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Bangalore

Bangalore
Bengalūru (????????) Bangalore Population • Density Time zone Area • Elevation Codes • Pincode • Telephone • UN/ LOCODE
Vidhana Soudha 6,200,000 (3rd) (2007)

• 8,367 /km2 (21,670 /sq mi) IST (UTC+5:30)
741 km² (286 sq mi)[1]

• 920 m (3,018 ft)

• 560 xxx • +91-(0)80 • IN BLR • KA 01, KA 02, KA 03, KA 04, KA 05, KA 41, KA 50, KA 51, KA 53

• Vehicle

Bengalūru (????????)
Location of Bengalūru (????????) in Karnataka and India

Country Region State District(s) Commissioner

India Bayaluseeme Karnataka Bangalore Urban Dr. S. Subramanya

Coordinates: 12°58′00″N 77°34′00″E / 12.966667°N 77.566667°E / 12.966667; 77.566667 Bangalore ( [ˈbæŋɡəloːɾ] ), also known as Bengaluru (Kannada: ????????, [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] ), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India’s third most populous city[2] and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, who many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud-brick fort at the site and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire. During the British Raj, it became a centre of colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country. Today, as a large and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to some of the most wellrecognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defence organisations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its preeminent position as the nation’s

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leading IT employer and exporter.[3] A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic hub and the fastest growing major metropolis in India.[4]

Bangalore
accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006.[11][12] However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.[13]

Etymology
The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city’s name in the Kannada language, Bengaḷūru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (??? ?????) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengavaluru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada.[5] An article, published in The Hindu, states:[6] An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bengaluru is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city...written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it. An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (Kannada: ??????????) (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".[7][8] On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru.[9] On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change,[10] which was

History

Lady Curzon hospital in the Bangalore Cantonment was established in 1864 and later named after the first wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bengaluru was captured by the Cholas in 1024 CE which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".[8] Within Bangalore Fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions – each called a "pete" ( [peːteː]). The town had two main streets – Chikkapete Street, which ran eastwest, and Doddapete Street, which ran northsouth. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda’s successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore’s boundary.[14] During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City"). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore’s rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahji

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as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji, son of Shahji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees.[15][16] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commanderin-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali’s son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth AngloMysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The ’Residency’ of Mysore State was first established at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.[17] Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

Bangalore
epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate antiplague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore’s reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81 , which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.[14] In the decades that followed, Bangalore’s manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as Motor Industries Company (MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore’s large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments.[19] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational to set up base in Bangalore. Other Information Technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

Bangalore Palace, built in 1887, was home to the rulers of Mysore In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils.[18] Bangalore was hit by a plague

Geography
Climate chart for Bangalore J F M A M J J A S O N D

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46 120 81 110 137 195 180 64 22 29 28 27 28 28 27 26

27 30 32 34 33

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Bangalore

sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centers located in the periphery of Bangalore.[21] In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town’s water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river The Hesaraghatta Lake in Bangalore Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% 15 17 19 22 21 20 20 19 19 19 17 16 being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli average temperatures in °C and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi precipitation totals in mm river.[22] Bangalore receives 800 milsource: World Weather Information Service lion litres (211 million US gallons) of water a Imperial conversion day, more than any other Indian city.[23] J F M A M J J A S O N D However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low rainfall. 0.1 0.3 0.2 1.8 4.7 3.2 4.3 5.4 7.7 7.1 2.5 0.9 A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city 81 85 90 92 91 85 82 81 82 82 80 79 indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution 59 62 67 71 70 68 67 67 67 66 63 60 around areas of traffic concentration.[24] average temperatures in °F Bangalore has a handful of freshwater precipitation totals in inches lakes and water tanks, the largest of which Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned the most dominant rock unit in the area and at 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.97°N 77.56°E / includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, 12.97; 77.56 and covers an area of 741 km² while the soils of Bangalore consist of red (286 mi²).[1] The majority of the city of Banlaterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.[24] galore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Vegetation in the city is primarily in the Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas form of large deciduous canopy and minority are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been The Government of Karnataka has carved out classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a the new district of Ramanagara from the old stable zone), it has experienced quakes of Bangalore Rural district. magnitude as high as 4.5.[25] The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The Climate highest point is Doddabettahalli, which is Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.[20] No enjoys salubrious climate throughout the major rivers run through the city, though the year, although freak heat waves can make Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at things very uncomfortable in the summer.[26] the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. The coolest month is January with an average River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest Arkavathi, arises within the city at month is April with an average high temperBasavanagudi and flows through the city. The ature of 33.6 °C.[27] The highest temperature rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C and carry much of Bangalore’s sewage. A

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the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (on January 1884).[28][29] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36–37 °C (100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[27] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7.0 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.[30]

Bangalore

Civic Administration
See also: Infrastructure in Bangalore Bangalore City officials Administrator Municipal Commissioner Police Commissioner S. Dilip Rau Dr. S. Subramanya Shankar Bidari[31]

The Karnataka High Court is the supreme judicial body in Karnataka and is located in Bangalore. Bangalore’s rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore’s physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore’s water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city’s socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.[34] The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic.[34] In 2005 both the Central Government and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore’s infrastructure.[35] The Bangalore Mahanagara Palike works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.[36] The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police,

The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city.[32] It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with the neighbouring 7 City Municipal Councils (CMC), one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore.[32] Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council. The city council comprises elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every 5 years, with results being decided by popular vote. A mayor and commissioner of the council are also elected through a quota system from a Scheduled Castes and Tribes candidate or to an Other Backward Class female candidate. Members contesting elections to the council represent one of more of the state’s political parties. However, elections to the newly created body are yet to be held, due to delays in delimitation of wards and finalising voter lists. There are expected to be about 150 wards, up from the 100 wards of the old Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Elections are expected to be held in August 2009.[33]

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Bangalore

The Vikasa Soudha is situated near the Vidhana Soudha and hosts many state ministries. the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two allwomen police stations.[37] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes three members to India’s lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, and 28 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.[38] Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL). Like many cities in India, Bangalore experiences scheduled power cuts, especially over the summer, to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as corporations.

The Public Utilities Building is located on MG Road, a major commercial center in Bangalore. who have an investable surplus of Rs. 4.5 crore (US$ 1 million) and Rs. 50 lakh (US$ 100,300) respectively.[42] As of 2001, Bangalore’s share of Rs. 1,660 crore (US$ 300 million) in Foreign Direct Investment was the fourth highest for an Indian city.[43] In the 1940, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mirza Ismail and Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya played an important role in the development of Bangalore’s strong manufacturing and industrial base. The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Electronics Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India’s Rs. 144,214

Economy
See also: Housing in Bangalore, List of IT companies in Bangalore, and Bangalore Metropolitan Environment Bangalore’s Rs 260,260 crore (US$ 100 billion) economy (2002–03 Net District Income) makes it a major economic centre in India.[39] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India.[40] Additionally, Bangalore is India’s fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.[41] The city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people

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Bangalore

The headquarters of Infosys, India’s second largest IT company, is located in Bangalore crore (US$ 29 billion) IT exports in 2006-07.[44] Bangalore’s IT industry is divided into three main clusters — Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone.[45] Infosys and Wipro, India’s second and third largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies. The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city’s IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city’s infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka.[46] Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India’s largest biotechnology company.[47][48]

The Bengaluru International Airport is located in Devanahalli. stations.[53] Bangalore is well connected to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi, the capital of India. Bangalore is also connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and other major cities in India.[54]

BMTC’s Volvo buses are a popular mode of commuting within Bangalore. Three-wheeled, black and yellow autorickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport.[55] They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi service within Bangalore is provided by several operators commonly referred to as Citi taxis which can carry up to four passengers and are usually metered and more expensive than auto-rickshaws.[55] Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are also a means of public transport available in the city.[56] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC

Transport
Bangalore is served by the newly built Bengaluru International Airport (IATA code: BLR) which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India’s fourth busiest airport.[49][50][51] Air Deccan and Kingfisher Airlines have their headquarters in Bangalore.[52] A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is being developed and is expected to be operational by 2011. Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41

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also runs air-conditioned, red-coloured Volvo buses on major routes.[56] The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,600 buses on 5,700 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states.[57]

Bangalore
Tamil, Telugu and Hindi.[63] According to the 2001 census of India, 79.37% of Bangalore’s population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average.[64] Muslims comprise 13.37% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.79% and 1.05% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. AngloIndians also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore’s population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. Roughly 10% of Bangalore’s population lives in slums[65] — a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (42%) and Nairobi (60%).[66] The 2004 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 9.2% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India. Delhi and Mumbai accounted for 15.7% and 9.5% respectively.[67]

Demographics

Culture

The Nandi Temple is a famous temple located in Basavanagudi, Bangalore. With an estimated population of 5,300,000 in 2009, Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 28th most populous city in the world.[59] Bangalore was the fastestgrowing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991–2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English or Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada, whose native speakers form about 39% of the city’s population.[60][61] The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore.[62] Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city’s population. Apart from Kannada and English, other major languages spoken in the city are The Lal Bagh Glass House, famous for its flower shows, is now a heritage monument. Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India"[68] because of its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park. Dasara, a traditional celebratory hallmark of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigour. The city will celebrate which is known to be Bangalore’s most important and oldest festivals called "Karaga Shaktyotsava" or Bangalore Karaga.[69] Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr, and Christmas

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Bangalore
The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine. Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and Ganesha Chaturthi festivals. The Bengaluru Gayana Samaja has been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the city. The city also has a vibrant Kannada theater scene with organisations like Ranga Shankara leading the way. Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.[71] Sister Cities • Minsk, Belarus.[72] • San Francisco, California, United States.[73] • Cleveland, Ohio, United States.[74] • Kharkiv, Kharkiv oblast, Ukraine

Yakshagana -- a theatre art is often played in town hall

Sports
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble, and Robin Uthappa among others. Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city’s many public fields. Bangalore’s main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 40,000[75] and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Indian Premier League (IPL) franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers and the Premier Hockey League (PHL) franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers are based in the city. India’s Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi[76] and Rohan Bopanna[77] also reside in Bangalore. The city hosts the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore Open tournament annually. Beginning September, 2008, Bangalore will also host the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually.[78]

Brigade Road is a popular commercial district in Bangalore. are also celebrated. Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.[70]. One of the most notable contributors to Sandalwood, as the Kannada Movie Industry is referred to, was the late Dr. Rajkumar.

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Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club,The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore.[79] The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion, Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.

Bangalore
Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.[81] In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly based on the kindergarten form of education.[82] Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), ICSE and CBSE.[83] Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government).[84] After completing their secondary education, students typically attend Pre Univiersity (PUC) in one of three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science.[85] Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in univerities. The Bangalore University,established in 1964, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.[86] Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India.[87] Nationally renouned professional institutes such as the National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B) and the Indian Statistical Institute are located in Bangalore.[87] The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), a premier mental health institution is located in Bangalore.

Education

Media
The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840.[88] In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English biweekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore[89] and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore.[88] Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited - the largest print media house in Karnataka.[90][91]

Indian Institute of Science - the premier institute of science in India. See also: Education in India and List of Bangalore colleges Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.[80] The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, when two schools were established in Bangalore. Subsequently,

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Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955.[92] The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.[93] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.[94] The city also has various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts.[95] Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981.[96] A production center was established in the Doordarshan’s Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983.[96] Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now christened DD Chandana.[96] The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.[97] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years[98], the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts.[99] Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.[100] The first internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[101] This internet service was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.[102] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband internet connections in India.[103]

Bangalore

See also
• Tourist attractions in Bangalore • Karnataka

References
[1] ^ The total area of Greater Bangalore has been mentioned in the Karnataka budget of 2007-08 as 741 km². "Finance Budget for 2007-08" (PDF). Government of India. http://www.kar.nic.in/finance/ bud2007/bs07e.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.

[2] "India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". World Gazetteer. http://www.worldgazetteer.com/ wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104& [3] "Bangalore Crumbling". The Sunday Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/ india-news/ full_story.php?content_id=60231. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. [4] "India’s 10 fastest growing cities". Rediff News, dated 2008-02-06. http://us.rediff.com/money/2008/feb/ 06sld2.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. [5] K. Chandramouli. "The City of Boiled Beans". The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 25 July 2002 [6] "Inscription reveals Bangalore is over 1,000 years old". The Hindu. ḷ2006. The Hindu Group. 20 August 2004 [7] Vijesh Kamath. "Many miles to go from Bangalore to Bengaluru". Deccan Herald. http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/ Oct302006/index20581420061029.asp. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. [8] ^ "About Bangalore - History". Department of IT and Biotechnology. 2006. Government of Karnataka. [9] "Bangalore to be renamed Bengaluru". Times of India. 11 Dec 2005. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/1327370.cms. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [10] "It will be `Bengaluru’, resolves BMP". The Hindu. 2006-09-28. http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/28/ stories/2006092824250300.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. [11] "It’ll be ‘Bengaluru’ from Nov 1". Deccan Herald. 2006-10-08. http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/ Oct82006/index2044162006107.asp. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. [12] "From today, Bangalore becomes Bengalooru" (in English). Times of India. 1 November 2006. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/264262.cms. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [13] "Centre mum on ‘Bengaluru’". The Hindu. 2007-12-18. http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/18/ stories/2007121854970600.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. [14] ^ Vagale, Uday Kumar. "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future

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Projections"PDF (773 KB). Digital bangalore1.htm. Retrieved on Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia 2007-02-07. Tech. 27 April 2004. [28] Vidyashree Amaresh. "Set up rain [15] S. Srinivas. "The bean city". The Hindu. gauges in areas prone to flooding". http://www.hindu.com/mp/2005/02/22/ Online Edition of The Hindu, dated stories/2005022201010300.htm. 2006-05-10. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ Retrieved on 2007-07-02. 05/10/stories/2006051022920300.htm. [16] "The Mughal Throne", Abraham Eraly, Retrieved on 2007-12-22. Phoenix, London, Great Britain, 2004 [29] Ashwini Y.S.. "B’lore weather back (ISBN 0-7538-1758-6), Incidental Data, again". Online Edition of The Deccan page 538. Herald, dated 2006-12-17. [17] "Mysore (CAPITAL)". Encyclopedia http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/ Britannica. 1911 ed. Dec172006/city115220061217.asp. [18] Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Retrieved on 2007-12-22. Future Projections (Chapter 8, Page 17) [30] Ravi Sharma (2005-11-05). "Bangalore’s [19] Benjamin, Solomon. "Governance, woes". The Frontline. economic settings and poverty in http://www.flonnet.com/fl2223/stories/ Bangalore"PDF (149 KB).Environment&Urbanization 20051118005402400.htm. Retrieved on Vol 12 No 1 2006. United Nations Public 2008-02-05. Administration. 1 April 2000. [31] "Shankar Bidari is top city cop- Times of [20] "Studyarea- Bangalore". Centre for India". timesofindia. 2008-07-11. Ecological Sciences. 2006. Indian http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/ Institute of Science. Bangalore/ [21] ""Each drop of water counts"". Archived Shankar_Bidari_is_top_city_cop/ from the original on 2007-03-11. articleshow/3220465.cms. Retrieved on http://web.archive.org/web/ 2008-07-16. 20070311005340/ [32] ^ Afshan Yasmeen. "Greater Bangalore, http://www.deccanherald.com/ but higher tax?". Online Edition of The deccanherald/mar112004/metro1.asp. . Hindu, dated 2007-01-08. Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers http://www.hindu.com/2007/01/18/ (Mysore) Ltd. 11 March 2004 stories/2007011820460300.htm. [22] "FAQ". http://web.archive.org/web/ Retrieved on 2007-10-17. 20060206121846/http://bwssb.org/ [33] "BBMP polls by August". Online edition help_faq.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. of the Times of India, dated 2009-04-01. [23] "Thirsty Bangalore seeks divine help". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ Hindustan Times. 2006. HT Media Ltd. 9 Bangalore/BBMP-polls-by-August/ June 2003. articleshow/4341521.cms. Retrieved on [24] ^ "Environmental Impact 2009-04-07. Analysis"PDF (362 KB). Bangalore [34] ^ "Environmental Impact Metropolitan Rapid Transport Analysis"PDF (362 KB). Bangalore Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government Metropolitan Rapid Transport of Karnataka. 2005. Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government [25] Onkar Singh. "The Rediff Interview/ Dr S of Karnataka. 2005. (page 30) K Srivastav, additional director general, [35] "Budget to trigger growth of metros: Indian Meteorological Department". PM". MSN India. 2006. Microsoft India. [Rediff.com]. http://www.rediff.com/ 12 February 2006. news/2001/jan/30inter.htm. Retrieved on [36] van Beukering, Sehker, et al."Analysing 2007-07-02. Urban Solid Waste...". International [26] "Rise in temperature `unusual’ for Institute for Environment and Bangalore". The Hindu. Development. 2006. March 1999. http://www.hindu.com/2005/05/18/ [37] "Bangalore City Police". Bangalore City stories/2005051818670300.htm. Police. 2006. Karnataka State Police. Retrieved on 2007-07-02. [38] "Final Notification and Order" (PDF). [27] ^ "Bangalore". Government of India. Delimitation Commission of India. http://www.imd.ernet.in/section/climate/ 2007-07-02. http://www.delimitationindia.com/Final_Publications/Karnataka/

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Bangalore

Final%20Notification%20&%20Order%20with%20Table%20A%20&%20B%20_Eng_.pdf. http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/ Retrieved on 2007-10-17. Oct272006/index211220061026.asp. [39] "All India figures at a Retrieved on 2007-07-02. glance"PDF (2.75 MB). Department of [52] "A Sense of Deja Vu". Online Edition of Economics and Statistics. 2006. The Business World. Government of Karnataka. 16 Dec. 2005. http://www.businessworld.in/content/ [40] Surat, fastest growing city. Rediff.com. view/1886/1949/1/3/. Retrieved on 29 January 2008. 2007-10-04. [41] "Bangalore most affluent market". 2006. [53] "BMRC newsletter, dated April 2009". Rediff.com. 23 August 2006. Official webpage of Bangalore Metro Rail [42] "Bangalore third richest city in Corporation. http://www.bmrc.co.in/pdf/ country".2007. Times of India.Times of news/newsletterapril09.pdf. Retrieved on India. 1 Apr. 2007 2009-04-06. [43] Mathur, Om Prakash. "Impact of [54] "Popular Trains". Official webpage of globalisation on cities and city-related Indian Railway Catering and Tourism policies in India"PDF (436 KB). 2006. Corporation Limited. The Urban Partnerships Foundation Aug. http://www.irctc.co.in/ 2003 Popular_trains.html. Retrieved on [44] Jairam Ramesh. "IT in India: Big 2007-10-17. successes, large gaps to be filled". [55] ^ "Stir leaves hundreds stranded". Online Edition of The Business Standard, Online Edition of The Hindu, dated dated 2007-09-30. http://www.business2006-12-15. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ standard.com/common/ 12/15/stories/2006121520050300.htm. storypage_c.php?leftnm=10&autono=299725. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. [56] ^ S Praveen Dhaneshkar. "Loyalty may [45] "UB City is finally here". Online edition pay for Volvo commuters!". Online of the Times of India, dated 2006-06-22. Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ 2007-06-20. articleshow/1672524.cms. Retrieved on http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/ 2009-04-06. Jun202007/city200706208444.asp. [46] Surendra Munshi. "Poverty of Politics - If Retrieved on 2007-04-10. politicians lack vision, the rate of change [57] "Highlights". Official webpage of the will remain slow". Online Edition of The Karnataka State Road Transport Telegraph. Corporation. http://www.ksrtc.in. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1051110/ Retrieved on 2009-04-07. asp/opinion/story_5421239.asp. [58] "Census population" (PDF). Census of Retrieved on 2007-10-25. India. www.cicred.org. 21. [47] "Bangalore Helix to be a reality soon". http://www.cicred.org/Eng/Seminars/ Online edition of The Hindu, dated Details/Seminars/PDE2007/Papers/ 2005-04-23. http://www.hindu.com/2005/ IYER_Neelakantan_paperNairobi2007-project.pdf. 04/23/stories/2005042301960600.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. [59] "World: largest cities and towns and [48] "Biocon in drug development talks with statistics of their population". WorldBayer". Online webpage of Reuters, Gazetter.com. http://www.worlddated 2007-10-04. gazetteer.com/ http://www.reuters.com/article/healthwg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=pnan& SP/idUSBOM33872620071004. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. [60] Ramachandran, Sudha. Local pride [49] Airports Authority of India: Traffic buffets Bangalore business. Asia Times. statistics - Passengers (Intl+Domestic), 2 April 2008. Annexure IIIC [61] Bangalore feels bubbling Kannadiga Vs [50] Airports Authority of India: Traffic migrant tension. Yahoo! News. 11 statistics - Aircraft movements February 2008. (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIC [62] "Kannadigas assured of all support". The [51] R. Krishnakumar. "Expressway for Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 23 July airport drive". Deccan Herald. 2004.

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[63] Karnataka.com’s "Bangalore Facts". [64] "Census GIS Household". censusindiamaps.net. 2006. [65] ""Total Population, Slum Population..."". Archived from the original on 2007-08-06. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070806121833/ http://www.censusindia.net/results/slum/ slum2.html. . Census of India, 2001. 2006. Government of India. [66] Warah, Rasna. "Slums Are the Heartbeat of Cities". The EastAfrican. 2006. National Media Group Ltd. 6 October 2003 [67] "Crime in Mega Cities"PDF (159 KB). National Crime Records Bureau. 2006. Government of India. 2004. [68] "Garden city". Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2004-06-06. http://www.hindu.com/mag/2004/06/06/ stories/2004060600520700.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. [69] "Bangalore Karaga". Online Edition of The Hindu, dated Monday, Apr 02, 2007. http://www.hindu.com/2007/04/02/ stories/2007040221520500.htm. [70] Ravi Sharma. "A chauvinistic turn". Online Edition of The Frontline, Volume 21 - Issue 25, Dec. 04–17, 2004. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2125/ stories/20041217006413300.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-22. [71] Richard Plunkett (2001), p. 124. [72] "The official visit of the Republic of Belarus parliamentary delegation to the Republic of India is over". Website of the National assembly of the Republic of Belarus. http://www.sovrep.gov.by/ index_eng.php/.489.2528...1.0.0.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. [73] Bangalore, San Francisco are sister cities. The Hindu. 11 May 2007. [74] Online Directory: India, Asia. Sister Cities International. [75] Cricinfo Page on Chinnaswamy Stadium [76] Profile. CBSSports.com. CBS Interactive [77] Davis Cup Players. Daviscup.com. International Tennis Federation. [78] Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit. CBSSportsline.com. [79] Detailed Account on Bangalore Club [80] Hayavadana Rao (1929), p494 [81] Hayavadana Rao (1929), p497 [82] "Bangalore a hot destination for foreign students". Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2003-08-09.

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ew/2007/05/28/stories/ 2007052800160200.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-08. [101] akesh Basant. "Bangalore Cluster: R Evolution, Growth and Challengers" (PDF). http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/ publications/data/2006-05-02rbasant.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-10-08. [102]A short recap on Internet developments " in India". http://www.rediff.com/ computer/1998/sep/07net.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-08. [103]A highly net-savvy city". Online Edition " of The Hindu, dated 2006-12-29. http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/29/ stories/2006122922770200.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.

Further reading
• Hasan, Fazlul. Bangalore Through The Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970. • Plunkett, Richard. South India. Lonely Planet, 2001. ISBN 1864501618 • Vagale, Uday Kumar. "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"PDF (773 KB). Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004. • "Environmental Impact Analysis"PDF. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005. • Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer. "The Imperial Gazetteer of India". 2006. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1909. • "Bangalore." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 ed. • Hayavadana Rao, The Mysore State Gazetteer, 1929

External links
• Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (Municipal government) • Bangalore one service portal • Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore • Bangalore at the Open Directory Project • Bengaluru / Bangalore City Website • Bangalore Events • Bangalore travel guide from Wikitravel

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