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Auckland

Auckland
Auckland Tāmaki-makau-rau (Māori) — Main urban area —

Coordinates ([1]): 36°51′S 174°47′E / 36.85°S 174.783°E / -36.85; 174.783 Nickname(s): City of Sails, Queen City (now rarely used) Country Island Region Territorial authorities New Zealand North Island Auckland Auckland City Manukau City Waitakere City North Shore City Papakura District Rodney District (part) Franklin District (part) c. 1350 c. 1840 List Auckland Central Botany East Coast Bays Epsom Helensville Hunua Māngere Manukau East Manurewa Maungakiekie Mt Albert

Settled by Māori Settled by Europeans Electorates

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Mt Roskill New Lynn North Shore Northcote Pakuranga Papakura Tāmaki Te Atatū Waitakere Area - Urban Highest elevation Lowest elevation 1,086 km2 (419.3 sq mi) 196 m (643 ft) 0 m (0 ft)

Auckland
harbours on two separate major bodies of water.

History
Early Māori and Europeans
The isthmus was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā (fortified villages) were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks. Māori population in the area is estimated at about 20,000 people before the arrival of Europeans.[4][5] The subsequent introduction of firearms, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating inter-tribal warfare, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. There is, however, nothing to suggest that this was the result of a deliberate European policy.[6][7] On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney bought land including the sites of the modern cities of Auckland and North Shore and part of Rodney District, for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira".[8] After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital, and named it after the George Eden, Earl of Auckland, then Viceroy of India.[9] However, even in 1840 Port Nicholson (later Wellington) was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, which was being settled much more rapidly, and Wellington became the capital in 1865. Auckland was the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876.

Population (June 2008 estimate)[2] 1,313,200 - Urban 1,209.2/km2 (3,131.8/sq mi) - Urban Density Aucklander - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) Postcode(s) Area code(s) Local iwi Website NZST (UTC+12) NZDT (UTC+13) 09 Ngāti Ākarana http://www.aucklandnz.com/

The Auckland metropolitan area, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with over 1.4 million residents, 31 percent of the country’s population.[2] Demographic trends indicate that it will continue to grow faster than the rest of the country. Increasingly cosmopolitan, Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world,[3] and has seen many people of Asian ethnicity move there in the last two decades. The metropolitan area is made up of Auckland City (excluding the Hauraki Gulf islands), North Shore City, the urban parts of Waitakere and Manukau cities, and Papakura District and some urban parts of Rodney and Franklin Districts. In Māori its name is Tāmaki-makau-rau, or the transliterated version of Auckland, Ākarana. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, and the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitemata Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. It is one of the few cities in the world to have

Growth up to today
In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement. This, and continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā (European New Zealanders) influence to spread from Auckland. Its population grew fairly rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 12,423 by 1864. The growth occurred similarly to other mercantile-dominated cities, mainly around

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the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Trams and railway lines shaped Auckland’s rapid expansion in the early first half of the 20th century, but soon afterward the dominance of the motor vehicle emerged and has not abated since; arterial roads and motorways have become both defining and geographically dividing features of the urban landscape. They also allowed further massive expansion that resulted in the growth of associated urban areas like the North Shore (especially after the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge), and Manukau City in the south. A large percentage of Auckland is dominated by a very suburban style of building, giving the city a very low population density. Some services like public transport are costlier than in other higher-density cities, but Aucklanders are still able to live in singlefamily dwellings similar to the rest of the New Zealand population, although lot sizes are smaller.

Auckland
Auckland is expecting substantial population growth via immigration and natural population increases (which contribute to growth at about one-third and two-thirds, respectively)[10], and is set to grow to an estimated 2 million inhabitants by 2050.[11] This substantial increase in population will have a major impact on transport, housing and other infrastructure that is in many cases already considered under pressure. It is also feared by some organisations, such as the Auckland Regional Council, that urban sprawl will result from the growth and, as a result, that it is necessary to address this proactively in planning policy. A ’Regional Growth Strategy’ has been adopted that sees limits on further subdivision and intensification of existing use as its main sustainability measures.[12] This policy is contentious, as it naturally limits the uses of private land, especially the subdivision of urban fringe properties,[13] by setting ’Metropolitan Urban Limits’ in planning documents like the District Plan.[14] A related issue is the current discussion about local government, with widely differing views. Some Aucklanders blame limited progress on Auckland’s issues on poor governance and the fragmentation of the city into various councils (currently seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority). Others point to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, and reduced local participation in politics.[15] In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission of Inquiry to report on what restructuring should be done.[16][17] The report was released on March 27, 2009[18] and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20-30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010.[19][20]

Future growth

Geography and climate
Volcanoes
The urbanised extents of Auckland shown in grey. Auckland straddles the Auckland Volcanic Field, which has produced approximately 50 volcanoes. These take the form of cones, lakes, lagoons, islands and depressions, and several have produced extensive lava flows.

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Auckland

Harbours and Gulf
Auckland lies on and around an isthmus, less than two kilometres wide at its narrowest point, between Mangere Inlet and the Tamaki River. There are two harbours in the Auckland urban area surrounding this isthmus: Waitemata Harbour to the north, which opens east to the Hauraki Gulf, and Manukau Harbour to the south, which opens west to the Tasman Sea. Bridges span parts of both harbours, notably the Auckland Harbour Bridge crossing the Waitemata Harbour west of the Auckland Central Business District (CBD). The Mangere Bridge and the Upper Harbour Bridge span the upper reaches of the Manukau and Waitemata Harbours, respectively. In earlier times, portage paths crossed the narrowest sections of the isthmus. Several islands of the Hauraki Gulf are administered as part of Auckland City, though they are not officially part of the Auckland metropolitan area. Parts of Waiheke Island effectively function as Auckland suburbs, while various smaller islands near Auckland are mostly zoned ’recreational open space’ or are nature sanctuaries.

Rangitoto island from North Head. Most of the cones have been partly or completely quarried away. The individual volcanoes are all considered extinct, although the volcanic field itself is merely dormant. Unlike the explosive subduction-driven volcanism in the central North Island, such as at Mount Ruapehu and Lake Taupo, Auckland’s volcanoes are fueled entirely by basaltic magma.[21] The most recent and by far the largest volcano, Rangitoto Island, was formed within the last 1000 years, and its eruptions destroyed the Māori settlements on neighbouring Motutapu Island some 700 years ago. Rangitoto’s size, its symmetry, its position guarding the entrance to Waitemata Harbour and its visibility from many parts of the Auckland region make it Auckland’s most iconic natural feature. Few birds and insects inhabit the island because of the rich acidic soil and the type of flora growing out of the rocky soil.

Climate

View of the Auckland Central Business District. Auckland has a warm-temperate climate, with warm, humid summers and mild, damp winters. It is the warmest main centre of New Zealand and is also one of the sunniest, with an average of 2060 sunshine hours per annum[22] The average daily maximum temperature is 23.7 °C in February, and 14.5 °C in July, the absolute maximum recorded temperature is 32.4 °C[23], while the absolute minimum is -2.5.[22] High levels of rainfall occur almost year-round with an average of

Auckland and the inner Hauraki Gulf from space.

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1240 mm per year spread over 137 ’rain days’. [22] Climatic conditions vary in different parts of the city owing to geography such as hills, land cover and distance from the sea, hence unofficial temperature records exist, such as a maximum of 34°C in west Auckland.[23] On 27 July 1939 Auckland received its only recorded snowfall.[24] The early morning calm on the isthmus during settled weather, before the sea breeze rises, was described as early as 1853: "In all seasons, the beauty of the day is in the early morning. At that time, generally, a solemn stillness holds, and a perfect calm prevails..." Many Aucklanders used this time of day to walk and run in parks.[25] As car ownership rates are very high and emissions controls relatively weak, Auckland suffers from some air pollution, especially in regards to fine particles emissions. There are also regular breaches of guideline levels of carbon monoxide.[26] While maritime winds normally disperse the pollution relatively quickly it can sometimes become visible as smog, especially on calm winter days.

Auckland
origin than the rest of New Zealand. Ethnic groups from all corners of the world have a presence in Auckland, making it by far the country’s most cosmopolitan city.

Demographics
The proportion of Asians and other NonEuropean immigrants has increased during the last decades due to immigration,[28] and the removal of restrictions directly or indirectly based on race. Immigration to New Zealand is heavily concentrated towards Auckland (partly for job market reasons). This strong focus on Auckland has led the immigration services to award extra points towards immigration visa requirements for people intending to move to other parts of New Zealand.[29] The following table shows the ethnic profile of Auckland’s population, as recorded in the 2001 and 2006 New Zealand Census. The percentages add up to more than 100%, as some people counted themselves as belonging to more than one ethnic group. Figures for 2006 refer to the whole Auckland Region, not just the urban area. The substantial percentage drop of ’Europeans’ was mainly caused by the increasing numbers of people from this group choosing to define themselves as ’New Zealanders’ - even though this was not one of the groups listed on the census form. The 2006 Census also provides information about the multilinguality of the region. 867,825 people in the Auckland Region spoke one language only, 274,863 spoke two, and 57,051 three or more.[31]

People
Cultures

Prime Minister Helen Clark being welcomed onto an Auckland marae in 2006. See also: Culture of New Zealand Auckland is home to many cultures. The majority of inhabitants claim European - predominantly British - descent, but substantial Māori, Pacific Islander and Asian communities exist as well. Auckland has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world and a higher proportion of people of Asian

Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours during December.

Religion
Similar to the rest of the country, over half of Aucklanders profess Christianity, but fewer than 10% regularly attend church and almost

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Ethnic Group New Zealand European Pacific Island Asian Māori Middle Easterners/Latin Americans/Africans Others ’New Zealanders’ Total giving their ethnicity 2001 (%)[30] 66.9 14.9 14.6 11.5 n/a 1.3 n/a 2001 (people) 684,237 152,508 149,121 117,513 n/a 13,455 n/a 1,022,616 (individuals) 2006 (%)[31] 56.5 14.4 18.9 11.1 1.5 0.1 8.0

Auckland
2006 (people) 698,622 177,936 234,222 137,133 18,555 648 99,258 1,237,239 (individuals)

40% profess no religious affiliation (2001 census figures). The main denominations are Roman Catholic, Anglican and Presbyterian. Pentecostal and charismatic churches are the fastest growing. A small community of Coptic Orthodox Christians is also present.[32] Recent immigration from Asia has added to the religious diversity of the city, and about 10% of the population follow such beliefs as Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism, although there are no figures on religious attendance.[33] There is also a small, long-established Jewish community.[34]

Lifestyle
Positive aspects of Auckland life are its mild climate, plentiful employment and educational opportunities, as well as numerous leisure facilities. Meanwhile, traffic problems (compared to other New Zealand cities), the lack of good public transport, and increasing housing costs have been cited by many Aucklanders as among the strongest negative factors of living there,[35] together with crime.[36] Nonetheless, Auckland currently ranks 4th equal in a survey of the quality of life of 215 major cities of the world (2009 data).[37][38] In 2006, Auckland placed 23rd on the UBS list of the world’s richest cities.[39]

City of Sails - View over the Westhaven Marina.

Auckland - Skyline from Westhaven Marina. yachtsmen come from the Auckland Region.[40][41] Viaduct Basin also hosted two America’s Cup challenges (2000 Cup and 2003 Cup), and its cafes, restaurants, and clubs add to Auckland’s vibrant nightlife. With the sheltered Waitemata Harbour at its doorstep, Auckland sees many nautical events, and there are also a large number of

Leisure
Auckland is popularly known as the "City of Sails" because the harbour is often dotted with hundreds of yachts and has more per capita than any other city in the world, with around 135,000 yachts and launches. Around 60,500 of the country’s 149,900 registered

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Auckland

Parks and nature
Auckland Domain is one of the largest parks in the city, close to the CBD and having a good view of the Hauraki Gulf and Rangitoto island. Smaller parks close to the city centre are Albert Park, Myers Park, Western Park and Victoria Park. While most volcanic cones in the Auckland Volcanic Field have been affected by quarrying, many of the remaining cones are now within parks, and retain a more natural character than the surrounding city. Prehistoric earthworks and historic fortifications are in several of these parks, including Mount Eden, North Head and One Tree Hill (Maungakiekie). Other parks around the city are in Western Springs, which has a large park bordering the MOTAT museum and the Auckland Zoo. The Auckland Botanic Gardens are further south, in Manurewa. Ferries provide transport to parks and nature reserves at Devonport, Waiheke Island, Rangitoto Island and Tiritiri Matangi. The Waitakere Ranges Regional Park to the west of Auckland offers beautiful and relatively unspoiled bush territory, as do the Hunua Ranges to the south.

Auckland - Skyline from Symonds street. sailing clubs in Auckland, as well as Westhaven Marina, the largest of the Southern Hemisphere.[41][42] High Street, Queen Street, Ponsonby Road, and Karangahape Road are very popular with urban socialites. Newmarket and Parnell are up-market shopping areas, while Otara’s and Avondale’s fleamarkets offer a colourful alternative shopping experience. Newer shopping malls tend to be outside city centres, with Sylvia Park (Sylvia Park, Auckland City), Botany Town Centre (Howick, Manukau City) and Westfield Albany (Albany, North Shore City) being the three largest. The Auckland Town Hall and Aotea Centre host conferences and cultural events such as theatre, kapa haka, and opera. Auckland also boasts a full-time professional symphonic ensemble in the Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra. Many national treasures are displayed at the Auckland Art Gallery, such as the work of Colin McCahon, while many other significant cultural artefacts reside at the Auckland War Memorial Museum, the National Maritime Museum, or the Museum of Transport and Technology (MOTAT). Exotic creatures can be observed at the Auckland Zoo and Kelly Tarlton’s Underwater World. Movies and rock concerts (notably, the "Big Day Out") are also well patronised.

Sport
The most popular sports in Auckland are cricket and rugby. Auckland has a considerable number of rugby and cricket grounds, and venues for motorsports, tennis, badminton, netball, swimming, soccer, rugby league, and many other sports. • ASB Tennis Centre is Auckland’s premier tennis centre hosting international tournaments for men (Heineken Open) and women (ASB Classic) in January each year. • Eden Park is the city’s primary stadium and a frequent home for All Blacks rugby union and Black Caps cricket matches. • Mt Smart Stadium is used mainly for rugby league, rugby union and soccer matches, but also used for concerts. • North Harbour Stadium is mainly used for rugby and soccer but it is also used for concerts. • Vector Arena is a new multi-purpose indoor arena, though its comparatively small field will prevent some types of sports from being played here.

Auckland CBD from the top of Mt Eden.

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• Western Springs Stadium is a natural amphitheatre used mainly for speedway races, rock and pop concerts. • Trusts Stadium is where the 2007 Netball World Championships were held and where many netball games are held. Waitemata Harbour has popular swimming beaches at Mission Bay, Devonport, Takapuna, Long Bay and Maraetai, and the west coast has popular surf spots such as Piha and Muriwai. Many Auckland beaches are patrolled by surf lifesaving clubs, which are part of Surf Life Saving Northern Region. Main teams The Auckland rugby franchise The Blues, formerly the ’Auckland Blues’, is one of the more successful of New Zealand’s five Super 14 franchises. Many All Blacks have come from Auckland. The Northern Mystics are one of ten netball teams competing in the new Trans-Tasman ANZ Championship. Cricket has a strong following in Auckland. The Auckland cricket franchise, the Auckland Aces won the State Shield Trophy against the Otago Volts in February 2007. The Aces narrowly lost against the Canterbury Wizards the previous year. Previously the Auckland Warriors, the New Zealand Warriors represent New Zealand in Australia’s National Rugby League competition. They play their home games at Mt Smart Stadium in Auckland. Their most successful year came in 2002 when they finished Minor Premiers and qualified for the Grand Final. Major events Popular annual sporting events include: • The ’Harbour Crossing’ swim from Devonport to the Viaduct Basin, Auckland CBD, is a yearly summer event, covering 2.8 km (often with some considerable counter-currents) and attended by over a thousand mostly amateur competitors. It is New Zealand’s largest ocean swim.[43] • The ’Round the Bays’ fun-run, starting in the city and going 8.4 kilometres (5.2 miles) along the waterfront to the suburb of St Heliers. It attracts many tens of thousands of people and has been an annual March event since 1972. • The Auckland Marathon (and halfmarathon), an annual competition for thousands of enthusiasts. Auckland hosted the 1950 British Empire Games and the 14th Commonwealth Games

Auckland
in 1990,[9] and will host a number of matches (including the semi-final and the final) of the 2011 Rugby World Cup.[44]

Economy

The Sky Tower is the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere at 328 m. Most major international corporations have an Auckland office, as the city is the economic capital of the nation. The most expensive office space is around lower Queen Street and the Viaduct Basin in the Auckland CBD, where many financial and business services are located, which make up a large percentage of the CBD economy.[45] A large proportion of the technical and trades workforce is based in the industrial zones of South Auckland. The largest commercial and industrial areas of Greater Auckland are in the southeast of Auckland City and the western parts of Manukau City, mostly bordering the Manukau Harbour and the Tamaki River estuary. Auckland’s status as the largest commercial centre of the country reflects in the high median personal income (per working person, per year) which was NZ$44,304 (approx. US$33,000) for the region in 2005, with jobs

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in the Auckland CBD often earning more.[46] The median personal income (for all persons older than 15 years of age, per year) was NZ$22,300 (2001),[47] behind only North Shore City (also part of the Greater Auckland area) and Wellington. While office workers still account for a large part of Auckland’s commuters, large office developments in other parts of the city, for example in Takapuna or Albany, both North Shore City, are slowly becoming more common, reducing concentration on the Auckland CBD somewhat.

Auckland

Housing
Housing varies considerably between some suburbs having state owned housing in the lower income neighbourhoods, to palatial waterfront estates, especially on the Waitemata. Traditionally, the most common residence of Aucklanders was a bungalow on a ’quarter acre’ (1,000 m²),[11] however subdividing such properties with ’infill housing’, has long been the norm. Aucklanders’ housing preferences resulting from a lack of apartments and poor public transport has resulted in a large urban sprawl and reliance on motor vehicles. This will probably continue, as the vast majority of Aucklanders live in low-density housing, which is expected to remain at up to 70% of the total share even in 2050.[11] In some areas, the Victorian villas are being increasingly torn down to make way for large plaster mansions with tennis courts and swimming pools. The rampant demolition of the older properties is being combated by the Auckland City Council passing laws that cover heritage suburbs or streets. Auckland has been described as having ’the most extensive range of timbered housing with its classical details and mouldings in the world’, many of them Victorian-Edwardian style houses.[50]

Education
Auckland has a number of important educational institutions, including some of the largest universities in the country. Auckland is a major centre of overseas language education, with large numbers of foreign students (particularly East Asians) coming to the city for several months or years to learn English or study at universities - although numbers New Zealand-wide have dropped substantially since peaking in 2003.[48] As of 2007, there are around 50 NZQA certified schools and institutes teaching English in the Auckland area.[49] Auckland has a multitude of primary and secondary schools, with the Auckland Grammar School (for boys), Mount Roskill Grammar School, Mount Albert Grammar School, Auckland Girls’ Grammar School and the Epsom Girls’ Grammar School being amongst the most famous. The city also has several private schools such as King’s College, Auckland International College, and Diocesan School for Girls. Auckland contains New Zealand’s three largest (by full-time student numbers) high schools: Rangitoto College, Avondale College and Massey High School respectively. It also contains New Zealand’s largest Catholic school, St Peter’s College. Amongst the most important tertiary educational institutes are the University of Auckland (city and Tamaki Campus), Auckland University of Technology (city campus), Massey University (Albany campus) and the Manukau Institute of Technology (Otara campus), with Unitec New Zealand (Mt Albert campus) being the largest technical institute in Auckland.

Transport

Ferry travel is a popular type of public transport for some Auckland destinations.

Travel modes
Auckland is highly dependent on private vehicles as the main form of transportation, with only around 5% of all journeys in the Auckland region being undertaken by bus (1998 data),[51] though these numbers have since improved somewhat. In 2009 Auckland

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still ranks quite low in this regard, having only 41 public transport trips per capita per year, while Wellington has more than twice this number at 91, and Sydney has 114 trips.[52] This strong roading focus results in substantial traffic congestion during peak times.[53] Bus services in Auckland are mostly radial rather than ring-routes, due to Auckland being on an isthmus. Late-night services (i.e. past midnight) are limited, even on weekends. Trains service the west and southeast of Auckland, with longer-distance options scarce. In 2007 approximately NZ$5.3 billion worth of large-scale projects was underway or planned (and budgeted for) in the Auckland area to improve rail and public transport patronage over the next decade, 31% of the transport budget.[54][55]. However, policy changes in early 2009 by the incoming National government have meant a shift in emphasis to more highway construction, and have removed the provision of a regional fuel tax that was to pay for ARTA’s public transport upgrades.[56] While the government has promised to fund the rail electrification, the process and associated tenders have been postponed, and many rail station upgrades and the funding of the integrated ticketing upgrade are in doubt. The lack of future funding also forced ARTA to hand over the Auckland region’s rail stations to government control.[57][58][59] Other modes Auckland’s ports are the largest of the country, and a large part of both inbound and outbound New Zealand commerce travels through them, mostly via the facilities northeast of Auckland CBD. Freight usually arrives / is distributed from the port via road, though the port facilities also have rail access. Auckland is a major cruise ship stopover point, with the ships usually tying up at Princes Wharf. Auckland CBD is connected to coastal suburbs, to North Shore City and to outlying islands by ferry. Auckland has various small regional airports and Auckland Airport, the busiest of the country. Policies Research at Griffith University has indicated that in the last 50 years, Auckland has engaged in some of the most pro-automobile transport policies anywhere in the world.[60] With public transport declining heavily during the second half of the 20th century (a

Auckland
trend mirrored in most Western countries such as the US),[61] and increased spending on roads and cars, New Zealand (and specifically Auckland) now has the secondhighest vehicle ownership rate in the world, with around 578 vehicles per 1000 people.[62] Auckland has also been called a very pedestrian- and cyclist-unfriendly city, though some efforts are being made to change this.[63] though efforts are underway to improve this aspect.[64] At the same, highprofile gaps in the network, such as the inability for pedestrians and cyclists to cross the Waitemata Harbour, will probably remain for the forseeable future, with councils generally not considering the costs involved as sensible expense.[65]

The harbour bridge from North Shore City.

Infrastructure
The State Highway network connects the cities in the Auckland urban area through the Northern, Southern, Northwestern and Southwestern Motorways. The Auckland Harbour Bridge (Northern Motorway) is the main connection to North Shore City, and also a major bottleneck. The Harbour Bridge does not provide access to pedestrians or cyclists, which in 2008 led to calls for and investigations into retrofitting the structure. The Central Motorway Junction, also called ’Spaghetti Junction’ for its complexity, is the intersection between the two major motorways of Auckland (State Highway 1 and State Highway 16). Two of the longest arterial roads within Greater Auckland are Great North Road and Great South Road - the main connections in those directions before the construction of the State Highway network.

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Auckland has three main railway lines, serving the general western, southern, and central eastern directions from the Britomart Transport Centre in downtown Auckland. It is the terminal station for all lines, and connects them to ferry and bus services.

Auckland
• Karangahape Road - known as "K’ Road", a street in upper central Auckland famous for its bars, clubs and smaller shops. • Kelly Tarlton’s Antarctic Encounter & Underwater World - a well-known aquarium and Antarctic environment in the eastern suburb of Mission Bay, built in a set of former sewage storage tanks, showcasing penguins, turtles, sharks, tropical fish, sting rays and other marine creatures. • MOTAT - Auckland’s Museum for Transport and Technology, at Western Springs. • Mt Smart Stadium - a stadium used mainly for rugby league and soccer matches. Also the site of many concerts. • New Zealand National Maritime Museum features exhibitions and collections relating to New Zealand maritime history at Hobson Wharf, adjacent to the Viaduct Basin. • Ponsonby - a suburb and main street west of central Auckland known for arts, cafes and culture. • Queen Street - the main street of the city, from Karangahape Road down to the harbour. • Sky Tower - the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, it is 328 m (1,076 ft) tall and has excellent panoramic views. • Vector Arena - events centre in downtown Auckland completed in 2007. Holding 12,000 people, it is used for sports and concert events. • Viaduct Basin - a marina and residential development in downtown Auckland, the venue for the America’s Cup regattas in 2000 and 2003. • Western Springs Stadium - a natural amphitheatre used mainly for speedway races, rock and pop concerts. Landmarks and Nature • Auckland Domain - one of the largest parks of the city, close to the CBD and having a good view of the harbour and of Rangitoto Island. • Mount Eden - a volcanic cone with a grassy crater. As the highest natural point in Auckland City, it offers 360-degree views of Auckland and is thus a favorite tourist outlook. • Mount Victoria - a volcanic cone in North Shore City offering a spectacular view of Auckland. A brisk walk from the

Famous sites

The Auckland War Memorial Museum. The following is a list of tourist attractions and landmarks in the Auckland metropolitan area: Attractions and Buildings • Auckland Civic Theatre - a famous heritage atmospheric theatre in downtown Auckland. It was renovated in 2000 to its original condition. • Harbour Bridge - connecting Auckland and the North Shore, an iconic symbol of Auckland. • Auckland Town Hall - with its concert hall considered to have some of the finest acoustics in the world, this 1911 building serves both council and entertainment functions. • Auckland War Memorial Museum - a large multi-exhibition museum in the Auckland Domain, known for its impressive neoclassicist style. • Aotea Square - the hub of downtown Auckland beside Queen Street, it is the site of crafts markets, rallies and arts festivals. • Britomart Transport Centre - the main downtown public transport centre in a historic Edwardian building. • Eden Park - the city’s primary stadium and a frequent home for All Blacks rugby union and Black Caps cricket matches. It will be the location of the 2011 Rugby World Cup final.[66]

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Devonport ferry terminal, the cone is steeped in history, as is nearby North Head. • One Tree Hill (Maungakiekie) - a volcanic cone that dominates the skyline in the southern, inner suburbs. It no longer has a tree on the summit (after a politically motivated attack on the old tree) but is still crowned by an obelisk. • Rangitoto Island - guards the entrance to Waitemata Harbour, and forms a prominent feature on the eastern horizon. • Waiheke Island - the second largest island in the Hauraki Gulf and is well known for its beaches, forests, vineyards and olive groves.

Auckland

1867_-_von_Hochstetter%2C_Ferdinand._New_Zealan CHAPTER_XI%3A_The_Isthmus_of_Auckland. [5] Sarah Bulmer. "City without a state? Urbanisation in pre-European Taamakimakau-rau (Auckland, New Zealand)". http://www.arkeologi.uu.se/afr/projects/ BOOK/Bulmer/bulmer.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [6] "Ngāti Whātua - European contact". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/ NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/ NgatiWhatua/3/en. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [7] Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Auckland, N.Z.: Penguin Books. pp. 135. ISBN 0-14-301867-1. [8] George Weller’s Claim to lands in the Hauraki Gulf - transcript of original in National Archives, ms-0439/03 (A-H) HC. [9] ^ What’s Doing In; Auckland - The New 360-degree view from Sky Tower, showing many landmarks in the CBD. York Times, 25 November 1990 [10] Can We Stop growth? (from the ARC website) [11] ^ Executive Summary (PDF) (from the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy • 1998 Auckland power crisis document, ARC, November 1999. • Auckland City Retrieved 2007-10-14.) • Auckland (region) [12] From Urban Sprawl to Compact City: an • Auckland Regional Council (ARC) analysis of Auckland’s Urban Growth • East Auckland Management Strategies - Arbury, Joshua • Jafa (slang term for Aucklander, article - MA Thesis, University of Auckland also contains a range of Aucklander [13] Green belt under siege - The New stereotypes) Zealand Herald, Saturday 28 April 2007 • South Auckland [14] Growth Strategy: Glossary and • Suburbs of Auckland References (PDF) (from the Auckland City Council) [15] Lessons from the history of local body [1] "GEOnet Names Server (GNS)". amalgamation - The New Zealand http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/ Herald, Wednesday 6 September 2006 cntry_files.html. Retrieved on August [16] Auckland governance inquiry welcomed 2006. NZPA, via ’stuff.co.nz’, Tuesday 31 July [2] ^ "Subnational Population Estimates: At 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29. 30 June 2008". Statistics New Zealand. [17] Royal commission of inquiry for 23 October 2008. Auckland welcomed - NZPA, via http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/ ’infonews.co.nz’, Tuesday 31 July 2007. A886F4B5-9477-4DE8-84E7-3CFEA89D673E/ Retrieved 2007-10-29 39402/snpeat30jun08alltablesprov1.xls. [18] Minister Releases Report Of Royal Retrieved on 2008-10-28. Commission - Scoop.co.nz, Friday 27 [3] Auckland and around (from the Rough March 2009 Guide website) [19] Gay, Edward (7 April 2009). "’Super city’ [4] Ferdinand von Hochstetter (1867). New to be in place next year, Maori seats Zealand. pp. 243. axed". The New Zealand Herald. http://www.enzb.auckland.ac.nz/ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/ document/ article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10565528.

See also

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Auckland

[20] "Making Auckland Greater" (PDF). 7 http://www.ahc.org.nz/intro.php. April 2009. http://media.nzherald.co.nz/ Retrieved on 2008-09-18. webcontent/document/pdf/ [35] Central Transit Corridor Project Making%20Ak%20Greater%20final%20media.pdf. (Auckland City website, includes mention [21] Ian E.M. Smith and Sharon R. Allen, of effects of transport on public Volcanic Hazards: Auckland Volcanic satisfaction) Field, Volcanic Hazards Working Group, [36] "Crime and safety profile - 2003". Civil Defence Scientific Advisory Auckland City Council. Committee. Accessed 13 April 2009. http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/ [22] ^ "Climate Summary for 1971-2000". auckland/introduction/safer/crimesafety/ National Institute of Water and police.asp. Retrieved on 2007-06-08. Atmospheric Research. [37] City Mayors: Best cities in the world http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/ (Mercer) resources/climate/summary. [38] Quality of Living global city rankings [23] ^ "Auckland enjoys hottest day ever". 2009 (Mercer Management Consulting, http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/ Accessed 2 May 2009). article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10556442. [39] City Mayors: World’s richest cities (UBS [24] "Snowstorms (PDF)". via www.citymajors.com website, August http://www.civildefence.govt.nz/ 2006) memwebsite.NSF/Files/ [40] Punters love City of Sails - The New Tephra2003-Snowstorms/$file/ Zealand Herald, Saturday 14 October Tephra2003-Snowstorms.pdf. Retrieved 2006 on August 2006. [41] ^ Passion for boating runs deep in [25] Auckland, the Capital of New Zealand Auckland - The New Zealand Herald, Swainson, William, Smith Elder, 1853 Thursday January 26, 2006 [26] How Polluted is Auckland’s Air (from the [42] [Sailing Club] directory (from the Auckland Regional Council website) yachtingnz.org website) [27] "Climate Data and Activities". NIWA [43] Harbour Crossing (from the Auckland Science. http://www.niwascience.co.nz/ City Council website. Retrieved edu/resources/climate/. 2007-10-24.) [28] "New Zealand - A Regional Profile [44] "Eden Park to host Final and SemiAuckland" (PDF). Statistics New Finals". 22 February 2008. Zealand. 1999. 19-20. http://www.nzrugbyworldcup.com/ http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/ RugbyWorldCup.aspx. 7F0D2AFF-54F4-4CE9-BE7C-974597403FCB/ [45] Auckland’s CBD at a glance (CBD 0/Auckland.pdf. Retrieved on website of the Auckland City Council) 2007-10-03. [46] Auckland Regional Profile (from [29] Residence in New Zealand (PDF) (Page labourmarket.co.nz, composed from 8, from the Immigration New Zealand various sources) website. Accessed 2008-01-18.) [47] Comparison of New Zealand’s cities [30] 2001 Regional Summary (from the (from ENZ emigration consulting) Statistics New Zealand website) [48] Survey of English Language Providers [31] ^ 2006 Regional Summary Tables by Year ended March 2006 (from Statistics Regional Council (from the Statistics New Zealand. Auckland is assumed to New Zealand website) follow national pattern) [32] Pope Shenouda III visits New Zealand [49] English Language Schools in New (from Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand - Auckland (list linked from the Zealand. Accessed 2008-05-25.) Immigration New Zealand website) [33] "What we look like locally". Statistics [50] Section 7.6.1.2 - Strategy (PDF) (from New Zealand. 7. the Auckland City Council District Plan http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/ Isthmus Section) D5B067F9-7A06-483D[51] Mode of Transport, Figure for New A6B9-D438E81ABAC2/0/ Zealand Regions (from the Travel Survey AucklandCity.pdf. Highlights 1997-98, New Zealand [34] "Auckland Hebrew Community ~ Ministry of Transport) Introduction page".

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[52] Auckland’s Transport Challanges (from the Draft 2009/10-2011/12 Auckland Regional Land Transport Programme, Page 8, ARTA, March 2009. Accessed 2009-04-10. [53] Welcome to our traffic nightmare - The New Zealand Herald, Sunday 29 July 2007 [54] References provided in Transport in Auckland and Public transport in Auckland [55] Auckland Transport Plan landmark for transport sector (from the Auckland Regional Transport Authority website, 11 August 2007) [56] Hopes of electric trains for cup fade The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 18 March 2009 [57] Council to give up its rail stations - The New Zealand Herald, Saturday 21 March 2009 [58] The $2b road ahead - The Dominion Post, unknown date. Accessed 2009-04-06. [59] Rail ’trench’ worries New Lynn - The New Zealand Herald, Friday 20 March 2009 [60] Backtracking Auckland: Bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning - Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago; Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5, Griffith University, April 2006 [61] US Urban Personal Vehicle & Public Transport Market Share from 1900 (from publicpurpose.com, a website of the Wendell Cox Consultancy)

Auckland
[62] Sustainable Transport North Shore City Council website [63] Big steps to change City of Cars - The New Zealand Herald, Friday October 24, 2008 [64] Big steps to change City of Cars - The New Zealand Herald, Friday October 24, 2008 [65] Cycleway for bridge could prove too pricey - The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 3 September 2008 [66] http://www.rugbyworldcup.com/ destinationnewzealand/news/ newsid=2026277.html • Gordon McLauchlan (1992). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of New Zealand. David Bateman Ltd, Glenfield, NZ. ISBN 1-86953-007-1.

External links
• Auckland - Visitor-oriented official website • Auckland in Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand • Auckland.Wiki - Wiki about Auckland not affiliated with Wikipedia • Maps and aerial photos • Auckland Street Map (from Wises.co.nz) • Auckland Street Map (from Zoomin.co.nz) • Maps & Aerial Photos (from the ARC map website - go to ’General Regional Information’ (opens interactive map with aerial layer)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auckland" Categories: Host cities of the Commonwealth Games, Auckland, Settlements established in 1840, Port cities in New Zealand, Coastal settlements, Isthmuses, Towns and cities with limited zero-fare transport, Former national capitals of New Zealand This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 04:32 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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