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Belgrade

Belgrade
The City of Belgrade Град Београд Grad Beograd Željko Ožegović Nikola Pavić Mileta Radojević Miroslav Čučković Slobodan Šolević Area [1] - Urban - Metro Elevation [2] 359.96 km2 (139 sq mi) 3,222.68 km2 (1,244.3 sq mi) 117 m (384 ft)

Aerial view of Belgrade downtown and river shores

Flag

Population (2007)[3] 1,182,000 - City 506/km2 (1,310.5/sq mi) - Density 3,283/km2 (8,502.9/sq mi) - Urban Density 1,630,000 - Metro Belgrader - Demonym
Coat of arms

Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal code Area code(s) Car plates Website

CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) 11000 (+381) 11 BG www.beograd.rs

Location of Belgrade within Serbia

Coordinates: 44°49′14″N 20°27′44″E / 44.82056°N 20.46222°E / 44.82056; 20.46222Coordinates: 44°49′14″N 20°27′44″E / 44.82056°N 20.46222°E / 44.82056; 20.46222 Country District Municipalities Founded City rights Unified Government - Mayor - Deputy Mayor - Ruling parties - City council Serbia City of Belgrade 17 269 B.C. 150 A.D. 1918 Dragan Đilas (DS) Milan Krkobabić (PUPS) DS/G17+/SPS-PUPS/LDP List Goran Aleksić Darko Božić Oliver Glišić Aleksandra Gojković Zoran Kostić Goran Kreclović Dejan Mali Darijan Mihajlović

Belgrade (Serbian: Београд, Beograd listen ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. The city lies on two international waterways, at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkan Peninsula. Likewise, the city is placed along the pan-European corridors X and VII.[4] With a population of 1,630,000 (official estimate 2007)[3], Belgrade is the largest city in the territory of the former Yugoslavia and the third largest in Southeastern Europe,[5] after Istanbul and Athens. One of the oldest cities in Europe, with archeological finds tracing settlements as early as the 6th millennium BC,[6] Belgrade’s wider city area was the birthplace of the largest prehistoric culture of Europe, the Vinča culture.[7] First mentioned by the Greek sources,[8] a settlement on today’s location was founded in 3rd century BC by the Celts who named it the White City, which it still bears.[6] It was awarded city rights by the Romans[9] before it was permanently settled by White Serbs from the 600s onwards. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed to the ground 44

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times[10] since the ancient period by countless armies of the East and West. In medieval times, it was in the possession of Byzantine, Frankish, Bulgarian, Hungarian and Serbian rulers. In 1521 Belgrade was conquered by the Ottomans and became the seat of the Pashaluk of Belgrade, as the principal city of Ottoman Europe[11] and among the largest European cities.[12] Frequently passing from Ottoman to Austrian rule, the status of Serbian capital would be regained only in 1841, after the Serbian revolution. Northern Belgrade, though, remained an Austrian outpost until the breakup of Austria-Hungary in 1918. The united city then became the capital of several incarnations of Yugoslavia, up to 2006, when Serbia became an independent state again. Belgrade has the status of a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city government.[13] Its territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each having its own local council.[14] It covers 3.6% of the territory of Serbia, and 24% of the country’s population lives in the city.[15] Belgrade is the central economic hub of Serbia, and the capital of Serbian culture, education and science.

Belgrade
chiefly residential communities across the Danube, like Krnjača and Ovča, also merged with the city. The city has an urban area of 360 square kilometres (139 sq mi), while together with its metropolitan area it covers 3,223 km² (1,244.4 sq mi). Throughout history, Belgrade has been a major crossroad between the West and the Orient.[16] On the right bank of the Sava, central Belgrade has hilly terrain, while the highest point of Belgrade proper is Torlak hill at 303 m (994 ft). The mountains of Avala (511 m (1,677 ft)) and Kosmaj (628 m (2,060 ft)) lie south of the city.[17] Across the Sava and Danube, the land is mostly flat, consisting of alluvial plains and loessial plateaus.

Climate
Climate chart for Belgrade J F M A M J J A S O N D

49 44 50 59 71 90 66 51 51 40 54 58 4 6 12 18 23 25 27 27 24 18 11 5 -2 0 3 8 12 15 16 16 13 8 4 0 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: Climate-Charts.com Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D

Geography

1.9 1.7 2

2.3 2.8 3.5 2.6 2

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1.6 2.1 2.3

Satellite view of Belgrade Belgrade lies 116.75 metres (383 ft) above sea level and is located at confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers, at coordinates 44°49’14" North, 20°27’44" East. The historical core of Belgrade, today’s Kalemegdan, is on the right bank of the rivers. Since the 19th century, the city has been expanding to the south and east, and after World War II, New Belgrade was built on the Sava’s left bank, merging Belgrade with Zemun. Smaller,

39 43 54 64 73 77 81 81 75 64 52 41 28 32 37 46 54 59 61 61 55 46 39 32 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches Belgrade has a moderate continental climate. The year-round average temperature is 11.7 °C (53.1 °F), while the hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 22.1 °C (71.8 °F). There are, on average, 31 days a year when the temperature is above 30 °C, and 95 days when the temperature is above 25 °C. Belgrade receives about 700 millimeters (27.56 in) of precipitation a year. The average annual number of sunny hours is 2,096. The sunniest months are July and August, with an average of about 10 sunny hours a day, while December and January are the gloomiest, with an average of 2–2.3 sunny hours a day.[18] The highest officially

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recorded temperature in Belgrade was +43.1 °C,[19] while on the other end, the lowest temperature was −26.2 °C on January 10, 1893.[18]

Belgrade
predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.[21] Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum (Zemun), that through Roman and Byzantine times shared a common fate with its "twin brother" (the two cities were connected by a bridge).[25]

History
See also: Timeline of Belgrade history

Ancient city

Middle Ages

Flavius Iovanus, Roman Emperor from Singidunum The Neolithic Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near Belgrade and dominated the Balkans (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor) about 7,000 years ago.[20][21] Some scholars believe that the prehistoric Vinča signs represent one of earliest known forms of alphabet.[22] Settled in the fourth century BC by a Celtic tribe, the Scordisci, the city’s recorded name was Singidūn, before becoming the romanized Singidunum in the first century AD. In the mid 2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full fledged colonia (highest class Roman city) by the end of the century.[9] Apart from the first Christian Emperor of Rome who was born in modern SerbiaConstantine I known as Constantine the Great (Naissus, 280 A.D.[23])- another early Roman Emperor was born in Belgrade: Jovian, the restorer of Christianity, Flavius Iovianus, (Singidunum, 332 A.D.[24]) Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his

The Siege of Belgrade (Nándorfehérvár) in 1456 Singidunum was occupied and often ravaged by successive invasions of Huns, Sarmatians, Gepids, Ostrogoths and Avars before the arrival of the Slavs around 630 AD. It served as the center of the Gepidean Kingdom in the early 500s, before being taken by the Avars. When the Avars were finally destroyed in the 9th century by the Frankish Kingdom, it fell back to Byzantine rule, whilst Taurunum

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Belgrade
unsuccessfully besieging Belgrade first in 1440[28] and again in 1456.[33] As it presented an obstacle to their further advance into Central Europe, over 100,000 Ottoman soldiers[34] have launched the famous Siege of Belgrade, where the Christian army under John Hunyadi successfully defended the city from the Ottomans, wounding the Sultan Mehmed II[35] This battle "decided the fate of Christendom";[36] the noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world to this day.[28][37]

Belgrade Fortress - Despot Stefan Tower became part of the Frankish realm (and was renamed to Malevilla).[26] At the same time (around 878), the first record of the Slavic name Beligrad has appeared, during the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire. For about four centuries, the city remained a battleground between the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Bulgarian Empire.[27] The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade;[28] while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade in ruins.[29] Capital of the Kingdom of Syrmia since 1284, the first Serbian king to rule over Belgrade was Dragutin, who received it as a gift from his father-in-law, the Hungarian king Stephen V.[30] Following the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, and the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the Serbian Empire began to crumble as the Ottoman Empire conquered its southern territory.[31][32] The north, however, resisted through the Serbian Despotate, which had Belgrade as its capital. The city flourished under despot Stefan Lazarević, son of the famous Serbian ruler Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazarević built a castle with a citadel and towers, of which only the Despot’s tower and the west wall remain. He also refortified the city’s ancient walls, allowing the Despotate to resist the Ottomans for almost 70 years. During this time, Belgrade was a haven for the many Balkan peoples fleeing from Ottoman rule, and is thought to have had a population of some 40–50,000.[30] In 1427, Stefan’s successor Đurađ Branković had to return Belgrade to the Hungarians, and the capital was moved to Smederevo. During his reign, the Ottomans captured most of the Serbian Despotate,

Turkish conquest / Austrian invasions

Belgrade in the 16th century It wasn’t until August 28, 1521 (7 decades after the last siege), that the fort was finally captured by Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent and his 250,000 soldiers; subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Christian population (including Serbs, Hungarians, Greeks, Armenians etc) was deported to Istanbul,[28] to the area since known as the Belgrade forest.[38] Belgrade was made the seat of the district (Sanjak), attracting new inhabitants—Turks, Armenians, Greeks, Ragusan traders, and others, and there was peace for the next 150 years. The city became the second largest Ottoman town in Europe at over 100,000 people, surpassed only by Constantinople.[34] Turkish rule also introduced Ottoman architecture to Belgrade and many mosques were built, increasing the city’s Oriental influences.[39] In 1594, a major Serb rebellion was crushed by the Turks. Further on, Grand vizier Sinan Pasha[40] ordered the relics of Saint Sava to be publicly torched on the Vračar plateau; more recently, the Temple of Saint Sava was built to commemorate this event.[41]

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Belgrade

Knez Mihailova street at the end of the 19th century Austrian conquest of Belgrade: 1717 by Eugene of Savoy, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18 Occupied by Austria three times (1688–1690, 1717–1739, 1789–1791), headed by the Holy Roman Princes Maximilian of Bavaria and Eugene of Savoy,[42] respectively, Belgrade was quickly recaptured and substantially razed each time by the Ottomans.[39] During this period, the city was affected by the two Great Serbian Migrations, in which hundreds of thousands of Serbs, led by their patriarchs, retreated together with the Austrians into the Habsburg Empire, settling in today’s Vojvodina and Slavonia.[43] held in Belgrade in June 1896 by Andre Carr, a representative of the Lumière brothers. He shot the first motion pictures of Belgrade in the next year; however, they have not been preserved.[51]

World War I / Unified city
"Kalemegdan is the prettiest and most courageous piece of optimism I know." —Rebecca West in 1913[52]

Serbian capital
During the First Serbian Uprising, the Serbian revolutionaries held the city from January 8, 1807 until 1813, when it was retaken by the Ottomans.[44] After the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, Serbia reached semi-independence, which was formally recognized by the Porte in 1830.[45] In 1841, Prince Mihailo Obrenović moved the capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade.[46][47] With the Principality’s full independence in 1878, and its transformation into the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882, Belgrade once again became a key city in the Balkans, and developed rapidly.[44][48] Nevertheless, conditions in Serbia as a whole remained those of an overwhelmingly agrarian country, even with the opening of a railway to Niš, Serbia’s second city, and in 1900 the capital had only 69,100 inhabitants.[49] Yet by 1905 the population had grown to more than 80,000, and by the outbreak of World War I in 1914, it had surpassed the 100,000 citizens, not counting Zemun which then belonged to Austria-Hungary.[50] The first-ever projection of motion pictures in the Balkans and Central Europe was

The statue of Prince Mihailo III on Republic Square, mid 19th century. Gavrilo Princip’s assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 triggered World War I. Most of the subsequent Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade. Austro-Hungarian monitors shelled Belgrade on July 29, 1914, and it was taken by the Austro-Hungarian Army under General Oskar Potiorek on November 30. On December 15, it was retaken by Serbian troops under Marshal Radomir Putnik. After a prolonged battle which destroyed much of the city, between October 6 and October 9, 1915, Belgrade fell to German and Austro-Hungarian troops commanded by Field Marshal August von Mackensen on October 9, 1915. The city was

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liberated by Serbian and French troops on November 5, 1918, under the command of Marshal Louis Franchet d’Espérey of France and Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Decimated as the front-line city, for a while it was Subotica[53] that was the largest city in the Kingdom; still, Belgrade grew rapidly, retrieving its position by the early 1920s. After the war, Belgrade became the capital of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. The Kingdom was split into banovinas, and Belgrade, together with Zemun and Pančevo, formed a separate administrative unit.[54] During this period, the city experienced faster growth and significant modernisation. Belgrade’s population grew to 239,000 by 1931 (incorporating the town of Zemun, formerly in Austria-Hungary), and 320,000 by 1940. The population growth rate between 1921 and 1948 averaged 4.08% a year.[55] In 1927, Belgrade’s first airport opened, and in 1929, its first radio station began broadcasting. The Pančevo Bridge, which crosses the Danube, was opened in 1935.[56]

Belgrade
Yugoslavia was then invaded by German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces, and suburbs as far east as Zemun, in the Belgrade metropolitan area, were incorporated into a Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. Belgrade became the seat of another puppet government, headed by General Milan Nedić. During the summer and fall of 1941, in reprisal for guerrilla attacks, Germans carried out several massacres of Belgrade citizens; in particular, members of the Jewish community were subject to mass shootings at the order of General Franz Böhme, the German Military Governor of Serbia. Böhme rigorously enforced the rule that for every German killed, 100 Serbs or Jews would be shot.[59] Belgrade was bombed by the Allies on April 16, 1944, killing about 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter.[60] Most of the city remained under German occupation until October 20, 1944, when it was liberated by Communist Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army. On November 29, 1945, Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaimed the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in Belgrade (later to be renamed to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on April 7, 1963).

Communist Yugoslavia
During the post-war period, Belgrade grew rapidly as the capital of the renewed Yugoslavia, developing as a major industrial centre.[48] In 1958, Belgrade’s first television station began broadcasting. In 1961, the conference of Non-Aligned Countries was held in Belgrade under Tito’s chairmanship. In 1968, major student protests against Tito led to several street clashes between students and the police, ending with Tito’s famous saying, "Students are right!". In March 1972, Belgrade was at the centre of the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe, which, through enforced quarantine and mass vaccination, was contained by late May.[61]

National Theatre in Belgrade, mid 19th century

World War II
On March 25, 1941, the government of regent Crown Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis powers in an effort to stay out of the Second World War. This was immediately followed by mass protests in Belgrade and a military coup d’état led by Air Force commander General Dušan Simović, who proclaimed King Peter II to be of age to rule the realm. Consequently, the city was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe on April 6, 1941, and 24,000 people were killed. [57][58]

Post-communist history
On March 9, 1991, massive demonstrations led by Vuk Drašković were held in the city against Slobodan Milošević.[62] According to various media outlets, there were between 100,000 and 150,000 people on the streets.[63] Two people were killed, 203 injured and 108 arrested during the protests,

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Belgrade
’singi’ there are several theories - one being that it is a Celtic word for circle, hence "round fort", and the other that the name originated from the Sings, possibly a Thracian tribe that occupied the area prior to the arrival of the Scordisci.[70] Singidūnum Romans conquered the city and Romanised the Celtic name Slavic name first mentioned in 878 as Beligrad in the letter of Pope John VIII to Boris of Bulgaria which means "White city / white fortress".[71] Latin

Pobednik (The Victor), a symbol of Belgrade and later that day tanks were deployed onto the streets to restore order.[64] Further protests were held in Belgrade from November 1996 to February 1997 against the same government after alleged electoral fraud at local elections.[65] These protests brought Zoran Đinđić to power, the first mayor of Belgrade since World War II who did not belong to the League of Communists of Yugoslavia or its later offshoot, the Socialist Party of Serbia.[66] The NATO bombing during the Kosovo War in 1999 caused substantial damage to the city. Among the sites bombed were the buildings of several ministries, the RTS building, which killed 16 technicians, several hospitals, the Jugoslavija Hotel, the Central Committee building, the Avala TV Tower, and the Chinese embassy.[67] After the elections in 2000, Belgrade was the site of major street protests, with over half a million people on the streets. These demonstrations resulted in the ousting of president Milošević.[68][69] Beograd, Београд

Alba Graeca, "Alba" may be derived from the Latin word for "white" Alba Bulgarica

Latin name during the period of Bulgarian rule over the city[71]

Weißenburg and German translation. GriechischModern German is BelWeißenburg grad.[71] Castelbianco Nandoralba Italian translation[71] In medieval Hungary up to the 14th century[71]

Nándorfehérvár, In medieval Hungary, Landorfehérvár means White Knight’s City. Modern Hungarian is Belgrád.[71] Veligrad(i)on or Velegrada/ Βελέγραδα Dar Al Jihad PrinzEugenstadt Byzantine name. Modern Greek is Veligradi (Βελιγράδι). Arabic name during Ottoman empire. Planned German name of the city after the World War II, had it remained a part of the Third Reich. The city was to be named after Prince Eugene of Savoy, the Austrian military commander who

Names through history
Belgrade has had many different names throughout history, and in nearly all languages the name translates as "the white city". Serbian name Beograd is a compound of beo (“white, light”) and grad “town, city”), and etymologically corresponds to several other city names spread throughout the Slavdom: Belgorod, Białogard, Biograd etc. Name Singidūn(o)Notes Named by the Celtic tribe of the Scordisci; dūn(o)means ’lodgment, enclosure, fort’, and for word

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conquered the city from the Turks in 1717.[72]

Belgrade
As the capital city Belgrade also seats the National Assembly, Government and its agencies and hosts 64 foreign embassies.

Government and politics

Municipalities
See also: Subdivisions of Belgrade, List of Belgrade neighborhoods and suburbs, and List of former and proposed municipalities of Belgrade The city is divided into 17 municipalities.[14] Most of the municipalities are situated on the southern side of the Danube and Sava rivers, in the Šumadija region. Three municipalities (Zemun, Novi Beograd, and Surčin) are on the northern bank of the Sava, in the Syrmia region, and the municipality of Palilula, spanning the Danube, is in both the Šumadija and Banat regions.

The Old Palace, seat of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade

Dragan Đilas is the incumbent Mayor of Belgrade Belgrade is a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city government.[13] The current mayor is Dragan Đilas of the Democratic Party. The first mayor to be democratically elected after World War II was Dr. Zoran Đinđić, in 1996. Mayors were also elected democratically prior to the war. The Civic Assembly of Belgrade has 110 councilors who are elected for four-year terms. The current majority parties are the same as in the Parliament of Serbia (Democratic Party-G17 Plus and Socialist Party of Serbia-Party of United Pensioners of Serbia with the support of Liberal Democratic Party), and in similar proportions, with the Serbian Radical Party and the Democratic Party of Serbia-New Serbia in opposition.[73]

Map of the municipalities of Belgrade Name Barajevo Čukarica Grocka Lazarevac Novi Beograd Area Population Population (km²) (1991) (2002) 213 156 289 384 41 20,846 150,257 65,735 57,848 54,517 218,633 24,641 168,508 75,466 58,511 52,490 217,773

Mladenovac 339

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Obrenovac Palilula Rakovica Savski Venac Sopot Stari Grad Surčin 411 451 31 14 271 5 285 67,654 150,208 96,300 45,961 19,977 68,552
Part of Zemun municipality until 2004.

Belgrade
before.[76] The official estimate for the end of 2007, according to the City’s Institute for Informatics and Statistics, was 1,630,000.[3] Belgrade is home to many ethnicities from all over the former Yugoslavia. Many people came to the city as economic migrants from smaller towns and the countryside, while thousands arrived as refugees from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, as a result of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.[77] Between 10,000 and 20,000 [78] Chinese are estimated to live in Belgrade; they began immigrating in the mid-1990s. Blok 70 in New Belgrade is known locally as the Chinese quarter.[79][80] Many Middle Easterners, mainly from Syria, Iran, Jordan and Iraq, arrived in order to pursue their studies during the 1970s and 1980s, and have remained and started families in the city.[81][82] Afghani and Iraqi Kurdish refugees are among some of the recent arrivals from the Middle East.[83] Although there are several historic religious communities in Belgrade, the religious makeup of the city is relatively homogenous. The Serbian Orthodox community is by far the largest, with 1,429,170 adherents. There are also 20,366 Muslims, 16,305 Roman Catholics, and 3,796 Protestants. There used to be a significant Jewish community, but following the Nazi occupation, and many Jews’ subsequent emigration to Israel, their numbers have fallen to a mere 415.[3]

70,975 155,902 99,000 42,505 20,390 55,543 55,000 (est.) 151,768 58,386 136,645 132,621 1,576,124

Voždovac Vračar Zemun Zvezdara TOTAL

148 3 154 32 3227

156,373 67,438 176,158 135,694 1,552,151

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia[15]

Demographics
See also: Historical population of Belgrade

Economy
Cathedral of Saint Sava and the National Library of Serbia According to the Census 2002, the main population groups according to nationality in Belgrade are Serbs (1,417 187), Yugoslavs (22,161), Montenegrins (21,190), Roma (19,191), Croats (10,381), Macedonians (8,372), and Muslims by nationality (4,617).[74] Recent polls (2007) show that Belgrade’s population has increased by 400,000 in just five years since the last official Census was undertaken.[75] As of August 2, 2008, the city’s Institute for Informatics and Statistics has registered 1,542,773 eligible voters, which confirms that Belgrade’s population has risen dramatically since the 2002 Census, as the number of the registered voters has almost surpassed the entire population of the city six years

National Bank of Serbia Belgrade is the most economically developed part of Serbia, and is home to the country’s National Bank. Many notable companies are based in Belgrade, including Jat Airways,

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Telekom Srbija, Telenor Serbia, Delta Holding, Comtrade group, regional centers for Société Générale, Asus,[84] Intel,[85] Motorola, Kraft Foods,[86] Carlsberg,[87] Microsoft, OMV, Unilever, Zepter, Japan Tobacco and many others.[88][89] The troubled transition from the former Yugoslavia to the Federal Republic during the early 1990s left Belgrade, like the rest of the country, severely affected by an internationally imposed trade embargo. The hyperinflation of the Yugoslav dinar, the highest inflation ever recorded in the world,[90][91] decimated the city’s economy. Yugoslavia overcame the problems of inflation in the mid 1990s, and Belgrade has been growing strongly ever since. Today, over 30% of Serbia’s GDP is generated by the city, which also has over 30% of Serbia’s employed population.[92] The average monthly income per capita is 47.500 RSD (€572, $903). According to the Eurostat methodology, and contrasting sharply to the Balkan region, 53% of the city’s households own a computer.[93][94] According to the same survey, 39.1% of Belgrade’s households have an internet connection; these figures are above those of the regional capitals such as Sofia, Bucharest and Athens.[93]

Belgrade
most famous work, The Bridge on the Drina, in Belgrade.[96] Other prominent Belgrade authors include Branislav Nušić, Miloš Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavić and Meša Selimović.[97][98][99] Most of Serbia’s film industry is based in Belgrade; the 1995 Palme d’Or winning Underground, directed by Emir Kusturica, was produced in the city. The city was one of the main centres of the Yugoslav New Wave in the 1980s: VIS Idoli, Ekatarina Velika and Šarlo Akrobata were all from Belgrade. Other notable Belgrade rock acts include Riblja Čorba, Bajaga i Instruktori and others.[100] Today, it is the centre of the Serbian hip hop scene, with acts such as Beogradski Sindikat, Škabo, Marčelo, and most of the Bassivity Music stable hailing from or living in the city.[101][102] There are numerous theatres, the most prominent of which are National Theatre, Theatre on Terazije, Yugoslav Drama Theatre, Zvezdara Theatre, and Atelier 212. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also based in Belgrade, as well as the National Library of Serbia. Belgrade’s two opera houses are: National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera House. There are many foreign cultural institutions in Belgrade, including Instituto Cervantes, Goethe-Institut and the Centre Culturel Français, which are all located on Prince Michael Street. Other cultural centres in Belgrade are American Corner, the Austrian Cultural Forum (Österreichischen Kulturforums), the British Council, and Russian Center for Science and Culture (Российский центр науки и культуры), the Confucius Institute, the Canadian Cultural Center, the Italian Cultural Institute, Italian Cultural Institute (Istituto Italiano di Cultura), the Hellenic House and the Culture Center of Islamic Republic of Iran. Following the victory of Serbia’s representative Marija Šerifović at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, Belgrade hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2008.[103]

Culture

The building of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, erected in 1922 Belgrade hosts many annual cultural events, including FEST (Belgrade Film Festival), BITEF (Belgrade Theatre Festival), BELEF (Belgrade Summer Festival), BEMUS (Belgrade Music Festival), Belgrade Book Fair, and the Belgrade Beer Festival.[95] The Nobel prize winning author Ivo Andrić wrote his

Museums
See also: List of museums in Belgrade The most prominent museum in Belgrade is the National Museum, founded in 1844; it houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits, (over 5600 paintings and 8400 drawings and prints) including many foreign masterpieces and the famous Miroslavljevo

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Belgrade

National Museum of Serbia The Ethnographic Museum, established in 1901, contains more than 150,000 items showcasing the rural and urban culture of the Balkans, particularly the countries of the former Yugoslavia.[108] The Museum of Contemporary Art has a collection of around 8,540 works of art produced in Yugoslavia since 1900.[109] The Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. It holds around 160,000 original documents and around 5,700 other items.[110] The last of the major Belgrade museums is the Museum of Vuk and Dositej, which showcases the lives, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and Dositej Obradović, the 19th century reformer of the Serbian literary language and the first Serbian Minister of Education, respectively.[111] Belgrade also houses the Museum of African Art, founded in 1977, which has the large collection of art from West Africa.[112] With around 95,000 copies of national and international films, the Yugoslav Film Archive is the largest in the region and amongst the 10 largest archives in the world.[113] The institution also operates the Museum of Yugoslav Film Archive, with movie theatre and exhibition hall. The archive’s long-standing storage problems were finally solved in 2007, when a new modern depository was opened.[114] Museum of the City of Belgrade will move in new building in Nemanjina Street in downtown. Museum has interesting exhibits such Belgrade Gospel (1503) , full plate armour from Battle of Kosovo and various paintings and graphics. A new Museum of Science and

Miroslav’s Gospel, 12th century manuscript entered the UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme in 2005

Railway Museum Jevanđelje (Miroslav’s Gospel).[104] The Military Museum houses a wide range of more than 25,000 military exhibits dating as far back as to the Roman period, as well as parts of a F-117 stealth aircraft shot down by Yugoslav forces.[105][106] The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade has more than 200 aircraft, of which about 50 are on display, and a few of which are the only surviving examples of their type, such as the Fiat G.50. This museum also displays parts of shot down US and NATO aircraft, such as the F117 and F16[107]

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Technology will begin construction in late 2008.

Belgrade
public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish turbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, from late 18th century.[117] Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, Cathedral Church and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau.[116] Elements of Neo-Byzantine architecture are present in buildings such as Vuk’s Foundation, old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark’s Church (based on the Gračanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava.[116] During the period of Communist rule, much housing was built quickly and cheaply to house the huge influx of people from the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the blokovi (blocks) of New Belgrade; a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Trade Union Hall.[116] However, in the mid-1950s, the modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade architecture.[116]

Architecture

The Parliament of Serbia, and the headquarters of the Serbian Post, erected in 1938

Tourism

The Beograđanka See also: List of notable buildings in Belgrade, List of notable streets and squares in Belgrade, Architectural projects under construction in Belgrade, Religious architecture in Belgrade, and Gates of Belgrade Belgrade has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Zemun, typical of a Central European town,[115] to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade. The oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from 19th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions.[116] The oldest

Kalemegdan park The historic areas and buildings of Belgrade are among the city’s premier attractions. They include Skadarlija, the National Museum and adjacent National Theatre, Zemun, Nikola Pašić Square, Terazije, Students’ Square, the Kalemegdan Fortress, Knez Mihailova Street, the Parliament, the Temple of

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Belgrade
There are 7 kilometres of long beaches and sports facilities for various sports including golf, football, basketball, volleyball, rugby union, baseball, and tennis.[118] During summer there are between 200,000 and 300,000 bathers daily. Clubs work 24 hours a day, organising live music and overnight beach parties. Extreme sports are available, such as bungee jumping, water skiing and paintballing.[119] There are numerous tracks on the island, where it is possible to ride a bike, go for a walk or go jogging.[120][121] Apart from Ada, Belgrade has total of 16 islands[122] on the rivers, many still unused. Among them, the Great War Island at the confluence of Sava, stands out as an oasis of unshattered wildlife (especially birds).[123] These areas, along with nearby Small War Island, are protected by the city’s government as a nature preserve.[124]

Nightlife
Belgrade has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife, and many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. The most recognizable nightlife features of Belgrade are the barges (сплавови, splavovi) spread along the banks of the Sava and Danube Rivers.[125][126][127] Many weekend visitors—particularly from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia—prefer Belgrade nightlife to that of their own capitals, due to a perceived friendly atmosphere, great clubs and bars, cheap drinks, the lack of language difficulties, and the lack of restrictive night life regulation.[128][129]

Knez Mihailova (Prince Mihailo) Street, main pedestrian area in the city Saint Sava, and the Old Palace. On top of this, there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops on both sides of the river. The hilltop Avala Monument offers views over the city. Josip Broz Tito’s mausoleum, called Kuća Cveća (The House of Flowers), and the nearby Topčider and Košutnjak parks are also popular, especially among visitors from the former Yugoslavia. There is also Beli Dvor or ’White Palace’,house of Royal family Karadjordjevic ,open for visitors. The palace has many valuable works from Rembrandt, Nicolas Poussin, Sebastien Bourdon, Paolo Veronese, Antonio Canaletto, Biagio d’Antonio, Giuseppe Crespi, Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Ivan Mestrovic, and others. ’White Palace’ is open for visitors. Ada Ciganlija is a former island on the Sava river, and Belgrade’s biggest sports and recreational complex. Today it is connected with the shore, creating an artificial lake on the river. It is the most popular destination for Belgraders during the city’s hot summers.

Skadarlija, the city’s old bohemian neighbourhood Famous alternative clubs include Akademija and the famed KST (Klub studenata tehnike) located in the basement of the

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University of Belgrade’s Faculty of Electrical Engineering.[130][131][132] One of the most famous sites for alternative cultural happenings in the city is the SKC (Student Cultural Centre), located right across from Belgrade’s highrise landmark, the Beograđanka. Concerts featuring famous local and foreign bands are often held at the centre. SKC is also the site of various art exhibitions, as well as public debates and discussions.[133] A more traditional Serbian nightlife experience, accompanied by traditional music known as Starogradska (roughly translated as Old Town Music), typical of northern Serbia’s urban environments, is most prominent in Skadarlija, the city’s old bohemian neighbourhood where the poets and artists of Belgrade gathered in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Skadar Street (the centre of Skadarlija) and the surrounding neighbourhood are lined with some of Belgrade’s best and oldest traditional restaurants (called kafanas in Serbian), which date back to that period.[134] At one end of the neighborhood stands Belgrade’s oldest beer brewery, founded in the first half of the nineteenth century.[135] One of the city’s oldest kafanas is the Znak pitanja.[136] British Times proclaimed that it is Europe’s best nightlife in buzzing Belgrade. Enjoy the finest nightclubs, bars and restaurants in Europe’s new capital of cool[137]

Belgrade
Championship, the 2006 European Water Polo Championship, and the European Youth Olympic Festival 2007. Belgrade will be the host city of the 2009 Summer Universiade chosen over the cities of Monterrey and Poznań.[139] The city launched two unsuccessful candidate bids to organize the Summer Olympic: for the 1992 Summer Olympics Belgrade was eliminated in the third round of International Olympic Committee voting, with the games going to Barcelona. The 1996 Summer Olympics ultimately went to Atlanta.[140][141] The city is home to Serbia’s two biggest and most successful football clubs, Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan, as well as a few other first league clubs. The two major stadiums in Belgrade are the Marakana (Red Star Stadium) and the Partizan Stadium.[142] Belgrade Arena is used for basketball matches, and in May 2008 it was the venue of Eurovision Song Contest 2008. Along with Pionir Hall for KK Partizan and KK Crvena zvezda [143][144] while the Tašmajdan Sports Centre is used for water polo matches.

River Sava in Belgrade, joins the Danube (far right)

Sport
See also: List of sporting events in Belgrade

Media
See also: List of media organisations in Belgrade Belgrade is the most important media hub in Serbia. The city is home to the main headquarters of the national broadcaster Radio Television Serbia - RTS, which is a public service broadcaster.[145] The RTS record label, PGP RTS, is also based in Belgrade.[146] The most popular commercial broadcaster is RTV Pink, a Serbian media multinational, known for its popular entertainment programs, which are considered by many to be sensationalist and of low quality. The most popular commercial "alternative" broadcaster is B92, another media company, which has its own TV station, radio station, and music and book publishing arms, as well as the most popular website on the Serbian internet.[147][148] Other TV stations broadcasting from Belgrade include Košava, Avala, FOX

Belgrade Arena There are around a thousand sports facilities in Belgrade, many of which are capable of serving all levels of sporting events.[138] Belgrade has hosted several relatively major sporting events recently, including Eurobasket 2005, the 2005 European Volleyball

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Televizija and others which only cover the greater Belgrade municipal area, such as Studio B. Numerous specialised channels are also available: SOS channel (sport), Metropolis (music), Art TV (art), Cinemania (film), and Happy TV (children’s programs). High-circulation daily newspapers published in Belgrade include Politika, Blic, Večernje novosti, Glas javnosti, Press (newspaper) and Sportski žurnal. Other dailies published in the city are Danas, and Kurir. Novi Plamen is currently the most leftwing magazine. A new free distribution daily, 24 sata, was founded in the autumn of 2006.

Belgrade
primary schools, there are 162 regular, 14 special, 15 art and 4 adult schools. The secondary school system has 51 vocational schools, 21 gymnasiums, 8 art schools and 5 special schools. The 230,000 pupils are managed by 22,000 employees in over 500 buildings, covering around 1,100,000 m².[152]

Transportation

Education
See also: List of educational institutions in Belgrade

Old Sava bridge Belgrade has an extensive public transport system based on buses (118 urban lines and more than 300 suburban lines), trams (12 lines), and trolleybuses (8 lines).[153] It is run by GSP Beograd and SP Lasta, in cooperation with private companies on various bus routes. Belgrade also has a commuter rail network, Beovoz, now run by city government. The main railway station connects Belgrade with other European capitals and many towns in Serbia. Travel by coach is also popular, and the capital is well-served with daily connections to every town in the country. The motorway system provides for easy access to Novi Sad and Budapest, the capital of Hungary, in the north; Niš to the south; and Zagreb, to the west. Situated at the confluence of two major rivers, the Danube and the Sava, Belgrade has not many bridges—the two main ones are Branko’s bridge and Gazela, both of which connect the core of the city to New Belgrade. With the city’s expansion and a substantial increase in the number of vehicles, congestion has become a major problem; this is expected to be alleviated by the construction of a bypass connecting the E70 and E75 highways.[154] Further, an "inner magistral semi-ring" is planned, including a new Ada Bridge across the Sava river, which is expected to ease commuting within the city and unload the Gazela and Branko’s bridge.[155] Two additional bridges are planned, both over the Danube. The Port of Belgrade is on the Danube, and allows the city to receive goods by river.[156] The city is also served by Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport (IATA: BEG),

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade has two state universities and several private institutions for higher education. The Belgrade Higher School, founded in 1808, was the earliest location of higher education in Serbia and all of the Balkans.[149] The Lyceum followed in 1841, when it was moved from Kragujevac to Belgrade, merging with the Great School into the precursor of the University of Belgrade,[150] one of the oldest educational institutions in the country (the oldest higher education facility, the Teacher’s College in Subotica, dates from 1689). More than 90,000 students study at the University.[151] The University of Belgrade’s Law School is the one of the foremost institutions for legal education in Southeastern Europe. There are also 195 primary (elementary) schools and 85 secondary schools. Of the

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United States Pakistan Israel Austria Slovenia Chicago Lahore Tel Aviv Vienna Illinois

Belgrade
2005 2007 1990 2003

Punjab Tel Aviv Vienna

Ljubljana Ljubljana 2009

Underground station Vukov spomenik 12 kilometres west of the city centre, near Surčin. At its peak in 1986, almost 3 million passengers travelled through the airport, though that number dwindled to a trickle in the 1990s.[157] Following renewed growth in 2000, the number of passengers reached approximately 2 million in 2004 and 2005.[158] In 2006, 2 million passengers passed through the airport by mid-November,[159] while during the 2007 the figure peaked at 2,5 million customers.[160] Beovoz is the suburban/commuter railway network that provides mass-transit service in the city, similar to Paris’s RER and Toronto’s GO Transit. The main usage of today’s system is to connect the suburbs with downtown. Beovoz is operated by Serbian Railways.[161] Belgrade suburban railway system connects suburbs and nearby cities to the west, north and south of the city. It began operation in 1992 and currently has 5 lines with 41 stations divided in two zones.[162] Stations in the city center are built underground, out of which station Vukov spomenik is the deepest at 40 meters.[163]

Some of the city’s municipalities are also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities, for details see their respective articles. Other similar forms of cooperation and city friendship: Letters of Intent signed with capital cities of former Yugoslavia: • Ljubljana, Slovenia (Letter of Intent, October 2003) (Signed together with
Zagreb)

Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Letter of Intent, June 2006) • Zagreb, Croatia (Letter of Intent, October 2003) (Signed together with •
Ljubljana)

•

Podgorica, Montenegro (2006)

The City of Belgrade has received various domestic and international honours, including the French Légion d’honneur in 1920, the Czechoslovak War Cross, the Serbian Karađorđe’s Star with Swords and the former Yugoslavian Order of the National Hero (proclaimed on October 20, 1974, the anniversary of the overthrow of Nazi German occupation during World War II).[169] In 2006, Financial Times’ magazine Foreign Direct Investment awarded Belgrade the title of City of the Future of Southern Europe.[170][171]

See also
• List of notable Belgraders • Singidunum • Kalemegdan

International cooperation and honours
These are the official sister cities of Belgrade:[164][165][166][167] Country City County / Date District / Region / State England 1957

References
[1] "Territory". Official website of City of Belgrade. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ view.php?id=201197. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [2] "Geographical Position". Official website of City of Belgrade. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ view.php?id=201029. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.

United Kingdom

Coventry

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Country Greece Bosnia and Herzegovina China Germany Germany Cuba Ukraine Spain Italy City Athens Banja Luka Beijing Berlin Düsseldorf Havana[168] Kiev Madrid Milan Berlin North RhineWestphalia Havana Kiev Comunidad de Madrid Lombardy County / District / Region / State Attica Republika Srpska Date Form

Belgrade

1966 Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation 2005 Agreement on Cooperation 1980 Agreement on Cooperation 1978 Agreement on Cooperation and Friendship 2004 Agreement on Cooperation 2007 Agreement on Fraternization 2002 Agreement on Cooperation 2001 Agreement on Cooperation 2000 Memorandum of Agreement, City to City Programme 2002 Programme of Cooperation 1971 Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation

Russia Italy

Moscow Rome

Central Federal District Lazio

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view.php?id=201275. Retrieved on international. 2007-05-31. 2009-05-07. http://ins.onlinedemocracy.ca/ [70] "Ancient Period". Official website. index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=9214. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ Retrieved on 2007-10-04. view.php?id=201172. Retrieved on [84] Asus otvorio regionalni centar u 2009-01-31. Beogradu :: emportal :: Ekonomske vesti [71] ^ "History (Byzantine Empire)". Official iz Srbije website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ [85] E kapija - Centar kompanije `Intel` za view.php?id=201243. Retrieved on Balkan u Beogradu - Srbija deo `Intel 2007-05-17. World Ahead Program` [72] "Opasno neznanje ili nešto više". Danas. [86] Beograd će biti regionalni centar :: http://www.danas.rs/vesti/dijalog/ emportal :: Ekonomske vesti iz Srbije opasno_neznanje_ili_nesto_vise.46.html?news_id=145464. konkuriše Beču". Politika. [87] "Beograd Retrieved on 2008-12-29. 2008-02-21. http://www.politika.rs/ [73] "Councilors of the Assembly of the City rubrike/Ekonomija/Beograd-konkurisheof Belgrade". Official site. Bechu.lt.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ [88] "JTI u Srbiju ulaže oko $100 mil." (in view.php?id=201942. Retrieved on Serbian). B92 Biz. 2007-04-24. 2007-07-16. http://www.b92.net/biz/vesti/ [74] "Facts (Population)". Official website. srbija.php?yyyy=2007&mm=04&dd=24&nav_id=243 http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ Retrieved on 2007-05-19. view.php?id=201201. Retrieved on [89] "Beograd - Bankarski razvojni centar" (in 2007-07-10. Serbian). 24x7 business news. [75] Blic Online | Tema dana | Svi putevi vode 2006-03-29. http://www.24x7.co.yu/ u Beograd default.aspx?cid=400&fid=300&pid=izbor_societe_g [76] "Birački spisak" (in Serbian). Zavod za Retrieved on 2007-05-19. informatiku i statistiku Grada Beograda. [90] Watkins, Thayer. "The Worst Episode of 2007. https://zis.beograd.gov.rs/ Hyperinflation in History: Yugoslavia spisak.php. 1993-94". Episodes of Hyperinflation. [77] Refugee Serbs Assail Belgrade San José State University Department of Government: The Washington Post, Economics. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/ Tuesday, June 22, 1999. watkins/hyper.htm#YUGO. Retrieved on [78] Stranci tanje budžet Novosti - Vecernje 2007-07-26. novosti - Beograd [91] Taylor, Bryan. "Countries that Suffered [79] "Kinezi Marko, Miloš i Ana" (in Serbian). the Greatest Inflation in the Twentieth Kurir. 2005-02-20. http://arhiva.kurircentury" (Word document). The Century info.rs/Arhiva/2005/februar/19-20/ of Inflation. Global Financial Data. 8, 10. B-01-19022005.shtml. Retrieved on http://www.globalfindata.com/articles/ 2007-07-18. Century_of_Inflation.doc. Retrieved on [80] Biljana Vasić (2001-01-15). "Kineska 2007-07-26. četvrt u bloku 70" (in Serbian). Vreme. [92] "Privreda Beograda" (in Serbian). http://www.vreme.com/arhiva_html/471/ Economic Chamber of Belgrade. 10.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. http://www.kombeg.org.rs/privredabg/ [81] Vesna Peric Zimonjic (2005-12-07). "A privreda.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. unique friendship club in Belgrade". [93] ^ http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Drustvo/ Dawn - International. U-Srbiji-sve-vishe-rachunara.sr.html http://www.dawn.com/2005/12/07/ [94] Almost 98% of companies in Serbia are int17.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. computerised - Economy.rs [82] Francesca Ciriaci (1999-04-11). [95] "ure and Art (Cultural Events)". Official "Government, public diverge in website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ assessment of Kosovo crisis". Jordan view.php?id=201299. Retrieved on Times. http://www.jordanembassyus.org/ 2007-07-10. 041199003.htm. Retrieved on [96] "The biography of Ivo Andrić". The Ivo 2007-07-18. Andrić Foundation. [83] "CHINESE AND IRAQI IMMIGRANTS http://www.ivoandric.org.rs/html/ RECEIVE QUIET WELCOME".

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biography.html. Retrieved on belgrade?v=print. Retrieved on 2007-05-18. 2007-07-27. [97] "Borislav Pekić - Biografija" (in Serbian). [107]Lična karta Muzeja ratnog " Project Rastko. http://www.rastko.org.rs/ vazduhoplovstva" (in Serbian). Museum knjizevnost/nauka_knjiz/pekicof Air force Belgrade. biograf.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. http://www.muzejrv.org/istorija/ [98] Joseph Tabbi (2005-07-26). "Miloš istorija.html. Retrieved on 1007-05-19. Crnjanski and his descendents". [108]Museums 3". Official website. " Electronic Book Review. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ http://www.electronicbookreview.com/ view.php?id=201167. Retrieved on thread/internetnation/sumatrism. 2007-07-10. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. [109]Museums 2". Official website. " [99] "Meša Selimović - Biografija" (in http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ Bosnian). Kitabhana.net. view.php?id=201055. Retrieved on http://www.xs4all.nl/~eteia/kitabhana/ 2007-07-10. Selimovic_Mehmed_Mesa/ [110]About the museum". Nikola Tesla " Biografija.html. Retrieved on Museum. http://www.tesla-museum.org/ 2007-07-10. meni_en/nt.php?link=muzej/ [100]Riblja Čorba" (in Serbian). Balkan " m&opc=sub2. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. Media.com. [111]City of Belgrade - Museums 1". Official " http://www.balkanmedia.com/magazin/ website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ hall/corba/biografija2.shtml. Retrieved view.php?id=201051. Retrieved on on 2007-07-10. 2007-07-10. [101] leksandar Pavlić (2005-02-09). A [112]ural institutions:Museum of African " "Beogradski Sindikat: Svi Zajedno" (in Art". Official website. Serbian). Popboks magazine. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ http://www.popboks.com/albumi/ view.php?id=202308. Retrieved on beogradskisindikat.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 2007-05-23. [113]Action programme 2006 for Serbia: " [102] . S. Todorović (2004-01-30). "Liričar S Support to the Yugoslav Film Archive" među reperima" (in Serbian). (PDF). European Agency for Balkanmedia. Reconstruction. 2006-01-01. http://www.balkanmedia.com/m2/doc/ http://www.ear.europa.eu/serbia/main/ 3184-1.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. documents/2006Media.pdf. Retrieved on [103]Serbian ballad wins Eurovision Song " 2007-07-10. Contest - Belgrade hosts in 2008". [114]New Depository for the Yugoslav Film " Helsingin Sanomat. 2007-05-14. Archive’s treasure". SEECult.org, http://www.hs.fi/english/article/ Culture Portal of Southeastern Europe. Serbian+ballad+wins+Eurovision+Song+Contest+2007-06-07. http://www.seecult.org/ +Belgrade+hosts+in+2008+/ english/module-News-display1135227223254. Retrieved on sid-211.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 2007-07-10. [115] icholas Comrie, Lucy Moore N [104] atjana Cvjetićanin. "From the history of T (2007-10-01). "Zemun: The Town Within the National Museum in Belgrade". the City". B92 Travel. National Museum of Serbia. http://www.b92.net/eng/travel/ http://www.narodnimuzej.rs/code/ index.php?nav_id=38986. Retrieved on navigate.php?Id=75. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 2007-07-27. [116] Zoran Manević. "Architecture and ^ [105]Museums". Official website. " Building". MIT website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ http://web.mit.edu/most/www/ser/ view.php?id=201283. Retrieved on Belgrade/zoran_manevic.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10. on 2007-05-19. [106]World Guide:Belgrade". Lonely Planet. " [117] rof. Dr. Mihajlo Mitrović (2003-06-27). P http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/ "Seventh Belgrade triennial of world destinations/europe/serbia/ architecture". ULUS. http://www.ulus.org.rs/ENGLISH/

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Exhibitions/TriennialA/TriennialA.htm. pregled_stampe.php?yyyy=2004&mm=12&dd=21&n Retrieved on 2007-05-19. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. [118]Sportski tereni" (in Serbian). Public " [129]U Beograd na vikend-zabavu" (in " utility "Ada Ciganlija". Croatian). Večernji list. 2006-01-06. http://www.adaciganlija.rs/ Archived from the original on sport_tereni.htm. Retrieved on 2006-01-06. http://www.b92.net/info/ 2007-05-19. vesti/ [119]Ada Ciganlija". Tourism Organisation of " pregled_stampe.php?yyyy=2006&mm=01&dd=08&n Belgrade. http://www.tob.rs/english/ Retrieved on 2007-06-15. zasto_bg/zeleni_bg/ada/index.html. [130] ordy, Eric D. (1999). "The Destruction G Retrieved on 2007-05-19. of Musical Alternatives". The Culture of [120]O Adi" (in Serbian). Public utility "Ada " Power in Serbia: Nationalism and the Ciganlija". http://www.adaciganlija.rs/ Destruction of Alternatives. Penn State o_adi.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 0271019581. [121]Kupalište" (in Serbian). Public utility " http://books.google.com/ "Ada Ciganlija". books?id=WqoZsrmYZQIC&dq=Belgrade+KST. http://www.adaciganlija.rs/s_tereni/ Retrieved on 2007-07-10. kupaliste.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. [131]Intro". Club "Akademija". " [122] na Nikolov (2005-07-29). Beograd – A http://www.akademija.net/remote/ grad na rekama. Institut za Arhitekturu i ?call=2&lg=2. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. Urbanizam Srbije. [132]Klub Studenata Tehnike - O nama" (in " http://www.ekapija.com/website/sr/page/ Serbian). http://www.kst.org.rs/. 17516. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [133]Student cultural center". SKC. " [123]Zbogom, oazo!" (in Serbian). Kurir. " http://www.skc.rs/info.php?lang=2. 2006-05-23. http://arhiva.kurir-info.rs/ Retrieved on 2007-05-19. Arhiva/2006/maj/23/ [134]Skadarlija". Tourist Organisation of " B-01-23052006.shtml. Retrieved on Belgrade. http://www.tob.rs/english/ 2007-06-05. zasto_bg/bg_amb/skadarlija/index.html. [124] eoinfo (2005-08-04). "Prirodno dobro B Retrieved on 2007-05-19. "Veliko ratno ostrvo” stavljeno pod [135]Beogradska Industrija Piva AD". SEE " zaštitu Skupštine grada" (in Serbian). News. http://www.seenews.com/profiles/ Ekoforum. http://www.ekoforum.org/ companies/ index/vest.asp?vID=181. Retrieved on cs_bip_beogradska_industrija_piva/. 2007-06-05. Retrieved on 2009-05-05. [125] ve-Ann Prentice (2003-08-10). ""Why I E [136]Znamenite građevine 3" (in Serbian). " love battered Belgrade"". The Guardian Official site. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ Travel. http://travel.guardian.co.uk/ view.php?id=1319. Retrieved on article/2003/aug/10/ 2007-07-10. observerescapesection1. Retrieved on [137]Europe’s best nightlife" (in English). " 2007-05-19. Official site. [126] eth Sherwood (2005-10-16). "Belgrade S http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/travel/ Rocks". The New York Times. holiday_type/music_and_travel/ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/16/ article5082856.ece. Retrieved on travel/ 2008-04-11. 16belgrade.html?ex=1287115200&en=4cd8ccf41a41542c&ei=5088. [138]Sport and Recreation". Official website. " Retrieved on 2007-05-19. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ [127] arbara Gruber (2006-08-22). B view.php?id=201508. Retrieved on "Belgrade’s Nightlife Floats on the 2007-07-10. Danube". Deutsche Welle. [139]Universiade 2009 (Belgrade)". FISU. " http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/ http://www.fisu.net/site/page_1068.php. 0,2144,2129528,00.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-05-19. 2007-05-19. [140]History of the Olympic Committee of " [128]Slovenci dolaze u jeftin provod" (in " Serbia". Olympic Committee of Serbia. Serbian). Glas Javnosti. 2004-12-21. http://www.oks.org.rs/s101e.htm. http://www.b92.net/info/vesti/ Retrieved on 2009-05-05.

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[141]Atlanta 1996". Official Website of the " [153]Statistics". Public Transport Company " Olympic Movement. "Belgrade". http://www.gsp.rs/english/ http://www.olympic.org/uk/past/ statistic.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1996. [154]Belgrade Bypass, Serbia". CEE " Retrieved on 2007-05-19. Bankwatch network. [142]Sport and Recreation (Stadiums)". " http://www.bankwatch.org/ Official website. http://www.beograd.rs/ project.shtml?w=147584&s=1961998. cms/view.php?id=201754. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-05-19. 2007-07-10. [155]1. faza prve deonice Unutrašnjeg " [143]Sport and Recreation (Sport Centers " magistralnog poluprstena" (in Serbian) and Halls)". Official website. (PDF). Belgrade Direction for Building http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ and Real Estate Land/EBRD. 2005-07-01. view.php?id=201758. Retrieved on http://www.ebrd.com/projects/eias/ 2007-07-10. 34913s.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-09-15. [144]Venues". EYOF Belgrade 2007. " [156]History of the Port of Belgrade". Port of " http://www.beograd2007.org/ Belgrade. http://www.port-bgd.co.yu/en/ index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=131&limit=1&limitstart=3&lang=en. history.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. [157]Airports and Flying fields". Aviation " [145]Samo RTS može da bude javni servis". " guide through Belgrade. Radio Television of Serbia. 2005-08-23. http://www.vazduhoplovnivodic.rs/eng/ http://www.rts.rs/ eng_letelista.htm. Retrieved on jedna_vest.asp?belong=&IDNews=125391. 2009-05-05. [146]ПГП - РТС (Прича о нама)". PGP RTS. " [158]Regionalni centar putničkog i kargo " http://www.pgp-rts.rs/info/index.html. saobraćaja" (in Serbian). Danas. [147]ared Manasek (2005-01). "The Paradox J 2005-05-20. http://www.danas.rs/ of Pink". Columbia Journalism Review. 20050520/ekonomija1.html. Retrieved on http://www.cjr.org/issues/2005/1/ 2007-07-10. manasek-paradox.asp. Retrieved on [159]"Nikola Tesla" Airport received its two " 2007-05-19. millionth passenger". Belgrade Nikola [148]B92 na 8.598. mestu na svetu" (in " Tesla Airport. 2006-11-14. Serbian). B92. 2006-09-01. http://www.beg.aero/code/ http://www.b92.net/info/vesti/ navigate.php?Id=130#775. Retrieved on index.php?yyyy=2006&mm=09&dd=01&nav_category=15&nav_id=210237&fs=1. 2006-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. [160] ww.beg.aero | Nikola Tesla Belgrade w [149]The University of Belgrade – The " Airport | News Seedbed of University Education". [161] eleznice Srbije - Red voznje Beovoz-a Ž Faculty of Law of University of Belgrade. [162] rad Beograd - Beovoz G http://www.ius.bg.ac.rs/eng/ [163]Vukov Spomenik” Beograd, Srbija “ university_of_belgrade.htm. Retrieved on [164]International Cooperation". Official " 2007-05-18. website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ [150]History of The University". University of " view.php?id=1225698. Retrieved on Belgrade. http://www.bg.ac.rs/ 2007-07-10. en_istorijat.php. Retrieved on [165]Beograd: Međunarodni odnosi". Stalna " 2007-05-18. konferencija gradova i opština Srbije. [151]Универзитет у Београду - Број " http://www.skgo.org/php/opstine/ Студената" (in Serbian) (HTML). detalji.php?Id=12&IdSvojstva=MO. University of Belgrade. Retrieved on 2007-06-18. . http://www.bg.ac.rs/csrp/univerzitet/ [166]Council okays peace committees: " br_studenata.php. Retrieved on Lahore and Chicago to be declared twin 2008-10-16. cities.". The Post. 2007-01-28. [152]Education and Science". Official " http://thepost.com.pk/ website. http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ Arc_CityNews.aspx?dtlid=79932&catid=3&date=01/ view.php?id=201008. Retrieved on 28/2007&fcatid=14. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 2007-05-16. [167] ttp://www.b92.net/eng/news/politicsh article.php?yyyy=2009&mm=03&dd=06&nav_id=57

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[168]INVITATION FOR FRATERNIZATION " OF HAVANA AND BELGRADE". Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.rs/Bilteni/Engleski/ b290507_e.html#N10. Retrieved on 2007-11-04. . [169]Received Decorations". Official website. " http://www.beograd.rs/cms/ view.php?id=201227. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. [170]European Cities of the Future 2006/07". " fDi magazine. 2006-02-06. http://www.fdimagazine.com/news/ fullstory.php/aid/1543. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. [171] leksandar Miloradović (2006-09-01). A "Belgrade - City of the Future in Southern Europe" (PDF). TheRegion, magazine of SEE Europe. http://www.seeurope.net/files2/pdf/ rgn0906/ 13_Belgrade_CityOfTheFutureInSEE.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.

Belgrade
• Tešanović, Jasmina (2000). The Diary of a Political Idiot: Normal Life in Belgrade. Cleis Press. ISBN 1-57344-114-7. • Levinsohn, Florence Hamlish (1995). Belgrade : among the Serbs. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-061-4. • Paton, Andrew Archibald (2005-11-04) [1845] (Reprint by Project Gutenberg/Project Rastko). Servia, Youngest Member of the European Family: or, A Residence in Belgrade, and Travels in the Highlands and Woodlands of the Interior, during the years 1843 and 1844.. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. http://pge.rastko.net/dirs/ 1/6/9/9/16999/16999-h/16999-h.htm.

External links
• City of Belgrade Official Website • Tourist Organization of Belgrade • Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities • Environmental Atlas of Belgrade, Institute of Public Health of Belgrade • Belgrade travel guide from Wikitravel

Further reading
• Pavić, Milorad (2000). A Short History of Belgrade. Belgrade: Dereta. ISBN 86-7346-117-0.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgrade" Categories: Former capitals of Serbia, Belgrade, Capitals in Europe, Settlements on the Danube, Port cities in Serbia, Settlements established in the 3rd century BC, Šumadija, Metropolitan areas of Serbia This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 09:55 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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