1983_Atlantic_hurricane_season by zzzmarcus

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1983 Atlantic hurricane season

1983 Atlantic hurricane season
1983 Atlantic hurricane season

Season summary map

First storm formed: Last storm dissipated: Strongest storm:

July 29, 1983 (Tropical Depression One) September 30, 1983 (Tropical Storm Dean) Alicia – 963 mbar (hPa) (28.45 inHg), 115 mph (185 km/h) 7 4 3 1 22 $2.6 billion (1983 USD) $5.6 billion (2009 USD)

Total depressions: Total storms: Hurricanes: Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+): Total fatalities: Total damage:

four of which reached tropical storm strength or higher. This led to the lowest Accumulated Cyclone Energy count since 1950, but not since 1900. The season began later than normal, with the first tropical depression forming on July 29.[2] and the second on July 31. However, neither tropical depression strengthened, with the first dying out on July 30. The second one dissipated on August 3. Hurricane Alicia formed as Tropical Depression Three on August 15, quickly intensified into a hurricane on August 16 and made landfall in Texas on August 18. Alicia caused over $3 billion in damage in Texas. Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed over Florida and strengthened into a hurricane. Barry made landfall near Brownsville, Texas and dissipated over land on August 30. Hurricane Chantal, the third of three hurricanes in 1983, formed on September 10. It strengthened into a hurricane, but stayed out to sea, being absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19, peaked at 35 mph (55 km/h) and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean before degenerating into a wave on September 21. Tropical Storm Dean was the final storm of the season, forming on September 26. It originally went to the north, peaking at 55 mph (89 km/h) winds (85 km/h), and making landfall in the Delmarva Peninsula on September 29. It dissipated on September 30, over the coast of Virginia.

Atlantic hurricane seasons 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 Related article: • Timeline of the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season

Seasonal forecasts and activity
Predictions of tropical activity in the 1983 season Source Date Named Hurricanes Major storms hurricanes CSU[3] July 8 5 Unknown 23 Record high 28 15 8 activity

The 1983 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years, with only four tropical storms forming.[1] The season officially began on June 1, 1983, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most storms form in the Atlantic basin. The season had very little activity, with only seven tropical depressions,

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Record low activity 1 0 (tie) 0

1983 Atlantic hurricane season
surrounding portions of the upper Texas coast were the most likely area to be struck.[4]

4 3 1 Actual activity Forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane experts like Dr. William M. Gray, and his associates at Colorado State University. A normal season, as defined by NOAA, has six to fourteen named storms, with four to eight of those reaching hurricane strength, and one to three major hurricanes. The July 23, 1983 forecast predicted that after the slow start to the season, that a total of eight storms would form, and five of the storms would reach hurricane status. The forecast did not specify how many of the hurricanes would reach major hurricane status.[3] However, the predictions proved to be too high, with only four named storms forming by the end of the season and three of those reaching hurricane status.[2] The season, which began on June 1 and ended on November 30, was very inactive because of strong upper-level wind shear.[2] The wind shear was unusually strong throughout the Caribbean and open Atlantic, and disrupted convection in areas of disturbed weather so they could not develop. Over sixty African systems had formed and made it westward, but when they reached the Lesser Antilles, they were dissolved easily. The only area where the shear was minimal—a region encompassing the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic north of the Bahamas and east of Florida—was where the four named storms developed. This makes the 1983 season the least active season since the 1930 Atlantic hurricane season which had only two storms.[2] 1983 and the prior season became the first example of two consecutive years to have no storms form in the Caribbean Sea since 1871, when reliable record began.[2] 1983 also proved to be the first season since 1871 that a storm did not form south of 25°N latitude.[2] 1983 was the first season for which the National Hurricane Center issued numeric landfall probabilities. Probabilities had been calculated for prior storms for use in the issuing of hurricane watches and warnings, but this was the first time the raw numeric probabilities were released to the public.[2] The probabilities issued were accurate during Alicia, indicating that Galveston and

Storms

Timeline of tropical activity in 1983 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Depression One
Tropical depression (SSHS)

Duration July 29 – July 30 Intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) Tropical Depression One formed from a tropical disturbance near the Lesser Antilles on July 29.[5] The National Hurricane Center indicated the possibility of the depression strengthening into a tropical storm in media reports but upper-level wind shear inhibited any development.[2][6] The depression dissipated the next day.[2]

Tropical Depression Two
Tropical depression (SSHS)

Duration July 31 – August 3 Intensity 30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min) An area of disturbed weather in the central Atlantic managed to gain enough organization to be designated Tropical Depression Two on July 31. The depression moved across the Atlantic without strengthening due to high upper-level wind shear, and dissipated near the Lesser Antilles on August 3.[7][8]

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1983 Atlantic hurricane season
Alicia killed 22 people and caused $2 billion (1983 USD) in damage ($4.1 billion, [10] [11][12] 2007 USD).

Hurricane Alicia
Category 3 hurricane (SSHS)

Hurricane Barry
Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)

Duration August 15 – August 20 Intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min), 963 mbar (hPa) The system that would become Hurricane Alicia originated from the western end of a frontal trough that stretched from New England to the Gulf of Mexico.[9] Satellite pictures showed a meso-scale low pressure area that had moved off the Alabama and Mississippi coasts near the trough and was possibly the precursor system to Alicia. Pressures in the Gulf of Mexico were high and stayed high during the early development stages. On August 15, a ship recorded a minimal pressure of 1015 millibars (29.99 inHg), when the system was upgraded into Tropical Storm Alicia. With high environmental pressures around it, Alicia remained a small system.[9] Steering currents above Alicia remained weak during the storm’s lifetime.[9] However, a ridge was well formed to the north of the developing storms. With fluctuations in the pressures, Alicia began to drift to west on August 16. This was short-lived, as Alicia turned to the northwest towards Texas. During the period of August 16 to August 18, an anticyclone had formed over Alicia and along with slow movement over warm waters, caused Alicia to intensify rapidly. The pressure in Alicia decreased one millibar an hour in the 40 hours before landfall. Alicia peaked at 115 mph (185 km/h) in winds and 962 millibars (28.39 inHg) in pressure on August 18. Alicia made landfall near Galveston, Texas on August 18 as a Category 3 hurricane. Alicia weakened quickly over land and accelerated over the Midwest, before dissipating over Nebraska on August 21.[9] As Alicia moved northward, the remnants caused moderate to heavy rainfall in several states.[10] Houston suffered heavy damage, including thousands of shattered glass panes from downtown skyscrapers. In the end,

Duration August 23 – August 29 Intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min), 986 mbar (hPa) Hurricane Barry originated from a tropical disturbance that left the Northwestern African coast on August 13.[13] Most of the season, the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean had upper-level wind shear, which had inhibited development of systems. Due to these conditions, the disturbance was unable to strengthen until August 22 as it was approaching the Bahamas. A weak trough moved the disturbance into an area of low wind shear, and the disturbance intensified into Tropical Depression Four on the evening of August 23. The depression was just to the northeast of the northern Bahamian Islands where it strengthened into Tropical Storm Barry on the morning of August 24.[13] Tropical Storm Barry turned to the west and with returning wind shear, weakened into a tropical depression.[13] The depression made landfall near Melbourne, Florida on the morning of August 25. After Tropical Depression Barry emerged from central Florida, it was still under pressure from high-level winds. The depression entered the central Gulf of Mexico and returned to tropical storm strength. Barry rapidly intensified, becoming a hurricane on August 28, making landfall near Brownsville, Texas that afternoon. Before landfall, Barry peaked with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds and a pressure of 986 millibars (29.11 inHg). The remnants dissipated over the northern Mexican mountains on August 29.[13]

Hurricane Chantal
Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)

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1983 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Depression Six
Tropical depression (SSHS)

Duration September 10 – September 15 Intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min), 994 mbar (hPa) The area of disturbed weather that would soon become Chantal began in a large envelope of low pressure on the morning of September 10.[14] The disturbed weather, nested off the coast of Bermuda, was one of the remnants of an old frontal trough that had extended from Hispaniola to the central north Atlantic Ocean. This particular area of disturbed weather become part of the northeast portion of a low-pressure system. On September 10, a reconnaissance aircraft found sustained winds of 30 mph (50 km/h) and a 1010 millibar (29.83 inHg) pressure reading. This reading upgraded the low-pressure system into the fifth tropical depression of the 1983 season.[14] The depression moved to within 100 miles (160 kilometers) of Bermuda and slowly intensified.[14] Late that afternoon, Tropical Depression Five had intensified into a 40 mph (60 km/h) storm and was named Chantal. Chantal intensified rapidly, reaching 65 mph (105 km/h) by the morning of September 11. Chantal turned to the east and gained a weak outflow with cirrus clouds. Chantal was upgraded into a hurricane on the morning of September 12, but post-analysis reported that it may have reached hurricane status the night before. The hurricane changed little over the next 24 hours, until becoming disorganized on the night of the 12th. Chantal was downgraded to a tropical storm around the same time.[14] Overnight, all convection in Chantal dissipated, and its forward speed decreased as it headed to the north.[14] A weak wave caused Chantal to speed up and the system was lost in a frontal system by the night of September 14. Effects on Bermuda were minimal, with the island getting winds of up to 20 mph (25 km/h) and few thundershowers.[14] Chantal generated swells of 30–40 ft (9–12 m) along the East Coast of the United States.[15]

Duration September 19 – September 21 Intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19. The depression caused heavy rainfall in the Lesser Antilles[16] before degenerating into a tropical wave on September 21 near the Dominican Republic.[17]

Tropical Storm Dean
Tropical storm (SSHS)

Duration September 26 – September 30 Intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min), 999 mbar (hPa) Tropical Storm Dean originated from inside a frontal cloud band, which had moved off the Eastern Coast of the United States on September 22.[18] During the next few days, the band became stationary from The Bahamas to beyond Bermuda. During this period, a 1035 millibar (30.56 inHg) high pressure cell had become settled over the northeastern United States. This resulted in a strong pressure gradient and winds near gale force along the eastern coast.[18] A low-level circulation formed from the frontal cloud band on September 26 about 460 miles (740 km) east of central Florida.[18] Dean was first identified on the afternoon of September 26 as a subtropical storm. An Air Force reconnaissance flight was sent to Dean on September 27 and only reported winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) at 23 miles (37 kilometres) from the center. A pressure of 999 millibars (29.50 inHg) indicated that Dean was strengthening as it headed

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1983 Atlantic hurricane season

1983 Atlantic hurricane statistics Storm Name Active Dates Storm category at peak intensity Max Min. ACE Wind Press. (mph) (mbar) Unknown Unknown 962 986 0[21] 0[21] Landfall(s) Where When

Damag Wind (millio USD (mph) 0 0

One Two Alicia Barry

29 – 30 July

Tropical 35[6] Depression

none none August 17 115

29 July – 3 Tropical 30[8] August Depression 15 – 21 August 24 – 29 August Category 3 115 Hurricane Category 1 80 Hurricane

6.38[21] Galveston, Texas

4100[9] 0 Minor 0 Minor

3.14[21] Melbourne, August 25 35 Florida Brownsville, August 28 75 Texas

Category 1 75 Chantal 10 – 15 September Hurricane Six Dean 19 – 21 Tropical 35[16] September Depression 26 – 30 Tropical September Storm 55

992 Unknown 999

4.27[21] none 0[21] none September 50 29

3.07[21] Eastern Shore of Virginia 16.86 4 landfalls

Minor

Season Aggregates July 29 7 cyclones -Sept. 30 115 962 4100

northward. Additionally, satellite pictures showed that the subtropical cyclone was emerging from the cloud. This data also showed that the storm was gaining tropical characteristics and was given the name Dean on the afternoon of September 27.[18] Dean’s winds peaked at 55 mph (80 km/h) on September 28 as it headed northward.[18] Dean’s circulation turned to the northwest on September 29 and made landfall in the Delmarva Peninsula, one of only three storms in recorded history to do so, after Tropical Storm Bret in 1981 and later Tropical Storm Danielle in 1992. Dean dissipated over land on September 30.[18] Gale warnings were from North Carolina to Rhode Island in association with Dean.[19] Dean produced rainfall spreading from the North Carolina/Virginia border all the way to New England. Virginia reported rains of 1 inch (25.4 mm) with 3 inches (76.2 mm) at the border.[20] Rains peaked at 4.62 inches (117 mm) at Cockaponset Ranger Station in Connecticut.[20] Damage was limited to minor beach erosion and flooding along the portion of Mid-Atlantic coast states.[18]

Season impact Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Rating
ACE (104kt2) – Storm: [21] 1 6.38 3 3.14 Alicia Barry 2 4.27 4 3.07 Chantal Dean

Total = 16.86 (17) The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 35 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. The 1983 season had a cumulative ACE of 16.86 (17), which is well below normal and currently the least active season on

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record since the 1914 season, which had an ACE rating of 2.53.[21]

1983 Atlantic hurricane season

PERIOD", The Miami Herald: 3A, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=M retrieved on 2007-12-26 [4] National Hurricane Center (1983). The following names were used for named "Hurricane Alicia Preliminary Report storms that formed in the North Atlantic in Page 3". National Hurricane Center. 1983. The names not retired from this list http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ were used again in the 1989 season. It was storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ the first time these names had been used alicia/prelim03.gif. Retrieved on since the post-1978 change in the National 2007-02-02. Hurricane Center’s naming policy. [5] Liz Balmaseda (1983-07-29), "2 DAYS OF • Alicia • Hugo (unused) • Opal RAIN CAUSE A DIP IN (unused) TEMPERATURES", The Miami Herald, • Barry • Iris (unused) • Pablo (unused) http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ • Chantal • Jerry (unused) • Roxanne (unused) Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=M • Dean • Karen (unused) • Sebastien (unused) retrieved on • Erin (unused) • Luis (unused) • Tanya (unused) 2007-02-07 [6] (unused) • Felix (unused) • Marilyn (unused) • Van ^ Associated Press (1983-07-29), "Forecast: 90s, humid, but rest of U.S. • Gabrielle (unused) • Noel (unused) • Wendy (unused) will be hotter", The Hurricane Archive, http://thehurricanearchive.com/ Retirement Viewer.aspx?img=26996913_clean&firstvisit=true&s See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane retrieved on 2007-02-07 names [7] Liz Balmaseda (1983), "DEPRESSION The World Meteorological Organization reHAS GOOD CHANCE OF BEING FIRST tired one name in the spring of 1984: Alicia. TROPICAL STORM", The Miami Herald, It was replaced in the 1989 season by Allison. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=M retrieved on 2007-02-02 [8] ^ Miami Herald (1983), "2ND TROPICAL • List of Atlantic hurricanes DEPRESSION WITHERS", The Miami • List of Atlantic hurricane seasons Herald, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl• 1983 Pacific hurricane season search/we/ • 1983 Pacific typhoon season Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=M • 1983 North Indian Ocean cyclone season retrieved on 2007-02-02 • Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone [9] ^ National Hurricane Center (1983). seasons: 1982–83, 1983–84 "Hurricane Alicia Preliminary Report Page 1". National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ [1] John Arnold (1983-11-30), "Hurricane alicia/prelim01.gif. Retrieved on season ends weakly", The Philadelphia 2007-02-02. Inquirer, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl[10] ^ David Roth (2007). "Tropical Cyclone search/we/ Rainfall: Hurricane Alicia". Archives?p_product=PI&s_site=philly&p_multi=PI&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdoc Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. retrieved on 2007-12-16 http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/ [2] ^ Robert Case and Harold Gerrish rain/alicia1983.html. Retrieved on (1984). "1983 Monthly Weather Review" 2007-02-02. (PDF). American Meteorological Society. [11] Daily Herald (1983-08-19), "Alicia mauls http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/ Texas; 6 die", The Daily Herald, lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1983.pdf. http://www.thehurricanearchive.com/ Retrieved on 2007-02-02. Viewer.aspx?img=23291506&firstvisit=true&curren [3] ^ Mary Vorobril (July 23, 1983), "FIVEretrieved on 2007-02-05 HURRICANE SEASON PREDICTED [12] Bruce Nichols (1983-08-19), "Alicia’s NEW--THOUGH FALLIBLE--TECHNIQUE death toll low, damage high", The ALSO FORECASTS A BUSY 1984 Syracuse Herald-Journal,

Storm names

See also

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1983 Atlantic hurricane season

http://www.thehurricanearchive.com/ Report". National Hurricane Center. Viewer.aspx?img=39208093&firstvisit=true&currentResult=5&currentPage=20, http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ retrieved on 2007-02-05 storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ [13] ^ National Hurricane Center (1983). dean/prelim01.gif. Retrieved on "Hurricane Barry Preliminary Report". 2007-02-02. National Hurricane Center. [19] Miles B. Lawrence (1983-10-14). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ "Tropical Storm Dean Preliminary Report storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ – Page 2". National Hurricane Center. barry/prelim01.gif. Retrieved on http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ 2007-12-23. storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ [14] ^ National Hurricane Center (1983). dean/prelim02.gif. Retrieved on "Hurricane Chantal Preliminary Report". 2007-12-21. National Hurricane Center. [20] ^ David Roth (2007). "Tropical Cyclone http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/ Rainfall: Tropical Storm Dean". storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1983-prelim/ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. chantal/prelim01.gif. Retrieved on http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/ 2007-02-02. rain/dean1983.html. Retrieved on [15] Philadelphia Inquirer (1983-09-12), 2007-02-02. "HURRICANE CHANTAL BYPASSES [21] ^ NOAA (2007). "Atlantic Hurricane BERMUDA", The Philadelphia Inquirer, Database". NOAA. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/ Archives?p_product=PI&s_site=philly&p_multi=PI&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdoc Data_Storm.html. Retrieved on retrieved on 2007-02-03 2007-02-02. [16] ^ Miami Herald (1983), "NEW TROPICAL DEPRESSION FORMS AIMS TOWARD WINDWARDS", The Miami • Detailed information on all storms from Herald, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl1983 from NHC search/we/ • U.S. Rainfall information for storms from Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=MH&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_max 1983 from HPC retrieved on 2007-02-02 [17] Miami Herald (1983), "CARIBBEAN Tropical cycSaffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale STORM DOWNGRADED", The Miami lones of the TD TS 1 2 3 4 5 Herald, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl1983 Atlantic search/we/ hurricane Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=MH&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_max season retrieved on 2007-02-02 1 2 A B C 6 D [18] ^ Miles B. Lawrence (1983-10-14). "Tropical Storm Dean Preliminary

External links

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