperless touch screens or it may just allow
  paper printers to be added to the touch screens.

                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)     155
        BILL INTRODUCED IN
             CONGRESS
• Representative Rush D. Holt, a Democrat from
  New Jersey, introduced a bill in Congress that
  will require, if passed, all voting machines
  nationwide to produce paper records through
  which voters can verify that their ballots were
  recorded correctly.
• We expect our bank account, ATM cards, credit
  cards and other important transactions to be secure
  from computer irregularities and tampering. We
  should expect no less from our voting system.
                   Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)      156
             VOTER ID LAWS
• Indiana has the strictest voter ID law in the United States.
  The law stipulates that every voter must present an ID
  issued by the state or the federal government. The
  document must contain the voter’s photograph, the voter’s
  name and a current expiration date.
• A similar bill was introduced in the Texas Legislature
  during the 2007 legislative session—during debate over
  the bill there were expletive-filled shouting matches and an
  ailing Democrat who promised to cast a dissenting vote
  while in a hospital gurney outside Senate chambers. The
  measure died after Republican Lt. Governor David
  Dewhurst declined to force a vote on the bill.
                       Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)           157
         VOTER ID LAWS
• A legal challenge to Indiana’s voter-ID law
  is pending before the U.S. Supreme Court
  and will be decided before the close of the
  2007-2008 term. The case involves a 92-
  year-old Indiana woman who voted for
  decades in the same polling place, but
  cannot vote there now because she let her
  driver’s license expire when her eyesight
  began to fail.
                 Chapter 3 - (Revised 2/08)   158

				
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